Islamic Prepatory School, Wolverhampton

He (‫ )ﷺ‬does not speak out of (his own) desire. It is but revelation revealed to him (53:3/4)

Mu`âdh b. Jabal (RA) was sent him to Yemen by Rasul-ullah (‫ .)ﷺ‬The Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬asked him: “How will you judge among the people?” Mu`âdh (RA)said: “By Allah’s book.” The Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬asked him: “What if do not find a ruling for it therein?” He (RA) said: “By the Sunnah of Allah’s Messenger(‫”.)ﷺ‬ The Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬said: “What if do not find a ruling for it therein?” He (RA)said: “I will employ my opinion to the best of my knowledge and will not hesitate.” The Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬slapped on his chest and said: “All praise is due to Allah that He guided the messenger of Allah’s Messenger to what pleases Allah and His Messenger.” [Sunan Abî Dâwûd]

Abu Salih Muadh Khan (Principle, ISS) Maulana Mohammad Asad (Graduate, Darul-uloom Deoband) Deputy-Head IPSW

The Sunnah is like the ark of Noah. Whoever embarks upon it achieves salvation and whoever rejects it, is drowned [Imam Malik (RA)]

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Contents
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................6 One man show? ........................................................................................................................................................6 Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) and his Fiqh .......................................................................................................................6 Imam Abu Haneefa (RA)‘s students ..........................................................................................................................8 Tributes to one of the greatest of Salaf....................................................................................................................9 Shuba Ibn Al-Hajjaj (d 160 AH) said: .....................................................................................................................9 Sufyan Thauri (d 161 AH) said: .............................................................................................................................9 Sufyan Ibn Uyana (d 178 AH) said: .......................................................................................................................9 Imam Malik (d 179 AH) said: ..............................................................................................................................10 Abdullah Ibn Mubarak (d 181 AH) said:..............................................................................................................10 Al-Fudail Ibn Iyadh (d 187 AH) said:....................................................................................................................10 Imam Shaf’ae (d 204 AH) said: ...........................................................................................................................10 Yahya Ibn Ma’een (d 233 AH) said:.....................................................................................................................10 Imam Ahmed Ibn Hanbal (d 241 AH) said: .........................................................................................................11 Imam Abu Dawud Sijistani (d 275 AH) said: ......................................................................................................11 Shaykhul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (d 728 AH) said: .................................................................................................11 How to use this book? ............................................................................................................................................11 Definitions of Terms ...............................................................................................................................................12 Halaal/Mubah .....................................................................................................................................................12 Sunnah ................................................................................................................................................................13 Mustahab ............................................................................................................................................................13 Haraam ...............................................................................................................................................................14 Makrooh Tahreemy ............................................................................................................................................14 Makrooh Tanzeehy .............................................................................................................................................14 What does the Versions at the bottom mean? ......................................................................................................15 Copy Rights? ...........................................................................................................................................................15 What about differences of opinion? ......................................................................................................................16 Fair enough, but how can I help? ...........................................................................................................................16 Aqeedah Tahawiyyah: Beliefs of Ahlus-Sunnah Wal-Jamaah.....................................................................................17 Imam Abu Ja`far al-Tahawi (RA): ............................................................................................................................17 Imam Tahawi (RA)’s statements of Islamic Belief ..................................................................................................19

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Sunnah method and description of Wudhu ...............................................................................................................31 Compulsory actions of Wudhu (Faraidh): ...............................................................................................................37 Sunnah actions of Wudhu (Sunan): ........................................................................................................................37 Desirable actions of Wudhu (Mustahabaat): .........................................................................................................38 Undesirable actions of Wudhu (Makroohat):.........................................................................................................38 Sunnah Method & Description of Ghusl (complete bath) ..........................................................................................39 Compulsory actions of Ghusl (Faraidh): .................................................................................................................44 Sunnah actions of Ghusl: ........................................................................................................................................44 Sunnah Method & Description of Tayammum (Dry Ablution) ...................................................................................45 Compulsory actions of Tayammum (Faraidh): .......................................................................................................53 Permissible items for Tayammum: .........................................................................................................................53 Impermissible items for Tayammum: .....................................................................................................................53 Salah According to Qur’aan & Hadeeth ......................................................................................................................54 When you wish to begin your prayer, you should make the intention. .................................................................54 And raise your hands until they are level with the lobe of your ears. [6] ..............................................................55 [6] This is for men. Women should raise their hands to their shoulders or close to their bosoms. ......................57 The palms should be facing towards the qiblah and the fingers should be slightly spread out in a natural manner: not too closed, not too open.[19] ............................................................................................................58 Your gaze should not wander in any direction but should be focused in front of you on your place of prayer. ..58 You should then say the consecrating takbeer (takbeerat al tahreemah). ............................................................59 And placing your right palm over the back of your left hand, wrist and lower arm. .............................................60 You should position both hands below the navel. [34] ..........................................................................................61 Then quietly read thana. ........................................................................................................................................63 Ta'awwudh. ............................................................................................................................................................64 And basmalah. ........................................................................................................................................................65 Followed by a recitation of Sûrah al Fatihah. .........................................................................................................65 On completing Sûrah al Fatihah you should say Ameen silently, regardless of whether you are alone or praying behind the Imam. ...................................................................................................................................................66 Then repeat the basmalah and recite any other Sûrah, or at least one long verse or three small verses from any part of the Qur'ân. ..................................................................................................................................................68 If you are praying in a congregation then you should not read anything behind the Imam. ................................68 When this recitation is finished, repeat the takbeer… ...........................................................................................71

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and, without raising your hands,… .........................................................................................................................71 … bow down into ruku', ..........................................................................................................................................76 Say tasbeeh for a minimum of three times. ...........................................................................................................79 Members of the congregation should only say 'Rabbanâ…'. .................................................................................81 Whilst standing in this position do not fasten your hands but leave them at your sides. .....................................81 Then, repeating the takbeer and without raising your hands begin the prostration. ...........................................82 Allow your knees to first touch the ground followed by the hands. ......................................................................82 (Allow your) nose (to touch the ground) and finally the forehead which should be positioned between the two palms laid flat on the ground towards the qiblah. .................................................................................................85 Also ensure that your thighs are not pressed against your abdomen and your toes are facing qiblah. ...............88 Say tasbeeh for a minimum of three times. ...........................................................................................................88 And then pronouncing the takbeer raise your head and sit upright, without sitting on the balls of your feet… ..88 … and without leaning to any one side. .................................................................................................................90 [187] Women should take out both their legs towards the right hand side of the body and rest on the posterior without raising their right foot. ..............................................................................................................................92 Ibrahim al Nakhai would disapprove of someone leaning on his hands when sitting in between the two rak'ahs or when rising.[197]................................................................................................................................................93 And do not adopt a sitting posture in between. ....................................................................................................94 The index finger should only be raised once during the tashahhud at the time mentioned. It should not be raised at any other point nor should it be constantly moved. ...............................................................................98 If this is a three or four rak'ah prayer, then you should recite no more than the above tashahhud and stand up for the third rak'ah. ................................................................................................................................................99 Again whilst rising you should not support yourself on your hands but stand up directly. In the final two rak'aat of a fardh salâh, you should only recite Sûrah al Fâtihah. .....................................................................................99 You should then recite one or more prayers ensuring that they are known authentic prayers from the Qur'ân and Hadeeth. ........................................................................................................................................................100 Difference in salah between men and women: ...................................................................................................101 Verdicts and practice of the Sahabah radiallahu anhum. ....................................................................................106 Verdicts of the Tabi'un and other ulama. .............................................................................................................107 List of differences between the prayer of a man and a woman. .........................................................................111 Sunnah Method & Description of Salah Times .........................................................................................................114 Sunnah Method & Description of Salah of a Muslim Man .......................................................................................119 Compulsory actions of Salah (Faraidh): ................................................................................................................151

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Necessary actions of Salah (Waajibat): ................................................................................................................151 Sajda Sah’w: ......................................................................................................................................................152 Sunnah actions of Salah:.......................................................................................................................................152 Desirable actions of Salah (Mustahabbat): ..........................................................................................................153 Undesirable actions of Salah (Makroohat): ..........................................................................................................153 Sunnah Method & Description of Salah of a Muslim Woman .................................................................................155 Compulsory actions of Salah (Faraidh): ................................................................................................................187 Necessary actions of Salah (Waajibat): ................................................................................................................187 Sajda Sah’w: ......................................................................................................................................................188 Sunnah actions of Salah:.......................................................................................................................................188 Desirable actions of Salah (Mustahabbat): ..........................................................................................................189 Undesirable actions of Salah (Makroohat): ..........................................................................................................189 Sunnah method & description of Wit’r ....................................................................................................................190 Sunnah method & description of Janazah Salah (Funeral Prayer) ...........................................................................191 Sunnah method & description of Eid Salah ..............................................................................................................200 Sunnah method & description of Salah of a Musafir (Traveller) ..............................................................................207 Sunnah method & description of Salah of Eclipse (Solar & Lunar) ..........................................................................210 Sunnah method & description of Fasting .................................................................................................................214 Sunnah method & description of Zakat ....................................................................................................................215 Sunnah method & description of Umrah .................................................................................................................216 Sunnah method & description of Hajj Ifrad..............................................................................................................233 Sunnah method & description of Hajj Tamauttu .....................................................................................................234 Sunnah method & description of Hajj Qiran ............................................................................................................235 Appendix: Taraveeh 8 or 20? ....................................................................................................................................236

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Introduction This e-book is designed to aid a student of knowledge in studying Fiqh with evidence from the Qur’an & the Sunnah according to the Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) & his 40 students in conjunction with a knowledgable scholar. One man show? The fiqh contained in this book is not the work of a single man i.e. Imam Abu Haneefa (RA), rather a collection of opinions arrived after rigorous and detailed discussions on over 83,000 juristic issues between Imam Al-A’dham Nauman Ibn Thabit Al-Kufi (RA) [affectionely known as Imam Abu Haneefa (RA)] and 40 of the his students to compile a systematic legal Islamic framework underpinned by the Qur’an & the Sunnah. This committee of scholars met dialy and their work proceeded with free discussion and debate. When a consensus was formed it was recorded and in the absence (of a consensus) all opinions were recorded and this continued for almost 30 years from roughly 121 AH to 150 AH. Hence while reading this book you will often find opinions of the students of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA), who differed with their teacher. Since 150 AH till now (1428) this framework has been studied, taught, researched, analysed and rigorously authenticated (according to Qur’an & Sunnah) by thousands of Scholars and students of knowledge and the journey continues onwards to find solutions to the daily and newly emerging Islamic issues and problems for Muslims from KualaLumpur to Alaska! Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) and his Fiqh Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) himself was not only amongst the Tabi’een (those who saw Sahaba of Rasul-ullah (‫ ))ﷺ‬but he also relates the following Ahadeeth directly from the Sahaba (RA): 1) Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) relates from Anas Bin Malik (RA) that Rasul-ullah (‫ )ﷺ‬said, “Seeking of knowledge is an obligation on each and every Muslim”.

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2) Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) said I heard Abduallah Ibn Juz Az-Zabidi (RA); the companion of Rasul-ullah (‫ )ﷺ‬saying, “Whoever learned the knowledge of religion, Allah (SWT) will protet him from worries and will provide with sustainence from where he does not expect” Imam Abu Haneefa (RA)’s is the only one from the 4 Imams of Fiqh who is from the Tabi’een. Furthermore Imam Jalal-ud-deen Suyuti Ash-Shafae (RA) relates that it has been unanimously communited to us that the following Saheeh Hadeeth refers to Imam Abu Haneefa (RA): Abu Huraira (RA) reported: We were sitting in the company of Allah's Apostle (‫ )ﷺ‬that Sura al-Jumu'a was revealed to him and when he recited (these words):" Others from amongst them who have not yet joined them," a person amongst them (those who were sitting there) said: Allah's Messenger (‫ !)ﷺ‬But Allah's Apostle (‫ )ﷺ‬made no reply, until he questioned him once, twice or thrice. And there was amongst us Salman the Persian (RA). The Apostle of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬placed his hand on Salman and then said: Even if faith were near the Pleiades, a man from amongst these would surely find it. [Muslim]

In Fiqh Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) was the student of: 1) Imam Hammad Ibn Abi Suleiman (RA): Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) was his student from the age of 22 till the age of 40 i.e. until the great Faqih (RA) passed away and Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) became his successor. 2) Imam Ibraheem An-Nakhai (RA): The great Imam was known for his outstanding memory and was one of greatest student of Alqamah (RA). Ibn Muthna Rabah (RA) says, “If you saw Alqamah (RA) then then you would not regret missing the oppurtunity to see Abduallh Ibn Mas’ood (RA) for he most resembled him (RA) and if you saw Ibraheem An-Nakhai (RA) then you would not regret missing the oppurtunity to see Alqamah (RA). [Tahdheeb ut-Tahdheeb) 3) Alqamah Ibn Qays (RA): He (RA) was one of the greatest scholars from amongst the Tabi’een and a student of the famous Sahabi (RA) Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood (RA) who

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in turn used to say, “Whosoever has met Alqamah (RA) has met Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood (RA)”. He (RA) was so keen in learning from Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood (RA) and spent so much time in his company that even his gait famously resembled Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood (RA). 4) Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood (RA): He was amongst the most knowledgeable of the Sahaba (RA) of Rasul-ullah (‫ )ﷺ‬as he (‫ )ﷺ‬testified to his Qur’aan in the Saheeh Hadeeth: Masruq (RA) reported: We used to go to Abdullah b. 'Amr (RA) and talk to him, Ibn Numair (RA) said: One day we made a mention of Abdullah b. Mas'ud (RA), whereupon he said: You have made mention of a person whom I love more than anything else. I heard Allah's Messenger (‫ )ﷺ‬as saying: Learn Qur'an from four persons: Ibn Umm 'Abd (i. e. 'Abdullah b. Mas'ud) he started from him-then Mu'adh b. Jabal (RA) and Ubayya b. Ka'b (RA) , then Salim the ally of Abu Hudhaifa (RA). [Muslim] The above-mentioned chain indicates that the Fiqh of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) is from the “Thalathiyaat” i.e. he (RA) learned from Tabi’een (besides himself being one), who learned from Sahaba (RA), who in turn learned directly from Rasul-ullah (‫ ;)ﷺ‬to place this in perspective it is mentioned that there are roughly 22 “Thalathiyaat” in the entire collection of Sahih-Bukhari (the most authentic Hadeeth collection). Imam Abu Haneefa (RA)‘s students Few in history have been blessed with such illustrious students and all of them were Imams & Mujathids in their own right, but three of them were heavily trusted and relied upon Imam Abu Haneefa (RA), himself: 1) Imam Abu Yusuf (RA): He is Yaqub Ibn Ibrahim Ibn Habib Al-Ansari, Abu Yusuf AlKufi Al-Baghdadi (RA). A hadeeth master, a Mujtahid Imam, an expert on Quranic exegesis and one of the most brilliant judicial minds in Islamic history who was appointed as Qadhiul-Qudha (Chief Justice) by Khalifa Haroon Rasheed (RA). He was the first to codify a consitution and a framework for the Islamic empire thus

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eliminating the need to import civil & penal code from the Greek and Roman empires. He is one of the pillars of the Hanafi Madhab. 2) Imam Muhammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaybani (RA): A Mujtahid Imam of powerful memory and intellect, prodigious matery of Qur’an and Hadeeth and matchless legal training as being the student of both Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) and Imam Abu Yusuf (RA) make him one of the pillars of the Hanafi Madhab, in addition he is also a student and acquired Hadeeth from Imam Malik Ibn Anas (RA), Al-Awzai (RA), Mis’ar Ibn Kidam (RA) and Sufyan Al-Thawri (RA). He is in turn the teacher of Imam Shaf’ae (RA), who said about him, “If I wished to say that Qur’an was revealed in the language of Muhammad Ibn Hasan (RA), I could say it, for the purity of his Arabic.” Imam Ahmed Ibn Hanbal (RA) was once asked, “From where did you acquire these legal subtleties?” and he (RA) replied, “From the books of Muhammad Ibn Hasan (RA).” 3) Imam Zufar Ibn Al-Hudail (RA): He was a Hadeeth master who when turned to Fiqh, excelled in it and remained devoted to it till his end. He was particularly skilled in Qiyas (logical and deductive reasoning) and Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) called him his greatest companion in this respect. Tributes to one of the greatest of Salaf
Shuba Ibn Al-Hajjaj (d 160 AH) said:

