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f

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,

The Nucleu3

1

If an atom has atomic number Z and relative atomic maSS At the nucleus has Z protons and A-Z neut~ons. For elements of low atomic number stable isotopes c.onsist of a t oms in whose nuclei the proton-neutron ratio is 1. The farther away fron 1 this ratio becomes, the greater the instability of the nucleus and the greater the chance of the isotope being radioactive.

Natural R~dioactivity

Ln. 1896 Becquere.1 found th t a crys tal of a uranium salt blackened a photographic plate ( even tn complete darkness ). This effect was due

_" ",

to the giving off of very ~ctive rays from a u~anium compound.

Radium is 2,000,000 times ~re radioacti v e. -than uranium. 1 g of radium

is obtained from 500 tons ~f' pitchb-1ende.

Rutheri'ord sorted the rays- ~~om uranium into 3 kinds-- r14 I ~ r ~ according to their penetrating power.

0< rays

are attracted to-the negative plate in an electric field,

have the least penetrating power----_are-s.topped-by a--s·he..e.t_ of paper or a few inches of air,

are positively charged particles, are helium ions ( He2+ ),

have - _@ rays

,6f light.

I

could pass through thin ah c e t s of _al-tlIIlinium, .//

are deflected by a magnetic field more readily th~~o(particles ~ ill

the opposite direction, _~

identical with the electrons produced in cathode

ray tuJ;ies, /

/

,/

/

have a velocity approaching that of' light. ({ rays

i /

several inches of lead or several feet of concrete ar,e;:needed to absorb

them completely, ~/

they are not deflected by a:bagnetic field;

/

are not particles but waves similar to X-fays

wavelength, j

bu;t having a

/ /

smaller

-~"

cause severe damage to ti'ssaes.

/ reYs

/

f.\( r&_ys ( +ve)

Deflection b

, rays (-va)

226

_r~a_d_i_um_- _s_a_l_t_.- 8_8_,_R..i.:~

- I ~

=J

-,

--

s left hand rule-- .i:«:

/

.I

/

2-

-

In 1903 Rutheri'ord suggestad--that- radioact-ivi'ty "las caused by the ~ integration or decay of the large heavy atoms of radium, uranium etc. into simpler atoms of othe~ elements. This proved to be correct.

226 Ra loses 5 helium ions, each of mass 4, and the surplus electrons to give 206 Pb • This change takes p~ace spontaneously end its rate cap~ot be altered in any way, All the elements of higher relative atomic mass than bismuth (209) ar8 radioactive and decay ultimately to lead. ~fuen atoms of radioactive elements lose an alpha particle there is a move 2 places to the left in the periodic table. On losing a beta particle there is a move 1 place t-o the right. During radioactive disintegration, the radiation e~tted comes from the nucleus of the atom. Wnen one radioactive element disintegrates it produces another radioactive element which \d11 agoJ_n disintegrate. and so on, until a stable isotope of an element is reached. This series of changes is called a decay series. There are 3 decay series :- the Uranium series; the Thorium series; the Actini~m series.

The Uraniur~ Series

226R alpha> 88 a

222Rn'a1ph~ 2~8p alpha214pbbeta> 214Bobeta)

86 - 8~ 0 ---:7 82 83 J_

214p 84 0

tpha

206pb ,%lpha

82 "

210 ...... betc:

84 Po <,

210B· 83 J.

< beta

Separation 'Of Is'Otopes

Separation of is'Otopes is difficult. Physical methods c:re commonly used. E1ectr'Omagnetic separati'On is the most efficient method to obtain pure isot'Opes.

DBes 'Of Radioisot'Opes in ~pdustry and Research

Radioactive isotopes have the same c h em.i c a L properties as the c'Orresponding rrorr-cr e.d Lo a c tri.v e e1e.m-ent:. As a result, radioactivity may be used as a tag t'O identify and foll'Ow the e1eoent through a series of reactions. This is kziown as the tracer technique and is used in c h em i.c a L, biological, and industrial studies.

ego 1

By using a radioactive isot'Ope the mechanism of a chemical roc:ction can be determined.

ego 2

By using a radioacti~lead isotope in analysis the completeness of precipitation can' e; established.

ego .3

If a phosphate contai1ftng a soa11 quantity of radioactive phosphorus

is fed to a plant, the regions in which the greatest phosphorus absorption takes place can be detercined photographically, as they are the regions wh e r-e the radioacti vi ty is the strongest.

