You are on page 1of 86
Aiea Salven Poticles Elackton — Croken - fleutton — the Seton became Seen % the cloaa Gooneatien Kankuearn mkt and. chedvicdiy « Rc a we Che Rack combi m4 Boom exgeiments on + Fron, Vackalyris ~ ~ Foradan ~ 1833 Benen Chak Sarkis colucl Rian sbrct amb ime in sobien : Small s onmunts Ney lechaiotey Saal = owen’ 1 “okowan’ iy FE nme ennanats Saal, a 3 ane et Skene Swggactad Bre bom ELEctR0N Ye unad. Yet thie unck a ‘be ware Raber the wack mode uk fa @ dtomokic aggre ta a tukally at ener Nereus — goss ate Very OE conduckars of atedbeiik, . Ar love eens — ae G7 ged conductina Q alaboicats FY a geo a enckor & Qese boc enters 2 cLerobs, ank the grou we wdmeed & Sur Ha & BR gw boca Sadan tales of ear, hen a sulicostly kh ASRS wo aggliad .C FLicrocuie Tg, teow Sigg). TX} Cra gresoure vu wedmcah Vic: +O win Ho the Livacnone dipdvor ea AACN 5 Sak: tos oe tame no soa ome — eles : en Predan Korn, QB Colkrobs Rossy Wem rogp tase the Yallarwa prgrtica on, ow Keukes toh — oat es pier As Q We 1 Hay 2 TP ow Reel oe Oa ey Nerecak ar l ney dal. ah dred. Seen Che cottrche. = STZ We ry ae ollowed. te strike the. Von MN godal weed. mantah Sin he tulen, the Some a oose ie From the cothabe. BEd We or garad Selbseen D% oggasiaday dna Kew, ress aie SCE SGE Reet te he on a GF Tray oe Rept yaihnc Crandon cs 2 Se oe BB coil ie gen Marovge ob sneak of aBowimainn y® wdbiche ener hv peek gearevo otonno (He st He wdacdes} a ee = ae : hak bees hii sea WehaUealebune: Ane ware A Ye Peales ad thar cbedknc charge were Yuk dekareinad by SS Thomton aloo 1EqQT The wane ho Hinde go i Arh ANS. oF TAFp reuse fa bebe cdo, bile: Phe ehackere Sogo “1066 KIO coloedos. : Goll, «noes anh dratye ot conaltonk arakever Che aatine the coacde ond He Weaducdl quo im Che Macher Code. The, gotta cheery -2 he sama oo Che wok J chearge washed, Te ne Ulatakion & one Xo snonoyeonk Semen tou, Dackmlyaes - SE woe Raeialloie concluded Ck Cee portidas wae Wekad oie Skoneap Sade javh Cus pomee “wee aboged Yr Phew. fhe groduckion Q dadkrons Grom fo Yanvao no dovol Wc Env erties ate at BMok Wade § ebsboncss hen, beaks consttnerts 3 g Atmap oe Sadtiedhy coke, “Yaw Kom conkeins cBackrone dk me tee = Se es. 2 {eve} (ee 2 a Prahuction 4 Corie Rone Uden om eedkric: dincdaarae i» gash — nck ade cadade op Yorah bE die vege fering, Hage SHE Soe e. oS = —— bp dadkric oh wogrebic Yate vn em opera momar daderono Kren to be potitveliy che Fee ee ee. _ o ar rose and charge Ot uk. condom. Aweit were Sogeda ontine nati Qebe weiducl goo La the tule. Keepin eo 4 gee on che Streamung sviey Yom the cathole. Ane Ue gestle Lene ote grodsced, hen Ree Waduok aso vo Wadtoyen Tre BH Lim bee aDemek® Che nase of Che arabe ckmw. The WE cone calla o gretom. cS onal ateo! ey hal Ene vo Veak ~ AWos agar ,Wovreuer, att RNa Fis Sy Woke So gute wiess ae Nepdrene : ME Rack Slow cotisteh ond Q slachiomo for ——.. eroud . ok gntows: do 1a32,howenar, sea Your, Wak deem Neary{livnn ora . bearded GRR Stays, grtdhte vrve quote rong, ements aye Wows Yon eee Dutbes ok gute Aint wae Ae A a Dade’ os sonic Yale ~endpe Tred ao clratyt- Chrobsinck drsioa Chey Wek dnedd Eve Coats wang a . wre ‘calle noulstesa 08 wue cudkrel gottideo, Th paar So eeeen ieee apiece eel oe Ypodamata qprtidn mating vg Be Sane Qdlekive, Monaed enh. Chratees, On Kent fede “e212 Meso = Gina griton 1s 007% nike al aualkren, ootquaks Beko vadron a-coesbuats I {Son Q Atoms Q y Meda Q he Atom Cogn Zn 1q0q Zerg’ a Mawdon, untir Riba & Mendes Ucudtiiy Veoh Ua wee ee Tobin were Baresi onto aut, Brun cha thes Qatwom the qed sagprtig qoarad Comrogn. A Yoo, rovrever, ue 5 ne Vorgeny, 5 Paros 90° or wnare Kids wse0 chats. Sian 0% gortidan ore qeatanhag Sroryeh, BAYLIS made Me cama by Ke uate veo b gone. concedtukel Yorn quite chats. ne Con a. ~ qutides oe satkamd (Uo 20,008), ie Spo, hap ele ELSE AE “To anclom tre Yost, ec ie, Qirkna jie kien were te wo teal conkrll rclens a ee eee ak Awe dads are co Whalina trum (he wrclee. From Cat. dmglac A Scatkerivg Atha % gorile, the eodeullah ee Q he wicdeun 2 abou Loam, See Brak RL akin Se Fees TP Cle ake us tegetdeh oe crak Yad logge: oe Manabi, the wdane mane gictendles o ginchesh de Hee conde QR he Yad. Ba daderante sgl Cre sane, siya oo Che muclens 10 by ar “bre Wat gat don chon cmatcte X emg Space. as Rromie: Mo, a Marg Ade (Riana Atoanc Mose) Rode Wo, = Wah galas wn anclao Mase Wo.CQdaline Moai Mose) = No geane on moaned No.) neubne on euchane Zskoges e When voriene enonks ate examnah war the meso sedktoneber j aboot Yi Qvram guitare aKoms SH Doo wlabin akemni wemnto: Che drawieal gmgrtine § uckigs Q he tame lament are Wertieal. GK comgounbe carkoininn, Ra Wendud iscloge Hock moe daalyfumelln ody aciadde colds Uhr cLemsuite), Thee a apgedca bMorenute am Quasicel gingartion —Fintee rated, Doo bo comgrierbe ile ‘deo gta. eg. mo D.0 Sica (le?) ke aste {-000 \elos, Freaing Roum, (GS) e°00 308r Ge Nicaateek = (20) teord tOlele Rank: vogurization (ic Tau) ho-Fko Ree ha mock Qromk natlad segoniion J coders caley eaews gh Quo vee otf on eadin-mregrll co an Kha soso ee Se, tek ngrioy Hereeeising wads sdbWly dead. Ta den } Bye dents, Oo Xebse = os} seks Dra Wensiar Semen ere wort raters then giikone the Moun sucduur Recoming Loy ihe Themen We relia cbome Co The Nucleus ae ad If an atom has atomic number Z and relative atomic mass A, the nucleus has Z protons and A-Z neutrons, For elements of low atomic number sta- ble isotopes consist of atoms in whose nuclei the proton-neutron ratio is 1, The farther away from 1 this ratio becomes, the greater the inst- ability of the nucleus anc the greater the chance of the isotope being radioactive, Natural Redioactivity In 1896 Becquerel found that a erystal of a uranium salt blackened a photographic plate ( even in complete darkness ), This effect was due to the giving off of very active rays from a uranium compound. Radium is 2,000,000 times mere radioactive than uranium, 1g of radium is obtained from 500 tons ef pitchblende, Rutherford sorted the rays from uranium into 3 kinds-- 0%, @,% according to their penetrating power. OXrays are attracted to-the negative plate in an electric field, have the least penetrating power-~ are stopped by a-sheet of paper or a few inches of air, are positively charged particles, are helium ions ( He** ), have “a-velacity—abuut—+/40—that of light. Grays could pass through thin shcets of aluminium, a are deflected by a magnetic field more readily thano(particles on@ in the opposite direction, wore identical with the electrons produced in cathode ray tues, have a velocity approaching that of light. Ue Y rays several inches of lead or several fect of coherete are’needed to absorb them completely, a ® they are not deflected by © /magnetic field, are not particles but waves similar to X-rays but having a smaller wevelongth, / cause severe damage to tissues, ¥_ eas 7 e_riys (Ga 226 radiun salt Raat »-@ rave (-vo) oe Deflection by a magnetic field ( Flemings left hand rulo)-" ~ Fa 2 Ww In 1903 Rutherford suggested thet radioactivity was caused by the di. integration or decay of the large heavy atoms of radium, uranium etc. into simpler atoms of other elements, This proved to be correct. 226 ne loses 5 helium ions, each of mass 4, and the surplus electrons Rotate <0o ppe.) aide cneewaltarest pasaelenontsronusin aadeitsiee tence nnot be altered in any way. All the elements of higher relative atomic masse than bismuth (209) arc radioactive and decay ultimately to lead, When atoms of radioactive elements lose an alpha particle there is a move 2 places to the left in the periodic table, On losing a beta particle there is a move 1 place to the right. During radioactive disin= tegration, the radiation emitted comes from the nuclous of the atom When one radioactive element disintegrates it produces another radioac- tive element which will sgoin disintegrate, and so on, until a stable isotope of an element is reached. This series of changes is called a decay series, There are 3 decay sories :- the Uranium series; the Thorium series; the Actinirm series, The Uraniuni Series 226n, 2 222pqciphs, 2}8p alpig2!*pybota Ei sbetey 21p pha 205m, @iuha__ 7!9p, ebeta 21%, cbeta 2710p, Separation of Isotopes Separation of isotopes is difficult, Physical methods are commonly used, Electromagnetic separation is the most efficient method to obtain pure isotopes, Uses of Radioisotopes in Jadustry and Research Radioactive isotopes have the same chemical properties ac the corres- ponding non-radioactive element, As a result, radioactivity may be used es a tag to identify and follow the element through a series of reactions. This is kmown as the tracer technique and is used in chemical, biological, and industrial studies. eg. 1 By using a radicactive isotope the mechanism of a chemical reaction can be determined, og. 2 By using a redicactive lead isotope in analysis the completeness of precipitation can be established, If a phosphate containing e small quantity of radioactive phosphorus is fed to a plant, the regions in which the greatest phosphorus absorption takes place can be determined photographically, as they are the regions where the radioactivity is the strongest, - Nuclear Reactions The discovery of natural radioactivity led to the overthrow of the bel= ief that atome of one element could not change into atoms of another element, Thus radium atoms were found to decay spontaneously into helium atoms and lead atoms, Later investigations show that transmutations of elements can be brought about artificially. Aptificially Induced Nuclear Changes Ordinary chemical reactions involve just a rearrangement of electrons in atoms and molecules, The atomic nuclei are not affected. In the disintegration of radium, both nuclei and electrons are in= volved. A change of this type is called a nuclear reaction.Nuclear reac= tions occur when the nuclei of atoms are bombarded with various kinds ee stable isotopes radioactive isotopes of high-speed particles, stable nuclei bombarded with high-speed particles The possibility of artificial transmutation of elements was first suggested by the discovery that different kinds of atoms wore composed of the same fundamental units, The problem consists of changing the nun- ber of protons and neutrons in the nucleus, Rutherford thought a solution to be the collision between atomic nuclei and fast noving alpha part~ icles(helium nuclei), In 1919 Rutherford bombarded nitrogen with alpha particles, He found that protons(H*) and