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TYPES OF TELECOM NETWORK

Submitted to

Ms. RASHMI ISHRAWAT

(FACULTY, MBA)

Submitted by

MUHAMMAD SALIM

07217003909

MBA-1 ST SEMESTER

Network can broadly be classified into two types: local-area networks (LANs) and wide-area networks.

LAN - Local Area Network

A local area network (LAN) supplies networking capability to a group of computers in close proximity to each other such as in an office building, a school, or a home. A LAN is useful for sharing resources like files, printers, games or other applications. A LAN in turn often connects to other LANs, and to the Internet or other WAN.

Network can broadly be classified into two types: local-area networks (LANs) and wide-area networks . LANWAN . Most local area networks are built with relatively inexpensive hardware such as Ethernet cables, network adapters, and hubs. Wireless LAN and other more advanced LAN hardware options also exist. Specialized operating system software may be used to configure a local area network. For example, most flavors of Microsoft Windows provide a software package called Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) that supports controlled access to LAN resources. The term LAN party refers to a multiplayer gaming event where participants bring their own computers and build a temporary LAN. " id="pdf-obj-1-15" src="pdf-obj-1-15.jpg">

Most local area networks are built with relatively inexpensive hardware such as Ethernet cables, network adapters, and hubs. Wireless LAN and other more advanced LAN hardware options also exist.

Specialized operating system software may be used to configure a local area network. For example, most flavors of Microsoft Windows provide a software package called Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) that supports controlled access to LAN resources.

The term LAN party refers to a multiplayer gaming event where participants bring their own computers and build a temporary LAN.

Examples: The most common type of local area network is an Ethernet LAN. The smallest home LAN can have exactly two computers; a large LAN can accommodate many thousands of computers. Many LANs are divided into logical groups called subnets. An Internet Protocol (IP) "Class A" LAN can in theory accommodate more than 16 million devices organized into subnets.

WAN - Wide Area Network

Definition: A WAN spans a large geographic area, such as a state, province or country. WANs often connect multiple smaller networks, such as local area networks (LANs) or metro area networks (MANs). As the term implies, a WAN spans a large physical distance. The Internet is the largest WAN, spanning the Earth.

Examples: The most common type of local area network is an Ethernet LAN. The smallest homerouter connects LANs to a WAN. In IP networking, the router maintains both a LAN address and a WAN address. " id="pdf-obj-2-14" src="pdf-obj-2-14.jpg">

A WAN is a geographically-dispersed collection of LANs. A network device called a router connects LANs to a WAN. In IP networking, the router maintains both a LAN address and a WAN address.

The world's most popular WAN is the Internet. Some segments of the Internet, like VPN-based extranets, are also WANs in themselves. Finally, many WANs are corporate or research networks that utilize leased lines.

WANs generally utilize different and much more expensive networking equipment than do LANs. Key technologies often found in WANs include SONET, Frame Relay, and ATM.

The key characteristics, which are often used to differentiate between these two types of networks, are as follows:

1) Geographic distribution – a LAN is restricted to a

limited geographic coverage of a few kilometers, but a WAN may extend over several thousand kilometers. Therefore, LANs typically provide communication facilities within a building or a campus, whereas WANs may operate nationwide or even worldwide.

2) Speed - The other difference between LAN and WAN, is the speed of the network. The maximum speed of a LAN can be 1000 megabits per second, while the speed of a WAN can go up to 150 megabits per second. This means the speed of a WAN, is one-tenth of the speed of a LAN. A WAN is usually slower because it has lower bandwidth. 3) Cost- A WAN is more expensive than a LAN. It is easier to expand a LAN than a WAN. The equipment needed for a LAN is a network interface card (NIC), a switch and a hub. On the other hand, the equipment needed to connect a WAN to the Internet is a modem and a router. The modem may be a cable modem or a DSL modem that is connected to a wall jack, while the router should be configured so that it can handle the packets traveling between the WAN and the Internet.

4) Data rate- transmission rate in LANs usually range from 10 Mbps to 1Gbps. On the other hand, in WANs usually range from 1200 bits per second to2Mbps.this rate is increasing with the advancement of technology. 5) Error rate- LANs generally experience fewer data transmission error than WANs do. Typically, bit error rate in

the range of 10 -8 to 10 -12 with LANs as opposed to 10 -5 to 7 with WANs.