Nuclear Reactions The discovery of natural radioactivity led to the overthrow of the bel~-

1

ief that atoms of one element could not change into atoms of ariotih e relement~ Thus radium atoms were found to decay spontaneously into helium atoms and lead atoms. Later investigations show that transmutations of elements can be brought about artificially.

Artificially: Induced Nuclear Changes

Ordinary chemical reactions involve just a rearrangement of electrons in atoms and molecules. The atomic nuclei are not affected.

In the disintegration of radium, both nuclei and electrons are involved. A change of this type is called a nuclear reaction.Nuclear reactions occur when the nuclei of atoms are bomburded with v8.rious kindS

of high-speed particles.

stable nuclei bombarded with high-speed particles

stab~e isotopes

radioactive isotopea

The possibility of artificial transmutation of elements was first suggested by the discovery that different· kinds of a t oras we r e conposed

of the same fundamental units .. The probler.1 consists of changing the nUL1- ber of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. Rutherford thought a solution to be the collision between atomic nuclei and fast noving alpha particles(heliuD nuclei). In 1919 Rutherford bombarded nit.rogen with alpha particles. He found that protons(H+) and positive ions of oxygen(O+)

were formed. These were Ld e.n t Lf'd e d from the lengths of their tracks in the Wilson Cloud Chamber.

+

)

1

,H +

(a nuclear transformation)

In these nuclear transforD8.cions the Dass nUL1bers and the atomic nlli~bers must. balance. J'Viost, of the lighter elenents undergo transformation into other elements when bocbardQd with alpha particles. In these changes, protons normally appear~ confirming that they are basic const~tuents of different types of atone This is wasteful because mo s t of the atom is empty space and only about 1 particle in a million brings about a transmutation. EleLlents with heavy atoDs 8.re iomune unless the alpha particle.s are accelerated to still hi6her ¥elocities. The reason for this is the strong force of repulsion b8tween the positively charged. nucleus and

the positively charged alph~ particles. As the charge on the nucleus incre8.8eS, the force of repulsion increases. If the energy of the alpha particles is increased by an elactric field (cyclotron) , nuclei of quite

high atonic nun1ber undergo braLsmutation.

Boobardoent by Protons

+ 2+

H pcrticles are soaller in Dass and s~aller in charge than He pcrt-

2

-

+ icles, thus the force of repulsion between a given nucleus and a H

will be less than between the nucleus and He2+. This led Cockcroft and Ual ton in 1932 to use protons for attacking a t orri,c nuclei.

+

Very high-speed protons and deuterons(deuteriuD nuclei) ,obtained frOD t h e cyclotron, can be used for the trr-arrerru t a tion of heavier e Leraerrt s ,

+

+

Since 1932 fast coving protons have frequently been used for bringing about trnnscutation. SooetiDes t~e proton captured by the nucleus is retainedp so that a new nucleus of the next eleoent is forDed.

19 9 F

-{-

The existence of a neutral particle, COGDOn to mo s t atoms, had been predicted by Rutherford in 1920, but not until 1932 was the neutron characterised by Chadwick. These neutrons were formed when berylliuD foil was bODbarded with alpha particles.

+

4r::r 2ne

+

Neutrons are a Ls o produced when several other lig~.t elements are bor.:.1- barded as above.

Bobbardrnent by Neutrons

Today, nuclear changes are usually made by neutrons. Neutrons are produced in abundance in nuclear reactors, thus transDutations can be performed on a larger scale than before. Neutrons are nore effective than protons or helium nuclei because they have no charge and so are not repelled by the nucleus.

Slow Neutrons(with relatively low energies).

These c.oinb Ln e wi th the nuclei of rro s t eleuents to produce an isotope of the target e Leraerrt 1:Ji th 'a raa s s number increased by 1 unit. Hi th phosphorus the excess energy is liberated as gacma rays.