positive ions of oxygen(0*) were formed, These were ideatified from the lengths of their tracks in the Wilson Cloud Chamber, Thy + jo ——> 1h + {To (a muctear transformation) In these nuclear transfoructions the mass numbers and the atomic numbers must balance, Most of the lighter elements undergo transformation into other elements when bombardéd with alpha particles. In these changes, protons normally appear, confirming that they are basic constituents of different types of atom, This is wasteful because most of the atom is empty space and only about i particle in a million brings about a trans- mutation, Plcnents with heavy atoms are immune unless the alpha particles are accelerated to still hisher velocities, The reason for this is the strong force of repulsion between the positively charged nucleus and the positively charged alpha particles, As the charge on the nucleus iner- eases, the force of repulsion increases. If the energy of the alpha part- icles is increased by an electric field (cyclotron) , nuclei of quite high atomic number undergo transmutation, 2 Bonbardnent by Protons = 24 H* particles are sualler in mass and smaller in charge than He2* part- icles, thus the force of repulsion between a given nucleus and a H* will be less than betweon the nucleus ond He**, This led Cockeroft and Walton in 1932 to use protons for attacking atomic nucled, ap te 4 3 > 23He Vory high-speed protons and deutorons(deuterium nuclei),obtained fror the cyclotron,can be used for the transmutation of heavier elenents, 26, 2 2h. 4, jade + = 7D ——> Fina + gle Since 1932 fest moving protons have frequently been used for bringing about transmutation, Sonetines proton captured by the nuclous is retained, so that a new nuclous of the next element is formed, 19, 1 205, one it ——> Tone The existence of a neutral particle, common to most atoms, had been predicted by Rutherford in 1920, but not until 1932 was the neutron characterised by Chadwick, These neutrons were formed when beryllium foil was bombarded with alpha particles, gee ne ie n Neutrons are also produced when several other ligi.t elements are bon- berded as above, Bombardent by Neutrons Today, nuclear changes are usually made by neutrons, Neutrons are prod- uced in abundance in nuclear reactors, thus transuutations can be per- formed on a larger scale than before. Neutrons cre more effective than protons or heliun nuclei because they heve no charge and so are not repelled by the nucleus, Slow Neutrons(with relatively low energies), These combine with the nuclei of most elements to produce an isotope of the target element with © mass number increased by 1 unit, With phosp- horus the excess energy is liberated as garma rays. 31 1 32 iP + on ———> TP +s The new nucleus nay be radionctive and decay, or not. East Neutrons(with relatively high energies) Here the additional energy is sufficient to cause a prcton to be ejected from the compound nucleus first formed, The relative atomic nass (mass no.) is the same but a nucleyg of the next lowey element is i Wt +f se) sing the nucleus to split. 7 ° 6 1 formed, cau- H a Nuclear Fission Naturally occurring uranium is a mixture of 2 radioactive isotopes, 235u ana ?35y, when *95u is bombarded with slow neutrons the nucleus first captures a neutron and then breaks up into 2 nuclei of roughly equal size, These two nuclei fly apart at great speed. This is nuclear fission. 73%y undergoes fission with fast neutrons, The nature of the fragments produced depends on how the collision takes place, There are two important aspects of nuclear fissio: 1) It is accompanied by the shooting-out of 2 or 3 fresh neutrons at great speed, 2) these neutrons may collide with other *95u atoms, causing the latter to undergo fission with the production of more neutrons, If it can be arranged that at least 1 neutron from each fission brings about another fission, then the reaction is self-sustaining and in time all the *55y wii1 be split up, A reaction of this kind, consisting of a series of repeated steps, each initiated by'the previous one is atlled a chain reaction, noutron SA 5 fission Cy Bueieus Fission of a 2355 nucleus resulting in a chain reaction : Tie Neutron - Proton Ratio For the lighter elements with atomic no, below 20, the numbers of neu- trons and protons present in the nucleus of the stable isotopes is either identical or very similar and the neutron-proton ratio is near unity, In elements of higher.atomic no,,however,the most stable nuclei contain more neutrons than protons and the neutron-proton ratio rises steadily with atomic no, as shown below. Humber of [120 2 Neutrons 2s 57 100. Ny 80 i 60 ho 20. 56) Numbe¥ Of Protons Z *The Neutron-Proton Ratio in’ Stable Nuclei : Brom this figure it is clear that the ratio of neutrons to protons bears a definite relationship to the stability of the nucleus and for stable atoms varies between unity for the elements of low atomic no. and a value of about 1,5 for those with atomic no, around 80, Atoms with a neutron-proton ratio: lying outside the band of stability show in the figure tend to be ufstable and to undergo radioactive decay. It is interesting’ to note that nearly all stable nuclei contain either an even no, of protons or an even no, of neutrons,or, as is true in the majority of cases, even numbers of both, In fact, only 4 stable nuclei ere known in which the numbers of protons and neutrons are both o&d, 6 105 set ag Suet pi c7 2, qee With the loss of an alpha particle the neutron-proton ratio increases. With the loss of a beta particle the neutron-proton ratio decreases, Beta decay occurs by a neutron splitting to give a proton and @ beta particle, The Kinetics of Radioactive Decay The decay of a radioactive species follows a rate law like that of a first order chemical reaction, The rate of decomposition is directly proportional to the no, of atoms present at any time, Suppose we start with "a" atoms of material and that after time "t", "x" atoms have decayed, BR (ax) Se Mann) A = decay constant Sy dat Bn) Oo Soo 9 ats ee or ey ong oo en vin(a-x) = At - Ina At = -in(a-x) + Ina de Aare ¢? Half-life Determination The half-life is the time taken for a given mass of radioactive material to decay to half that mass, fron Ne Pals o = half-life ant = ng j A I = 6 ey ee Radiocarbon Dating to determine the approximate date of a"Fing” |, In a living species the proportion of "0 is constant(the present '*c decays as a new supply is taken in), Whon a species dies, the ‘4c pre- sent decays but is not reslaced. Thus by comparing the radioactivity of the "Fin the half-life of to the redionctivity of the living species, and knowing "4c, the approximate age of the "Find" can be calcul- ated, This method is suitcble for up to about 30,000 years, - 2 Lhe Elucktens “ y Ane Arromgemank § Ura Blackteno Yrom he Bak Qs 4 Tonkin E nara: La chemical wackons “Kw the dackrero thek ote wudval, Thos Khe emarary Aaadeld Ko femrove on dadkren rom Khe alo & om Ten gortonk quantita “3 enstay dromgen Uauslveh in dewieal, bonding are Ke ba wndoctood. Te wudub bo wemnove on alodinn in Ko youn skoe Row oliaa be whe ‘ Gao “WS fvernc Q Rea wrcdeuel vo bromnss We Tome ation Are valu Q Cis meray dywnde an Cre enamel ok sobh-lovel ocompad loa Ba Dodien mS Lured cary eA anh dag ow We aurcllaat Arar oe Gor woop J Beoinng, Whe Lentolins omemy Jon elemerk 1 Cee Terizalinn rary Ao gas len Eodin Gonlesthmarl be a Ni Na v3 Stee eee QXentiad. Are tamafton Paw gies df ackrons ube date Dadra, Cae Sealer we aa ‘Nroges, Rak Sik a vilbmeler Are dake & Raga J erento - When thee eat on & & 280, n0 carendk Qos Deku Gow TY & vb qe a Gee eabeR, he dione endkeb Loy F or acevats' Foude Cx, gre Ramus Kok Lone Oo Kaus Nene & oh? v Aire efadcrens- each Ree aXe ore abkradkeh & Che anh & ide Hee qocsine Lm Ue akirocrd te PA cumenk Cue gases balinarm j . : & valkoge | Vi, scout & ‘a Qa bewleercg Dadi sQQic€ enemy b inete Ere okeme calle Cuscuba alien cestenreal — he Lnizalion anata Yer one Do Sian ios re Same eumarendh valat, luk DV rx cn alten oat (eV), ovis - Minn earls ait, Yo 2¥@ wn Wage gar nde). The Udtolion waa pork on pS Sectla cs We ed eae = exergy reqpited. Kw terove Khe weak Rootad, Your ddadkron a We okie, Grebwelliy Uncreainy We ghd vdkoge, hexgor! My cansno @ conta gains Urereaet we era comeKhacame 4 gees ewargn, KOMe borbeathing SedvRe). A Va) Fhe adna X, Rae ontencke eee randy. AE WAL skage, a Ssomoathing eladcran Seg sacaK ereray eg MiBleanns on onde Sod YA KE oom — Va ve Weare! exer callus er Coe an, Cre Seca Lonvtalion energy: Sindearey . oy arta the Kaw Loo Lem com@abrelss LA | SA ee: Guirolin ewergas sae \ dade. onixalion Evaryas od Gadron Duron : Abe (itdin PN Kon deo Kha aang: os Coke ea te ope Jewel ew x Aisa. Cro Numdaoy Y Cadrons in Akers Xoo equals Pra Ea waster J seek Gnitlan enya oa Montear Y OneKum Srelhs Ocengad othe Nowlaar \ estos in Gocla Avo nando con Ve Seduced Vora ques domet® by, gating secennsn Sten evarnpos agen We order We aed the Bakr ote wewove Soom Cee Kaew (pte ] 2 Zowraation Eooray Smen Eenission Seeckyn ConsBar giving on oom some, moth orem: The Badan com abso some § Chin Crary camera KG ume bo o Nighy omeraiy Level. This exctted sheke U ude ad the excked ok dion boos ee aks) Xe extra ewarqy anh rebion bo Khe aye skoKke. 4M cconbing, wala love & JpiWo , vorous awoke Qh emogy of guien ouk wm whe Yor f tobiaken. hen Wis Teabiin or Ahk enact Corwdr a Spackivacege, Kis fod CNG eas Qo corkintaas Penge Q oders bak Mode ups dnete ivante koe i aon Rows Readout — Line embsion souckrum, Fada Srorokenatic ak oY Meas onk so com fe etdad by Yo spackron. fer. Hedge ay & Ave aves & ena im the Me region & Khe Galmor Sera, The Uhrer wea growtnneak are - : Rd Greoan videk H 138 Hy 4 Ke eee 861m, nee Ai a 3-2 hea se - Kreasdkom Fe se ok ah Seiad emargy J Kronarnons meron Chie wor, 296 Pes I aoa | 2 Jee] Sates |S — | ee vag tl rr | Galmer as dll a ee 2 oe oe zroys lox Enema, Verde Magen showing Che rhabiondi babiswn Phe cpacktal sence Sot La hadrogen alFom Laman seres — we wdkta vidal Qdwur seven — ww viable eee a Orda } - Hw wpe. Punk Desreosng, Eactay, z Tomtutien eatag We WF S Wha Kea waselendhe cotttagerdiins te he, Maus i ¥ ‘ wn ibeak Uae sit Soe selmi ae ane ee rqraing, Sa ra worelenho ott un accsibomes wt Khe ain ge : Qe egprodime 1 Ls ee rai 4+ alia) = the Baling enchant ( = » Ser) subaseriet 4 Yer agdrogen: Qrow- Ny» Sard Bodeor acento , Maw Ravel efackron comes gy 1046976 xior a” more the made cccuntedy kena all guapical ss Ie Plesk’ consouk Genero x10 ty. see. Lg = he Rn (2-3 Ggnr's _“Thes Hlackton Enams, benebo Nees Sa iid Sdar pdewad Koo the requordy me woslengths Ate es Pra, Kame sederuer Larner coud expand: BY axpomakan woo revolat= Lorony, chek We Does EF om Ponds qaackum Urner, “mada ow closaical, eheck— coment, Creary. Te Yorbaronth gece f the Chasey 2 {ede wrokhar canna RECs Weleos yn Mceeern qoute wok oly we forall Sercreke ws Boar Feqgeatad crak aNadkrons cond Crave So arto 9 cal quanta. tn Bd Sacks | gerne ao ONAL AD X qpoutca. 