"With him the Fiqh of Kufah disappeared. Allah raised him over us and himself by His Mercy."
Sufyan Thauri (d 161 AH) said:

Abu Hanifa (RA) only relied upon authentic Ahadeeth. He knew about the Nasikh (abrogating) and Mansookh (abrogated) Ahadeeth and only used to relate from trusthy narrators. He acted upon the last actions and the Maslak of Koofa and made them the basis of religion; one of the groups have made him a target (of accusations) and we remain silent with their regard and ask for Allah’s forgivesness. [Aqoodul-Jiman]
Sufyan Ibn Uyana (d 178 AH) said:

The first person to make me a hadith scholar was Abu Hanifa (RA). *I’la As-Sunnah] The first person to encourage me to relate hadiths was Abu Hanifa (RA). When I arrived in Kufa, he declared that this person possesses the largest number of narrations from 'Amr

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ibn Dinar (RA). [On hearing this] people began to gather around me, and I began to relate to them. *I’la As-Sunnah]
Imam Malik (d 179 AH) said:

…Imam Shaf’ae (RA) asked Imam Malik (RA), “Did you see Abu Haneefa (RA)? He (RA) replied, Subhanullah! I have never seen a scholar like him, I swear by Allah (SWT) if he claimed that this pillar was made of gold then he would prove his claim from his words…[Aqoodul-Jiman]
Abdullah Ibn Mubarak (d 181 AH) said:

If Allah had not benefited me through Abu Hanifa and Sufyan al-Thawri, I would have been just like any ordinary person. [Tabyadus-Saheefa]
Al-Fudail Ibn Iyadh (d 187 AH) said:

“Abu Hanifa (RA) was a Fâqih, known for Fiqh, famous for Wara', very wealthy and known for graciousness towards all those who visited him. He was steadfast in teaching knowledge, night and day. He was often silent, a man of few words. When a question on the lawful or unlawful would come to him, he was good at pointing out the truth, keeping away from the ruler['s desire]."
Imam Shaf’ae (d 204 AH) said:

… The one who wants to excel in Fiqh should follow Abu Haneefa (RA)…*Akhbar Abu Haneefa Wa Ashabu] …All men of Fiqh are the children of Abu Haneefa (RA)… [Akhbar Abu Haneefa Wa Ashabu]
Yahya Ibn Ma’een (d 233 AH) said:

…Abu Hanifa (RA) is Thiqqa (trustworthy) and only relates that Ahadeeth that he had memorised and doesn’t relate which he doesn’t remember…[Akhbar Abu Haneefa Wa Ashabu] … Abu Hanifa (RA) is Thiqqa (trustworthy) and I have not heard of anyone who has called him da’eef (weak). Shu’ba Ibn Hajjaj used to write to him and order him to narrate Ahadeeth and Shu’ba is afterall Shu’ba…[Akhbar Abu Haneefa Wa Ashabu]

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Imam Ahmed Ibn Hanbal (d 241 AH) said:

…Subhanullah! Abu Haneefa (RA) reached such heights in knowledge, Zuh’d (ascetism), Taqwa and desire for Akhira which are unattainable by anyone else. He (RA) was lashed by the orders of Abu Jaf’ar Al-Mansoor for refusing to accept the post of Qadhi and may Allah (SWT) have mercy on him…*Aqoodul-Jiman]
Imam Abu Dawud Sijistani (d 275 AH) said:

May Allah have mercy upon Malik, for he was an Imam. May Allah have mercy upon alShafi'i, for he was an Imam. May Allah have mercy upon Abu Hanifah, for he was an Imam.
Shaykhul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (d 728 AH) said:

… "And this is is so because to the Imams has been ascribed in matters of jurisprudence (al-furu') groups from the Ahl al-Bida' wa'l-Ahwa' who oppose them in matters of creed (al-usûl), at the same time they (i.e. the Imams) disassociate of those following; and this is famous. In that time there had been many from the Jahmiyyah and the Qadariyyah, from the Mu'tazilites and other then them, who ascribed to the Madhhab of Abu Hanifah in matters of jurisprudence. At the same he (i.e. Abu Hanifah) and his fellows were of the most dissassociate people from the Mu'tazilah. And their speech with regard to that is famous, untill Abu Hanifah said: 'May Allah Curse 'Amr b. 'Ubayd! He opened for the people Kalâm about the A'râd and the Ajsâm.' He said: 'Speech of the Philosophers! Upon you is the Book and the Sunnah, and leave that what is innovated for it is newly invented.' And Abu Yusuf said: 'Whosoever seeks knowledge by Kalâm has become a Zindiq!' Abu Yusuf intended [by this statement] the settlement of capital punishment upon Bishr al-Marisi when he spoke of something of stripping of the Attributes, untill he (i.e. al-Marisi) became afraid of him and fled."… How to use this book? The Text in this book is presented in a linear manner i.e. you look up a subject from the index and simply follow the items in green e.g to perform Wudhu you would start from number 1 all the way till the last number and that will be your practical Wudhu, the evidence is listed under the green text in nomal blue coloured text. After the linear description a section is dedicated for the breakdown of the actions and their categorisation i.e. if the action is Fardh, Wajib, Sunnah, Mandub and these have

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been taken from the book, “Taleemul-Haq”. The next section describes and defines the categorisation in the Hanafi Madhab.
Definitions of Terms

Q) I would like to ask what is the difference between halal, mustahab,mubah , wajib and sunnat. Also haram, makruhe tahrimi, makruh...etc. How to decide whether particular act is haram or makruh. Also, regarding cutting of hairs on chest, legs and thighs for both men and women, you had replied that it is permissible but undesirable. What does that mean? If i do perform that act will i be sinful? If possible, please provide reference from authentic books. In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful Assalaamu `alaykum waRahmatullahi Wabarakatoh The terms which you have cited are used in Shariah with specific academic definitions. There are many subtle distinctions between them which could only be recognized by one who has mastered the principles of fiqh. Many books are taught in Islamic institutions which state the definitions, differences and applications of these terms. Since they are rather abstruse, it would be recommended that a layman refer to the Ulama in order to seek a verdict on any action. Listed hereunder are simplified definitions and basic terminological differences. This list merely gives a brief illustration to how they differ and in no means covers all the differences.
Halaal/Mubah

‘‘That which is permissible in shariah and a person won't be punished on leaving it out.’’ (Mujam al mustalaha'atwal alfaazil fiqhiyyah 1/585, At ta'reefaat 66, Al Mufradaat 182)

Some Ulama make a distinction between halaal and mubah. ''Halaal is that for which no clear prohibition has been mentioned, whereas mubah is where a choice has been given.''(Mujam al mustalahaat 585)

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Sunnah

''It refers to the statements, actions and approval of Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wasallam).''(Tasheel usoolus shashi 145) ''It also refers to the actions and statements of Sahabah.''(Nurul anwaar 171, 179)''A person will be encouraged to carry it out without it being imposed on him.''(ibid 170) ''A person who leaves out a sunnatul huda (those practices which Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) carried out with the intention of worship, and not just as a human practice) will be sinning and therefore he will be entitled to rebuke'' (ibid 171)
Mustahab

''It is that action which Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) or Sahabah practiced upon seldomly.''(Bahishti zewar 11/4)''By practicing upon it a person will be rewarded but by leaving it out he wont get any sin.''(ibid, Raddul muhtaar 1/123)''Fuqaha also term it as nafil, mandub and tatawu.''(ibid)Hence you can see there is no difference between these terms. The difference between sunnah and mustahab is ''whatever Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) was persistent upon with leaving it out casually without an excuse is sunnah, and whatever was done without persistence, or Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) never even do it, but merely encouraged towards it will be termed mustahab.''(Raddul muhtaar 1/123)
Wajib

''It is that action which Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) or Sahabah practiced upon seldomly.''(Bahishti zewar 11/4)''By practicing upon it a person will be rewarded but by leaving it out he wont get any sin.''(ibid, Raddul muhtaar 1/123)''Fuqaha also term it as nafil, mandub and tatawu.''(ibid)Hence you can see there is no difference between these terms. The difference between sunnah and mustahab is ''whatever Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) was persistent upon with leaving it out casually without an excuse is sunnah, and whatever was done without persistence, or Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) never

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even do it, but merely encouraged towards it will be termed mustahab.''(Raddul muhtaar 1/123)
Haraam

The opposite of halaal is haraam. ''It refers to that action which is divinely prohibited.'' (Al Qamoosul fiqhi 85) ''Upon carrying it out, a person will be entitled to the punishment of the (fire of hell).'' (Durrul mukhtaar 6/337)'' It is that which is established through a daleel qatie. Whoever denies it will be a kafir. If a person perpetrates it without a valid excuse will be a faasiq and entitled to sin.''(Bahishti zewar 11/4 Kutub khana isha'at islaam)''It is that which is established which is established with a 'strong' proof and has a 'strong' denotion''.(Raddul muhtaar 6/337)
Makrooh Tahreemy

''It is that which is established with a daleel dhanni (Inexplicit proof) . A person who refuses it will be a faasiq, and who practices upon it will be a sinner.''(Bahishti zewar 11/4) ''If there is a clear cut prohibition, but the proof is dhanni, it is makrooh tahreemy''(Raddul muhtaar 1/132)''It is closer to haraam.''(ibid 1/131,)''When makrooh is mentioned alone it refers to makrooh tahreem'' (ibid, 1/224, 6/337)''It is that which is prohibited with a doubtful proof.''(Mustalahaatul madhaahibil fiqhiyyah 47)
Makrooh Tanzeehy

''A person won't be punished for doing it, but he'll be rewarded for leaving it out.''(Raddul muhtaar 6/337, Bahishti zewar 11/4, At tauqeef 673) ''It is better to leave it out'' (At ta'reefaat) ''It is that which is better to leave out than do, and this is also the meaning of khilaaf aula ….. If the proof is not a clear prohibition but only a mere suggestion it's makrooh tanzeehi.''(Raddul muhtaar 1/132) ''The person doing it knows that to leave it out is better, although by doing it there is no sin. (Al mahsool 1/104) ''The difference between haraam and makrooh tahreemy is that haraam is established from daleel qatie while makrooh tahreemy is established with daleel dhanny''(Mustalhaatul madhaahibil fiqhiyyah 47)

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This would answer the second part of your question, that in order to understand whether a particular act is haraam or makrooh you would have to look at the daleel (proof).If it is established from a 'strong' proof it would be haraam (you would have to refer to the principles of hadith and fiqh to see whether its strong or doubtful) and if it is established from a 'doubtful' proof it would be makrooh. (Jam'ul jawaami bi sharhil mahilly 1/80, Al mujeez 21, Al mausooatul fiqhiyyah 10/206)A person would need sufficient knowledge in Quraan, hadith and fiqh including their sciences to be able to decide whether a particular act is haram or makruh. ''In order to know the difference between makrooh tahreemy and makrooh tanzeehi you have to look at the proof. If it is an emphatic command with a dhanni proof, it would be tahreemy. And if it is just a mere suggestion, without an emphatic proof it is tanzeehy.''(Raddul muhtaar 1/639)''Makrooh tahreemy is closer to haraam whereas makrooh tanzeehy is closer to halaal.''(Durrul mukhtaar 6/337) It is clear from the above that these definitions have many academic backgrounds to them and such discussions will be truly appreciated only by academics. And Allah knows best Wassalam Ml. Ismail Moosa, Student Darul Iftaa Checked and Approved by: Mufti Ebrahim Desai Darul Iftaa, Madrassah In'aamiyyah What does the Versions at the bottom mean? Insha’Allah it is hoped that future updates and additions will be made to this book available for download from http://www.central-mosque.com.; the version number will also be visible in the bottom left-hand corner of the book, the word DRAFT indicates that it has not been checked by scholars and not ready for general release. Copy Rights? Anyone is free to read, download and distribute as necessary.

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What about differences of opinion? This book is not written with any hidden-agendas or by someone on a Hanafi-crusade and certainly not compiled for readers to start criticising the other Imams and their esteemed opinions e.g. Imam Malik (RA), Imam Shaf’ae (RA), Imam Ahmed Ibn Hanbal (RA). These are shining stars of Islam and we can never hope to reach their level or understanding. Remember! We will be judged on how much we practised upon our knowledge and not simply on how much we knew! Learn the religion of Allah (SWT) through the scholars and practise what you learn and leave the debating to the foolish!
Fair enough, but how can I help?

First and foremost by making duas for all those who have contributed to this book, for those who have contributed for Islamic knowledge to have reached us and for all their sacrifices, for the whole ummah and for Allah (SWT) to grant us the ability to practise what we learn. You can notify us of any mistakes in the book and there are bound to be some as nobody is perfect! Please drop us a line on errors, mistakes, omissions & future enhancements on admin@central-mosque.com . Furthermore you will notice the names of our two Islamic Schools at the top and bottom of the book, please feel free to contact us as we are always in need of your financial contributions, may Allah (SWT) reward you in this world and the next.

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Aqeedah Tahawiyyah: Beliefs of Ahlus-Sunnah Wal-Jamaah
Imam Abu Ja`far al-Tahawi (RA):

Imam Abu Ja`far al-Tahawi (239-321) can be said to represent the creed of both Ash`aris and Maturidis, especially the latter, as he was also following the Hanafi madhhab. We have therefore chosen to include the entire translated text of his Statement of Islamic Doctrine commonly known as the `aqida tahawiyya. This text, representative of the viewpoint of Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jama`a, has long been the most widely acclaimed, and indeed indispensable, reference work on Muslim beliefs, of which the text below is a complete English translation. Imam Abu Ja`far Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Azdi, known as Imam Tahawi after his birthplace in Egypt, is among the most outstanding authorities of the Islamic world on hadith and jurisprudence (fiqh). He lived at a time when both the direct and indirect disciples of the Four Imams of law were teaching and practicing. This period was the greatest age of Hadith and fiqh studies, and Imam Tahawi studied with all the living authorities of the day. Al-Badr al-`Ayni said that when Ahmad died, Tahawi was 12; when Bukhari died, he was 27; when Muslim died, he was 32; when Ibn Majah died, he was 44; when Abu Dawud died, he was 46; when Tirmidhi died, he was fifty; when Nisa'i died, he was 74. Kawthari relates this and adds the consensus of scholars that Tahawi allied in himself completion in the two knowledges of hadith and fiqh, a consensus that included, among others, al-`Ayni and al-Dhahabi, with Ibn Taymiyya singling himself out in his opinion that Tahawi was not very knowledgeable in hadith. This is flatly contradicted by Ibn Kathir who says in his notice on Tahawi in al-Bidaya wa al-nihaya: "He is one of the trustworthy narrators of established reliability, and one of the massive memorizers of hadith." Kawthari calls Ibn Taymiyya's verdict "another one of his random speculations" and states: "No-one disregards Tahawi's knowledge of the defective hadith except someone whose own defects have no remedy, and may Allah protect us from such." Tahawi began his studies with his maternal uncle Isma`il ibn Yahya al-Muzani, a leading disciple of Imam Shafi`i. However, Tahawi felt instinctively drawn to the corpus of Imam Abu Hanifa's works. Indeed, he had seen his uncle and teacher turning to the works of Hanafi scholars to resolve thorny issues of fiqh, drawing heavily on the writings of Abu Hanifa's two leading companions, Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybani and Abu Yusuf, who had codified Hanafi fiqh. This led him to devote his whole attention to studying the Hanafi works and he eventually joined the Hanafi school. He now stands out not only as

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a prominent follower of that Hanafi school but, in view of his vast erudition and remarkable powers of assimilation, as one of its leading scholars. His monumental scholarly works, such as Sharh ma`ani al-athar and Mushkil al-athar, are encyclopedic in scope and have long been regarded as indispensable for training students of fiqh. He was in fact a mujtahid across the board and was thoroughly familiar with the fiqh of all four schools, as stated by Ibn `Abd al-Barr and related by Kawthari, and as shown by Tahawi's own work on comparative law entitled Ikhtilaf al-fuqaha'. Tahawi's "Doctrine" (al-`Aqida), though small in size, is a basic text for all times, listing what a Muslim must know and believe and inwardly comprehend. There is consensus among the Companions, the Successors and all the leading Islamic authorities such as the four Imams and their authoritative followers on the doctrines enumerated in this work, which are entirely derived from the undisputed primary sources of Religion, the Holy Qur'an and the confirmed Hadith. Being a text on Islamic doctrine, this work sums up the arguments set forth in those two sources to define sound belief, and likewise, the arguments advanced in refuting the views of sects that have deviated from the Sunna. As regards the sects mentioned in this work, familiarity with Islamic history up to the time of Imam Tahawi would be quite helpful. More or less veiled references to sects such as the Mu`tazila, the Jahmiyya, the Karramiyya, the Qadariyya, and the Jabariyya are found in the work. It also contains allusions to other views considered unorthodox and deviant from the way of Ahl al-Sunna. There is an explicit reference in the work to the controversy on the creation of the Qu'ran in the times of al-Ma'mun and others. While the permanent relevance of the statements of belief in the `Aqida are obvious, the historical weight and point of certain of these statements can be properly appreciated only if the work is used as a text for study under the guidance of some learned person able to elucidate its arguments fully, with reference to the intellectual and historical background of the sects refuted in the work. Since the present book is intended exactly as one such aid towards understanding the details of Islamic belief with clarity, it is hoped that the quotation of the entire text of Tahawi's "Doctrine," which we consider as the doctrine of Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jama`a, will be of benefit to the reader. And may Allah grant us a true understanding of faith and count us among those described by the Prophet as the Saved Group.