+

The new nucleus Day be radioactive and decay, or not. Fast Neutrons(vrith relatively high energies)

Here the additional energy is sufficient to cause a pr0ton to be ejected

" "

from the coupound nucleus first formed. The relative atonic Dass (Dass

no.) is the scme but a nucley~ of thr next 10wr4 element is1foroed, CQU-

sing the nucleus to split. 7N + On ~ 6C + 1 H

-Nuclear Fission

Naturally occurring uranium is a mixture o~ 2 radioactive isotopes,

235m and 238U.\o!hen 235U is bombarded with slow neutrons the nucleus :t:irst captures a neutron and then breaks up into 2 nuclei of roughly equal size. These two nuclei ~ly apart at great speed. This is nuclear fission. 238u undergoes fission with fast neutrons. The nature of the fragments produced depends on how the collision takes place. There are two important aspects of nuclear fission:-

1) It-is accompanied by the shooting-out of 2 or 3 fresh ~eutrons at great speed,

2) these neutrons may collide ,,,ith other 235U .a t ome , ca~-~i~g~the latter

... ~ .

to undergo fission with the production of more neutrons.

. . .

If' itcari be arranged' that at'Cle~st 1 neutron from each fission brings

about another fission, then the reaction is self-susta~ning and in time all the 235U will be split up. A reaetiotiof this kind, consistin~~6f a series of repeated steps teach ini t·iatect by' the p r-e vd o u svo'n e is qt..lled

".

a chain reaction.

.. "'~ .

.... '

nucleUs

,,(] ... r=.

, ~/~.-1~/.'. ,;-~~Ge';~~oD " , '" ,'.'

() _ . ...;..., __,.~!,23 5U } •. \ 1'1 .

neutron "\., '7, tor ---------+/ esca,pes

~.j~" ". "

""~o "

~:",~,

. '~/235t}\

. ~ u)

~

__::~ /"" fission.

( .. '\ riucleus

\._/

;;.F...;:i:;..;s;.;s=i...;:0;.:n:.....~0.;:f_..;a;;__,..;..2_3_5_,u~, '.;.n;,;_u::.c~_..;:;i;.;;e.:;:;.us r'esul ting in a chain reaction

fission

The Neutron

Proton Ratio

For the" light'er elements w L th atomic no ,. b e Low 20" the humber's of neutrons and protons present in'the nucleus of the stable isotopes is either identical or very similar and. tih e ' rreu tir-ori-cpz-ot o n rati~' is near un L t y ,

In· elements of higher .. atonic 'no. ,however,th~ most s t a b Le nuclei contain more neutrons. than protons and' the neu·tr~i,l'-proton ratio rises steadily,'

with atomic no. as s hown b e Low ,

" .. ,!

:..._ , - " ". - .

. - ;,:- , ~.

4

20.

~ ........ ~ ....

. . 120.

Numb.eT ,o.f

~ , ,

l')J e1J,t~ons ; ; i

rob

N

" .

'H

/)7

.

.

j_-'

=z'

~ ".' -, ,

80

';. _.

'60

. '

": .

,,! I: ....

40

. 1 '.

.)

'100

-, ....

N:umb'er Of Protons, Z

The·. Neutron-Proton Ratio· in: StQble Nuclei

• f "" . ~;. . ;. :." . . ...

;"'Froin· this figure it is c Le c r' that the ratio of neutrons to protons

bears a definite relationship to the stability of the nucleus and for stable atoms varies b e t.w e eri unity for the elements of Low atomic no. and a value of about 1.5 for those with atomic no. around 80. Atoms

Hi th a neutron-proton r-a t i o." Ly Ln g' outside the band of stabili ty shown in the figure tend to be u~stable and to undergo radioactive decay. It is interesting'to note that nearly all stable nuclei contain either an even no~ of protons or an even no. of neutrons,or,as is true in the majority of cases; even rrurnb e r s of both. In fact ,only 4 stable "nu'c Le L are knoHn in which the nUJ."TI'ters of protons and neutrons are botlfodd,

With the loss of an alpha particle the neutron-proton ratio increases. With the loss of a ~eta parti6le the n~utron-proton ratio decreases. Beta decay occurs by a neutron splitting to give,a proton, anda,b.e-ta pa:itticle.