4 emaPQy’ Foamy © = x Baw _Assangbons lo enorys, woo redlabe lay om Fee eee oral ened COTE: ane as a 2 Rha radian SR om Yom one atk & andes oes Tage evargy, Spee re Sackron an cha Gor Sevedbe. Ava Wjerencan Delon She, compedengthe Gra Golmer sores dacteare wR suas Cae vidal: oh Q Ube Sqederenm: Crekinalllay relives gek So Seay Ses Lads Bao Yor ercicallyy a corbinuove bo of Valk. The Werence in Cori. peewenmue, every Warde Lecomte seller 21 ee ee See ee poe Snk wane, The capone Leck tates To vee hon We dadkre 's weorood, coungakuly brome Re coon. ; 3 ZY the Qsan G tre cmmanion aes Kans ore @xammad voll a Sqadktoscoge. Sh. wodues gow Xo Radke mow, canara act Asinde nao Lok us Pee ence eee ae Bee i Jr appar Crakk with 0 ques enargy, ane enol R sade ib s Cra ec suede mn Sridh the deco difer ck s mA Soa Ale anelaam iret, cent hee ts eet sh row Cheaes or subbdindal al re dgQoewk Salp-lovelly carn coal, Strom a Sid AX emai SECO: he aa eeren Qrirnenga, Pande (1g25)) from Yoo Gosarvolkinns on akonce spackra, coma be Cre = nade No We chocktors ta Cnt same arom Co conden yre _soune Sour _quantnm nverbeld, he Yollowing tide Risk Oe be apportion crates gies he addavreh vadeve R cada ad dls Suk & whe Junction J ach. 4 Wh be Vetined, Quark No.}fllowed Voluae Geese Rrimcigal, a [\2yd----- | Govsrme the enttqy anh site of Ce orertal Goverma Che shage Re otloital anh the Aeimublral, & |(o-j(a-2) --- ,0 aacktonie onaullar momentan Gouarns Khe Urediion dom atletal onl the adadcrors elaviout Th a ancagetle Sidd | Ss Se Sours Lhe axial anquler momentuar of Magnetic. ) af. t(R4)---0 Che elacktomr. Rrimereal Guenter No "A Can Kale intiapel volons Yom | te mYrky: FE apuerme Che erage Che Badkton soiecly, FE also qpuawe te size g the deckrome oveiral. Aximudral Lor ottoital) Quankuan Ne. Ais Doe has waste cabune andy, bE Where mad Re lene than a. Thus Soe A =3)R com a 2,) oO. TE governs Khe shage Q the aweital and tre anqlar momentum Rieke dedrn, Moanae Quowtum Nev “ot o Se = Aakeo wk cl Golan Widr Seged on ‘ a ie Aha meee Bee Sees Sa quer Uwe ote 2041 velves Aw Besides ‘he badraurous Q Da Nis ‘on oeitolls hen Uke kan is glace a mogatke Sid, Khe “ew” quantum a0, com Sve bee urch bo seadisy Che AiredBion Yo garter owvital Sgn Guoenee Nos "8 & : b Alin com Wane valves ol AWA cope Ne shorting, Ja pas of ceckime balinermn Goo BNA uk Wwe pred the okiws Seu bath Qtra shore chockiono. pemmdSay Khe Sprwredinn A Khe oeerontin tan NHS fodrogen See Cue cndroreh Redes (Love get Y cn US obec chal) adler yoreng, 3 homogedat coos loobe wihh, SDN og akon lentetts| te yor ommnotia Us. jor Conds. Hee Cuabrogen eborrdel a ce echt ts ose i an ee . a a eds wbecte, Dredsn [ATE 75) Be ~ ecu Yolen Reale oo sagen Jdog mo Sein a - — who Ns Dadkrical Lipde onb the comr€er tp sash Ke be ce on oes and aa concentrated ok & sine : edotds The + and — charge Hrale, Q alltar chotgeCawd De the tame weg gawk EY%gi ve the we 4 ? wes 4 Tee Lkoeee, tabinennttne Cuatgia, Sp, the Bighe women 2 gee aS p= ek Wiha, gear scotrnnces howe Wer didakric outtank, ae vor Sar Wales Forres “a Arne oe weak Redkrostolre pres teliacon senkre) deees ond Chen, quan Wecame 3 Crmsient Aipdes, alktodban haben ae Kins molecules i Ane Dasa: re molcede — Khe aeeker the vender Waols de Purine, chlotine gasses, browne — Gash, whine - EL, iF Hydrogen Bodo oak 8 Srarogten beak © ee A Srngroze bank Doo Wark Yonah Tate = Waren obo \ teSFogon, oman oF Youre kon. ONjO,F) — uaueld Pee) ee Ss aie ; £10, aa dekermdecnlar. SE & aBocktostsGie pakere. Such brorbe ote cobitened. ley check rev {Meech xotany dlfecton ooh sedstocogic andlugio. Hak Se eats anh Vane hase skrockates mn ehenely Bae” Sede: CroWoNG a J. ALG maihng ab lecdlng goints ae thos Sided Era aasonete exgecked. : i west neh ey 1 Orne Si ees ft : sco Heteee I Hee et me He 4 / / ww ~ ae 4 oF “% . of coneny TAGREDEED Wabtoges Gol os : e7 Ha A Hudrapn Woonding, Uo Shae Neate whan HS beds hea aud Un beds ok 100 Mekaic Sore RWokE Pa, 88 PadaShir skradines ave geekbe tens onks lick ste Yee So meee aswdyok Ke “>, Lewy vadakel be Khe oTeery enidlente - ba dkran 9a ‘son aBoan tax a oak Yor Ceuibenk Teonde ea Sratony, drew \n “Ye rane aadlooule ,louk Easie o mele sdakels oustade. Sor omk gon ohio ran ebecktos *e SAV Ren As a weak, the. covakent orbs Wendie arora, We quale Tkeckomie: gratis 4 che cae, fon eng Lg Macnonce einds Catrudrone ene awit ca hus etrdvara, We grdslify: The errstig vote greek o Sabin Yow Dabs Hone gto deen aQeEh TT “ure Yockine erally, derma odes Yadid meee j L Ave ddim 2 Oe geckouelay eau Gre nadine eek © Sp S0qa-XCROG a werrdarbs petra een Ue ematteey voedear ad Ba cbtinn gents Lawer: Betone Bee gard Pree gyoduall chonae Q pede te cer, ode oh amphkole oo Revdian Q a order with Sobiben OF 2 Na, + tO —9 202 oF roppeian onde! — SHAN sho mr voor —e sroagtaaien tee “Dirsetesmn cada. — Wauennte’ te: Wa iann “Dara dionde( Aiea SiO, — Heddle me wr ieomde ye — weeds ath edV wots —> rakagresgravtc ood (HPO), de Casehromme ae. |arhane segheayere gaegreepatie Bat ty 0, Wy RaOy se) eS grsegrors sasamonde L206 — With bb ust reg TieQgus Hinede SOg — modantedy edule in vobat—o acAte sotaliiin Toutes Blas — ove odie sete wots Waker ya$oo a) roles, Nodt i (or, F.RWEYs e+ Tee \nbroedas Ake non . owaner, stile 0. chm d th etorls 5 Stowe) chloe sek SQ okey oo leo t= Sitorl, WO —® HaSids & OSilot, Plots —Had ——e HsPO, ot OC lotls Slot, —ariO —o HiSOq oF O.S(oel, cRlowl, SHO —o HMO, av 95 CQLot) Consider Urase hadromdes 1 Code — oe Srv ede vy leave: “Yost te erate, exaraddan dh er “a lores S ‘ i sat heey oa Cre \nad Yroede S ache. Tg Sedhon Mohace mont mw took Wood LecbonlG ) oxigen wb apie wopeck be 4 ZT) Xe me aadivgsitine Hon Hy Khe eee » Mepace- Gankiicn Word To” Crean Wo Bi fioy omnbinte ol, loreal aoeh Woe KQhrv nde Leonie. TP Ha one cadingeSine Coen Xybbeeb Eo rede odie Wudooiade ida Ge ache, Conidar the ongracnta otha dragaatic oa! orto, , sulgrure anh O,S to), ond gotone ack 0c 20d). Thare Vane Cee Seudmd Wrnndian os Nenu :— vot ° ont 5 o€—eoL 0 ce << aes ea" } ow Srsatea: S So oO oNthogrenteate a2). Ms ach cee eul (cearie(an) acid) | “Cra omypn cons dus adios ok KWo "aduckine’ Dek stroked Saroaghowk Te wdltcule G Che -0-H qqonge: Che a teas ee Tella, gow od Ge Yue Sa 0-H gtouge Uk Mrs ke Le spread oul omengh, the asater dhe —O—H Dorh wu Wreok a cle shtarger Khe och nds sheng Yeh ach terenise You otbrofassietie ack —e slfure oek—e gacllerc odih. =i} Ma | av CX | Ar Lae Busan HMeax AR arggpmts [a dagen cee ee SVDeronat | fle reads canta onde ; vase, bo 200%. joey pen pee lee aee Riedy | | HO fatng #0. feonionde “sy aero | Sanction 9 CerohS Kovels Naw AP SUA chleiae Naf mg aS [Cordanrecs |condsrren Se Cha [con { Sadly fled [AE bse co. hare? aR dogs [HAE [he hedel, cere | goedep 352% siencnis Sidy jcoudtonk No AX Av a ee | aS fate as raet—? | | trata 400% 200 fae eazy ares Rallacing aap Cr) ead with om = OA dang saga ( Griwade cite whuseg Sap, = seke Wa move roms ove dancin Rao Neon Y Prod S Claws ts Wane At sith Mo duiheen Aédy 3O No ic Sk vers prs eaceon > sake + Perea wakcroaam [ens + SHO Ectoup TEA — The AlKoline Forth Muekalls au Barlum be | Sxcteoaa nn Bacteare on Maaguasin (Na, akoete tains anh gakton swat, FP leskinated) Coden, Co cone ee aa EOS: Sadingeariurtey poms Borin Se se 2 Rada Ra Bas oO Rat OF a Fes Gr dogs ened WA BE Can towed axotrmrca nn Ge urn skalde comgrrrdo Qvidsc 2h aDleabnne eon ROW ducaa J Yormelnnn . Nok Roeder V2 2h any deoedcalh PAS nana Dirodue wr wolr —o oaie hydrates ARL computa are cAeiiss xagh whom Che omen i cada sat Rods Gmqarnkare aor comgours. = Faas) Secr salts ae sda Sa ete bok ens | ee wh olay ote penta AF The mateo Wwe Bh png nti genta ook Uo dane ee dom = wmreskah yeadea Ane ects Khe Tendency Qe ean ft Yow ee ww , the agecks “So Bedaney Teak AP we qo Journ stoug =A, thee wakabe we esady Y Dusen ee ro are ro Ol oes chan | te Qecome vendtive. Tee to Maku bby the adden Q kre wate om wate Gea Yarns, GQle). ow ack ogpedialsiy ‘aah cae co Diloxenny boliver. We Grove TA Moka Featane Ge We Coan TESS WERE] ocr tag0 650 Set 452 f el Hardness Bord, Mo doraka! Nord Taba tw | Hah acnyesce Tait on Wassing Adium wi So wil . UK, | a: aie 7% Ae So ee hee ear a wr A 2 we Comlas 0 “ Aunbtogen [BSB obi Trating | “on Weaken eee one, bagsane | eon 7s raee OnstoKor Nese en eo See Sdus ve ae S nae a deste [ee [es [Sa RA Sawa, ol Pemmpase acongeand [acon a “at cure bese? [ede Ente Rees? SAYS sde |sidhe [ads Bertaty | oom = = sh SUG alae fo SL IS, Fees aan gate [wee [are [proc [apo | qeoe = - Ss . eee , abe Side [FST fochWe fashbe nchibe 3 anes Fackasts TP es Roa te teat in dhineakoe os is wo. d. mane SAT To 1 creaana > Ways uk GalOy d : CadWencke agg = a ee 1 On Addy ne We Salk, Enero ww weckiky dorm tha ahougs Ge 2 On Sodan Worde abode by HNds. Bex DaOh —> Nabe ~*~ Ya cone: She esa lear \9! one Suk Sa Abe obo Re TA wakolo oe uncttocielk la Ned 2 mx cmcentnabio, =| 3 Rabin 2 worker on Hemant be *thO —> Bo 4H Ma < H20 —© MO+H, Co 0% x Ma, arworke — Lorie « sttery boaic Ovider : Bed — wake sd. VQ age 2500% ~sandrshisie (gO = Ke gowodar Ab eeade mgt o02F 200% -no signs Cad Sue omarvrove covsdar — on gh: 2600 *e —aa Haye Recompoaimact Unie mg. eee sro a0 —hakeh ak 500°C —o gareade,. AL BO0% lotedl Rom ognen: AbaO <0, = 20.02 Sarxidns 0, AD excagt Be Yor euomdeo oiTor. Cha Koedeanay or Wer onan tebe Wer rertasts Sante Bt hog: Adtead Wolsr on OS : Bed Ete enheiaa ke Woke Be < WO ——> Beloth, . ena sanded wit wor alot, e280, —? Se5O4* AHO Beli je ANAOH —e NabeO,* AHO — Aya Radin with wockir Ngo + 4.0 ——> alot) M0 odd adkedine sda. Cad = FiO an SAagroes evdivermne Wado Pa os sktoas loose ots Sy sdlhc ead, Sr Vod —> Selo, viagra ree, As we ao Yr Sed — So 0 ee SS on Sgt Yaad eadedk on adding, voukir) ond Tick Yee Some: sla eats See Wagoneer cade bes Sees Se Rae wg as Ontok}, —Best— mo + Ho Cilovidss 2 IFA Monde Be s x, Aakdifa 2 On\ard : } Bec as AULD ~agt: ROWE Parnes mm maak ot vale eovalenk, mada - mgQhar aoe eee Cathar 6thO mgt PONE | haok be 200% —o Milaadnte lone, SPR EURO nd 8PS'C Neck le 750% —o onbadtraa Body: WO mgt: 4hore Fit Moses, sos onk Be 5 olin 'aa ther Sasdeng ‘gow eave Ute awd eradick’ cWhovibes. Acker Wel an croritao decd ahn0 — dali bapeserk monly cavdenK, Roadie Wabaal ey wat. Spotl lc, SRO «ARQ eS 5 . tAgQas GUO —Daddaprseenk wibha in wakes — ends bublugah on Needing bo yee Malod) Q- Ca Ra! 6A - Vey 3 daligutsee-K- ven ‘| Se Chg! BAD —Lase Badia} Bo Ra! Aho eee £ orkgaes CaDcaswn clisede! Wevalydate Maodves wry Nee Sesergtion ole. Adndmes cold eonbe Karkves ith Ce Merkin Mask — Wh (Aan teak ¥ Wagdiron eodvadl) Bubwbes J Mok : X Wordos aoe ae Ta 100°C. oe | Mala - tow Vewe Sa engialne, endothermic cong) Deva ux read wih Ha a hosing ep0 °C. Ade Know SPCR. EHO Sd ae (Cals - Cone NS Aaa : ne AY Sp aciewe Venphllee [SRT he CQa, teste ieee Advan. 