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Imam Tahawi (RA)’s statements of Islamic Belief In the Name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate Praise be to Allah, Lord of all the worlds. The great scholar Hujjat al-lslam Abu Ja'far al-Warraq al-Tahawi al-Misri, may Allah have mercy on him, said: This is a presentation of the beliefs of Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jama`a, according to the school of the jurists of this religion, Abu Hanifa al-Nu`man ibn Thabit alKufi, Abu Yusuf Ya`qub ibn Ibrahim al-Ansari and Abu `Abdullah Muhammad ibn alHasan al-Shaybani, may Allah be pleased with them all, and what they believe regarding the fundamentals of the religion and their faith in the Lord of the worlds. We say about Allah's unity, believing by Allah's help that: 1. Allah is One, without any partners. 2. There is nothing like Him. 3. There is nothing that can overwhelm Him. 4. There is no god other than Him. 5. He is the Eternal without a beginning and enduring without end. 6. He will never perish or come to an end. 7. Nothing happens except what He wills. 8. No imagination can conceive of Him and no understanding can comprehend Him. 9. He is different from any created being. 10. He is living and never dies and is eternally active and never sleeps. 11. He creates without His being in need to do so and provides for His creation without any effort. 12. He causes death with no fear and restores to life without difficulty.

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13. He has always existed together with His attributes since before creation. Bringing creation into existence did not add anything to His attributes that was not already there. As He was, together with His attributes, in pre-eternity, so He will remain throughout endless time. 14. It was not only after the act of creation that He could be described as "the Creator" nor was it only by the act of origination that He could he described as "the Originator." 15. He was always the Lord even when there was nothing to be Lord of, and always the Creator even when there was no creation. 16. In the same way that He is the "Bringer to life of the dead," after He has brought them to life a first time, and deserves this name before bringing them to life, so too He deserves the name of "Creator" before He has created them. 17. This is because He has the power to do everything, everything is dependent on Him, everything is easy for Him, and He does not need anything. "There is nothing like Him and He is the Hearer, the Seer." (al-Shura 42:11) 18. He created creation with His knowledge. 19. He appointed destinies for those He created. 20. He allotted to them fixed life spans. 21. Nothing about them was hidden from Him before He created them, and He knew everything that they would do before He created them. 22. He ordered them to obey Him and forbade them to disobey Him. 23. Everything happens according to His degree and will, and His will is accomplished. The only will that people have is what He wills for them. What He wills for them occurs and what He does not will, does not occur. 24. He gives guidance to whomever He wills, and protects them, and keeps them safe from harm, out of His generosity; and He leads astray whomever He wills, and abases them, and afflicts them, out of His justice. 25. All of them are subject to His will either through His generosity or His justice.

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26. He is Exalted beyond having opposites or equals. 27. No one can ward off His decree or delay His command or overpower His affairs. 28. We believe in all of this and are certain that everything comes from Him. 29. And we are certain that Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) is His chosen Servant and elect Prophet and His Messenger with whom He is well pleased, 30. And that he is the Seal of the Prophets and the Imam of the godfearing and the most honored of all the messengers and the Beloved of the Lord of all the worlds. 31. Every claim to prophethood after Him is falsehood and deceit. 32. He is the one who has been sent to all the jinn and all mankind with truth and guidance and with light and illumination. 33. The Qur'an is the word of Allah. It came from Him as speech without it being possible to say how. He sent it down on His Messenger as revelation. The believers accept it, as absolute truth. They are certain that it is, in truth, the word of Allah. It is not created as is the speech of human beings, and anyone who hears it and claims that it is human speech has become an unbeliever. Allah warns him and censures him and threatens him with Fire when He says, Exalted is He: "I will burn him in the Fire." (alMuddaththir 74:26) When Allah threatens with the Fire those who say "This is just human speech" (74:25) we know for certain that it is the speech of the Creator of mankind and that it is totally unlike the speech of mankind. 34. Anyone who describes Allah as being in any way the same as a human being has become an unbeliever. All those who grasp this will take heed and refrain from saying things such as the unbelievers say, and they will know that He, in His attributes, is not like human beings. 35. The Seeing of Allah by the People of the Garden is true, without their vision being all-encompassing and without the manner of their vision being known. As the Book of our Lord has expressed it: "Faces on that Day radiant, looking at their Lord." (al-Qiyama 75:22-3) The explanation of this is as Allah knows and wills. Everything that has come down to us about this from the Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in authentic traditions, is as he said and means what he intended. We do not delve into

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that, trying to interpret it according to our own opinions or letting our imaginations have free rein. No one is safe in his religion unless he surrenders himself completely to Allah, the Exalted and Glorified and to His Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and leaves the knowledge of things that are ambiguous to the one who knows them. 36. A man's Islam is not secure unless it is based on submission and surrender. Anyone who desires to know things which it is beyond his capacity to know, and whose intellect is not content with surrender, will find that his desire veils him from a pure understanding of Allah's true unity, clear knowledge and correct belief, and that he veers between disbelief and belief, confirmation and denial and acceptance and rejection. He will he subject to whisperings and find himself confused and full of doubt, being neither an accepting believer nor a denying rejector. 37. Belief of a man in the seeing of Allah by the People of the Garden is not correct if he imagines what it is like or interprets it according to his own understanding, since the interpretation of this seeing or indeed, the meaning of any of the subtle phenomena which are in the realm of Lordship, is by avoiding its interpretation and strictly adhering to the submission. This is the religion of Muslims. Anyone who does not guard himself against negating the attributes of Allah, or likening Allah to something else, has gone astray and has failed to understand Allah's glory, because our Lord, the Glorified and the Exalted, can only possibly be described in terms of oneness and absolute singularity and no creation is in any way like Him. 38. He is beyond having limits placed on Him, or being restricted, or having parts or limbs. Nor is He contained by the six directions as all created things are. 39. Al-Mi`raj (the Ascent through the heavens) is true. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was taken by night and ascended in his bodily form, while awake, through the heavens, to whatever heights Allah willed for him. Allah ennobled him in the way that He ennobled him and revealed to him what He revealed to him, "and his heart was not mistaken about what it saw" (al-Najm 53:11). Allah blessed him and granted him peace in this world and the next.

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40. Al-Hawd, the Pool which Allah has granted the Prophet as an honour to quench the thirst of his Community on the Day of Judgement, is true. 41. Al-Shafa`a, the intercession which is stored up for Muslims, is true, as related in the hadiths. 42. The covenant which Allah made with Adam and his offspring is true. 43. Allah knew, before the existence of time, the exact number of those who would enter the Garden and the exact number of those who would enter the Fire. This number will neither be increased nor decreased. 44. The same applies to all actions done by people, which are done exactly as Allah knew they would be done. Everyone is eased towards what he was created for and it is the action with which a man's life is sealed which dictates his fate. Those who are fortunate are fortunate by the decree of Allah, and those who are wretched are wretched by the decree of Allah. 45. The exact nature of the decree is Allah's secret in His creation, and no angel near the Throne, nor Prophet sent with a message, has been given knowledge of it. Delving into it and reflecting too much about it only leads to destruction and loss, and results in rebelliousness. So be extremely careful about thinking and reflecting on this matter or letting doubts about it assail you, because Allah has kept knowledge of the decree away from human beings, and forbidden them to enquire about it, saying in His Book, "He is not asked about what He does, but they are asked" (al-Anbiya' 21: 23). Therefore, anyone who asks: "Why did Allah do that?" has gone against a judgement of the Book, and anyone who goes against a judgement of the Book is an unbeliever. 46. This in sum is what those of Allah's Friends with enlightened hearts need to know and constitutes the degree of those firmly endowed with knowledge. For there are two kinds of knowledge: knowledge which is accessible to created beings, and knowledge which is not accessible to created beings. Denying the knowledge which is accessible is disbelief, and claiming the knowledge which is inaccessible is disbelief. Belief can only be firm when accessible knowledge is accepted and the inaccessible is not sought after. 47. We believe in al-Lawh (the Tablet) and al-Qalam (the Pen) and in everything written on the former. Even if all created beings were to gather together to make something fail to exist, whose existence Allah had written on the Tablet, they would not be able to do

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so. And if all created beings were to gather together to make something exist which Allah had not written on it, they would not be able to do so. The Pen has dried having written down all that will be in existence until the Day of Judgement.Whatever a person has missed he would have never got, and whatever he gets he would have never missed. 48. It is necessary for the servant to know that Allah already knows everything that is going to happen in His creation and has decreed it in a detailed and decisive way. There is nothing that He has created in either the heavens or the earth that can contradict it, or add to it, or erase it, or change it, or decrease it, or increase it in any way. This is a fundamental aspect of belief and a necessary element of all knowledge and recognition of Allah's oneness and Lordship. As Allah says in His Book: "He created everything and decreed it in a detailed way." (al-Furqan 25: 2) And He also says: "Allah's command is always a decided decree." (al-Ahzab 33: 38) So woe to anyone who argues with Allah concerning the decree and who, with a sick heart, starts delving into this matter. In his deluded attempt to investigate the Unseen, he is seeking a secret that can never be uncovered, and he ends up an evil-doer, telling nothing but lies. 49. Al-`Arsh (the Throne) and al-Kursi (the Chair) are true. 50. He is independent of the Throne and that which is beneath it. 51. He encompasses all things and that which is above it, and what He has created is incapable of encompassing Him. 52. We say with belief, acceptance and submission that Allah took Ibrahim as an intimate friend and that He spoke directly to Musa. 53. We believe in the angels, and the Prophets, and the books which were revealed to the messengers, and we bear witness that they were all following the manifest Truth. 54. We call the people of our qibla Muslims and believers as long as they acknowledge what the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, brought, and accept as true everything that he said and told us about. 55. We do not enter into vain talk about Allah nor do we allow any dispute about the religion of Allah.

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56. We do not argue about the Qur'an and we bear witness that it is the speech of the Lord of all the Worlds which the Trustworthy Spirit came down with and taught the most honoured of all the Messengers, Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. It is the speech of Allah and no speech of any created being is comparable to it. We do not say that it was created and we do not go against the Congregation (jama`a) of the Muslims regarding it. 57. We do not consider any of the people of our qibla to be unbelievers because of any wrong action they have done, as long as they do not consider that action to have been lawful. 58. Nor do we say that the wrong action of a man who has belief does not have a harmful effect on him. 59. We hope that Allah will pardon the people of right action among the believers and grant them entrance into the Garden through His mercy, but we cannot be certain of this, and we cannot bear witness that it will definitely happen and that they will be in the Garden. We ask forgiveness for the people of wrong action among the believers and, although we are afraid for them, we are not in despair about them. 60. Certainty and despair both remove one from the religion, but the path of truth for the People of the Qibla lies between the two. 61. A person does not step out or belief except by disavowing what brought him into it. 62. Belief consists of affirmation by the tongue and acceptance by the heart. 63. And the whole of what is proven from the Prophet, upon him be peace, regarding the Shari`a and the explanation (of the Qur'an and of Islam) is true. 64. Belief is, at base, the same for everyone, but the superiority of some over others in it is due to their fear and awareness of Allah, their opposition to their desires, and their choosing what is more pleasing to Allah. 65. All the believers are Friends of Allah and the noblest of them in the sight of Allah are those who are the most obedient and who most closely follow the Qur'an.

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66. Belief consists of belief in Allah, His angels, His books, His messengers, the Last Day, and belief that the Decree -- both the good of it and the evil of it, the sweet of it and the bitter or it -- is all from Allah. 67. We believe in all these things. We do not make any distinction between any of the messengers, we accept as true what all of them brought. 68. Those of the Community of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who have committed grave sins will be in the Fire, but not forever, provided they die and meet Allah as believers affirming His unity even if they have not repented. They are subject to His will and judgement. If He wants, He will forgive them and pardon them out of His generosity, as is mentioned in the Qur'an when He says: "And He forgives anything less than that (shirk) to whomever He wills" (al-Nisa' 4: 116); if He wants, He will punish them in the Fire out of His justice, and then bring them out of the Fire through His mercy, and for the intercession of those who were obedient to Him, and send them to the Garden. This is because Allah is the Protector of those who recognize Him and will not treat them in the hereafter in the same way as He treats those who deny Him, who are bereft of His guidance and have failed to obtain His protection. O Allah, You are the Protector of Islam and its people; make us firm in Islam until the day we meet You. 69. We agree with doing the prayer behind any of the People of the Qibla whether rightful or wrongful, and doing the funeral prayer over any of them when they die. 70. We do not say that any of them will categorically go to either the Garden or the Fire, and we do not accuse any of them of kufr (disbelief), shirk (associating partners with Allah), or nifaq (hypocrisy), as long as they have not openly demonstrated any of those things. We leave their secrets to Allah. 71. We do not agree with killing any of the Community of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, unless it is obligatory by Shari`a to do so. 72. We do not accept rebellion against our Imam or those in charge of our affairs even if they are unjust, nor do we wish evil on them, nor do we withdraw from following them. We hold that obedience to them is part of obedience to Allah, the Glorified, and therefore obligatory as long as they do not order to commit sins. We pray for their right guidance and ask for pardon for their wrongs.

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73. We follow the Sunna of the Prophet and the Congregation of the Muslims, and avoid deviation, differences and divisions. 74. We love the people of justice and trustworthiness, and hate the people of injustice and treachery. 75. When our knowledge about something is unclear, we say: "Allah knows best." 76. We agree with wiping over leather socks (in ablution) whether on a journey or otherwise, just as has come in the hadiths. 77. Hajj and jihad under the leadership of those in charge of the Muslims, whether they are right or wrong-acting, are continuing obligations until the Last Hour comes. Nothing can annul or controvert them. 78. We believe in the the noble angels who write down our actions, for Allah has appointed them over us as two guardians. 79. We believe in the Angel of Death who is in charge of taking the spirits of all the worlds. 80. We believe in the punishment in the grave for those who deserve it, and in the questioning in the grave by Munkar and Nakir about one's Lord, one's religion and one's prophet, as has come down in the hadiths from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and in reports from the Companions, may Allah be pleased with them all. 81. The grave is either one of the meadows of the Garden or one of the pits of the Fire. 82. We believe in being brought back to life after death and in being recompensed for our actions on the Day of Judgement, and the exhibition of works, and the reckoning, and the reading of the book, and the reward or punishments, and the Bridge, and the Balance. 83. The Garden and the Fire are created things that never come to an end and we believe that Allah created them before the rest of creation and then created people to inhabit each of them. Whoever He wills goes to the Garden out of His bounty and whoever He wills goes to the Fire through His justice. Everybody acts in accordance with what is destined for him and goes towards what he has been created for.

