Financial services

comprises various functions and services that are provided by financial institutions in a financial system.  includes asset management companies and liability management companies. helps not only in raising the required funds but also in ensuring efficient distribution. are provided by S.E, specialized and general financial institutions, banks and insurance companies. are regulated by SEBI, RBI, Dept. of Banking and Insurance, and Govt. of India. help in deployment of funds raised , assist in decision making in regard to financial mix etc. Contributes towards the growth and development through mobilization of savings and channelizing them into productive investments.

Constituents of financial services
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Financial services market – constituents who render services. Four major constituents Market players: host of institutions and agencies, like banks, fin.Inst, MFds, MB, stock brokers, consultants, underwriters, etc. Financial instruments: imp part of the financial services. Equity, debt, hybrid and exotic instruments. Specialized institutions: includes acceptance houses, discount houses, factors, depositories, credit rating agencies, VC Inst. Regulatory bodies: Fin mkt is regulated by a host of institutions and agencies, like, Dept. of Banking & Insurance of the Govt., RBI, SEBI, BIFR.

Example of financial services
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Leasing, credit cards, factoring, portfolio management, technical and economic consultancy, credit information. Underwriting, discounting and rediscounting of bills, Acceptances, brokerage and stockholding Depository, housing finance and book building, Hire purchase and instalment credit Deposit insurance Financial and performance guarantees E-commerce and securitization of debts Loan syndicating and credit rating

Growth of financial services in India
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Discussed under the various stages Merchant Banking Era (1960 onwards) fin.services like MB, Insurance, Leasing services began to grow. Investment Companies Era: (1970 onwards) includes establishment of variety of investment institutions and banks. Like, UTI, MFds, LIC, Nationalization of major commercial banks. Modern Services Era: (1980 onwards) launch of a variety of financial products and services like OTCEI, MF, Factoring, VC, and credit rating. Depository Era: (1990 onwards) depositories were set up, promoting paperless trading through dematerialization of securities. Book Building, NSE and computerization of BSE. Legislative Era: (1995 onwards) FERA replaced by FEMA, Amendments in Co. Act 1956,

Growth of financial services in India
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Amendments in Inc. Tax Act, etc to facilitate safe and orderly trading and settlement of transactions and separate law to regulate the internet trading of securities was framed. FIIs Era: (1998 onwards) economic reforms envisaged the free play of Foreign Institutional Investors in Indian capital market towards the growth & development. GDR plays a vital role in portfolio investments in India. Indian financial services have worked together with the world level financial services institutions, such as, Lehman Brothers, Arthur Anderson and Goldman Sachs as a part of their efforts to upgrade to world standards in context to the management of financial services.

Regulatory framework

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Broad classification of the regulatory framework relating to financial service sector in India is as: Institutional regulations: also known as structural regulations which call for a clear demarcation of activities of Financial institutions. It is to promote healthy competition among players. Apex agencies like SEBI to regulate the MB, Stock Broking Co. and RBI another structural entity prescribing the activities of commercial banking. Prudential regulations: related to internal management of financial institutions and other financial services org, regarding capital adequacy, liquidity and solvency etc. Aims at preventing the entry of firms without adequate resources. (ex. Minimum net worth requirement for various financial service firms is fixed by the SEBI and RBI`s regulations relating to the NBFC`s)

Regulatory framework

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Investors regulations: the role of SEBI is highlighted with periodic guidelines on investor protection. Legislative Regulations: brought out by Govt. for all round development of financial services industry. They are, Banking Regulation Act, Securities Contract Regulation Act, meant for evolving rules, guidelines and regulations that govern the micro aspect and operational issues. Self-regulations: this is addition to the above regulations that are self imposed regulations such as, Foreign Exchange Dealers association, and Merchant Bankers association in addition to SEBI regulation that governs their members.

Regulatory Framework

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The framework of regulations currently operating in India is elaborated as banking and financial services insurance services investment services Merchant Banking and Financial Services

Framework for Banking and Financial services
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regulated by the central government and RBI. RBI through RBI ACT and the Banking regulation Act ensure the orderly functioning of the institutions. Regulations relating to banking institutions are about sanction of new branch, minimum capital, reserves, maintenance of minimum capital reserves and other liquid assets. Appointment of Chairman, CEO, and nominating of member to BOD. Drawing and implementing the monetary and credit policies to effectively regulate the credit flows, CRR, SLR, and REPOS. Implementing various credit control measures (qualitative and quantitative) Regulating factoring, bill discounting and credit card services, etc.

Framework for banking and financial services Regulations relating to the non-banking financial companies (NBFC`s)  Regulated by RBI thru a host of measures such as Banking Laws Act, 1963, powers of regulation are exercised by RBI under the directives such as the NBFC`s Directions, 1997, 1987,etc.  The regulation of NBFC`s is in relation to reports, periodical statements for the functioning.  Prescribing eligibility to raise funds from the public its terms and conditions.  Norms related to investing a % of the deposits in the approved securities and maintain funds, capital adequacy norms, accounting standards, formulation of policy in relation to deployment of funds.  Punishing the NBFC`s by imposing penalties, canceling the license or registration, and initiating appropriate actions against the management of NBFC`s.

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