4 Welter on wdvides Mas + 2HAO —e Maloeles 2a Cathe | Srl Ses —> mlodl. + 20 Baldy l ie 35 eA Ha Sess Conbigutation Coreen C Beenie | ‘ Hes ee : Siem $i rye fissashzeSsei3e = : zr 5 ne 22 182 Se GaN erantinn Ge. — aka eee t : a tm § so fr asiantsss¢ heoh ae \rstale Joga faraussszng -6e.6¢) Are chonagovar Yom wannabes G makals ax mring dou be atee te Beards Wasknke} by rare Remete, ae RAT Cc 1 Si | Ge | Sa Atomic No € fel sae so Podinnt ComnQigua'Snn Dele [2:8 Bibel freigaylre MedKina, Nese Jaum Jace c.3600_b.1L00 [quo |a3o Reding Got le 2s00_|..2300 Denarky alow Soke We Leek RAR Posten — kT] moe 2 46 1 3y ue 6 Late Hedy Eoogintinn RE nak 2 Jaqe |suo |aa3 |t2z0 FokTotadon Ber kS lack wee [aac [ess | 216 [pas Stake Framensore 2 takrababmluc har. okie Stradine Q. lewenk eet SS rene : 4 ea the Samed dradine. [ute — SS ket | | 36 : By, iS Si Ge Sa the Medes LMCd. | None | done [Ge Be Sn he fe Che een ee Ree jreducor | SEER. | skola Med, | Cee, | Siu | Gey | Sock, | Me dy Como k | covolerd | covalenk — lcovolonk aes betifee | #7 [SSR 86 are — Essay (Seo OT eg ote ical Sebi, | SR. | SRR | See | shlle es x [Stability | stole fndtWle fume [PROT ee aga | Renka omptore omthatotie. Jangrotane Rae [redaccar reduar freduor | SSS skrudune femme fevdork fesrdank ferdadk | MO. ob COs! |g SO. 51 /Ge 0, SA Ont Oe stability foo stable Juery stehe | stalo seoWon gases Nadie ees [usalty [angen angular aanQGrle ae soe Se skractine quoivg nan vaatle flac Lhe wakine sadihas Q te Whur anh lower oxitalton chutes Yor Batre Danentts ~ the ovadss anh Aviles. Thue we an inctese van deoadidiy Q We Lower oxidelion dake on descending the oe) accomgeniah biyen increas i Che danas t Yon cmd bande. at os ee Si Ga | Se Pl Budedos MH CHy Sey Ge ty Sa ty Ro Hy, ggrmane — gtamnane gues ane name | makhane silome Stacia [PES SEBO [unde anew Kos os Stet Sey| Jueh Bo0% sooue Ho" sleove 250°C Bee. ik Dodare [Aco edncar sre Sa es a he a ekrabrly, AsvecKed. covadonk wonte joters (SEA [Few 7 | | Nocattens | Kmoun aon ros fees Geragnke, CMurnns Daroton Py. bP Caen kad m 2 adakregic erpraline Lyme — Mama « anda Diomonb Zs ehoutlaso —akows ote st (neste y Cored Ie tlk conahdinabion which each codon Wo takmadral ma aes der coors. The SuKemer sufi D+ IS am, Thin BP krone Leliven each alow are cae ae t Rea cameen Rawr & leo hark ceyetees & very, aa. et. (3600 cai Ran eee eae hese ahs J dadok, oh Se eee Gra prt Alcan aS oe Te ane oe, Sf * Mabel, Desleaite a! es. Qenar streckue qed | Wexoggnall vay. The loyers ae ate had Kagaklur ley the weak ona dar Wa. ade ts rao. The bch clacton hen) ale dktan) is entamall ba cee iieeapca awe ere glee d cndan akoms ES oes or bed Gp e sldkin oe Sadlocadizd ab acount er Kee qak ade dial 2 rote - “KG a cedar clang the Lanats a K Baroda te mou. Room Lougr te Leyth). The foe ae Seocedy, ban ea ove Was Donveh rence He qpoh Quercetin, gnqties g aria | TAS 24 Ane Geroug VW Elements anh thew Compoundc As Cre group & deacondad Yrom Yarorine bo iodine the aadrowad vin, Screanes amb oo dota Khe velatue reactivity B Che Jenonk> os ofdi Sing agate Are stander redox gtentalla ove: a & /v Foti ——— Oe = UBF (eter ag —— ee + 1:36 Qc, +2e —— 2er a | OF SUMS, noe QTL + Ook Ahe awater Che goekine \ehor qotentiod, re ake re Cemdemen Fo goin dadtors anh so ack a om ove duseing ogenk oh ‘oe reduced. Et /v SiO Ges em DS Oe +0104 kektrothionoke. Eeiosulgloae Sedum kro subduake Cut), We, S203, © a Cadscrna, mode Qe wad Gn Eikeimekric omolysls Yr teduraring lebine bs aide tons, Werqg ocd Ly re grocss te sodtinns Keekratderonate, NarS. Og. LWhen the ‘brown claw Jere whine Ypden oo Che ard gaint oggroncres, a UK starch solulten & addoh.. TW ower an Uunkeme blue coor ily aera trae jodene AK Che ewh-goink Lhe Be cdo vonwes, The ies Nal reodiion eqpotiens ate : oggk. Ite PSO ae S06 ag) ile Fa ag) +e aa ee) ae LY . Comsintns, Erere base Veal) reschton cakes. 25 A 2S203 Cag) * Za lag) 9 SOc bagi 22g) &vovg MIE 8 Haloaews TAG 30 Puorae F | Decreene un descraraagiviitagteditction eneday, Chlorine Ce Lprereasa wr okoene rods online teduno, Bromine Br Xodine = Astokine AL 4 AM Lhe \rodogens show an dectrovsloncs § one. ——> XT ion. Zodiac con ve prerank. op TX ov TM eg I lo-coctls) iodine eKhonoske Halogens con ozo Qorm eovalenk compound. Halagenn othe Cran Buorine yeaker Cron | because Ce) ckema are larger con have a covalencn, a can accommodate more Samm round them 3 (b) valency Shella con have qnare Khon on octet Q dacktors, ; “The Wleqees shoud a markel woemlence. te tacle Naor, Thon ate all noa- mel Urtly gerwenous diKowic Vag ou to. Chay, aM combine slr Wadtoaen que var salulle goasa whic Que acidic sclukions. Trendo in Phusical Progartion gf Groug WB Elawonto lexical [Denil e® | colowt Ine fe ect /* [temp [Pe] Slew? | Vagout F Quahme | 220 [188 ]—132.q 163 [gabled “Nove. |=to2ul| [eae ee sq | 310 | Sh dxkwd Joking | le 18h [S50 | Hq Juidek | sou |eoa ome “Tha mak Ungertenk Kenko Che Secresaa in dedovowagshiitiy on agua down cle apoug, Zn some fh ike compounds oq. sallt- Ue i toda signa of cao sitive aes Aho eelgrass ee = the fallin reackuinty the hdegens ao Khe atomie no. increanen a decteare mn Rhee cabins oe mee nanan sever a dacreanch ofits Yrludtenen Coatel fall in hack ANaF 4 AHO + O2 pease z& aX Toms amg: WIA Dade, cone a0 , excass J C2, Gr, —e nade + alot Ane primer Wo CEL B os doove Yelowel ~2Nadh ——» NeaXO, * ZNoaX ee te. 6NaOW * SX. —— No XO, Node, cance once ~ SNoX * BH20 \nsiere(S) flo Rack. Ake cdours 4 he Dawes arian ‘Iroe “ acouk | lou Oe, osorgion Q _ dior Yraperces } setccran an. Yosorane oles oPse visas Oni enorme aS sonal oKaen tama, Yow'as Tal) og peste goilor , Sues , Loud ennay — Cre Sadie | Bawa, 2 Yuorne) ah aggets vb cowem hue = ayaa Use “Cre. boadinng, Uakintian ine Covalank XiaKiae aadtentan ake wesk van dar Load Jpteao. These Jetcrs oa site. X Nae motcclos incteone Thus Khe Sameday eotunen vohsculay Teacome sktomgT oe we qe ow Y Oncogene ced, ware and logts Hact a ond vdelity 2 oe we_ ao drm acrina bo Labia (aE room King Yams ieee Sree le astiay ad Sudgeedinel ce oust : ss Bb a Krag “we Sn atone ) ste med oek bathe Diggin cod Yruckiondl MstiMabion gor. Moouk “FB by Volwwe Eke ote cuegen: LoleoraGory Cregat inn Emgur, AkTYe com De gegored boy goatena, or dee ous RA-WK copes ae : Rarer Shoppe » eG wma & cone, SoQuiban 2 omenonnanr akWe ymode in Sika ee corde oh eee Gab cle han ceceot = OH,NO, ——» Nit « 24.0. roar cotton Sieeie Roadian wi, 0 s NU, +O, = 200 BW = © \80 RS mod. onda ak vary Wah Sengundiates. Rondbinn wih, wots No Mackin Reackinn with cde flo Yeackian Roadinn wit, oWkodis flo adil Lenge, Q Takwogee : Coroutlarc , eee ee ond, SQW ede woolers Coron: oe deodes , Na, dwadk 0 Krootdin Lhe ne wal megeette. Ad senetes we als os oe Wb — an S wary shot (o-10qe amr), Te explains che mwknece & ee Ropilens ¥ finger to Yorum _Adkriben : Laat Leto eae comlarmnas ddeddy OK Khe mole cdackregecitive erator Ce 1A bay ee eek ts Jor 0 en. BCa +Nq —© Cag, , Thue ckries ote Sudrdysed, Lou, edd wolar bo give ammonia ay MgyQa x 6D —e SMalor), + anf b) ” Covodenk ES . fs a Forma ou, the con-raladlic Damas ok Une boo dackin gecive makele ea. BA, SagQyy Cag Nu, Vs. Formak bu the Crandon maltsdls en, kar wkubde Cack ager‘). Weds by Naoking Eh Jonas \iSdad moked bo too’ (200°C, wr dimen R eeetaa, Peas Lakers or Avoegp culeterd anh dana eo . acl Hudsdos Q_fikrogun Ammona NM, Manodure — The Vole Sunthasis : Op 10%. Tha amma, te ether cadena ko o Lgpad bag akawd cooling or dosotel in slr Are wadronah Sogn ad Wadrogem ote wadeudlacel aver the catalyst. Crome ome be Kme Khe ert gquse Bada occramababe oe exeieh Sou Khe suki: Wis grocer gerd ate grodadk Brow chase enhreadly accero| nos ALahomlins Cegentinn Aomori calcuum oxrde (te dea She ammons pple se & Coneakmieh slure odd connk Qe wschte ny He anunmed Yeeauat ie crowd Week a ie —. te Yorn Selb Lonmoniann sults). an ee Ee ee nee eae AAHg< Cole 2 Coch Wnty Rrogerhian 2 Ammonia Caoutlass goo — quraridel wdecde, Hide Lafenk Wok 2 evogmbion becomse Q slrmrg onbsmdoedes free sols a aoc igonsk Van shulbe i wokir, On sero heating Uk Macias Ile “Us alanents. QU, —o NL + StH Ae Wada Kamngantines “Ke uaedi- O ase waKarg agent Mecame Iurgan o grodual fi) aoa souter Q wiktogen Ypr Jorma, wkrdeo, Prenmaiis sill ade Nour a our look Uk redo gute onagen Ss wsator:— LW +30. —s 2a * 6UL0 Dreamorag Sedation Prnmona 2 vara, sulle: on wats Yorn Sadrogen bela with wator mbeoles, Thue oe Kor comgeting Yactara: - Mis <0 SE Byun Erol anh Nis + 40 = wut« ow wk Speck oly Ho WAS +OH” MWg HAO te Loosely callah ammeniim hudmide buk ie i really ammoisa Subtase (a wesle base). pe ee weak adel Decora & Aadrogon Qrondding Qelire~ US cee and Ol Cor. . Hygena une NHy 4 Nee Caottere Dgarh eg gee U=—N uo Se 0+ Tig on. Rudrerine to moda lary Making Sodsonn cherske C2) Ungoctialt) 5 EAR tas Qo nms a 20-01 Rap dna cree Woreeninc) aan an Wearwedilg 1 es a 2 NW, + oce —> Nach + ou” ch\otawine MWHaCd +a, ——o HaM-NHa + HQ oe warts Bake tn Che ctbsence Q cakiwa od thor Mek v ailldal by Khe odddben Qo calloib sudr co agin = Bedrrcne te werkt Yeasle anh Yoo Goo axes Q colts — ty UaHs ASC, ond COANE) S07 Waimaing Wo owe wucing aogat OG (ake. Mikrous onde Nad Megared bay Wedilvg, eonerenaton ddkcroke Lora avatine J NWR od NadlOs) %& cook Doorc. WULNO, rae NiO + ZNO 0° Ake readin & exetherre anh soy be axhreme , boo strong \eating D vend. The grodudk & BBR) Kamuge jax Tarr, \) DAC) SRD seh — temreves coger morse (ube 0&8 00 (] Sodiam Wudmdde sobubinn — remover Stour More (var) anh ony, _ dlorina greaowk ii) cone. servic aed — removes coon. ure Bis ; Mode lou worma A en Nore