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84. Good and evil have both been decreed for people. 85. The capability in terms of divine grace and favor which makes an action certain to occur cannot be ascribed to a created being. This capability is integral with action, whereas the capability of an action in terms of having the necessary health and ability, being in a position to act, and having the necessary means, exists in a person before the action. It is this type of capability which is the object of the dictates of the Shari`a. Allah the Exalted says: "Allah does not charge a person except according to his ability." (alBaqara 2: 286) 86. People's actions are created by Allah but earned by people . 87. Allah, the Exalted, has only charged people with what they are able to do and people are only capable of doing what Allah has granted them to do. This is the explanation of the phrase: "There is no power and no strength except by Allah." We add to this that there is no stratagem or way by which anyone can avoid or escape disobedience to Allah except with Allah's help; nor does anyone have the strength to put obedience to Allah into practice and remain firm in it, except if Allah makes it possible for him to do so. 88. Everything happens according to Allah's will, knowledge, predestination and decree. His will overpowers all other wills and His decree overpowers all stratagems. He does whatever He wills and He is never unjust. He is exalted in His purity above any evil or perdition and He is perfect far beyond any fault or flaw. "He will not be asked about what He does, but they will be asked." (al-Anbiya' 21: 23) 89. There is benefit for dead people in the supplication and alms-giving of the living. 90. Allah responds to people's supplications and gives them what they ask for. 91. Allah has absolute control over everything and nothing has any control over Him. Nothing can be independent of Allah even for the blinking of an eye, and whoever considers himself independent of Allah for the blinking of an eye is guilty of unbelief and becomes one of the people of perdition. 92. Allah is angered and He is pleased but not in the same way as any creature. 93. We love the Companions of the Messenger of Allah but we do not go to excess in our love for any one individual among them; nor do we disown any one of them. We

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hate anyone who hates them or does not speak well of them and we only speak well of them. Love of them is a part of Islam, part of belief and part of excellent behavior, while hatred of them is unbelief, hypocrisy and rebellion. 94. We confirm that, after the death of Allah's Messenger, peace be upon him, the caliphate went first to Abu Bakr al-Siddiq, thus proving his excellence and superiority over the rest of the Muslims; then to `Umar ibn al-Khattab; then to `Uthman; and then to `Ali ibn Abi Talib; may Allah be well pleased with all of them. These are the RightlyGuided Caliphs and upright leaders. 95. We bear witness that the ten who were named by the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and who were promised the Garden by him, will be in the Garden, as the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, whose word is truth, bore witness that they would be. The ten are: Abu Bakr, `Umar, `Uthman, `Ali, Talha, Zubayr, Sa`d, Sa`id, `Abd al-Rahman ibn `Awf, and Abu `Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah whose title was the Trustee of this Community, may Allah be pleased with all of them. 96. Anyone who speaks well of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and his wives and offspring, who are all pure and untainted by any impurity, is free from the accusation of hypocrisy. 97. The learned men of the Predecessors, both the first community and those who immediately followed: the people of virtue, the narrators of hadith, the jurists, and the analysts-- they must only be spoken of in the best way, and anyone who says anything bad about them is not on the right path. 98. We do not prefer any of the saintly men among the Community over any of the Prophets but rather we say that any one of the Prophets is better than all the awliya' put together. 99. We believe in what we know of the karamat or marvels of the awliya' and in the authentic stories about them from trustworthy sources. 100. We believe in the signs of the Hour such as the appearance of the Antichrist (dajjal) and the descent of `Isa ibn Maryam, peace be upon him, from heaven, and we believe in the rising of the sun from where it sets and in the emergence of the Beast from the earth.

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101. We do not accept as true what soothsayers and fortune-tellers say, nor do we accept the claims of those who affirm anything which goes against the Book, the Sunna, and the consensus of the Muslim Community (umma). 102. We agree that holding together is the true and right path and that separation is deviation and torment. 103. There is only one religion of Allah in the heavens and the earth and that is the religion of Islam ("submission"). Allah says: "Surely religion in the sight of Allah is Islam." (Al `Imran 3: 19) And He also says: "I am pleased with Islam as a religion for you." (alMa'ida 5: 3) 104. Islam lies between going to excess and falling short, between the likening of Allah's attributes to creation (tashbih) and divesting Allah of attributes (ta`til), between determinism and freewill, and between sureness and despair. 105. This is our religion and it is what we believe in, both inwardly and outwardly, and we renounce any connection, before Allah, with anyone who goes against what we have said and made clear. We ask Allah to make us firm in our belief and seal our lives with it and to protect us from variant ideas, scattering opinions and evil schools of view such as those of the Mushabbiha, the Mu`tazila, the Jahmiyya, the Jabriyya, the Qadariyya, and others like them who go against the Sunna and Jama`a and have allied themselves with error. We renounce any connection with them and in our opinion they are in error and on the path of destruction. We ask Allah to protect us from all falsehood and we ask His Grace and Favour to do all good.

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Sunnah method and description of Wudhu 1. Make the intention for Wudhu, “I am performing Wudhu for Allah (SWT)”. Rasul-ullah (‫ )ﷺ‬has said, “Every action is based on Intention, and everyone shall have what he intended”. *Bukhari+ Note: Intention doesn’t need to be uttered verbally or loudly, it is an action of the heart. 2. Recite Bismillahir Rahmanir Raheem ‫بسن اللھ الزحوي الزحین‬ Amrah (RA) said, “I asked Ayesha (RA) how was the prayer of Rasul-ullah (‫?)ﷺ‬ She (RA) said, when he (‫ )ﷺ‬did Wudhu he would put his hand in the water, say Allah (SWT)’s name and then do Wudhu perfectly”. *Ibn Abi Shaybah, Al-Musannaf i.12] It is narrated from Rasul-ullah (‫“ ,)ﷺ‬There is no Wudhu for the one who did not mention Allah (SWT)’s name during his Wudhu”. *Tirmidhi+ After recording this Hadeeth Imam Tirmidhi (RA) discusses the authenticity, he narrates: a) Imam Ahmed Ibn Hanbal (RA) said, “I do not know of any Hadeeth on this subject that has a good chain of narration b) Imam Bukhari (RA)said, “The best thing on the subject is the above-mentioned Hadeeth Note: Hasan Al-Basri (RA) said, “One should mention Allah (SWT)’s name when one does Wudhu, if one doesn’t Wudhu is still valid”. *Ibn Abi Shaybah, Al-Musannaf i.12] 3. Each action of Wudhu should be started from the right hand side.

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Abu Hurairah (RA) reported that Rasul-ullah (‫ )ﷺ‬said, “When you put on clothing or do Wudhu, begin with the right hand side”. *Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah+ 4. Wash both hands up to the wrists three times. Aws ibn Abi Aws (RA) said, I saw Rasul-ullah (‫ )ﷺ‬do Wudhu and he washed his hands three times. [Al-Nasai] 5. Use a Miswak to clean the teeth. Abu Hurairah (RA) reported that Rasul-ullah (‫ )ﷺ‬said, “Were it not to be hardship on my community, I would have ordered them to clean their teeth for every Wudhu [Bukhari] Note: It is part of Sunnah that one who has no teeth may use his fingers to clean his mouth. Aisha (RA) asked: O Messenger of Allah (‫ ,)ﷺ‬how should a toothless person cleanse his mouth? He (‫ )ﷺ‬replied, “By putting his fingers into his mouth”. *AlTabarani as cited in Majma al-zawaid] 6. Gargle three times. Abd Al-Rahman Al-Taymi (RA) reported, “Ibn Abi Mulaykah (RA) was asked about Wudhu. He said, “I saw Uthman ibn Affan (RA) who was asked about Wudhu. He called for water. A vessel was then brought to him. He poured water upon his right hand. Then he put his right hand in the water (to scoop up the water), then he rinsed his mouth three times and cleansed his nose with the water three times and washed his face three times. He then put his hand in the water and took it out; then he wiped his head and ear inside and out only once. The he washed his feet ad said, “Where are those who asked about Wudhu? I saw the Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬doing Wudhu like this.””” *Muslim+ Note: In Arabic this is known as Madmadah. 7. Then take water into your nose using the right hand three times and clean with your left hand three times.

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Ali (RA) once called for water for Wudhu, rinsed his mouth, snuffed water into his nostrils and blew it out with his left hand. He did this three times and then said, “That is how the Porphet of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬used to purify himself. [Nasai] Abd Khayr (RA) said: “Ali (RA) came upon us, he had already performed Salah. He called for water. We said, “What will he do with water when he has already offered Salah- perhaps to teach us.” A utensil containing water and a washbasin was brought to him. He poured water from the utensil on his right hand and washed both hands three times, rinsed the mouth, and snuffed up water and cleansed the nose three times. He rinsed the mouth and snuffed up water with the same hand by which he took water. Then he washed his face three times ad washed his right hand three times and washed his left hand three times. Then he put his hand in water and wiped his head once. Then he washed his right foot three times and left foot three times. The he said, “Whoever likes to know the Wudhu of Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬then this is how he did it.”” *Abu Dawud+ Note: In Arabic Istinshaq means sniffing water up the nose and Istinthat means blowing it out. 8. Then wash the face three time from the forehead to below the chin and from one earlobe to another. Abd Al-Rahman Al-Taymi (RA) reported, “Ibn Abi Mulaykah (RA) was asked about Wudhu. He said, “I saw Uthman ibn Affan (RA) who was asked about Wudhu. He called for water. A vessel was then brought to him. He poured water upon his right hand. Then he put his right hand in the water (to scoop up the water), then he rinsed his mouth three times and cleansed his nose with the water three times and washed his face three times. He then put his hand in the water and took it out; then he wiped his head and ear inside and out only once. The he washed his feet ad said, “Where are those who asked about Wudhu? I saw the Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬doing Wudhu like this.””” *Muslim] 9. Then make Khilal of the Beard i.e. to pass wet fingers through the beard. Hassan ibn Bilal narrated, “I saw Ammar ibn Yasir (RA) do Wudhu. Then he ran his fingers through his beard. I asked, “Do you run your fingers through your beard?”.

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He said “Why should I not do so when I saw the Messenger of Allah Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬run his fingers through his Beard” *Tirmidhi] 10. Then wash the right hand up to the elbow three times. Abd Khayr (RA) said: “Ali (RA) came upon us, he had already performed Salah. He called for water. We said, “What will he do with water when he has already offered Salah- perhaps to teach us.” A utensil containing water and a washbasin was brought to him. He poured water from the utensil on his right hand and washed both hands three times, rinsed the mouth, and snuffed up water and cleansed the nose three times. He rinsed the mouth and snuffed up water with the same hand by which he took water. Then he washed his face three times ad washed his right hand three times and washed his left hand three times. Then he put his hand in water and wiped his head once. Then he washed his right foot three times and left foot three times. The he said, “Whoever likes to know the Wudhu of Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬then this is how he did it.”” *Abu Dawud] 11. Then wash the left hand up to the elbow three times. Abd Khayr (RA) said: “Ali (RA) came upon us, he had already performed Salah. He called for water. We said, “What will he do with water when he has already offered Salah- perhaps to teach us.” A utensil containing water and a washbasin was brought to him. He poured water from the utensil on his right hand and washed both hands three times, rinsed the mouth, and snuffed up water and cleansed the nose three times. He rinsed the mouth and snuffed up water with the same hand by which he took water. Then he washed his face three times ad washed his right hand three times and washed his left hand three times. Then he put his hand in water and wiped his head once. Then he washed his right foot three times and left foot three times. The he said, “Whoever likes to know the Wudhu of Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬then this is how he did it.”” [Abu Dawud] 12. Then make Takhleel of the fingers. Laqit Ibn Sabirah (RA) narrated that Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬said, “When you do Wudhu then run your fingers through your other fingers.” *Tirmidhi+

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Note: Takhleel means to runs ones fingers through other fingers to ensure that they are properly washed. 13. Then perform Mas’h of the whole head. Abdullah ibn Zayd (RA) reported, “The Prophet (‫)ﷺ‬wiped his entire head with his hands. He started from the front of the head, then moved back and then returned his hands to the front.” *Bukhari] 14. Then wipe the ears inside and outside.

Ali (RA) narrated: “The Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬wiped his ears with the same water the he used to wipe his head” *Abu Dawud] Al-Miqdam Ibn Madikarib (RA) reported: “The Prophet of Allah (SWT) of Allah (‫)ﷺ‬wiped his head and his ears, the interior and exterior, while doing Wudhu. He also put his finger inside his ears.” *Abu Dawud+ While describing the Messenger of Allah (‫’)ﷺ‬s Wudhu, Abduallah Ibn Abbas (RA) and Al-Rubayyi Bint Muawwidh (RA) narrated, “The Messenger of Allah (‫)ﷺ‬ wiped his head and ears in a single movement.” *Abu Dawud+ 15. Then wash the right foot three times up to the ankle and then make Takhleel of the toes. Abd Khayr (RA) said: “Ali (RA) came upon us, he had already performed Salah. He called for water. We said, “What will he do with water when he has already offered Salah- perhaps to teach us.” A utensil containing water and a washbasin was brought to him. He poured water from the utensil on his right hand and washed both hands three times, rinsed the mouth, and snuffed up water and cleansed the nose three times. He rinsed the mouth and snuffed up water with the same hand by which he took water. Then he washed his face three times ad washed his right hand three times and washed his left hand three times. Then he put his hand in water and wiped his head once. Then he washed his right foot three times and left foot three times. The he said, “Whoever likes to know the Wudhu of Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬then this is how he did it.”” *Abu Dawud+

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Laqit Ibn Sabirah (RA) narrated that Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬said, “When you do Wudhu then run your fingers through your other fingers.” *Tirmidhi+ Note: Takhleel means to runs ones fingers through other fingers to ensure that they are properly washed. 16. Then wash the left foot three times up to the ankle and then make Takhleel of the toes. Abd Khayr (RA) said: “Ali (RA) came upon us, he had already performed Salah. He called for water. We said, “What will he do with water when he has already offered Salah- perhaps to teach us.” A utensil containing water and a washbasin was brought to him. He poured water from the utensil on his right hand and washed both hands three times, rinsed the mouth, and snuffed up water and cleansed the nose three times. He rinsed the mouth and snuffed up water with the same hand by which he took water. Then he washed his face three times ad washed his right hand three times and washed his left hand three times. Then he put his hand in water and wiped his head once. Then he washed his right foot three times and left foot three times. The he said, “Whoever likes to know the Wudhu of Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬then this is how he did it.”” *Abu Dawud] Laqit Ibn Sabirah (RA) narrated that Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬said, “When you do Wudhu then run your fingers through your other fingers.” *Tirmidhi+ Note: Takhleel means to runs ones fingers through other fingers to ensure that they are properly washed. 17. Following duas may be recited after Wudhu for additional rewards: َ‫اشِد اى ال الَ اال اللَ ّ اشِد اى هحود عبدہ ّ رسْل‬ I testify that there is no god but Allah (SWT)and that Muhammad (‫ )ﷺ‬is his slave and Messenger. ‫اللھن اجعلٌی هي الخوابیي واجعلٌی هي الوخطھزیي‬

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O Allah! Cause me to be from the amongst the repentant, cause me to be from the pure Umar (RA) reported that the Prophet (‫“ ,)ﷺ‬If one completes and perfects Wudhu and then says, “I testify that there is no god but Allah (SWT)and that Muhammad (‫ )ﷺ‬is his slave and Messenger. O Allah! Cause me to be from the amongst the repentant, cause me to be from the pure”, the eight gates of paradise will be opened for him and he may enter any of them that he chooses. [Muslim]
Compulsory actions of Wudhu (Faraidh):

1. Washing the full face from the forehead to the chin and from one earlobe to the other at least once 2. Washing both arms up to the elbows at least once 3. Doing Masah of at least ¼ of the head 4. Washing both feet up to the ankles at least once
Sunnah actions of Wudhu (Sunan):

1. Make intention at the beginning 2. Reciting of Bismillah 3. Washing the hands up to the wrists three times 4. Brushing the teeth with Miswak 5. Gargling three times 6. Passing water into the nostrils three times 7. Khilal of the Beard i.e. to pass wet fingers through the beard 8. Khilal of the fingers and toes 9. Washing each part at least three times 10.Masah of the whole head once 11.Masah of both ears once 12.Wudhu performed systematically (in order) 13.Wudhu performed continuously and parts washed one after another without pausing so no part dries up before the next is washed

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Desirable actions of Wudhu (Mustahabaat):

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

To begin from the right To make Masah of the nape Not to take assistance from anyone To face the Qiblah To sit on a high and clean place

Undesirable actions of Wudhu (Makroohat):

1. 2. 3. 4.