The liineti.cs of Radioactive De,day".

The decay oia radioactivE: species'follo:ws a rate law like that of a first order chemical reaction". The rate. of decomposi tio~ is directly proportional to the no. of atoms present at any time.

". :

., '

; ,

Suppose we start 'with "a " atoms o:f material and that after time "t"9 "x" atoms have decayed.

dx v< (a-x)
dt
dx A(a-x) A decay constant
= =
dt
dx \ dt
(a-x) = -In(a-x)

-In(a-x)

=

~t

+ c ;

~hen t=O then x=O; thus c = -Ina

=

.~ t. - Ina

A t = -In(a-x) + Ina
~ t = +Ln 1-1L) = 2.30310g10(a~x)
a-x'
I \ 2.~0~ 1 fa \ i

= t og10~a_x) I
units of A are t--1 Half-life Determination

The half-life is the time taken for a given ma s s of radioactive material to decay to half that nass.

\ 1 In(~)
= t 1: half-life
,a-x. =
1 !1'
L = 11i] = In2
\. \21 /\
= 0~69:2 ~I
A from

Radioc"'rbon :.Jating to det~rn1ine the apvroximate date of a"Find" In a living species the proportion of 4C is constant(the present

decays as a ri e w supply is taken in). \lhen a species dies? the 14C

pre-

sent decays but is not re:'_)laced. Thus by comparing the radioactivity of the "Find" to the r2.dioactivity of the living species, and knowing the half-life of 14C9 the approximate age of the "Find" can be calculated. This method is suit2.ble for up to about 30,000 years.

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Nitrogen

Nitrogen is in group VB.

It is manuf act.ur ed by the liquefaction and fractional distillation of air. About 78% by volume of the air is nitrogen.

Laboratory Preparation.

Impure nitrogen can be prepared by passing air free from carbon dioxide over red-hot copper.

Purer ni trogen is prepared by warming a concentrated solution of ammonium nitratei!..!..!l.t_ made in situ from ammonium chlor ide and sodium ni trate_U_!_U_ until it decomposes:-

Reaction wilh Oxygen

-1 + 180 kJ mol

only at very high temperatures

Reaction with Water No reaction

Reaction with Acids No reaclion

Reaction with Alkalis No reaction

Properties or Nitrogen

Colourless, odourless, only slightly soluble in wnt.e r . Consists or diatomic molecules,N2, which are extraordinarily stable, noL ulldergoillg allY ilppreci(Jble

dissociation below 30000C. The N:N bond length is very shurt(0.1U94Ilm). This explains the inertness or nitrogen

Reactions of Nilrogen to rorm Nitrides

(a) Ionic (salt-like)

Nitrogen combines directly with the more eler.troposilive meLals (qroups IA and IIA) when heated to form nitrides:-

These nitrides are hydrolysed by cold water to give ammonia:-

rormer! hy t.he nori-mo t a l l ic "dements and the less electropositive metals, ego fiN; SnIN4; Cu)N4; Nil,.

i£l_I~.!:e r s l i lj_fl_~

rormed hy t hr- t r ans i tt on metals ego titanium n i t r i de (m.pt. 2947°C). Made by ho at i nq the f i ne l y d i v i dnd mr-t.a l lo 11nno- 12nOoC in nitrogen or ammonia. Iheir Inltice" "rr alwnys cuhical and close-packed.

Manu f nc _tcu_~!_ h~:.J I~'h-" I--,~.!>~ i s ~

N2 + 5112..._-- 2NHj ;

J\ -1

....:. If = - 92 kJ mol

Ay Le Chnt r- l i e r , conditions f avouri nq maximum yield are low temperature and high p r e snur e . In p r ac l ice, a lemperature of 500°C is used, because at a lower t"mppr,dure t.hr- r r-act.t on is t.no slow, even wilh a catalyst. The

npe r at i nq p r o s sur e is usua l l y nbout 2.5 )(107 Nm-2 (250 atmospheres) although pr"SSl,res of up to lnR Nm-2 (10nn <ltmospheres) h<lve heen used where increased cost is cons i de r ert jw;1 i fipd by the h i qhe r yield. The best catalyst is iron mixed with va r i nus promoter" ego a l um i n i urn oxide and potassium oxide. Ihe process is shown dinqr"mmRI iCRlly helow.

hydro

converter (containing catalyst)

ammonia condenser

1 iguid ammonj(l

Nitrogen - obtained from the air
Hydrogen - obtained from water gas by the Bosch process
e + H2O ~ eo + H2
white hot steam water gas
coke
catalyst
eo + H2 + H2O e02 + 2H2 + heat
more 450De
steam but where there afe abundant supplies of natural gas, the latter is converted to hydrogen.