X sodium akrite am) Wadon amine \udrodddnde sodukines— VR, OH HC@ +NaW0, ——* NiO +20 xMach Ni + Roogartion awd Ganckt Qikroxo Onde hb Cdootiar aoe, Macon sell. ; ae regrealdy aS vm cAR voor be gore o canktel chutlm, Aloe FO0°C UK Setomngesao Rank dkny ond oman Moab arth owngen K Wo una ao om emoastukic — Lardunrs, aes. skrockite . z a tee cetels ° 5 Eh eg, wpe o Wamane \ulorh & Rae dooue Kwo skrackutes. Wktoagn Mororde Cktic onde) 0 Pregored ka Khe oken 2 50|S0 mike adh on copes. Bx x BRNO, —p SCulwOs), + bH.O + 2n0t so\ So The grodadk ty wk very gute BE con be caledah over water Joad Ainskose Che edi imagery cikmge Momde VO. Cre che nikrogen wnoronde con Qe alosotld bra cdb cons sduutson R Worl sbgneke ond releanad ogginrtan hacking ron Irak wilh amadea) sulphuric ood. a | Pure Pate ign monoede con Be red : Perea x : * regan 2 aroun kre wih AS sulfuric od ob Cue ' 6Fe Sy 42KN0, + LUSO, ——» BFes(So,)y +K 250, ~eNLO 4 20004 Revgtinn ond Raadtims 3 Mktges moxie Colowrters poorly ighkly sdulde a wos, LE dacongorto tale Ss amends weidly aoove Looore Buk w shelde bells Uno Grngenkine EE Bingdves teabilyy om Voorl\ subgeste teRn. quoing alomon sclakan of Rms0 — dont) subphale wad decom geass Ghen Vaated Fe SO, + No = Fe SO,+NO : Rikengen menoide combens Gk chWorve inthe grime Qo Qrarcod caltalyk Ke Yor Abioryl DibariSes— 2N0 «C2, —> awocd \ Struckine ae ws ee OMe OS Ga BY eas Ch 0 tone ‘atom Qkke adhere too skrackures. This accounts Yer “Ko dD, oD small Ligde momonk: The wheele Yes garaenagalic groqutias Decouce YY ungaich checker. Inthe sth sbike the onde worzes b Yorn U0, , steudka p - ee ee OF we boy doamoanelie,, Diedtogen Tkrorde ond WWingn Diowde (0204, 2d: 100,) Nikrogen Siarde i voually gregneh bay the ocbion & eorcrkwbel mine aad on cog@y: — Ca UXN0, —=e Cano), + 20,8 * ato One. a The 00% cde da toy becca. ddoery Sure. buy Waking wel dreh ond Ynaly~qoodueh ensrlls Alok akabe ~ Drews, Decaman ik Woe do water qf enidrallizaion, aeelwo,), SEs 2tkO + uno,t « O21 Svea tw nix Gten Digud Sindioan ekrodo he Srey martiit codes Che Sinlignn Cikromde, Hrereley segoraking K Yow Whe oxrgen. Be 3: arog ektonde, anh Ativgn Aionde oe oy expslibrum: S NiO, oa Aa ruc oe unt \N calla) boy See awe, Ae Qa a gedominiss JF AWK Gagualinte. N,0, =2awo, == 2N0~0, a opah examhe Q comolay te comdako o& ¢ Neen oe eae Chamrdk Liss ocrobion Di adcrogen kokronde axtremeds goraensus, TE 2xwS a2 caloutlers empralls iow —t0°c aos a ckroio-cAoure) gwd \ onli ok 23%, Tk Moodees weaddy” Man OSA ayorenay an acidic slum, 2n0, * 4.0 oe ~ HNO, NO.» Hwro mad oah BEC Wee. 5 ‘aah ‘sak | de. The dirs ach subbren Sobor old oak OR ook, Pre oval eqpabiim oa ‘ ee 3N0, + to —* 2HN0, «V0 okie ofl Wok solutions Qe odedie Ke ques o mnstine d Ante anf) dhrbe: AND, * 2Na0q —> NaNO, + NaNO, * 4.0 Ginko) Gia _ Decay) — Akylols) : FE a wohl oridurrg ager, berg ready educl be aboyn morovde oF aStrogem » — Ax + 2N0. —2 kGO «+ Na HaS +O, —» Hao * S§ * NO Sea Faso, wo Cess§ = A) Strudiye 3 V0, iC — oy ds Ss ae * os sont aackten areoorone Ibah Q Cre dhove too scruckares. ey ee Pmt nh Kp ° “ Pal ec i beic Aah HW0, Nike Cu) Bad Momulackinre = Ostwald Yrocoas The Yook Kage & the cokabitc octabion 2 amaonin to aliagm mode Kady *50,—S UNlot GUO 5 BH = — Gey WS ml Ammomal here Helier SalQaasis| vo acrcall with dno tatinas’ to vlan dL our and blam togidhy over Che JAK glakiwan - Tredisen kK. Here 46 —48 lo X ommenra vo converte uth cbfogen mmorde. The Neadkion Yo axecthermie yowh with a heck exchanger, the tnrgenione 9 qoote 1S meinem Gitiok extond beoking, : 2 __ The winkine Yo qaige ie thom coda ond LEE Sih ar Shon Wager monorede ExeSioees with organ to pwn Lovde whuda reade Wn unter qurra ae Sh Q alosuk 50% coranctrubinn thos secarh stage Glos ue Lasae skainlers stiod dbsorgtion twee, Aoaignd be ewsere Cho mama X the opcand icons cee Aasconding Viquuh. the “eqpatins Yr the teackios Sa eee skage oe 20 x0, —* 2N0, ak Sik 200, + HAO —> HNO, + HOO, Crew BWW. ——> WO, + 2N0% xHio gprs ovenll BNO, + LO —e 2HA0, + WO The prolluck con Qe comrcetirstah t 68% bu diKWlakinn dana coro | de _ kane Yared, More concrete ach con be wade la di Cie wring GW concokmtid subduarte acih, Laleomiarn Repomiian § (ude hed = q echoes ot sodden) (e ee Sek tw nee alk alu cxggats tino Kno, + HaSO, = KHSO, « HWO,t Che, Gmpentne Bvt weak sbne (0° be mininize Che Socomnookion 3 Whe kre ook, Evento; sone Ka ond Soconpusas Se gp ciktogm Monde whidh daodues in We adh colouting ee Re Wendie ley burns, voor ar Cavoudy gee SN) eo = aloovk qgy, adhe ach. Conconttnbed och conkers 68%(o rikric anh. Fuming sikie ach cokers 98% aibric acid. Wher coda be —W2°C Ke gore add © dogakah oo cboutlass crgtol Roadtirns Hike ach Rocougeans ody lk room Kenguntine (suck Belge) ok segidly iron Veale bo que dikrogen dice de anh oxygen. KHNO, ——» 2Hi0 + 4wo,t <« 0,} WSeke ach com ack oo Glan acd; Cillan axditing aga) Gia. Akroing ogg . oa an ocd i i : Set a stro, aed, adword comfwrely Ainsaciael Luke toms dn san, WOOO 5) mae ee No; TE Veadts with makalle hoses oul caboroteo —p salts calle citralns, (Kee ombahrowe ded w regula be be coda ofl peated, trodbine in Kean reoguedts). The erainn Yodtane oe— = He &) anne § wate Code Dackrogeaikntt) : (() conambrodian Atle ood iii) Keongsraiinre - 3 W ease ee Drum Rack nike ach akkockts cattery wakels sudroo ores, odes Ben Kras § cakroun ach oO @ hike ood akkodes aif to exeek dokianee onk add. Wha the. Disommuar ot staitace stax, He ee ea ee eae ron Soe o~ Se oss ee x o unset onide He waka & sand te bgcome gansive. Lowy very LOG Ake anh, moqresuns och wovapelar re Ris So AS erxcagtlen, Gin Baoan os Jie adae ob b—otnd’s me onde amnonuian kre, ids Mncornoste,Ko etme gee sho Werke) Bue GA cmd ooh VE ges o SMG werdue Q thabrieal GaCrw) odo ge vorteas ovdas y ergpa. Caw), + 24.0 + 200, % % Go x KANO, Sen UNO; ee Butwo,), + KM * aot £0|50 Qidake) NO, * att «e —o NO * WO conc. — Ca Noy + kHt + 3e —~» Nox 24.0 a. -Cr soa se =e a. -2n eau WW, * 30 MX AL iv oan a Tk be @ Gaba, agi: Ce sere 2b yd, oo tO +200, + 6 ead + 60st bebo Ents < snout )pces ets ORE cane. eg. Sx GAND, —e WrSOy P+ SAND. —* Hz 00, nh add at Ns fr a ro 2¥NO, —2 HO +200 + 3O ea 6FeSOy + SHaSO, + 2HN0, —0 Bhea(S,), + UO tant SUAS + HNO, 2 35] + Go + 2W0t Aaya Yeaio Cludds care. HW03 + Bods. conc. HQ) abkocles add ory, leroouric aad — gmdsbly became Cre ave ah oxidaios Che Cla eloboddore ach b Mdorve, UNO, « S4HCR —» NocQ «CQ, + 2H (fi) coe Aken ogek Conconkaslah cikric acth, gortheullaty tn Ree geamne, d carcotentah subglumte aod, o cage Q subbstibuKing kro qrougo — VO, Jor \adrogen ofome Gn cota orgie whrenleg 2 eg Colle HNO, TEP Cette0, « HO “Tis gimcar coll Sdkwalimn and cy Q great cdascrd ington. “The dine sakrabing aagnk “ laakiued te tae he edkryt (Aronian) en NON. WSO, * HNO, Useed Mkre Aad KG wees wudccoths 0 Sprbliese. Exploaives : ¢ Sang, oggak Snthe grbudin 9 Khe gagere auler anh As an oediRmo, Gai = yok « WSOQ Na * HNO. rinhaberas UNO, — too unde, aloe Adee ake 'K Lacomgeane Laufack arene = es pagidly Dw wo ZHNO, —* KNOs + anok +o : Tie te Pewee regard ig situ Qrowee dderike ok ano. Two weak asd jody Ugly Simeddieh ike ans in Soba. HNO, S-Ht * NOL stouckive z : Neen cos trouks marie, ro —nbtous ot com reds 4 oder the KNEE R-0-N=0 or the alfa cragined R=N0, according bo Khe condi, i o= NO Wk Um stracdire 0 oe grees Wale Ye hour’ Goo cane Yarns, HNO, wv very Rackive lang bith on ondiaing agate enka teducwa aguk. won onndire eq, 2Fe SO, + 2HAIOZ H2SOq —o FealSoy), + 2Hi0 + 2WOF AKI *2HNO, +2Hcr oak « Fi +240 +2W0t We areetid Mange 240, —e Ho t2N0 x 6 og redux $3 AKMADE + THO. & SUSO, —P KSOLtDM ASO, + SUMO, + 320 Cha readin te ured & adtoneke solo Q akrites volumabrically, the Aka, maka ond alkabina eathe wokalls oe ctoble, Sew made by the Crema Onda the akrkeo 2 and Sodan SS Dkk mad Umgortonk weeks 2 NoW0a+ O24 Whang _ con ecian Soda wikrake, sees rev 33 escagic SAM migh. 280°C , Adndving la 2 Hy. 04 My 61,0 SW OH hydrogen ond one +0 > mt + iy + 10 Sm" + oF a =) emt fet effects— Miy.t0 SY? « on NNi,.H,0 i8 loosely called anmoniom hydroxide but it i9 really emmonia hydrate (Probk base). Ammonia solution ia a weak alkeli because of hydrogen bonding between Mi,” {ions and Of” sons. Fectors Affecting the Siting of e Chemical Production Plant Reailebility of tow on 1 workforc Imerkets, and protection of the environmentle able to discuss, the. above Factors’ using Supplied date. 0 © an awareness of the industriel inportence of ammonia fond nitrogen compounds derived from saonia. By fer the biggest use is for the sanwfacture of nitrogenous fertilizers, particularly ammonium salts such as the sulphate, nitrate, end phosphat Manufacture of nitric acid by the Ostwald process Hanifacture of urea, phenylemine, nylon, and odin carbonate (Solvay process) . ea refrigerant because of the eae with which it 1s Liquefied (only a fe ines ‘atnospheric pressure at room temperature) end its high latent heat of vepor ization. In aatillurgy to provide an inert or reducing atmosphere during processes such fe heat treatment and brazing; the hat ammonia decomposes into nitrogen and hydrogen whieh prevents eccese of oxygen to the metal. Dilute wolutions af semonia are valuable cleansing agents, used to renove grease. Uiquid’ aemonis is ¢ useful solvent. Be able to demonstrate on amareness of the environmental consequences of (3). the uncontrolled use of nitrate fertilizers, (Li) the production of axides of nitrogen in ct engines. Farmers uso fertilizers in the form of compounds of phosphorus and nitrogen (phosphates and nitrates) to increase their erop yields. Often fertilizers are Used in Large quantities, and because planta can absorb only a limited amount Unrough their Toots, unabsorbed fertilizer is leached into rivers and lakes. There the fertilizer causes accelerated groxth of water plents, and thick eats of lgve cover the surface. The name of this unintentional enrichwent of river fond loke water ia eutrophication. When algae die, they are decomposed by terobie becterie which die when they run out of oxygen, Angerobie bacteria then teke over end convert part of the dead matter into anelly decey products. he rest of the debris falls tothe bottom and slowly @ layer of dead plant material builds up there. Deprived of oxygen the fish and other aqustic creatures di Excessive fertilizer can algo find ito vay into ground water. Inis is water held underground in porous layers of rock. A third of Britein’® drinking water conea from ground water, It is feared that the nitrate level will geaduelly bulld up dangerously high in years to cone. In car engines, bectuse of the high tenperstures produced, nitrogen snd ‘oxygen, present in’ the air taken in, conbine to produce oxides of nitrogen. In the eit the nitrogen monoxide ie s00a converted nto nitrogen dioxide. the Totter ia highly corrosive and toxic. It irritetes the breathing passages and yr'in the ait to form nitric acid, an ingredient of Nitric(¥) Acid (INO,)~ Manufecture - Ostwald Process the Tiret otoge is the tatalytic oxidetion of emania to nitrogen monoxide: {nt + 50) — ano + 6H, Al = = 906 43 moi Anoonia (From the Haber synthesis) is mixed with about ten times its voluae of ‘alr and blown tapidly over the hot pletinun-rhodiom catalyst. Here 365-90 Of ommonia ie converted into nitrogen monoxide. the reaction is exothermic, ‘nd’ with a heet exchanger , the temperature of 900°C 1s maintained without ‘xternal heating. 