To make Wudhu in a dirty place To clean the nose with the right hand To talk of worldly affairs To perform Wudhu against the Sunnah

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Sunnah Method & Description of Ghusl (complete bath) 1. Ghusl (complete bath) becomes obligatory in the following conditions: a) When Al-Mani (fluid) is discharged owing to stimulation (whether actual or imagined) while asleep or awake. b) When a wet dream occurs. c) When an actual intercourse takes place (even if no discharge occurs). d) When the private parts meet (even if no discharge occurs). e) When a woman comes out of her regular menstrual cycle. f) When the normal flow of blood ceases from the womb after giving birth. *2:222+ They ask you about menstruation. Say: ―It is an impurity. So, keep away from women during menstruation; and do not have intimacy with them until they are cleansed. But when they are cleansed, then go to them from where Allah has commanded you. Surely Allah loves those who are most repenting, and loves those who keep themselves pure. Anas b. Malik (RA) reported that Umm Sulaim (RA) narrated it that she asked the Apostle of Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) about a woman who sees in a dream what a man sees (sexual dream). The Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said: In case a woman sees that, she must take a bath. Umm Sulaim (RA) said: I was bashful on account of that and said: Does it happen? Upon this the Apostle of Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said: Yes (it does happen), otherwise how can (a child) resemble her? Man's discharge (i. e. sperm) is thick and white and the discharge of woman is thin and yellow; so the resemblance comes from the one whose genes prevail or dominate.[Muslim] Sa'id al-Khudri (RA) narrated it from his father: I went to Quba' with the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) on Monday till we reached (the habitation) of Banu Salim. The Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) stood at the door of 'Itban and called him loudly. So he came out dragging his lower garnment. Upon

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this the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said: We have made this man to make haste 'Itban said: Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), if a man parts with his wife suddenly without seminal emission, what is he required to do (with regard to bath)? The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: It is with the seminal emission that bath becomes obligatory.[Muslim] Yahya (RA) related to me from Malik (RA) from Yahya ibn Said (RA) from Said ibn alMusayyab (RA) that Abu Musa al-Ashari (RA) came to A'isha (RA), the wife of the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and said to her, "The disagreement of the companions in a matter which I hate to bring before you has distressed me." She (RA) said, "What is that? You did not ask your mother about it, so ask me." He (RA) said, "A man penetrates his wife, but becomes listless and does not ejaculate. "She (RA) said, "When the circumcised part passes the circumcised part ghusl is obligatory." Abu Musa (RA)added, "I shall never ask anyone about this after you." [Muwatta Imam Malik] Umm Salamah (RA) said, “During the lifetime of Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), after the childbirth a woman would be in confinement for forty days”. [Tirmidhi] Hasan Al-Basri (RA) said, “Once the forty days are complete, she will do Ghusl and Salah”.*Musannaf Abdur Razzaq+ Note: Ghusl is not obligatory in the following two conditions: a) If Al-Mani (fluid) is discharged without desire due to a medical condition, or carrying a heavy load or cold b) When prostatic fluid comes out Narrated Al-Miqdad ibn al-Aswad (RA): Ali ibn AbuTalib (RA) commanded him to ask the Apostle of Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) what a man should do when he wants to have intercourse with his wife and the prostatic fluid comes out (at this moment). (He said): I am ashamed of consulting him because of the position of his daughter. Al-Miqdad said: I asked the Apostle of Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) about it. He said: When any of you finds, he should wash his private part, and perform ablution as he does for prayer. [Abu Dawud] Ali (RA) reported that the Prophet of Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said to him, “If sperm is ejaculated, do Ghusl”. *Abu Dawud+

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2. Ghusl (complete bath) is Sunnah and/or recommended in the following occasions: a) On Fridays. b) On Eid days. c) After giving Ghusl to a bier. d) Before putting on the Ihram. e) Before entering Makkah. f) Before entering Madina. g) Before commencing the stay of Arafah (during Hajj)

Narrated Salman Al-Farsi (RA): Allah's Apostle (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said, "Anyone who takes a bath on Friday and cleans himself as much as he can and puts oil (on his hair) or scents himself; and then proceeds for the prayer and does not force his way between two persons (assembled in the mosque for the Friday prayer), and prays as much as is written for him and remains quiet when the Imam delivers the Khutba, all his sins in between the present and the last Friday will be forgiven." [Bukhari] Scholars also encourage Muslims to perform ghusl for the 'id prayers, even though there is no authentic hadith to support this opinion. The hadith concerning performing ghusl for the 'ids are weak. But there do exist good reports from the companions (on this point) [AlBadrul Muneer, Nailul Awtar] Abu Hurariah (RA) reported that the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said, "Whoever has washed a corpse must perform ghusl, and whoever carried him must perform ablution."[Abu Dawud] Zaid ibn Thabit (RA) related that he saw the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi

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Wasallam), when he intended to perform the hajj, perform ghusl. [Darqutni, Baihaqi, Tirmidhi] Nafi' (RA) reported that Ibn Umar (RA) did not enter Mecca without spending the night at Dhi Tawu until it was dawn, when he took a bath, and then entered Mecca in the morning, and made a mention that Allah's Apostle (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) did that.[Muslim] Nafi' (RA) ) reported that 'Abdullah ibn Umar (RA) used to do ghusl for ihram before he entered ihram, and for entering Makka, and for standing on the afternoon of 'Arafa. [Muwatta Imam Malik] Note: It is recommended according to all four Imams of Fiqh to perform Ghusl before entering Madina. 3. Make the intention for Ghusl, “I am intending to purify myself”. Rasul-ullah (‫ )ﷺ‬has said, “Every action is based on Intention, and everyone shall have what he intended”. *Bukhari+ Note: Intention doesn’t need to be uttered verbally or loudly, it is an action of the heart. 4. Wash your hands up to the wrists. Narrated 'Aisha(RA): Whenever the Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬took a bath after Janaba he started by washing his hands and then performed ablution like that for the prayer. After that he would put his fingers in water and move the roots of his hair with them, and then pour three handfuls of water over his head and then pour water all over his body. [Bukhari] 5. Wash all the impurities from your private parts. Maymunah (RA) related that the Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬washed his private parts while having a bath. [Bukhari] 6. Wudhu should now be performed.

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Narrated Maimuna (RA): (the wife of the Prophet) Allah's Apostle (‫ )ﷺ‬performed ablution like that for the prayer but did not wash his feet. He washed off the discharge from his private parts and then poured water over his body. He withdrew his feet from that place (the place where he took the bath) and then washed them. And that was his way of taking the bath of Janaba. [Bukhari] Note: If the surface where the person is standing is clean then feet can be washed at the same time. 7. You should now rub water through your hair three times, letting the water penetrate down to the roots of the hair. Note: It is obligatory for women to have the water reach the roots of the hair according to all four Imams of Fiqh either by untying the plaits of the hair or loosening them (if the water reaches the roots). 8. You should now pour water over the head and the rest of the body three times starting from the right side. Narrated 'Aisha(RA): Whenever the Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬took a bath after Janaba he started by washing his hands and then performed ablution like that for the prayer. After that he would put his fingers in water and move the roots of his hair with them, and then pour three handfuls of water over his head and then pour water all over his body. [Bukhari] 9. No area of the body (even equal to a hair) should be left dry during Ghusl. Narrated Ali ibn AbuTalib (RA): The Apostle of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬said: If anyone who is sexual defiled leaves a spot equal to the breadth of a hair without washing, such and such an amount of Hell-fire will have to be suffered for it. Ali said: On that account I treated my head (hair) as an enemy, meaning I cut my hair. He used to cut the hair (of his head). May Allah be pleased with him. [Abu Dawud] 10. It is not necessary to do Wudhu afer Ghusl. Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin (RA): The Apostle of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬took a bath and

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offered two rak'ahs of prayer and said the dawn prayer. I do not think he performed ablution afresh after taking a bath.. [Abu Dawud]
Compulsory actions of Ghusl (Faraidh):

1. To gargle the mouth 2. To clean the nostrils up to the soft part of the nose 3. To pour water over the entire body
Sunnah actions of Ghusl:

1. Make the intention for Ghusl, “I am performing Ghusl for Allah (SWT)” 2. Recite ‫بسن اللھ الزحوي الزحین‬ 3. To wash hands up to the wrists 4. To wash off all the impurities 5. To wash the private parts even if there are no impurities on them 6. Thereafter to perform Wudhu 7. Thereafter to let water flow on the entire body three times 8. When pouring water, start from the head, then the right and then the left side 9. To rub the body 10.Not to allow washed parts to get dry before making Ghusl

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Sunnah Method & Description of Tayammum (Dry Ablution) 1. Tayammum literally means “Intending”, but in Islamic Shariah the words refers to intending or looking to find soil to wipe one’s hands and face so as to be prepared for Salah and other acts requiring Wudhu or Ghusl [4:43]O you who believe! Do not go near Salāh when you are intoxicated, until you know what you say, nor in a state of ‗major impurity‘., __save when you are traversing a way__until you take a bath. If you are sick, or in travel, or if one of you has come after relieving himself, or you have had contact with women, and you find no water, go for some clean dust and wipe your faces and hands (with it). Surely, Allah is Most-Pardoning, Most-Forgiving. Abu Dhar (RA) reported that the Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬said, “The soil is a purifier for a Muslim, even if he does not find water for ten years.” *Tirmidhi+ Abu Umamah (RA) related that the Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬said, “All of earth has been made for me and my people a place of Salah and purifier.” *Ahmed+ There is a consensus on the legitimacy of Tayammum. [Al-Kasani] 2. Tayammum is a special blessing of Allah (SWT) on the Ummah of the Messenger of Allah (‫.)ﷺ‬ Narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah (RA): Allah's Apostle (‫ )ﷺ‬said, "I have been given five things which were not given to any amongst the Prophets before me. These are: 1. Allah made me victorious by awe (by His frightening my enemies) for a distance of one month's journey. 2. The earth has been made for me (and for my followers) a place for praying and a thing to perform Tayammum. Therefore my followers can pray wherever the time of a prayer is

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due. 3. The booty has been made Halal (lawful) for me (and was not made so for anyone else). 4. Every Prophet used to be sent to his nation exclusively but I have been sent 1o all mankind. 5. I have been given the right of intercession (on the Day of Resurrection.) [Bukhari] 3. In the Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA), Tayammum is permitted in the following circumstances: a) When water is not available (*) b) When one lacks the means to get the water c) When there is a danger lurking between him/her and the water e.g. a beast or human d) When one is a prisoner under harsh conditions e) When the quantity of water is only sufficient to meet the basic necessities e.g. drinking, cooking, or water for the animal f) When one is ill or feels that using water will aggravate the illness g) When one is in a state of Janabah (sexual impurity) and fears that one will die from cold or become ill if Ghusl is made with water (provided that one has no means to heat the water or use public bathrooms). Tayammum is a substitute for Wudhu or Ghusl. Narrated 'Aisha (RA): (The wife of the Prophet) We set out with Allah’s Apostle (‫ )ﷺ‬on one of his journeys till we reached Al-Baida' or Dhatul-Jaish, a necklace of mine was

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broken (and lost). Allah's Apostle (‫ )ﷺ‬stayed there to search for it, and so did the people along with him. There was no water at that place, so the people went to AbuBakr As-Siddiq (RA) and said, "Don't you see what 'Aisha (RA) has done? She (RA) has made Allah's Apostle (‫ )ﷺ‬and the people stay where there is no water and they have no water with them." Abu Bakr (RA) came while Allah's Apostle (‫ )ﷺ‬was sleeping with his head on my thigh, He (RA) said, to me (RA) : "You have detained Allah's Apostle (‫)ﷺ‬ and the people where there is no water and they have no water with them. So he (RA) admonished me (RA) and said what Allah wished him to say and hit me on my flank with his hand. Nothing prevented me (RA) from moving (because of pain) but the position of Allah's Apostle (‫ )ﷺ‬on my thigh. Allah's Apostle (‫ )ﷺ‬got up when dawn broke and there was no water. So Allah revealed the Divine Verses of Tayammum. So they all performed Tayammum. Usaid bin Hudair (RA) said, "O the family of Abu Bakr! This is not the first blessing of yours." Then the camel on which I was riding was caused to move from its place and the necklace was found beneath it. [Bukhari] Narrated 'Imran bin Husain Al-Khuza'I (RA): Allah's Apostle (‫ )ﷺ‬saw a person sitting aloof and not praying with the people. He (‫ )ﷺ‬asked him, "O so and so! What prevented you from offering the prayer with the people?" He replied, "O Allah's Apostle (‫ !)ﷺ‬I am Junub and there is no water." The Prophet said, "Perform Tayammum with clean earth and that will be sufficient for you." [Bukhari] Said Ibn Jubayar (RA) narrated from Ibn Abbas (RA) saying, “It is allowed for an ill person to do Tayammum with the soil”. *Darqutni+ Jabir (RA) said: We set out on a journey. One of our people was hurt by a stone which injured his head. He then had a wet dream. He asked his companions, “Do you find concession for me to do Tayammum?” They said, “We do not find any concession for you while you can use water.” He did Ghusl and died because of it. We then went to Rasulullah (‫ )ﷺ‬and the incident was reported to him. He (‫ )ﷺ‬said, “They killed him, may Allah (SWT) kill them. Why did they not ask about what they do not know? The cure for ignorance is to ask. It would have been enough for him to do Tayammum and wrap his

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wound, then to wipe it and wash the rest of the body.” *Abu Dawud+ Amr Ibn Al-Aas (RA) said: I had a wet dream on a cold night in the battle of Dhat AlSalasil. I was afraid if I did Ghusl I would die, I therefore did Tayammum and led the Fajr Salah with my companions. They mentioned this to the Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬and He (‫ )ﷺ‬said, “Amr, you led your companions in Salah while in the state of Janabah?” I informed him of the cause which impeded me from Ghusl and I said, “I heard Allah (SWT) say, “Do not kill yourself. Indeed, Allah has been Very-Merciful to you (4:29).” the Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬just smiled and did not say anything. [Abu Dawud] Imam Ahmed (RA) says, “Many amongst the Sahaba (RA) did Tayammum and kept the water for drinking and there is no disagreement amongst scholars in this matter”. *AlMughni] If the water is available but there is danger to one’s life or property in getting to it or there is a danger that one will be separated from his companions, or that one will be ambushed by enemy while getting the water, or there is nothing to draw the water from the well then all of these conditions will make Tayammum permissible and there is no disagreement amongst scholars in this matter. [Al-Mughni] Note: Scholars in the Hanafi Madhab have stipulated that the distance of water not being available is roughly 1 mile. 4. Person considering Tayammum does not have to search for water if he/she does not think in all likelihood that there is no water in the vicinity. However if he/she does think that there is a likelihood that there water may be found then Tayammum will not be permissible (on account on lack of availability of water) until he/she has searched for it. Note: Scholars in the Hanafi Madhab have stipulated that the distance of water not being available is roughly 1 mile. 5. If a traveller forgets that he/she had water in their belongings and does Tayammum