Thorough purification of the gases is important to remove sulphur compounds, oxides Of carbon, and moisture, as these would poison the catalyst. The heat exchanger is used so thst once the process is started, the exothermic reaction maintains the operating temperature.

At 500De and 2.5Xl07 Nm-2 (250 atmospheres) the yield is 10~. The ammonia is ei ther condensed into a 1 iquid by external cooling of' absorbed in water. The unchanged nitrogen and hydrogen are recirculated over the catalyst. From time to time the inert gases which accumulate are expelled from the system. This process produces a pure product from cheap and readily accessible materials.

The Laboratory Preparation of Ammonia

the ammonia)

mixture of ammonium chloride and calcium hydroxide

heat

4

NB:-

Concenlrated sulphuric acid cannot be used to dry the ammonia because it would react with the ammonia to form a salt (ammonium sulphate).

Anhydrous cRlcium chloride cannot be used to dry the ammonia because it forma an addition compound with il:-

Properties of Ammonia

Colourless gas - pyramidal molecule. High latent heat of evaporation because of the strong intermolecular forces - so it is a good refrigerant.

Very soluble in water.

On strong heating it dissocistes into its elements.

At high temperatures it is used as:-

(i) a reducing agent because hydrogen ia produced, (ii) a source of nitrogen for forming nitridea.

Ammonia will not burn in air but it reduces pure oxygen to water:-

Ammonia Solution

Ammonia is very soluble in water forming hydrogen bonds with water molecules. Ihere are lwo competing factors:-

and

NH3.HZO is loosely cslled ammonium hydroxide but it is really ammonia hydrate (a weak base).

Ammonia solution is a weak alkali because of hydrogen bonding between NH4+ ions and OH ions.

factora Affecting the Siting of a Chemical Production Plant (eg.AmMOnia Plant) Availability of raw materials, services, communication links, workforce, msrkets, and protection of the environment.Be able to discuas the above fsctors using supplied data.

Uses of Ammonia

Be able to demonstrate an awareneaa of the industrial importance of ammonia and nitrogen compounds derived from ammonia.

By far the biggest use is for the manufacture of nitrogenous fertilizers, psrticularly ammonium salts such as the sulphate, nitrate, and phosphate. Manufacture of nitric acid by the Ostwald process.

Manufscture of urea, phenylamine, nylon, and sodium carbonate (Solvay process) • As a refrigerant because of the ease with which it is liquefied (only a few times atmospheric pressure at room temperature) and its high latent heat of vapor ization.

In m~t~llurgy to provide an inert or reducing atmosphere during processes such as heat treatment and brazing; the hot ammonia decomposes into nitrogen and hydrogen which prevents access of oxygen to the metal.

Dilute solutions of ammonia sre valuable cleansing agents, used to remove grease.

Liquid ammonia is a useful solvent.

Be able to demonstrate an awareness of the environmental consequences of (i) the uncontrolled use of nitrate fertilizers,

(Lr ) the production of oxides of nitrogen in car engines.

farmers uae fertilizers in the form of compounds of phosphorus and nitrogen (phosphates and nitrates) to increase their crop yields. Often fertilizers are used in large quantities, and because plants can absorb only a limited amount through their roots, unabsorbed fertilizer is leached into rivers and lakes. Thare the fertilizer causes accelerated growth of water plants, and thick mats of algae cover the surface. The name of this unintentional enricn.ent of river and lake water is eutrophication. When algae die, they are decomposed by aerobic bacteria which die when they run out of oxygen. Anaerobic bacteria then take over and convert part of the dead matter into smelly decay products. The rest of the debris falls to the bottom and slowly a layer of dead plant material builds up there. Deprived of oxygen the fish and other aquatic crestures die.