60 The mixture of geses is then cooled and diluted with air, when nitrogen ‘onoxide combines with oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide which reacts with water giving nitric(¥) acid of about. 50% concentration, This second stage tokes Place in large stainless steel sbsorption towers, designed to ensure thorough Inixing of the ascending gases end the descending liquid. the equet ions forthe Teact ions in this second stage are:~ 2N0 + 0, — 2™0, at First 2N0, + 0 —P 10, + 10, then 310, ——¥ WD, + 20, + H,0 giving overs IMD, + 1,0 — 2HN0, + NO The product can be concentrated to 685 by distillation when © constent boiling mixture (azeotropic mixture) is formed. More concentrated acid cen be Image by distilling this mixture with concentrated sulphuric seide Uses of Niteie(¥) Acid Much ie used to make nitrates, particulerly omonium and celcivm nitrates, for use es fertilizers. Mony textile dyes and nesrly all chemicel explosives (eg. 1.N.1. end dynamite) fare made by processes which use concentrated niteie(¥) ecid in thele mmonufacture.. Tes used as an on nylon wed. "Terylene izing agent in the production of the important polymers Oxidation States of Nitrogen +5 ty; nitrate(¥)= +4 Ny0gsN0, +3 tm0,5 nitrate tits 2 0 a No oN O39 Wigs Ms Also 4, <== 0, 8 g00d example of complete at 750% thermal dissoctat ion Sudgut S_ su By Sulgur & We aroue DLS. Occurence ov} Extradiirn Pee CRar es ierieaa ee subgandas. Tete adtwdah bythe Franck Crocess: suddur Were i axyges —? spur Mexde af a Uke oer trode. Readtine with Wolar (lo Weackion. Beadion with, Rode Umakkad@h ba cde unlase then are stm oxidizing agerks coresis COs —. 2W.0 F GNO, * BASOy Ee droite selln.,, sodden Criesslehdt Loken WH soduam lado’ @) SOCAN sulphate awk oh sAgube are or ab sche soldide chem wackong, oth more seu te awe potas idan. 6Na0H x S —* 2Na,S * NaaS.0, + 30 es So ees eke AMWLroen , : AWakrogn — Ke Ode x joan Noma oA Koo oF te suk Yorrne yoke Ypreon Naren, ya Kae some shot a suber : Derodee. Your Qs aie oC Files thre o uy, Yr on o heave te owvsgorne - ee ee wera la sllgeat) “De A me ebbeort. & eee Heok \wur in (ah ) ena bruf enerene re wan 9 he Geena) er pe, ere der Domne Co\i— monodiunre Sa ok S¢@ eons X gacsareh. Se wep (sw \sahors). & V7 aw \ Ava deagee J Sa od Se are aden lecllaw— he Vee 5 NAS NGS cana AB —vorobln in Lager ne R Sq wih Garg Bc — worn reaoure eo — voriolian on ae 4 Sat 58 oh ng rch @ — Eventi, ; me og nae Jot dy tc — mading & 4 SE ; QF ) ce — en cathy ehtanute a madting, oe? A Sg topecks ‘ 5 . ‘Mase ) Sodgwur Vubcondadng wubbar opagow dar mh, eet Ovidao ond Orrondo of Subelwh — 63, “ onde Sora, | cortrogordumo, ach | Sora, SMdur donde | SO faelgrurese add WaSO, || wagtbonk een kroxde | S03 sudrate ocd HaSOy, one gr womorde (so [fektesia es (LMS, Dgur seopuorde | S20; [dithionovo aud |HaS20, Fepeqmandgaite cal. HASog Peroxodisulsuite acd |W. S.0e CRantulgurre ad) Soy Dur taktoxde slg hor hegkoxide, ManQadiired by burning silfor A ot. SO. — SO, Pregatalm — bythe educkon 3 Mek cone, subgame aed willy copear. Curt ASO, —* C. S04 * Aas = so,t “tra, sdihar Mondeo Bviad tag, ERES” cubgrane ook ond eflad ba Soumussh dels. < = Jur Aiowde Wo doo Yrvad au'— ()AMuto ach on subphikas SOs + ant —e HO + Sot VADs, acd on huPtogen subdnkos NSoy +H¥* —* Hao + So,f vi) Aka, “acd ow Cries uberatis : : S037 +2U* —o Wad +S0,t* S| - nde ecgitete tae — Yor Pre mmaomjdevre 2 cblghuvie och : Prngortion z J WaO-* So, ENT * WSO, SE AH Ss SOx EES exbrewaly polvlla in water agen, seensbuene AER Ne er Bn Malone tens > SUIS, ond Bem Wurman s ubplas joe eg. 2N2OH + SO, —*® NasS0, + H20 Ma, SOs +420 * $0, — 2NahSO, ecee Asa we A SO, +40: + G —> HaSO, war water ptank MBic must howe wate eit eq. CRs + 2keD* SO, ——s 2ncL ~zHS Oy Qn y + CH SS0a+ 220 > AM + SHaSOy SudQur Mowe W ural, commercial, & & edu Dre cadeunny cantar om substances sudk ao stro onk wood — Uk ina leas nN encima, edak Chow race Lois (chorea O\"S). hs on 0 ie TS, wat rarrcaildigaregpotalira gained cepts Rica ahes cote Nala a ns acl as on oxidizers agenk- wg, AWaS «SO, —> 220 * 3S (unr creak) AM + SO, —» AMO «S$ burming Mgr : Serackiste - ; eo , ry ‘ Se yo. $ > bY. SS tg, OS Ps oR a Ba deur anki shold Do See ncaa Gabe dhall dadeos A Ramomer Wont. g che adore tno Coe SOF Yor DeeKo g sulphur diouds, Loh parach Xn oad oh Prarie non erengaareke QU rede. Che. Baltes cherrgnn coBour Yoon co coourdanalie- io decclourizad). Whoa Qooadl Qntoveh acdayial gor nan Gedrsoanoke Cyr) aed. Ele Qe dey- change caleur Yom otwnge > ahan, Sudgauric GW) Ac) Suhghvroo Acid) and Suldvste (i's (subpites) SF Ee A sclukion fb subg Rodda w wales L bnown ao subghuteus acd . SO, + pO = HaSO, SHS, = ANt * oa, Tt vo wesk,diveate ach guna Mee f 3 sedin sols, normoQd subg w. Va. SO3 wisuldde 4g. Natt 50, makalersddike <9: Va,S.0s ie eal Ae Dek eroded dam sodas ised de soln io evagotated te dougasd Hon okeeoghwe of saljur dionde. QNaKkSO, ——> NaiS.0s = ¥07 Len laated, sudlgiiter dacemncoae wii sulldstdes eat sddratest= eq. bNa.S0, —— Na S <« BMo,SOy Sodaen ord coloumn Wisldigats sebus. are una Ua moter, Yrom wood oocomae ron Aiaadve Ke Ylorrue vackaral ee ar YorrDitolé che eleura, Xe e2WVubaar . Wikh orm chlorde sola. Khan gf Eee é War que a wine geste Bartion sudake wlth te odulde “oy WOKE Wbroddare ae SAddur Tronke So Stradkiure (veoer gnsar) 2 ot 20% s0r : ~—> at &——> ¢ we RK S., A mete oa eee kts " % Sg it Ng om solder outy call aSackton a ceed out dal deckren o eran Walon OX We dhe Bare camenicad Joros. TED ensde Loy Che calabbe oxiobiin Cuanadsen (v1 onde ednliyh) R wer Kode: Sudguur Eriowde Uo caoutdans engtatine seid emrotrg mn area pRaynergric Lorre la,e5¥) ism & ra — waged yee jb gh EST Bor¥ pro — svlolimne bebe bSP ond SOPC. SDpur vices Musdves Radia in core. subghane ob) athe a Gaceee Bigad called, clanun Qaeng, sdgunde acd) WSO, * SO, == HaS.dg cloner, Subduuric: Ae WaSOy Are mogortiy Aika woh sobdeurie ach we ano credelutha Conk Seocoe. This We chau antammbicadl.. Yalow s— The Conkadk Pree Tin greene Xo baad upon the eewrble comlinalion d solder honk oad carga. : : ASO, +O, TE 280, > OWE —1G2 KT mole Bai be COGN, cgtdilions Woy wrentun al) are Widh giesare omk Low Conagarkire, In ee —ogtiowien ao greaaie ‘ soy aoe okrsadrute, de aad Deca the cmall Temptrucacant, NURS Bouin Brora Wah Qeroute, woud ade fasta tra heavy cogdad mak. Aro Che wduchan wm volume sus33%o oo gusto Yom Ca dome egpobin BK caer S°h Sue b SS eSncaay oF oragen. Ew daddua he temearatatey loth adh ond wadien mie lane to bo coraidared.Daogke ke wan Qo coksbit, onlay ok & Gergen. a dloouk” FSO “wo Nha reckon Jock emewds Yo alan eaililorian mm bbe vor, ime daring, hick Whe veackenls ore in conkuck wilh Che JK. Mur diode w Adkecah Lintng Sulphur On air ot iy tasting o a opicka oe! Trorud. gun cei een Ge yemoye sveenicatl angourds od char Subbstarto AL wig “got” the colabyk. the solgur dionde ) wid wlth excars ee @ purdads Shab, ond kere gesea. Racvedva sara 2 convettro uJ Dullbes taidieysahobh euceahe| Ube! moxiquins potilles unless area & Cre woebing qotes. The mode sutolde cakaludt vo Vamaduin Cu) ode gromah kay qdranauan subpraa ona Sihica suggort: (atin to areata, oak wore Seo ep he, & eisaning) - co Aho onthe u exotic and the oguaking Gur ape withouk external i aa 4 Alles goreing Urtour the cawertne tue goane arg codah ond geanal Take on alvsorpin Gwar Shwe Che odpurkroeds Mardes tn core. seyhure ach. Died olosorpian wa wal oe ak Dore beesre the ape Yaak comao dake corkack sikh Yea vookis usp over Che Layed an Bao: Ceaies Me ya ea ee woud = HAWK Kamugh Khe closorder andlor verted to Pre abimeaghat ana Rae we) ra The produce Waring Che dlomeging Guar io 1008 slurs Suse ares ADL WW wrtiry coded on weit ero Dosorgiinn Buses Bs conkralling Ure DDK, Ore cabast grocers cones odogiad to prebsce Yuwing subghutrc adh EDL comm be veda busta boob Rramlasr grecdan- Aad mode ley Uke Contack’ Mrenes Doo Lhe Quer wormage ear ted rode lan Vee Saad chemtaar grecnan trek is gore oe Wate pth Spr so tude Ye ercareina anh NE=— A ning os Ate Ta OCOD noord on drug wonwfadine, SES 8 ee Yas ested biter ah ahh head Cho wasr Crrcsie-& @ ba-grod Bene Tabor onduyar ting Yuockin Q Usa voote groduction 3 edhutte a see a dee : The Qtecnse coaiate eneotiolly ¥ wedieeng a wadine Q sddur hoode and woke be sQQrote oc) juan tlkragen wrenonde onan ORgOn contr eh EN Ce ses La Be Ino | SUSI NS Gee Wa0 + SO, + NOg ——®> Wa50, ~ 00 GB Are silkragpe monoeda Caan comeian wl oxagers te Jere wait akrgn Borda hah Y saah agate. 