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and performs Salah then according to Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) and Imam Muhammad (RA) he/she does not need to repeat the Salah but according to Imam Abu Yusuf (RA) Salah needs to be repeated. Note: Scholars in the Hanafi Madhab have stipulated that the distance of water not being available is roughly 1 mile. 6. Tayammum is only permitted with clean earth (*). *5:6+ O you who believe, when you rise for Salāh, (prayer) wash your faces and your hands up to the elbows, and make MasH (wiping by hands) of your heads and (wash) your feet up to the ankles. If you are in a state of major impurity, cleanse yourselves well (by taking bath). If you are sick, or on a journey, or if one of you has come after relieving himself, or you have had sexual contact with women, and you find no water, then, go for some clean dust and wipe your faces and hands with it. Allah does not like to impose a problem on you; He, rather likes to cleanse you and to complete His favour upon you, so that you may be grateful. Sa’id in this verse is understood to mean whatever covers the earth’s surface and is of the same genus as dust, stone etc. Note: Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) and Imam Muhammad (RA) allow Tayammum with dust (Turab), sand, pebbles, lime, Kohl antimony, arsenic and stone while Imam Abu Yusuf (RA) allows it with dust, earth and sand. A list of items on which Tayammum is permissible in the Hanafi Madhab is given in Ta’leemul-Haq as: a) Clean Earth b) Sand c) Stone d) Limestone

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e) Baked Earthen Pots (unglazed) f) Walls of mud, stone or brick g) Clay h) All items with think dust on them 7. Bismillah should be recited and then Intention must be made before Tayammum e.g. “I am making Tayammum for Wudhu (or Ghusl).” There is no disagreement amongst scholars on this matter. Rasul-ullah (‫ )ﷺ‬has said, “Every action is based on Intention, and everyone shall have what he intended”. *Bukhari+ Note: Intention doesn’t need to be uttered verbally or loudly, it is an action of the heart. 8. After intention strike both hands on the clean earth, dust the hands, then blow the excess dirt off the hands and then rub the hands on the face completely (without leaving any space). Then strike both hands on the clean earth, dust the hands, then blow the excess dirt off the hands and then rub the right hand completely over the left hand including the elbow and then rub the left hand completely over the right hand including the elbow. Narrated 'Abdur Rahman bin Abza (RA): 'Ammar (RA) said to 'Umar (RA) "I rolled myself in the dust and came to the Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬who said, 'Passing dusted hands over the face and the backs of the hands is sufficient for you.' " [Bukhari] Narrated 'Ammar (RA): The Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬stroked the earth with his hands and then passed them over his face and the backs of his hands (while demonstrating Tayammum).

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9. Nullifiers of Tayammum are divided into two categories: a) General: Everything which nullifies Wudhu will nullify Tayammum b) Specific: Accessibility of water with ability to avail it while or before Salah will nullify Tayammum; Person in this case must do Wudhu or if during Salah break Salah and do Wudhu and then resume Salah Narrated 'Imran (RA): Once we were travelling with the Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬and we carried on travelling till the last part of the night and then we (halted at a place) and slept (deeply). There is nothing sweeter than sleep for a traveller in the last part of the night. So it was only the heat of the sun that made us to wake up and the first to wake up was so and so, then so and so and then so and so (the narrator 'Auf said that Abu Raja' had told him their names but he had forgotten them) and the fourth person to wake up was 'Umar bin Al-Khattab (RA). And whenever the Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬used to sleep, nobody would wake up him till he himself used to get up as we did not know what was happening (being revealed) to him in his sleep. So, 'Umar (RA) got up and saw the condition of the people, and he was a strict man, so he said, "Allahu Akbar" and raised his voice with Takbir, and kept on saying loudly till the Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬got up because of it. When he got up, the people informed him about what had happened to them. He (‫ )ﷺ‬said, "There is no harm (or it will not be harmful). Depart!" So they departed from that place, and after covering some distance the Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬stopped and asked for some water to perform the ablution. So he performed the ablution and the call for the prayer was pronounced and he led the people in prayer. After he (‫ )ﷺ‬finished from the prayer, he saw a man sitting aloof who had not prayed with the people. He (‫ )ﷺ‬asked, "O so and so! What has prevented you from praying with us?" He replied, "I am Junub and there is no water. " The Prophet s(‫ )ﷺ‬aid, "Perform Tayammum with (clean) earth and that is sufficient for you." Then the Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬proceeded on and the people complained to him of thirst. Thereupon he got down and called a person (the narrator 'Auf added that Abu Raja' had named him but he had forgotten) and 'Ali (RA) , and ordered them to go and bring water.

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So they went in search of water and met a woman who was sitting on her camel between two bags of water. They asked, "Where can we find water?" She replied, "I was there (at the place of water) this hour yesterday and my people are behind me." They requested her to accompany them. She asked, "Where?" They said, "To Allah's Apostle (‫ ".)ﷺ‬She said, "Do you mean the man who is called the Sabi, (with a new religion)?" They replied, "Yes, the same person. So come along." They brought her to the Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬and narrated the whole story. He (‫ )ﷺ‬said, "Help her to dismount." The Prophet (‫)ﷺ‬ asked for a pot, then he (‫ )ﷺ‬opened the mouths of the bags and poured some water into the pot. Then he (‫ )ﷺ‬closed the big openings of the bags and opened the small ones and the people were called upon to drink and water their animals. So they all watered their animals and they (too) all quenched their thirst and also gave water to others and last of all the Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬gave a pot full of water to the person who was Junub and told him to pour it over his body. The woman was standing and watching all that which they were doing with her water. By Allah, when her water bags were returned the looked like as if they were more full (of water) than they had been before (Miracle of Allah's Apostle) Then the Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬ordered us to collect something for her; so dates, flour and Sawiq were collected which amounted to a good meal that was put in a piece of cloth. She was helped to ride on her camel and that cloth full of food-stuff was also placed in front of her and then the Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬said to her, "We have not taken your water but Allah has given water to us." She returned home late. Her relatives asked her: "O so and so what has delayed you?" She said, "A strange thing! Two men met me and took me to the man who is called the Sabi' and he did such and such a thing. By Allah, he is either the greatest magician between this and this (gesturing with her index and middle fingers raising them towards the sky indicating the heaven and the earth) or he is Allah's true Apostle." Afterwards the Muslims used to attack the pagans around her abode but never touched her village. One day she said to her people, "I think that these people leave you purposely. Have you got any inclination to Islam?" They obeyed her and all of them embraced Islam. Abu 'Abdultah said: The word Saba'a means "The one who has deserted his old religion and embraced a new religion." Abul 'Ailya said, "The Sabis are a sect of people of the

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Scripture who recite the Book of Psalms.". [Bukhari] Abu Said Al-Khudri (RA) said that two men went out for a journey. The time for Salah came and as they had no water, they did Tayammum with pure earth and did Salah, then they found water during the time for the same Salah and one of them repeated the Salah while the other didn’t. When they joined the Messenger of Allah (‫ , )ﷺ‬they mentioned this to him and he (‫ )ﷺ‬said to the one who did not repeat his Salah, “You have acted according to Sunnah and your Salah is sufficient for you” and he (‫ )ﷺ‬said to the other, “You will get double the reward”. *Abu Dawud]
Compulsory actions of Tayammum (Faraidh):

1. Making intention 2. Rub both hands on the face after striking them on the earth 3. Rub both hands on the arms up to the elbow after striking them on the earth
Permissible items for Tayammum:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Clean (Taahir) earth Sand Stone Limestone Baked earthen pots (unglazed) Walls of mud, stone or brick Clay All items with thick layer of dust on them Wood Metal Glass Food items All items which burn and turn into ash, rot or melt

Impermissible items for Tayammum:

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Salah According to Qur’aan & Hadeeth (Taken from the book 'The Salah of a Believer in the Quran and Sunnah' of Shaykh Abu Yusuf Riyadh ul Haq, with some additions) Let's start our Salah,
When you wish to begin your prayer, you should make the intention.

Sayyiduna Umar radiallahu anhu narrates, 'Actions are based on intention. For each man will be the reward of what he has intended. So he who has migrated to Allâh and His Rasool sallallahu alaihi wasallam, his will be a migration to Allâh and His Rasool sallallahu alaihi wasallam. As for he who has migrated to a wordly gain which he hopes to acquire, or a woman whom he wishes to marry, then his will be a migration to whatever he has intended.'[1] Note that when praying in congregation it is necessary to make the intention of following the Imam also. It is reported from Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah radiallahu anhu as part of a longer hadeeth that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam said, 'The Imam has been appointed so that he may be followed. Therefore, do not differ from him." [2] Sayyiduna Jabir bin Abdullah radiallahu anhu narrates that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam said, 'The Imam is responsible, therefore whatever he does, you do.' [3] Both of the above narrations show the position and leadership of the Imam in salâh, and signify that it is not acceptable for one to join a congregation without the intention of following the Imam and making him responsible. The following narration makes this clear: Ibrahim al Nakhai [4] said, 'If you join a congregation and do not make the intention of their salâh then yours will be invalid. And if the Imam makes the intention for a salâh and those behind him make an intention for another salâh, his salâh will be valid but not theirs.' [5] The intention should preferably be made in one's heart and not verbally. It is sufficient to have a definite knowledge in the mind about the salâh and the manner in which it is

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being performed. However, some scholars have made concessions for those who are unable to focus themselves or who regularly experience doubt unless they pronounce the intention. [1] Bukhari 1 and Muslim 1907 [2] Bukhari 689 and Muslim 411. [3] Tabarani in al Mu'jam al Awsat as quoted by Hafidh Haithami 2/66. Also reported by Daruqutni 1214. Muhaddith Dhafar Ahmad Uthmani has declared it hasan 2/175. For details of the lives, learning and works of both Hafidh Haithami and Muhaddith Dhafar Ahmad Uthmani see the biographies in the next volume.

[4] For details of his life and learning see the biographies section in the next volume. [5] Imam Muhammad in Kitab al Aathaar 153.
And raise your hands until they are level with the lobe of your ears. [6]

Sayyiduna Anas radiallahu anhu says, 'I saw Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam say the takbeer and place his thumbs close to his ears. He bowed down into ruku' until each of his joints became motionless, and then descended (into sujûd) with the takbeer. His knees went before his hands'. [7] In another narration Sayyiduna Anas radiallahu anhu reports, 'When Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam would say the takbeer he would raise his hands until he brought them in line with his ears and then say Subhânak Âllahumma...[8] Sayyiduna Wail bin Hujr radiallahu anhu says, 'I saw Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam raise his thumbs till his earlobes in salâh.' [9] The same has been narrated by the noble companions Sayyiduna Baraa bin Azib radiallahu anhu[10], Sayyiduna Malik bin al Huwayrith radiallahu anhu[11] There are some ahadeeth that mention the hands being raised till the shoulders in the beginning of salâh. It is quite possible that they did this only when they had shawls and

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cloaks over them in winter and were unable to raise their hands up to their ears from beneath their cloaks. This is clearly explained by Imam Tahawi in his Sharh Ma'ani al Athaar [12] and confirmed by the following hadeeth: Sayyiduna Wail bin Hujr radiallahu anhu says, 'I saw Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam raise his hands close to his ears when beginning salâh.' He continues, 'I then came to them (the companions, and in one narration, 'in the following year') and saw them raising their hands till their chests in the beginning of salâh - they had cloaks and shawls over them.'[13] Hafidh Ibn al Humam has another explanation. He writes, 'There is no contradiction here. Bringing the thumbs in line with the earlobes also permits the hands being level with the shoulders and the ears. This is because the lower part of the hand together with the wrist is parallel with or close to the shoulder, and the hand itself is in line with the ear. Narrators who have distinctly mentioned the thumbs being in line with the earlobes have been successful in combining both reports, hence it becomes obligatory to take this into consideration.'[14] Thus, the meaning of all these different ahadeeth is that when beginning salâh the hands are to be raised to shoulder height with the thumbs level with the earlobes and the fingers in line with the top of the ears. In this way all the different narrations of raising the hands till the shoulders, earlobes, and the top of the ears will be reconciled. This explanation is confirmed by the following hadeeth: Sayyiduna Wail bin Hujr radiallahu anhu relates that he observed Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam when he stood up for salâh. He raised his hands until they were close to his shoulders, made his thumbs level with his ears, and then pronounced the takbeer. [15] It is permissible to raise the hands before the takbeer as in the above hadeeth of Sayyiduna Wail bin Hujr radiallahu anhu and in the hadeeth of Sayyiduna Abu Humaid al Saidee quoted later.[16] It is also permissible to raise them together with the takbeer as mentioned in the hadeeth of Sayyiduna Wail bin Hujr radiallahu anhu recorded by Abu Dawood.[17] Both methods are permissible but the Hanafi ulama have preferred the first option of raising the hands before the takbeer. [18]

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[6] This is for men. Women should raise their hands to their shoulders or close to their bosoms.

[7] Hakim 822 and Baihaqi 2632. Hakim classified it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed with him. Hafidh Ibn al Humam quotes Ibn at Jawzi in Fath al Qadeer 1/287 as saying that all of its narrators are authentic. For details of Hafidh Ibn al Humam's life, learning and works see the biographies section in the next volume. [8] Abu Ya'laa 3735, Tabarani in al Mu'jam al Awsat as quoted by Hafidh Haithami 2/ 107. Hafidh Haithami adds that its narrators are authentic. Also reported by Daruqutni 1135. Ibn Qudamah says in al Mughni 2/27 that its narrators are all authentic [9] Imam Abu Hanifah as quoted in Jam'i al Masaneed 1/412. Also reported by Ibn Abi Shaibah 2410, Ahmad 18370, Abu Dawood 737, Nasai in his al Mujtaba 882 and his al Sunan al Kubra 956, Ibn al Jarood in al Muntaqa 202, Ibn Khuzaimah 480, Tahawi 1/196 and Tabarani in al Mu'jam al Kabeer 22/32 no 72. Imâm Nasai says in his al Sunan al Kubra 956, 'Although Abdul Jabbar did not hear ahadeeth directly from his father the hadeeth itself is saheeh.' [10] Abdul Razzaq 2530, Ibn Abi Shaibah 2411, Ahmad 18199, and Tahawi 1/196. [11] Ibn Abi Shaibah 2412.

[12] Sharh Ma'ani al Aathaar 1/197 [13] Abu Dawood 728. Imam Nimawi 320 classified it hasan. For details of Imam Nimawi's life, learning and works see the biographies section. [14] Fath al Qadeer 1/288. [15] Abu Dawood 724. [16] See the following page. [17] Abu Dawood 725. [18] There is also a third possibility of raising the hands after saying the takbeer as may be understood from the hadeeth of Sayyiduna Malik bin al Huwayrith radiallahu anhu in

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Muslim, but Allamah Anwar Shah Kashmiri says in his Arabic commentary of Bukhari, Faidh al Bari, that this has never remained the practice of any one in the ummah. See the biographies section at the end of the book for details of Allamah Anwar Shah Kashmiri's life, learning and work.
The palms should be facing towards the qiblah and the fingers should be slightly spread out in a natural manner: not too closed, not too open.[19]

Saeed bin Samaan relates: 'Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah radiallahu anhu entered the masjid of Banu Zurayq whilst we were there. He said, 'There are three things which were of the practice of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam but which people have now abandoned: when Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam would stand for prayer he would do this.' (Explaining this) Abu Amir (one of the narrators) then raised his hands without spreading his fingers open or closing them tight.[20] [19] The fingers are to be spread out in ruku' whilst grasping the knees, and kept tightly together in sujud. Apart from these two instances the fingers are to be left in their natural position in salâh, not held too tightly together and not too spread out. See the hadeeth of Sayyiduna Wail bin Hujr radiallahu anhu later under the sub-heading 'Grasping your knees with the fingers outspread.' Note that this is for men. Women should try to keep their fingers together in all the postures of salâh. [20] Hakim 856 and Baihaqi 2317. Hakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.
Your gaze should not wander in any direction but should be focused in front of you on your place of prayer.