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6) Printer sharing- Computers in a LAN can share a printer, if they are all in the same LAN. On the other hand, a WAN cannot share a printer, so a computer in one country cannot use a printer in another country.

7) Standard used- A LAN uses the Ethernet standard, while a WAN uses the T1 standard. Before Ethernet, the protocols used for LAN were Attached Resource Computer Network (ARCNET) and Token Ring. The protocols used for WAN are Frame Relay and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). Another protocol for WAN is Packet over SONET/SDH (PoS), where SONET stands for Synchronous Optical Networking and SDH stands for Synchronous Digital Hierarchy. The first WAN protocol was X.25, while an advanced WAN protocol is Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS). The hardware in a LAN is connected with 10Base-T cable connectors, while a WAN is connected via leased lines or satellites. 8) Connection setup- A LAN is easy to set up, as you need to slip the NIC into the PCI slot (for desktop computers) or PCMCIA slot (for laptop computers). You also need to install the driver for the NIC. The NIC can be connected to the network using the RJ45 port. On the other hand, a WAN is very difficult to set up. There is often an appliance to optimize the WAN. There is also a device to cache WAN data, so workers in the branch office can quickly access documents. The router also has Quality of Service (QoS) built in, so that it gives priority to certain kinds of traffic.

METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORK (MAN)

A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a network that interconnects users with computer resources in a geographic area or region larger than that covered by even a large local area network (LAN) but smaller than the area covered by a wide area network (WAN). The term is applied to the interconnection of networks in a city into a single larger network (which may then also offer efficient connection to a wide area network). It is also used to mean the interconnection of several local area networks by bridging them with backbone lines. The latter usage is also sometimes referred to as a campus network.

Examples of metropolitan area networks of various sizes can be found in the metropolitan areas of London, England; Lodz, Poland; and Geneva, Switzerland. Large universities also sometimes use the term to describe their networks. A recent trend is the installation of wireless MANs.

ETHERNET

Ethernet is a physical and data link layer technology for local area networks (LANs). Ethernet was invented by engineer Robert Metcalfe. Ethernet is a standard communications protocol embedded in software and hardware devices, intended for building a local area network (LAN). Ethernet was designed by Bob Metcalfe in 1973, and through the efforts of Digital, Intel and Xerox (for which Metcalfe worked). "DIX" Ethernet became the standard model for LANs worldwide. When first widely deployed in the 1980s, Ethernet supported a maximum theoretical data rate of 10 megabits per second (Mbps). Later, so-called "Fast Ethernet" standards increased this maximum data rate to 100 Mbps. Today, Gigabit Ethernet technology further extends peak performance up to 1000 Mbps. Higher level network protocols like Internet Protocol (IP) use Ethernet as their transmission medium. Data travels over Ethernet inside protocol units called frames. The run length of individual Ethernet cables is limited to roughly 100 meters, but Ethernet networks can be easily extended to link entire schools or office buildings using network bridge devices.

ARPANET

ARPANET was the network that became the basis for the Internet. Based on a concept first published in 1967, ARPANET was developed under the direction of the U.S. Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). In 1969, the idea became a modest reality with the interconnection of four university computers. The initial purpose was to communicate with and share computer resources among mainly scientific users at the connected institutions. ARPANET took advantage of the new idea of sending information in small units called packets that could be routed on different paths and reconstructed at their destination. The development of the TCP/IP protocols in the 1970s made it possible to expand the size of the network, which now had become a network of networks, in an orderly way.

Other Types of Area Networks

While LAN and WAN are by far the most popular network types mentioned, you may also commonly see references to these others:

Wireless Local Area Network - a LAN based on Wi-Fi wireless

network technology Metropolitan Area Network - a network spanning a physical area

larger than a LAN but smaller than a WAN, such as a city. A MAN is typically owned an operated by a single entity such as a government body or large corporation. Campus Area Network - a network spanning multiple LANs but

smaller than a MAN, such as on a university or local business campus. Storage Area Network - connects servers to data storage devices

through a technology like Fiber Channel. System Area Network - links high-performance computers with high- speed connections in a cluster configuration. Also known as Cluster Area Network.