200 * 0, 20, : ; oh Ave Shawls girctso proluas a chseg ook X Joe yed gars od det bs — 20h cance This aclu stelle or malin 2 (naare Cragin 2Quie Had Pare ded (AY vibra) “wa Neary poise Ugpid SEY covadel ond & weak ocd a. vinttallay no veackien RA mageadnen vison Skradiare 2 sulfate aol Wx al o Sot spate ye & is ee a 5% Pa eee O Or FNS y om sulfur outs Mall Jaskton Sa gen outs shall dlackrn @ teomamce Walon Re doar concnical Yorre. Stradine 2 SO ann el weet 0 é: X Y : ae Ge Rey mS ee Xz, om subgher cular AcMl dedtrm x— owner oul dal dokern _ = dadktmr gained Stom re labragen a resonance Mubrd Qrve doo conerical Yorn. On AdhGan Kk ques o STtmg SACROAS OCS, & 7 Ya SO, SE WT ved 2 ise Delubwekina Moet’ Ceorcoubrdrad’) Ze . WCoaH —Sete: co S nthansic HaSOy oe HO cae See co + COn Cook HaSOy SRranadioic ook HO > As on Oxidiars A Coane ond. Wat) HaSdg —® Ho «S50, + 6 6 tele ta Ga Ur SOy — Eko, «Sot +220 +h a é ae aio, —» 2.0 «tod+280,4 & Asa Non Vodatibe Aub Come & eg. NacQ + WSO, —eNoHSO, *Heet NaNO, + HSC, — NalSa, + HVO,t : re, sublframle ach Come) Uenkas o arate vallatitla oak Yrosn ad ke sollba. seo S ic AES Alok 75 Q adh sudlgluke oC} maa e vsed Yor Yuen. Okrer unee one, gaits Garanta, Salirgnts,SrogsjDagstlfh evdacines ab Qociica Sulgnatos ee Prepare oo woul der sok grpstins: 8 Sodiinan SASncKe, ‘ ; Weak Sebiem Cnlande RK cme. selgere ack (Sahin dled in axe Vogy king) ANo CL ~ NSO, —* Ne, SO, + AnCVh TY egpborodar ammo una) ok Lower mgs: the ‘wedeagen sul dnd e ° ss oe ~ WSO, —o NalkSO, « HCQT conc: Propo Sodium Sulldrcte. } SdiMe wo wolir. Gels 32°5°C, enyrollizes oo monoddurs gtome an \0tn0 (Grantee Salk). : Neos BA at —o owkdous s Roane 225% —e avbranus salt rods ok. 883°C. The Ghowel stably 2 cubdea dactesmes ox tle multe becomes Rese alo Sneaitive. Secu conn Qe soddrotes ore ‘rsa 2a ghia anand gaan Sam enamlun) § ~The Qtr Sete act seed atally give a peagike R Sa SOq oi Ba he tele. SE Jerrad con ler wit. ct [Fes sea 7 Sodunan sare Pregared = ae ee cee tet VE enprollivs es Bae morchubne whi ddudet on ele badting han shh A \radkeh Are gages fae a roa = ANeotSO, —eNagsi0e +0 7 NaxSi0, —?No. $0, * $0, von shtengy hacking, gute SO x sud ra. PeweaStedJauric Ach Combdurie Ned) ond. Carmxabinbnsis (Reece) Salm. Qe adh & Da Kinlyping cal Come. Wa SOg va a ee oe wk Banarlny Nes Ton patton ke ote ha givens oxi overonmen sobs ada oe patvapese: red sode, spared adude SA woke They ore skrong, tediaing aspects, Warcling ~ Nin Qrown rods. c) cobiden . Thay wi oxidize Tete Fer » “Wiosudute ned Was.03 By ee ACen Re Gea odd Vee reer Nan Rada 26 salto ox wall benurn — the Petes Aste nae i se oe Wa wk ow gp ota los Doerr red doead lauye va oon. ee ealetch ee Ne rS.03 vo he wee Imettont arian es Eanes. drake, a o aan 3 sedans sadgeite Sis codgrar Yo savant sea Cas ne SB y ad the Yoke tear caout\ase * eae gartodandesde , Na aS20 47S H20 eget on eee 50, igicentels Nese (Oh ees esytolle oe ox nee bn ewer wot Yc ene eS i ‘i gotaraen uss on eon, Fe Te cena ty la oode Sg «fp shes Bsade eerie Sogositing, Kany sold aoa ypDlLaw geaghe, Beets ARQ —— ANac™ «HO Ss So,t+ Sk *y, skruckie SOK = fs Joe coknbaltal (See SOL gkradone) L J ddorde onde ( corde) SOs a Nag re ockion rae? Sroelaon drectranss gerkocbonbe, re gobaks loans § Sob Mabie. PQe « SO. — ie x SoQ, nis Smee Tie wo caootare Bayh dh 8°e Ypernng In maul ait outing Wwairboge:- Sock, +hio —> AACR + 80. Skv a waa dermralina, ase Tn oraamre dramidtry, Sudgror_diddorse droude (Sulldmmtud Crtorse} SO, eo —_— {Woe & Yprmeh een sdgher SMowde ok Wore est cane wa rade of we Kae Green 2 a Gus a Cannot oF dhsteval > M So, CQ, Hele so. 2. — Be ba alms Yeap ; rock 69°C; kk o gomaenk small Tew vray \natelaadd lag, aka SO,CQ, + AHO —e HaSO, tah 7 & teas oon Dnlar nino, ogee, prome Sah CL 2s a Ase t> ergorad | oy reo dan aegrorss gevkadniorde oA AR $ me care oF tan, deck 8 SN Q \ughtaun' late ae eaeSO., sae CQ So, ok + POR, ~ VCR? av WR * SO, —> so. exQuda or the saul GOD lee Datong grb fiodane wade be cQs Sook *HxO > HeSd, * BQ Soke ar AES de & 9 cRoutless Lge Mages 152°C jedan) owes Yo vo v ae subbtihing a = $0, arog Bho Sep en dromke Ach WA,'SOs4 Made leiy Creag Wea wth mira sulduuic ach MRL CO WH, + W20 +2504 es 20h, SO, * Con oe chostlang erytallint: sid = 205%. ¢ Wacom goal ood veo weedy on ox aerie ac was angloaaic, O gee sis SOA tases SE om Se oe Lombard Ser in amen Khe Snprele ate nge Wage scogic. odd +} WSO2 ) S208" +6 Sz ,Ha80, SOK, SH, S038 ay +s +h SO.) HaSO, , SOL SOR, +3 = £2 WaSa0, , Sa0Q | SMa att © Ss —2 Was, Ss nrings Ux ‘ Grove EES Founk onlin the combineh stute ao chlovident® Mamuaeteut By checktdysis of brine — Metcum, Cathode Cell agacrite ances (+ve) chlotin ] 1 a soturate). one iA rete aes pte} bee poeta = oan water Catal eae Saustic a Sola san. outlet Serexo_gampbn bale There ote Neal 2 eatly, one on beg of the okher Cell = uggs call Cathode (-vel Anohe Covel WWe* ate Wa acen—2e octal Scbtim Abedves im Ce wereuny b gee Sebllin amdasnn, Cell 2 ~tower coll : Ia the presence of ima HT Madmarge ond sodsum goes inks sdubton. ant « 2MalWy SB: anet 2 atg~ tal faker azralagen, Nek and OW” ig accnmadbe The td. Veen eongentel bo Angers. é ‘ : therenny hoon Wr overgkentiad so Ht cus are ak Sistah ak the rulae A Che moeary catboe. Lalo, Cag Kcblonne By ackion Q core HE on Mad, Cheat reyatal| or on KMnly Cro heat), DK nay, «UCR 0 AKC + 2MACL, « FIO +5ca,H or RHCE =Mad, Ms muctes ato +2, ¢ Blide Crroudr wake bo remove Vegbinqua clloribe ) Prem Parade cone: perce hn aM A Gee tes CIE ace Wee coh eta Worine cot Progarties Grow | wo McKomie gpo. Bgh T2UC j Aigk: —Wom'c Very Qeisonous _ Adare eee eae Spr gegerank gulp. cooker gurtication. makecy clilorosluore Roady with all ewoutts Sees Slows unless heat & cpr © were” aeate ©,0,10; Qak readin ote other with Metals chlorine dices maels —ocrloribes.fore of Searkion hecreasen as gotities eked wm GCF: abs Looe. EY mab GAG astile coleney jehloTine oud tore ok one of Cre bir valederCoibabion chattel. |. ey. We vt 0 ten Cat) dblonbe. Dry dalorine tescke A heatel mcke bo alue anmdmuc chlorides. ZB LIM None makals ‘ Chlorine bee ogteak aStinky Set Vadmragn oxidising I be \nhngen Ae ced beng te dotemce ab bate Sendihet quate celine dowdy FY He gases ore heated cereale, of im The peer RULE Re Ky readon & axqosve (irdroduemicads = chain reodion Scex Sire): Waren COle 0) anch G)As,Se conbine SNe Odertae —P —e zie teowloribsc, 0g. 2? +B a B OMd Bn by Chlorine CiNerime ovina monn compoundo- eg. HS * ha —~ ZweQ +S HaS0q ~ Ha * Ra Hada chlonme oder, EF WE Attalis CWloriae GR XS, cad, Mdbe AeoH adn. Cha + ANAK —e Not® s Naoe® « W20 : owke eal CWlorine _cowk- eres eWomee with Wh, cae Neo sda s ”- Ss Bed_ a GOAOH —P FWaCR + Nolo, +30 Mewte — Xtonbkbe A Habse Achtenna — Uodbdgen hbotbe Hee Ma re puede rants ~ da bank dao icky He oF epate qetud coer a cabolyitet Gakwvdtdd Ovoteodk of henk mck salt with enc. Hidde o& SO0rC- ANacQ® +WaSOy —- Wa So, + 2Herk a feobudeD wally Baadued ia wot and Std os Madanbebete ash. Nek cones WaSdy with Not to cook Boor: piaca arasoy — Walhsope Heh meee gas BRE — BEPC - Gamaggee® sored LegeSied wo, coded od, —ten~ ~ eanducdbor GQ aledeviaky ad so edie mesmo? & sale. YE dn talnene (meddle peed), Very the a weter —e Wabroddorie cack. Concodkwhed ath is chouk 385, DWord Wren oda & HRY SAND Sp codronk boilina virtue Cag: Mote) erkoming 20-2 “lo ACR Ronee S Gras Wodty wth, won, makeRe eogecrelly on \eakting —v tories, Whee moka Veo Fee vaboneas, lower ot Somat. og. Fe «ane — Fecha —— HudredDene ced Tso Homg wendooric edd. Hayy Aa RE de ak Laaloa oe Moe och Caoed Clo Atuhve tn k ai on heaking » Hyberddare oud Is mld Vedrcry eget Muses, : Bab w vd bo grege diterds, gieKde wokehe Lremere rad boom Futeced\, Lalo. wenger - : oxides Chor Name [formnda | Caos we Co) oe (| Worme wonoeide, BrOen bnwn qao AD 3 | we Soho | CQO, | yWloo aco -—5q (padre pobcoe 4 Ral e qe Ononnt: qarowenp aod B hegtorisa. [Oy { cadowtioro Gaye | love we alk ves unihlbe — explode how bastel or loon ko ceed kW orotic weber) 5) or ) i Keo wee f © eerLloraa, {cae i hao ore Wonk e Gn’. ls Oe de LOR Be exces Y Qoetlors obb, the emgretdls \dbannt of boo unde bo lan iscleeh Strom cdulion. Hsgochde nies made by ockien Reblorne on Bd sdus: Kablcobis, Qa x Wao —o Nac® + WaocR ~ Wid formed Gaon clone weedte with Wr shar. Q alkalis, Sohn dnlontete mde bey checked o tec. td. d, sobivm elotibe: ok FOC] the anodes ond cotnohes gic Qocad chose bogur te Week Che gabudto wed wit, coda Grier On evegorebing Hue Sha. sehen cdieride ig gectgitabel uk Silbereh off an ee aes eapralites Grom the Stake on further evogomi Von. ; CerdWoniee Are the mot Ae onagen eghe-B chore Gofotinn gercborte wv grepated, Sm gktanium clone by hesting Ke be W00rc. AKO, ——> BKCLO, +KcR Tre Ovdikien States 2 CWonme £Z [Bady ACLOG ob gerdondieo ) C20y) xb] cLr06 +5| RCLO, exh dorotes, CLOs Fhe] CRO e = 43 HOO, eDewerkes CLO, «211— : +1 |2.0, BRO ond Meggociloratins C207 © [ds : ~l face a Bor Des , CQ™ ~The eas + DNaeranpin a 88s Ly dS Te ACOH, | ~« Nadd The qrecaghats hagbrorde fs Bikereh dy wodeeb doied and Wedred stomdyy be give ero tte sabe, Job Ce Sdain, Whmede sda. & cmartrbeh anf aad. \) Khe Hedtroly sir SeVengle, dvesoke = SS BBB alate finales like. conbolini 2 So lumi VET casloan cat 5 So _— tae nde Flackaipic Cel\ tor the Extrackion oh Aluctaun Ame clowina is mode Wats 0 embidiia ade by Suaing UE oly enydite Mas Altg. & CML fluctsgar, Cofa jt adbad to We clacknlfa in Beane aO veges Won alter corne Rumimninnn Conte} oe Aswad qpontliy Xenia Alyeride is aloo odSeh in ocdar bo reduce tha sduboi\ity ive malbon luminiiar lhan Formed jie the walten cleckalyre . The Badcolygey vo sauadly costed ouk ok f00-400%C. The omades are qngbite, but Since orbmnang argule % ragidly onidiaad fe calor diokide bythe oxyain evdued ae Pe ovelle pasqadsl salS-lbaking Soderloarg Cyga oF anode ts usd nowsdoys Thin emaats He mintune db gike GIA gawd euthneite onller ele enubataah Ty 0 GQ caning Frm oe ca be Sowered thon immersed ia the malhen cledchlye, the ake © bale Gaby o gmehile -tyee material Assuming alumina ionites AR.0, —o AR « AROs Alc Cal\wohe C-ve} Ae Anobelave) At ae 2 AL Aor $e Ro, + 29 Produk & chouk 9q:5% gue. For each ka. LAL erdmeed | cloowk IS0q Nao »F0OqC, oh Gx oT Q clockne eanasan ree ee AR gredaclinn to wedtricked fo courier nat nea teal Re Oa a, 2 wees ees ai. Coves- Aig, Lescwous cite mab aaghs 660% , bgh 2u00%- Tew malleadle ant ductile Very geo conductor oF hack amb abeckricity . how damnit, et A te. Face conbteh cule — colic chore packed atrackute- Reonctiano Alerodn Wel, Dadtrogositive Us we wealatak Ge casfotion, This anowalous eos os ret eee Yrwebion Qa Ce lowe ck oxide Sd. Somme ontle chuataiun af soon ook Ye asedl to moist ail. This loner Qrevexts amy Surlher readkien. The ergo ung even cme. HNOS ee ao eee this probectioe Sila emroved lou, set ag te $ eR ok meren ry 2’ } Worde shai, corcasion tales Qace eRicy’ me keh pebaniawe eambines Savectly OWL Wlegune) ong cemgpe dreetome a cation , aif eadtine Wiig cncthernte. Roo cdinn x AQ _okh Acds f [Rad [Conc Ron UCL | Diluke | ZAL~ GRR —e ZAR; + BH WrSOq [Dibaba Vers lke Wadia, owing Fo lager Qintduble Woaaie sD gare soleus Taka daadves whE HNO, Qeme- Qsothon 40%. More Cant: aad will wd Rack Oving be Sormalion QL ato Shwe a o¥bO. Meck Wada ocurte wih 30% acid RCD Cm Orapr ously 1 QrrdacLo ao utr ES aa MaSO, [rk cone. [TAL* Ge SO, —> Ml, + Cho < BS0,4 N03 | Aay Cone: Lida) Aekten 2 Aikabio f : AL reads UR eT sdao. & comdic alkalis —o hi hogen = on aluminate — TAQ 4 2Hr0 4 22H ——> 2NaAlO. + 3H AQ hee sud a gowa offinitys Yr omagen Se com lea aad by duce some wadalic ender —o meta 2g, Brome Cor) oede anh wali) cede conta rednad !