Sayyiduna Anas radiallahu anhu narrates that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said, 'What is it with certain people that they raise their gaze towards the sky in their salâh?' Sayyiduna Anas radiallahu anhu says, 'Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam then spoke so strongly about this that he said, "Either they refrain from this or their sight will be taken away."[21] Muhammad Ibn Seereen relates that they (the companions of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam ) would recommend that a person's gaze does not go beyond the place of his prayer.[22]

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Sayyiduna Anas radiallahu anhu narrates that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said, 'Oh Anas! Focus your gaze where you will prostrate.[23]
You should then say the consecrating takbeer (takbeerat al tahreemah).

Allâh says in the Holy Qur'ân: And (who) mentions the name of his Lord and prays.[24] Sayyiduna Ali radiallahu anhu narrates that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said, 'The key to salâh is purity, its consecration is takbeer, and its deconsecrating act is the salam. [25] Sayyiduna Abu Humaid al Saidi radiallahu anhu says, 'When Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would stand for prayer, he would face the qiblah, raise his hands and say Allâhu Akbar.'[26] Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah narrates that when Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would stand up for salâh he would say the takbeer when standing, then whilst bowing for ruku'. He would then read 'Sami Allâhu li man Hamidah' (Allâh has heard the one who praised him) when rising from ruku'. Whilst standing he would say 'Rabbanâ lakal Hamd' (Oh Allâh! All praise belongs to you.) He would then say the takbeer when falling into prostration and again when rising. He would do this throughout the salâh until he completed it. He would also say the takbeer when standing up from the sitting of the second rakah.[27] Ibrahim al Nakhai says, 'Whoever does not say the takbeer when beginning salâh then he is not in salâh.'[28] There is no disagreement among the scholars that the takbeerat al tahreemah is obligatory, and without it the salâh is not valid.[29] [21] Bukhari 717. [22] Saeed bin Mansoor as quoted in Muntaqa al Akhbaar 2/194 and Fath al Bari 2/295. Hafidh Ibn Hajar adds that its narrators are authentic. Also reported by Baihaqi 3541 [23] Baihaqi 3545. Muhaddith Dhafar Ahmad Uthmani quotes (666) from Azizi that

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Dailami has narrated this hadeeth in his Musnad al Firdaus and that it is hasan 1i ghairihi. He also quotes Ibn Hajar Makki who says that the hadeeth has a number of chains that make it eligible for the rank of hasan. [24] al Aa'laa 18/15. [25] Abdul Razzaq 2539, Ibn Abi Shaibah 2378, Ahmad 1009, Ibn Majah 275, Abu Dawood 61 & 618, and Tirmidhi 3. Imam Nawawi has declared its isnad saheeh in al Majm'u 3/240. Hakim has also narrated it (457) on the authority of Sayyiduna Abu Saeed al Khudri radiallahu anhu saying that it is saheeh. Dhahabi agreed with him. [26] Ibn Majah 803. Imam Nimawi declares it hasan (312). [27] Bukhari 756. [28] Imam Muhammad in Kitab al Aathaar 74. [29] Rahmat al Ummah fi Ikhtilaf al Aimmah, p29.
And placing your right palm over the back of your left hand, wrist and lower arm.

Sayyiduna Sahl bin Sa'd radiallahu anhu anhu relates that people were commanded to fasten the right hand over the left in salâh. Abu Hazim (the narrator from Sahl radiallahu anhu ) says, 'I only know that he (Sahl bin Sa'd radiallahu anhu) is ascribing this directly to rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam.'[30] As part of a longer hadeeth Sayyiduna Wail bin Hujr radiallahu anhu also narrates that rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam placed his right hand on the back of his left hand, the wrist and the lower arm.[31] Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Mas'ud radiallahu anhu reports that he was once praying salâh having placed his left hand on his right. Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam saw him and placed his right hand over his left.[32] Qabeesah bin Hulb narrates from his father, who says: 'Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would lead us in prayer and would clasp his left hand with his right hand.'[33] [30] Malik 378 and Bukhari 707.

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[31] Ibn Khuzaimah 480 and Baihaqi 2325. Imam Nimawi has classified it saheeh (323). [32] Ibn Majah 811, Abu Dawood 755, Nasai 888 and Baihaqi 2327. Imam Nawawi has declared it saheeh in al Majm'u 3/313. [33] Ibn Abi Shaibah 3934, Ahmad 21467, Ibn Majah 809 and Tirmidhi 252. Imam Tirmidhi adds that it is a hasan hadeeth.
You should position both hands below the navel. [34]

Sayyiduna Wail bin Hujr radiallahu anhu says: 'I saw Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam radiallahu anhu placing his right hand over his left in prayer, below the navel.[35] Sayyiduna Ali radiallahu anhu says, 'It is part of he sunnah of prayer to place the palm over the palm below the navel.'[36] Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah radiallahu anhu says, 'The positioning of the hands upon the hands in prayer is below the navel.'[37] Hajjaj bin Hasan said, 'I heard Abu Mijlaz[38] say or I asked him how should I place my hands.' He replied, 'He (the individual performing the prayer) should place the inside of his right palm on his left hand and position both of them below the navel.'[39] Ibrahim al Nakhai reports that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would rest one of his hands on the other in salâh, humbling himself before Allâh. Imam Muhammad (the narrator of this hadeeth) says, 'He would place the palm of his right hand on his left wrist below the navel. The wrist would thus be in the middle of the palm.' [40] Ibrahim al Nakhai also says, 'He (the individual performing the prayer) should place his right hand on his left, below the navel.'[41] Imam Tirmidhi says in his Sunan after narrating the above hadeeth of Qabeesah: 'Fastening the hands in prayer is the practice of the learned Sahâbah, Tabi'ûn and Tab' Tabieen. They are of the view that the individual performing the prayer should place his right hand on his left. Some of them then say that he should position them above the navel whilst others contend that they should be placed below the navel. All is permissible in their view.'[42]

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[34] This is only for men. Women should place their hands on their bosoms. See later chapters for further explanation [35] Ibn Abi Shaibah. Hafidh Qasim bin Qutlubughah says in his takhreej of the ahadeeth of 'al Ikhtiyaar' that this hadeeth has a very good sanad. Imam Hashim Sindhi also says in his Dirham al Surrah p84 that its sanad is strong. Imam Nimawi says that its sanad is saheeh (330). Imam Abu Tayyib Madani also says in his commentary of Tirmidhi 1/277 (published by al Matba' al Nidhami, Kanpur, India, 1299 AH) that this is a hadeeth which is saheeh in both sanad and text and is thus a basis for evidence. Also for details of the lives, learning and works of both Hafidh Qasim bin Qutlubughah and Imam Hashim Sindhi see the biographies. [36] Ibn Abi Shaibah 3954, Ahmad 877, Abu Dawood 756, Daruqutni 1089 & 1090, and Baihaqi 2341 & 2342. Also narrated by Abu Hafs bin Shaheen in his al Sunnah and by Adani in his Musnad as mentioned by Allamah Hashim Sindhi in Dirham al Surrah, p32 quoting from Kanz al Ummal. Reported also by Razeen as quoted by the author of Jam' al Fawaid. [37] Abu Dawood 758 and Ibn Battah as quoted by Allamah Hashim Sindhi in Dirham al Surrah, p36. [38] For details of his life and learning see the biographies [39] Ibn Abi Shaibah 3942. Ibn at Turkumani says 2/47 that it has been narrated with a very good sanad. Imam Nimawi (331) and Muhaddith Yusuf Binnouri 2/44 both say that its isnad is saheeh. It has also been mentioned by Imam Abu Dawood but without a sanad (757). For details of the lives, learning and works of both Ibn at Turkumani and Muhaddith Yusuf Binnouri see their biographies. [40] Imam Muhammad in his Kitab al Aathaar 120. [41] Ibn Abi Shaibah 3939 and Imam Muhammad in his Kitab al Aathaar 121. Imam Nimawi says that its isnad is hasan (332). [42] Tirmidhi 252.

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Then quietly read thana.

Allâh says in the Holy Qur'ân: And hymn the praise of thy Lord when you stand.[43] Dhahhak says in the commentary of this verse, 'This means to say: Subhânak Allâhumma… You are Glorified oh Allâh and praised. Blessed is your Name and Elevated is your Majesty. There is no God besides you.[44] Sayyiduna Abu Saeed al Khudri radiallahu anhu narrates that when Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would begin salâh he would say Subhânak Allâhumma…'.*45+ The same hadeeth has also been reported from Ummul Mu'mineen Aisha[46] radiallahu anha and Sayyiduna Anas radiallahu anhu[47], as well as other Sahâbah radiallahu anhum. Abdah reports that Sayyiduna Umar bin al Khattab radiallahu anhu, would recite the following words loudly (in salâh) 'Subhânak Allâhumma...'.[48] Aswad reports that when Sayyiduna Umar bin al Khattab radiallahu anhu would begin salâh he would say Subhânak Allâhumma...'.[49] It is also narrated as being the practice of Sayyiduna Uthman,[50] Sayyiduna Abu Bakr[51] and Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Mas'ud [52] radiallahu anhum [43] al Toor 52/48. [44] Ibn Abi Shaibah 2402 and Ibn Jareer at Tabari 32403 & 32404. [45] Ibn Abi Shaibah 2401, Ahmad 11260, Ibn Majah 804 and Nasai 899. Hafidh Haithami says 2/265 that its narrators are authentic. [46] Ibn Majah 806, Abu Dawood 776, Tirmidhi 243, Hakim 859 and Baihaqi 2347. Hakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed with him.

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[47] Abu Ya'laa 3735, Tabarani in al Mu'jam al Awsat as quoted by Hafidh Haithami 2/107. Hafidh Haithami adds that its narrators are authentic. Also reported by Daruqutni 1135. Ibn Qudamah says in al Mughni 2/27 that its narrators are all authentic. [48] Muslim 399. [49] Ibn Abi Shaibah 2395, Tahawi 1/198 and Baihaqi 2350. Imam Nimawi says that its isnad is saheeh (337). [50] Daruqutni 1141. Imam Nimawi says that its isnad is hasan (338). [51] Saeed bin Mansoor as quoted by al Shawkani in Nail al Awtaar 2/202. Also reported by Ibn Abi Shaibah 2393 [52] Ibn Abi Shaibah 2391; and Ibn al Mundhir as quoted by Abdus Salam Ibn Taymiyyah in al Muntaqa 2/203.
Ta'awwudh.

Allâh says in the Holy Qur'ân: Thus when you recite the Qur'ân, seek the protection of Allâh from the accursed Shaitan.[53] Sayyiduna Abu Saeed al Khudri radiallahu anhu reports that before reciting Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would pray awoozu billahi… [54] Aswad says, 'Sayyiduna Umar radiallahu anhu started salâh, said the takbeer and then recited:[55] Subhanakallahumma…. And awoozubillahi……. Abu Wail reports that they (the companions) would say the ta'awwudh and basmalah silently in salâh. [56] [53] al Nahl 16/98. [54] Abdul Razzaq 2589.

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[55] Ibn Abi Shaibah 2455. [56] Saeed bin Mansoor as quoted by Imam Nimawi 340. He adds that its isnad is saheeh.
And basmalah.

Sayyiduna Anas bin Malik radiallahu anhu says, 'I prayed salâh behind Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam, Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman radiallahu anhum and I did not hear one of them recite Bismillah al Rahman al Raheem loudly.[57] The son of Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Mughaffal radiallahu anhu narrates, 'My father heard me reading Bismillah al Rahman al Raheem in salâh. He said, "Oh my son. An innovator are you? Beware of innovation." (The son of Abdullah bin Mughaffal radiallahu anhu, adds, "I have not seen anyone amongst Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam's companions to whom innovation was more repulsive than my father.") His father said, "I have prayed with Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam, Abu Bakr, Umar and 'Uthmân radiallahu anhum, and I did not hear any one of them recite Bismillah al Rahman al Raheem, therefore do not recite it. When you pray salâh read al Hamdu Lillahi Rabbil Aalameen.'[58] [57] Malik 179, Muslim 399 and Nasai 907. [58] Ahmad 16345, Ibn Majah 815, Tirmidhi 244 and Tahawi 1/202. Imam Tirmidhi says that it is hasan.
Followed by a recitation of Sûrah al Fatihah.

Sayyiduna Ubadah bin Samit radiallahu anhu reports that Rasulullah sallahu alaihi wa sallam said, 'There is no salâh for one who does not recite 'the opening chapter of the book'.'[59] Wahb bin Kaysan reports that he heard Sayyiduna Jabir bin Abdullah radiallahu anhu say, 'He who prays one rak'ah in which he does not recite Sûrah al Fatihah has in fact not prayed at all, unless he is behind an Imam.'[60]

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Ahadeeth such as those mentioned above which stress the obligation of Sûrah al Fatihah are for the Imam or the individual, not the muqtadi. Imam Tirmidhi has quoted Imam Ahmad who commented on the above hadeeth (There is no salâh for one...) by saying 'This is if he is alone.' [59] Bukhari 723 and Muslim 394. [60] Malik 188 and Tirmidhi 313. Imam Tirmidhi says that the hadeeth is hasan saheeh.
On completing Sûrah al Fatihah you should say Ameen silently, regardless of whether you are alone or praying behind the Imam.

Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah radiallahu anhu narrates that Rasulullah sallallhu alaihi wa sallam said, 'When the Imam says "Ghairil Maghdhoobi Alaihim WaladhaAlleen", say Ameen. For one whose Ameen coincides with that of the angels, he will have all his past sins forgiven."[61] Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah radiallahu anhu narrates that Rasulullah sallallhu alaihi wa sallam said, 'When the Imam says "Ghairil Maqhdhoobi Alaihim Waladhaalleen" say Ameen. And indeed the angels say Ameen and the Imam says Ameen. So one whose Ameen coincides with that of the angels, he will have his past sins forgiven.[62] Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah relates that Rasulullah sallallhu alaihi wa sallam would teach us saying, 'Do not try to outdo the Imam. When he pronounces the takbeer, you say it also; when he recites " Waladhaalleen" then say Ameen; when he performs the ruku' you do it also; and when he says 'Sami Allâhu li man Hamidah' say 'Allâhumma Rabbana lakal Hamd'.[63] As can be deduced from the above hadeeth the Ameen should be said silently just as 'Allâhumma Rabbana lakal Hamd' is said silently. Sayyiduna Wail bin Hujr radiallahu anhu says, 'Rasulullah sallallhu alaihi wa sallam led us in salâh. When he recited "Ghairil Maqhdhoobi Alaihim Waladhaalleen" he said Ameen silently. (Literally, 'He kept his voice silent.') He also placed his right hand on his left hand, and said the salam to his right and left.'[64] Ibrahim al Nakhai says, 'There are five things which the Imam says silently: "Subhânak

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Allâhumma...", ta'awwudh, basmalah, Ameen, and "Allâhumma Rabbana wa lakal Hamd".'[65] Abu Wail reports that Sayyiduna Ali and Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Mas'ud radiallahu anhu, would not say the basmalah, ta'awwudh or Ameen loudly.[66] Abu Wail says that Sayyiduna Umar and Sayyiduna Ali radiallahu anhu would not say the basmalah, ta'awwudh or Ameen loudly.[67] Ibn Jareer al Tabari says as quoted by Ibn al Turkurnam[68] that this was the practice of most of the Sahâbah radiallahu anhum and Tabi'ûn.[69] [61] Malik 196, Bukhari 749 and Muslim 410. [62] Ahmad 7174, Darimi 1246, Nasai 927 and Ibn Hibban 1801. Imam Nimawi says that its isnad is saheeh (376). [63] Muslim 415 [64] Abu Dawood Tayalisi 1024, Ahmad 18363, Tirmidhi 248; Tabarani in al Mu'jam al Kabeer 22/43 no 109, 22/9 no 3, & 22/45 no 112; Daruqutni 1256, Hakim 2913 and Baihaqi 2447. Hakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed. [65] Imam Muhammad in his Kitab al Aathaar 83 (mentioning four instead of five); Abdul Razzaq 2597, and Ibn Abi Shaibah 8849. Imam Nimawi says that its isnad is saheeh (386). Muhaddith Dhafar Ahmad Uthmani says that its narrators are authentic (724). [66] Tabarani in al Mu'jam al Kabeer as quoted by Hafidh Haithami 2/108. Hafidh Haithami says that the sanad contains Abu Sa'd al Baqqal who is authentic and a mudallis. Muhaddith Dhafar Ahmad Uthmani classifies it as saheeh 2/250. [67] Ibn Jareer al Tabari in Tahdheeb al Aathaar as quoted by Ibn al Turkumani 2/70. Also reported by Tahawi 1/204. Muhaddith Dhafar Ahmad Uthmani says that its narrators are those of the six books of hadeeth except for Abu Sa'd al Baqqal who is authentic and a mudallis. [68] Ibn al Turkumani 2/85.