Excessive fertilizer can slso find its way into ground water. This is wster held underground in porous layers of rock. A third of Britain's drinking water comes from ground water. It is feared that the nitrate level will gradually build up dangerously high in years to come.

In csr engines, because of the high temperatures produced, nitrogen snd oxygen, present in the sir taken in, combine to produce oxides of nitrogen. In the air the nitrogen monoxide is soon converted into nitrogen dioxide. The latter is hi~hly corrosive and toxic. It irritates the breathing passages and reacts with oxygen and water in the air to form nitric acid, an ingredient of acid rain.

Nitric(V) Acid (HN03)- Manufacture - Ostwald Process

The first atage is the catalytic OXIdatIon of ammonia to nitrogen monoxide:-

LlH = - 904 kJ mol-1

Ammonia (from the Haber synthesis) is mixed with about ten times its volume of air and blown rapidly over the hot platinum-rhodium catalyst. Here 96~-9B~

of ammonia is converted into nitrogen monoxide. The reaction is exothermic, and with a heat exchanger, the temperature of 900°C is maintained without external heating.

60

The mixture of gases ia then cooled and diluted with air, when nitrogen mopoxide combines with oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide which reacta with water giving nitric(V) acid of about 50!O concentration. This second stage takes plsce in large stainless steel absorption towers, designed to enSure thorough mixing of the ascending gases and the descending liquid. The equstions for the resctions in this second stage are:-

at first

2NO + 02 -----. 2N02

2N02 + H20 ~ HN03 + HN02

then

giving overall 3N02 + H20 ~ 2HN03 + NO

The product can be concentrated to 6B~ by distillation when a constant boiling mixture (azeotropic mixture) is formed. More concentrated acid can be made by distilling this mixture with concentrated sulphuric acid.

Uses of Nitric(V) Acid

Much is used to make nitrates, particularly ammonium and calcium nitrates, for use as fertilizers.

Hany textile dyes and nearly all chemical explosives (eg. T.N.T. and dynamite) are made by processes which use concentrated nitric(V) acid in their manufacture.

It is used as an oxidizing agent in the production of the important poly~r8 nylon and 'Terylene'.

Oxidation States of Nitrogen
+5 HN03; nitrate(V)s
+4 N204;N02
+3 HN02; nitratel!_ills
+2 NO
+1 N20
° N2
-1 NH20H
-2 N2H4
-3 NH3; + N3-
NII4 ;
Also 2NO + 02 complete at 600°C

a good example of

complete at 150°C

thermal dissociation

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Ceramics

The manufacture of earthenware, bricks, tile, porcelain, terra-cotta, and pot tery from silicate minerals constitutes the large and important ceramics industry. Clay, an impure form of the mineral Kaolinite, H~Al~Si20q' is the most important of the minerals used in ceramics. Most types of pottery or bricks are made from naturally occurring clays that contain sand or feldspar. Usually iron oxide is present as an impurity, and hence the product obtained is coloured buff or red. The brick, tile, or other ceramic piece is shaped from a plastic mixture consisting of clay and water in the proper proportions, to which quartz, feldspar, or other minerals have been added in the desired amounts. After being dried, the object is placed in a kiln or furnace and heated to a high temperature ("baked" or "fired"). Complex chemical changes take place, in which the mixture changes to a strong coherent mass.

Porcelain and chinaware are made similarly from relatively scarce clays of high purity; since these clays contain no iron or other colouring matter, the products are white. Glazes can be applied to ceramic ware by introducing into the furnace or kiln toward the end of the baking period a substance that will react with the clay at the surface of the piece to give a transparent, nonporous surface layer. Silica brick, containing a very high percentage of Si02, is widely used as a refractory material for furnace linings.