— 2AC ~ Cr,O, —o 2Er +Aho, , DAC ~ FeO, —e ate « ALO, they We loses R the Galbisclarle grmeaae Gor taining wdhbs. 4 partiane Q qowdaeh AQ od imiulemde U bose ao Ehevente -uand on inemnddcrry borden od Ypr vetbny stad “a site. Teng: co donk 3500 Baobising Buy making om AR ortide the ames Qa all in okie uke chrome of sdfeuie ac GY tee dedembte sk e gesrthe Yo greduer a Hecker and berber Silex Q Duwminien oxida onthe sutlpea A the wake: Te ona lar radi, adsoWS Ayo, so guing a dacorkrua Sintth. Bow ie Ndoup = sudk oo Weese conk: La o yo % AM eed Cu —\udar ond emits Woo gue AL bake atu) RW od aoa SU ee ous a . a pedhtoesn dit use Wall Jabse Daehn kd Atra, aA. ackionbes cagadtar gletes, niches, heating o& Sedbre collec. b. Food = Shoniedh Cotateate — wand Yop fad coctednare Raceuee JE a ae AS Aue ark a umadodted by 0 we no RQ hawticabs WU often vad Sef cetein wo: te Codéimg UtenSils - becasne TE hee JraQe Vrarmd cadbuctivthg enk to okte aon korie- Copa EN Mursniacuan Muderde eg ARIE Q LH te ALRs ta eer sda. A date grecigitate CA & Breed ais a MCL, —e ACK, + BQ (a0) Aumann Leone ae 4 + stracdkwe Hy. ee N va bridge leeds ge ak oye Sage Nan cuts Fo Fermin ede a asco he ssipa Nts Triad loate are shorter Wnts es AL on he wo, thee antre ade A Cree andre lob te the chewy & 2 Dadcoro Velma 3 atone. Wher aduninivn hufmde vn elber a Treated with om encase Uldum badrde Lines olumiader beyrtle (Librium Okminydeide luntastedu)) iy Ymehs — ARK, « Li —«o Li Adthy gourd vedering agent Musics Oba: Alumina ALLO Oceure AaKumlly os Waurite. Formal sherthe make oy Muted to alt ot omggen ark dren the hupnede of mike & bested . WAQ + 30, MS 242.03 DARK), Mato ACO 4+ 3.0 tA U0,), SAE. 2AR.05 +120 44304 Ike U on amduckeric. onde, Yprning cdanininnr stalls with ands ond alumiadtes SRL candic abltabis- AQLO, 4 CHR ——o 2ARCO; + 3HiO RRL0y + Wall —w ANaAALO.+ Wid Deine Hudomde Aloe), eee ‘ 4 ‘ sgitat ke, gelatin mage ol on a su. EEO 2 ASREN CES a ee qreccgitase 2 ACLs adsords ctinary rates Fe give “ales odie oud Oy morbanting The Nadte with XE camble odkad. ——p an ahuminder- ALOW | + Nao —e NaARO, +200 Te tneady “CAMs ovlbs Gorda ina SLU fou anghekerics — DARL gL + 3e250, —e ARALioy\s + GLO : . * + a agpamue tha all A mB cotta, He Lon Tract said, eODteaer wake ae 4 Taecac)sy = ae 020 a ~ Uf Piuwiawm cone | TR Wdrogt Gur oe added che Sen grado Lothar: — [oe sttos —» [ae wind —o Lae srk wi XS ale clos grocnne cankinuts a2! Lae hy\—> Laat, Lar coal” , Lattred 3420 Blunts oe wah te break sersoge, malte gagar andiin water breatmanb, Habe J Murine Thay gmvide on eq: a he chenge wa gm RS: oe quaing Yom vowicke covdewk Wading 29 We ete red Qo sak A similar outers cnertoare pr a Sie cation. FT Gn io small emer tion tiers ane tercnllate wk We AR an a the other Waban ca lhe gdarised \by the high charge J the ARN ATES Muniniun at Gee — Weak AL F- 24h~ 16, cote TARE, The slimes JC 12q0°C. OE w an iene, armahrous salt Seek sdulde da water, TE Yor heeak Wades eg. ARE, HLO adh eae ww veal “Nsninsin bse . Anujmur Dowiniun odbonbe v mebeloy Walia ALYsL ia a ches dng Wee oF Cha. Te sublines ok clot (20°C. DAQ+3Q. —v Ae DAR AGH —o ARCRE + BHr TE & moneda by Meg Beane th Coa a teen § i slow = Llooo*c. A220, + BC + BR, —-> ARQ, + SCO Lamiavann cont’) 32. & Te > predmrmontle coool bok te sdid boo a % Q towe v. ok hao oLagr Dakin TE Sduble we wromny, oRame, lie bos Roe Eledkon dsradian belero 100°C x the vege # shraos VLE wheades bo be dinenaod. wen ay hh Sn Ze Yrs on addin compo woth anemia - Wg? —? ARCs ALC, wv Lacks dalioask: ASE Reaomder he Nida tareEA =nore ae wally at 98%, pods ok 2ST: Meg — worm ne My Worowne A an ogamie Sdvewk wkh AQ. AQ Te aoe Ae os ae aE oe BAO Aha AR Weare ee Larry ogh: 381°C Com lee wy ad o Sropd vockar(ecbeluct meena, pee SN a, eS Chk ia CoegirertaaE Oe AL can lee great ix beth cabrwic on anionic comgltves. oy Are oo CARY. eg te Qtr ove ARH, AVE ADU Gt, Ceramics The manufacture of earthenware, bricks, tile, porcelain, terra-cotta, and pottery from silicate minerals constitutes the large and important ceramics industry. Clay, an impure form of the mineral Kaolinite, H,Al,5in0q, is the most important’ of the minerals used in ceramics. Most tyes of ‘pdttery or bricks are made from naturally occurring clays that contain sand or feldspar. Usually iron oxide is present as an impurity, and hence the product obtained is coloured buff or red. The brick, tile, or other ceramic piece is shaped from a plastic mixture consisting of cley and water in the proper proportions, to which quartz, feldspar, or other minerals have been added in the desired amounts. After being dried, the object is placed in a kiln or furnace and heated to a high temperature ("baked or "fired”). Complex chemical changes take place, in which the mixture changes to a strong coherent mass. Porcelain and chinaware are made similarly from relatively scarce clays of high purity; since these clays contain no iron or other colouring matter, the products are white. Glazes can be applied to ceramic ware by introducing into the furnace or kiln toward the end of the baking period a substance that will react with the clay at the surface of the piece to give a transparent, Nonporous surface layer. Silica brick, containing a very high percentage of $i0g, is widely used as a refractory material for furnace linings. Glass Scientifically speaking, the word "glass" may be applied to any liquid that has been supercooled to a temperature at which its viscosity is so great that the substance has the outward physical characteristics of a solid. In practice, however, the application of the term glass is usually restricted to a noncrystalline, transparent mixture of metal silicates obtained by melting together silicon dioxide, metal carbonates, and other appropriate materials. The common variety of glass, known as "soft" or soda-lime glass, is made by fusing @ mixture of calcium carbonate (limestone), sodium carbonate (soda ash), and silicon dioxide (sand). The silicon dioxide displaces the carbon dioxide of the carbonates to yield a complex mixture of sodium and calcium silicates. Like other supercooled liquids, glass does not have a definite melting point but gradually softens as it is heated. It is usually formed into the desired shape by use of a blowpipe or by blowing by means of compressed air into moulds. In the manufacture of plate glass, a mass of hot glass is allowed to flatten out and is then rolled to the desired thickness. The cooling of glass must be carried out very slowly,ie. the glass must be annealed, in order to prevent the development of strains due to unequal cooling of various parts of the piece. Glasses having a wide variety of properties have been prepared. A typical soda glass contains 73%Si0,, 0.5%Al,03, 8.0%Ca0, 3.0%Mg0, and 15.5%Nag0. Pyrex glass, characterized by a low coefficient of thermal expansion, and hence a high resistance to cracking on rapid cooling (thermal shock), contains high percentages of acidic oxides and no calcium. A typical pyrex glass has the composition 80.6%Si0,, 4.4%Na,0, 2.0%Al,03, and 13%B,03. Pyrex is also highly resistant to chemical action and is widely used in laboratory apparatus and in cooking utensils. Flint glass (eg.55%5i09, 11%Kq0, 33%Pb0, and 1%Al,03) hes a high density and index of refraction and is widely used in glass tableware and ornamental "cut" glass as well as for optical purposes. Fine-Sized Silica By a variety of processes involving liquid- or gas- phase precipitation reactions, it has been found possible produce exceedingly finely divided forms of silicon dioxide. These products have very low bulk densities and are useful as fillers for a variety of synthetic materials. Fine-sized silicas are useful also as "flatting agents" for varnishes, to give a dull rather than a shiny gloss to the finished surface. Uses of Ceramics 1) Refractory materials, 2) Ceramic hobs, 3) Printed circuits - insulators, 4) VW Futura - has a pump with ceramic sliding surfaces - low coefficient of friction, 5) A medium for artistic expression (ceramic sculpture). Fuel Cell Fuel cells are devices for converting chemical energy continuously and directly into electricity. The principles of their operation can easily be understood by considering the simplest type, one consuming hydrogen and oxygen at room temperature. Such a cell is shown diagrammatically below. Flow of electrons supply of oxygen gas ee - ioral Somer peerrel hydroxide porous carbon cathode porous carbon anode OH” ions diffusing across soln. slowly a outlet outlet 4——— A Simple Fuel Cell Hydrogen gas diffuses through the porous cathode, which usually consists of carbon impregnated with finely-divided platinum to catalyse the chemical changes and prevent overpotential effects. Some of the hydrogen gas which is adsorbed then reacts with OH ions from the electrolyte to form water, releasing electrons which flow around the circuit. Be or a0 + The carbon anode is also porous and in the presence of the finely - divided platinum catalyst it adsorbs oxygen gas, which then reacts with water from the electrolyte (provided a supply of electrons is available from the cathode) forming hydroxyl ions: B+ H,0 + 2e——p 20H" Improved forms of fuel cell which operate at high temperatures and pressures are under development and promise much greater power outputs per cubic metre. Fuel cells have several distinctive features. The fuels they consume are not only cheap (e.g. hydrogen, methane, oxygen) but can be fed into the cell from storage tanks so that the cell can operate continuously over long periods without recharging. The efficiency of such cells is likely to be very high, approaching 70-75% compared with a maximum efficiency of only about 40-45% for conventional sources of electric power. Moreover, when fully developed they are expected to be much lighter and more compact than accumulators. Since, unlike turbines and dynamos, fuel cells contain no moving parts, they are noiseless and easy to maintain. They produce no obnoxious waste products and are fairly insensitive to vibration and temperature changes. The advantages should ensure that fuel cells become increasingly important in future years, first for specialized purposes such as space satellites and submarines, and later possibly for the large-scale production of electricity.