Glass

Scienti fically speaking, the word "glass" may be applied to any liquid that has been supercooled to a temperature at which its viscosity is so great that the substance has the outward physical characteristics of a solid. In practice, however, the application of the term glass is usually restricted to a noncrystalline, transparent mixture of metal silicates obtained by melting together silicon dioxide, metal carbonates, and other appropriate materials. The common variety of glass, known as "soft" or soda-lime glass, is made by fusing a mixture of calcium carbonate (limestone), sodium carbonate (soda ash), and silicon dioxide (sand). The silicon dioxide displaces the carbon dioxide of the carbonates to yield a complex mixture of sodium and calcium silicates. Like other supercooled liquids, glass does not have a definite melting point but gradually softens as it is heated. It is usually formed into the desired shape by use of a blowpipe or by blowing by means of compressed air into moulds. In the manufacture of plate glass, a mass of hot glass is allowed to flatten out and is then rolled to the desired thickness. The cooling of glass must be carried out very slowly, ie. the glass must be annealed, in order to prevent the development of strains due to unequal cooling of various parts of the piece.

Glasses having a wide variety of properties have been prepared. A typical soda glass contains 73~aSiO~l_, O.5%Al:1.03' a.nsc-n, 3.0%MgO, and 15.5%Na.2.0. Pyrex glass, characterized by a low coefficient of thermal expansion, and hence a high resistance to cracking on rapid cooling (thermal shock), contains high percentages of acidic oxides and no calcium. A typical pyrex glass has the composition 80.6~aSi0!l.' 4.4%Na~O, 2.0%Al~~, and 13~aB2.03' Pyrex is also highly resistant to chemical action and is widely used in laboratory apparatus and in cooking utensils. Flint glass (eg.55~aSi02' 11~aK2.0, 33~aPbO, and 1~aA~0.3) has a high density and index of refraction and is widely used in glass tableware and ornamental "cut" glass as well as for optical purposes.

Fine-Sized Silica

By a variety of processes involving liquid- or gas- phase precipitation reactions, it has been found possible produce exceedingly finely divided forms of silicon dioxide. These products have very low bulk densities and are useful as fillers for a variety of synthetic materials. Fine-sized silicas are useful also as "flatting agents" for varnishes, to give a dull rather than a shiny gloss to the finished surface.

Uses of Ceramics

1) Refractory materials,

2) Ceramic hobs,

3) Printed circuits - insulators,

4) VW Futura - has a pump with ceramic sliding surfaces - low coefficient of

friction,

5) A medium for artistic expression (ceramic sculpture).

Fuel Cell

Fuel cells are devices for converting chemical energy continuously and directly into electricity. The principles of their operation can easily be understood by considering the simplest type, one consuming hydrogen and oxygen at room temperature. Such a cell is shown diagrammatically below ..

~--v~ ---.

supply of ~-r7_'----------T~~

hydrogen gas __ - -

porous carbon cathode

outlet .4-

4rsupply of oxygen gas

OH ions diffusing across soln. slowly

<1

conc. soln. of potassium hydroxide

porous carbon anode

- -_._-_

_ -

A Simple Fuel Cell

----+ ..... outlet

Hydrogen gas diffuses through the porous cathode, which usually consists of carbon impregnated with finely-divided platinum to catalyse the chemical changes and prevent overpotential effects. Some of the hydrogen gas which is adsorbed then reacts with OH- ions from the electrolyte to form water, releasing electrons which flow around the circuit.

H' + OH-~ H20 + e-

The carbon anode is also porous and in the presence of the finely - divided platinum catalyst it adsorbs oxygen gas, which then reacts with water from the electrolyte (provided- a supply of electrons is available from the cathode) forming hydroxyl ions:

Improved forms of fuel cell which operate at high temperatures and pressures are under development and promise much greater power outputs per cubic metre. Fuel cells have several distinctive features. The fuels they consume are not only cheap (e. g. hydrogen, methane, oxygen) but can be fed into the cell from storage tanks so that the cell can operate continuously

over long periods without recharging. The efficiency of such cells is likely to be very high, approaching 70-75% compared with a maximum efficiency of only about 40-45% for conventional sources of electric power. Moreover, when fully developed they are expected to be much lighter and more compact than

accumulators. Since, unlike turbines and dynamos, fuel cells contain no mov ing parts, they are noiseless and easy to maintain. They produce no obnoxious waste products and are fairly insensitive to vibration and

temperature changes. The advantages should ensure that fuel cells become increasingly important in future years, first for specialized purposes such as space satellites and submarines, and later possibly for the large-scale production of electricity.