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[69] For a more detailed discussion of this topic see next volume
Then repeat the basmalah and recite any other Sûrah, or at least one long verse or three small verses from any part of the Qur'ân.

Allâh says in the Qur'ân: Thus, recite whatever may be possible from the Qur'ân.[70] Sayyiduna Abu Qatadah radiallahu anhu narrates that Rasulullah sallallhu alaihi wa sallam would recite Sûrah al Fatihah and another Sûrah in the first two rak'aat of Dhuhr and Asr salâh, and at times he would (read loud enough and) allow us to hear a verse. In the second two rak'aat he would read only Sûrah al Fatihah."[71] Sayyiduna Ubadah bin al Samit radiallahu anhu narrates that Rasulullah sallallhu alaihi wa sallam said, 'There is no salâh for one who does not recite the mother (essential chapter al Fatihah) of the book and more."[72] Sayyiduna Abu Saeed al Khudri radiallahu anhu relates that Rasulullah sallallhu alaihi wa sallam said, 'The key to salâh is purity, its consecration is takbeer, and its deconsecrating act is the salam. And there is no salâh for one who does not recite 'Alhamdu lillâh...'(the opening chapter of the book) and a Sûrah in an obligatory or other (prayer).'[73] [70] al Muzzammil 73/20. [71] Muslim 451, Bukhari 725. [72] Muslim 394, Abu Dawood 822 and Ibn Hibban 1783. [73] Tirmidhi 238. He adds that it is hasan.
If you are praying in a congregation then you should not read anything behind the Imam.

Allâh says: And when the Qur'ân is recited, listen to it attentively and remain silent, that you may receive mercy.[74] Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah radiallahu anhu says, 'Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam turned around after a salâh in which he had recited loudly. He enquired, "Has any one of you recited (behind me)?" A man replied, "I did." Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam

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said, "I say: what is it with me? I am being contested for the Qur'ân." After the people heard this from Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam they stopped reciting with him (behind him) in those salâh in which he would pray loudly.'[75] Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah radiallahu anhu reports that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said, 'The Imam has been appointed so that he may be followed. Thus, when he says the takbeer, you say it also, and when he recites remain silent.'[76] Sayyiduna Abu Musa al Ash'ari radiallahu anhu says, 'Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam taught us that "When you stand up for prayer one of you should lead the rest, and when the Imam recites remain silent."[77] Abu Wail reports that Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Mas'ud radiallahu anhu was asked about reciting behind the Imam. He replied, 'Remain silent for the recitation (of the Imam). For indeed there is a duty in salâh for which the Imam is sufficient for you.'[78] Nafi' reports that when Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Umar radiallahu anhu would be asked, 'Should one recite behind the Imam?' he would reply, 'When one of you prays behind the Imam then the Imam's recitation is sufficient for him. When he prays alone he should recite.' Nafi' adds, 'Abdullah bin Umar radiallahu anhu would not recite behind the Imam.'[79]Sayyiduna Jabir bin Abdullah radiallahu anhu relates that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said, 'One who prays behind an Imam, the recitation of the Imam is sufficient for him.'[80] The above hadeeth has also been reported from Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam on the authority of the noble Sahâbah Anas,[81] Abdullah bin Abbas,[82] Abu Hurairah,[83] Abu Saeed al Khudri,[84] Abdullah bin Umar,[85] Ali,[86] and Abu al Dardaa [87]radiallahu anhum. Ahadeeth such as those above stressing the obligation of Sûrah al Fâtihah are for the Imam or the individual, not the muqtadi. Imam Tirmidhi has quoted Imam Ahmad who commented on the above hadeeth (There is no salâh for one...) by saying 'This is if he is alone.' Wahb bin Kaysan reports that he heard Sayyiduna Jabir bin Abdullah radiallahu anhu say,

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'He who prays one rak'ah in which he does not recite Sûrah al Fâtihah has in fact not prayed at all, unless he is behind an Imam.'[88] [74] Al A'raaf 7/204. [75] Malik 194, Ahmad 7760, Ibn Majah 849, Abu Dawood 826, Tirmidhi 312 and Nasai 919. [76] Ahmad 9151. Also reported by Ahmad bin Manee' and Abd bin Humaid in their Musnads with a saheeh sanad as quoted by Bouseeree in Misbah al Zujajah Chapter 150, hadeeth 313. Narrated also by Ibn Majah 846, Abu Dawood 603, Nasai 921 & 922 and Tahawi 1/217. Imam Nimawi says that its isnad is saheeh. Allamah Abdul Hayy Luckhnawi categorically concludes in his Imam al Kalam, p 165 that the hadeeth is authentic after quoting a number of ulama who have declared it saheeh including Imam Ahmad. For details of Allamah Abdul Hayy Luckhnawi's life, learning and works see the biographies. [77] Ahmad 19224, Muslim 404 (as part of a longer hadeeth), and Ibn Majah 847. [78] Imam Muhammad in his al Muwatta 120 & 122, Ibn Abi Shaibah 3780, and Tahawi 1/217. Imam Nimawi says 369 that its isnad is saheeh. [79] Malik 193. [80] Imam Abu Hanifah as recorded in the Musnad of Khaskafi p307 and in Jam'i al Masaneed 1/ 334; Imam Muhammad in his al Muwatta 117 and in his Kitab al Hujjah 1/118 with an isnad declared saheeh by Hafidh Badr al Deen al Aini and Imam Nimawi 364. Also reported by Ibn Abi Shaibah 3802 with an isnad classified saheeh by Ibn at Turkumani 2/228; Ahmad 14233; Abd bin Humaid 1050; Ahmad bin Manee' with a saheeh isnad as quoted by Imam Nimawi 364; Ibn Majah 850; Tahawi 1/217 with an isnad declared saheeh by Hafidh Ibn al Humam as mentioned in the footnotes of Sharh Maani al Athaar 1/217; and Baihaqi 2897. [81] Ibn Hibban in his al Dhuafaa 2/202. [82] Daruqutni 1238 & 1252. [83] Daruqutni 1229 & 1230.

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[84] Tabarani in al Mu'jam al Awsat as quoted by Hafidh Haithami 2/111. Hafidh Haithami says that the sanad contains Haroon al Abdi who is matrook. [85] Daruqutni 1225. [86] Daruqutni 1234. [87] Daruqutni 1248. [88] Malik 188 and Tirmidhi 313.
When this recitation is finished, repeat the takbeer…

Abu Salâmah relates that Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah radiallahu anhu would lead them in salâh, and pronounce the takbeer whenever he rose or fell (into ruku' or prostration). Having completed the salâh he would turn around and say, 'Amongst you my salâh is the closest to that of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam.'[89] Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Mas'ud radiallahu anhu says, 'Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would say the takbeer at the time of each rising, descent, standing, and sitting, and so would Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman radiallahu anhum[90] [89] Malik 168, Bukhari 752 and Muslim 392. [90] Ahmad 3652, Darimi 1249, Tirmidhi 235 and Nasai 1149. Imam Tirmidhi says that it is a hasan saheeh hadeeth.
and, without raising your hands,…

Alqamah reports that Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Mas'ud radiallahu anhu said, 'Should I not lead you in salâh in the manner of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam ?' He then prayed and did not raise his hands except in the beginning.[91] The above hadeeth has also been reported by Imam Nasai with the following wording: 'Should I not inform you of the salâh of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam?' He then stood up and raised his hands once in the beginning. He did not raise them again.[92] Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Mas'ud radiallahu anhu reports that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would raise his hands at the time of the first takbeer and not raise them again.[93]

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Sayyiduna Baraa bin Azib radiallahu anhu relates that when Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would begin salâh he would raise his hands close to his ears and then not raise them again.[94] Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Umar radiallahu anhu narrates that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would raise his hands when beginning salâh and then not raise them again.[95] Abbad the son of Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Zubair radiallahu anhu relates that when starting salâh Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would raise his hands in the beginning and not raise them again at any time until he completed his prayer.[96] Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Mas'ud says, 'I prayed behind Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam, Abu Bakr, and Umar radiallahu anhum and they did not raise their hands except when beginning salâh.'[97] Aswad says, 'I prayed salâh with Umar bin al Khattab radiallahu anhu and he did not raise his hands during any part of salâh except in the beginning.' Abdul Malik (one of the narrators) says, 'I also observed Sha'bi, Ibrahim, and Ishaq not raising their hands except when beginning their salâh.'[98] Ibrahim al Nakhai says, 'Abdullah bin Mas'ud radiallahu anhu would not raise his hands in any part of salâh except in the beginning.'[99] Aasim bin Kulaib narrates from his father that Sayyiduna Ali radiallahu anhu would raise his hands at the first takbeer of salâh. He would not raise them again after this.[100] Abu Ishaq says, 'The companions of both Abdullah bin Mas'ud and Ali radiallahu anhum would not raise their hands except in the beginning of salâh.' Wakee' adds, 'And they would not raise them again.'[101] Mujahid says, 'I prayed salâh behind Ibn Umar radiallahu anhu and he would not raise his hands in salâh except at the time of the first takbeer.'[102] Abdul Azeez bin Hakeem says, 'I saw Ibn Umar radiallahu anhu, raise his hands to the level of his ears at the time of the first takbeer in the beginning of salâh, and he did not raise them apart from this.'[103]

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Husain bin Abdul Rahman relates, 'Amr bin Murrah and I visited Ibrahim al Nakhai. Amr said, "Alqamah bin Wail al Hadhrami narrated to me from his father radiallahu anhu that he prayed salâh with Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam. He saw him raise his hands when he said the takbeer, when he bowed into ruku' and when he rose there from." Ibrahim replied, "I do not know. He may possibly not have seen Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam pray except on that day and thus remembered this of him. (Otherwise) did Ibn Mas'ud radiallahu anhu and his companions not remember this of him? I have not heard it from any one of them. They would only raise their hands in the beginning of salâh when saying the takbeer".'[104] Sayyiduna Jabir bin Samurah radiallahu anhu says, 'Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam came out to us saying 'Why is it that I see you raising your hands as though they are the tails of obstinate horses? Remain calm in salâh.'[105] Abu Bakr bin Ayyash says, 'I have not seen a single faqeeh do it: raise his hands at any time other than the first takbeer.'[106] Muhaddith Dhafar Ahmad al Uthmani writes, 'This shows that the raising of the hands when bowing into ruku' and when rising from it was most likely not practiced widely during the time of the Tabi'un, for Abu Bakr bin Ayyash was one of the foremost Tab'i Tabieen. Malik who was also a prominent Tab'i Tabiee says as is recorded in al Mudawwanah al Kubra, "I do not know of raising the hands in any takbeer of salâh, neither whilst rising or bowing except in the beginning when he should raise his hands slightly."[107] Ibn al Qasim also says, "Raising the hands was weak in the view of Malik except in the beginning of salâh." This also shows that the raising of the hands was generally not practiced during that time.' [108] Imam Nimawi says: 'The Sahâbah radiallahu anhum and those who came after them differed in this regard. As for the four caliphs, the raising of the hands has not been proven from them except in the first takbeer of tahreemah. And Allâh knows best.'[109] After narrating the above hadeeth of Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Mas'ud radiallahu anhu, Imam Tirmidhi comments:

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'There is a narration of the same meaning on the authority of Baraa bin Azib, Abdullah bin Mas'ud's radiallahu anhu hadeeth is hasan, and many of the Rasulullah's (salallahu alaihi wa sallam) learned companions are of the same view, i.e., the hands should not be raised during salâh except once in the beginning. This is also the view of Sufyan al Thawri and the people of Kufah.' Not raising the hands except in the beginning of salâh was the known practice of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr, Sayyiduna Umar, Sayyiduna Ali and Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Mas'ud radiallahu anhum as well as many others from amongst the learned Sahâbah radiallahu anhum as mentioned by Tirmidhi above. It has also been reported from Sayyiduna Ibn Umar radiallahu anhu, and others. From amongst the Tabi'un it was the known practice of the companions of Sayyiduna Ali radiallahu anhu and Sayyiduna Ibn Mas'ud radiallahu anhu, Aswad bin Yazeed, Alqamah bin Qais, Ibrahim al Nakhai, Khaithamah, Qais bin Abi Hazim, Aamir al Sha'bi,[110] Abu Ishaq al Sabiee, Wakee', Aasim bin Kulaib, virtually all of the fuqahah and people of Kufah, and many in other cities. It is also the view and practice of Mughirah, Hasan bin Salih, Sufyan al Thawri, Hasan bin Hayy, Wakee', Ishaq bin Abi Israeel, Imam Abu Hanifah, Imam Malik, Imam Abu Yusuf, Imam Muhammad and their followers.[111] [91] Imam Abu Hanifah as recorded in Jam'i al Masaneed 1/355. Also reported by Ibn Abi Shaibah in his al Musannaf 2441 as well as his Musnad 323; Ahmad 3672, Abu Dawood 748, Tirmidhi 257; Nasai in al Mujtaba 1058 and also in al Sunan al Kubra 645 & 1099; Abu Ya'laa 5040 & 5302, and Baihaqi 2531. Ibn Hazam 2/ 264, Ibn al Turkumani 2/113 and Imam Nimawi 402 have all declared the hadeeth saheeh. [92] Nasai 1026. Muhaddith Dhafar Ahmad Uthmani says 814 that its narrators are those of both Bukhari and Muslim except Suwaid who is thiqah (authentic) and Aasim who is a thiqah narrator of Muslim. [93] Tahawi 1/224 with two different isnads. Muhaddith Dhafar Ahmad Uthmani has discussed each narrator of both these sanads and proven that they are all authentic 3/71. [94] Abdul Razzaq 2531, Ibn Abi Shaibah 2440, Abu Dawood 749; and Abu Ya'laa 1689, 1690, 1691 & 1692; and Tahawi 1/224. Allamah Anwar Shah al Kashmiri says as quoted

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by Muhaddith Yusuf al Binnouri 2/493, 'In short, this discussion of the topic from the angle of both hadeeth and historical data concludes that it is correct to use the hadeeth of Baraa (bin Azib) as evidence with the authentic additional wording (of "he would not raise them again")'. [95] Baihaqi in al Khilafiyyat as quoted by Hafidh Zailaee 1720. Muhaddith Yusuf al Binnouri 2/ 498 quotes Qadhi Abid Sindhi who says in al Mawahib al Lateefah, 'In my view this hadeeth is undoubtedly saheeh.' He also quotes 2/496 Allamah Anwar Shah al Kashmiri as saying, 'The sanad mentioned in the takhreej (Nasb al Ra'yah by Hafidh Zailaee) is saheeh.' For details of the lives, learning and works of both Hafidh Zailaee and Qadhi Abi Sindhi see the biographies. [96] Baihaqi in his al Khilafiyyat as quoted by Hafidh Zailaee 1721. Allamah Anwar Shah al Kashmiri says as quoted in Ma'arif al Sunan 2/ 496, 'I have researched the narrators of its isnad and the conclusion of the research was that it is saheeh.' He also added, 'It is a jayyid mursal hadeeth.' [97] Abu Ya'laa 5039, Daruqutni 1120, and Baihaqi 2534. Ibn al Turkumani says that this is a jayyid supporting narration. The hadeeth contains Muhammad bin Jabir bin Sayyar who has been declared weak by some, reliable by others. Muhaddith Dhafar Ahmad Uthmani 3/67 discusses his position at length before concluding that his hadeeth is at least hasan. [98] Ibn Abi Shaibah 2454 and Tahawi 1/227. Imam Tahawi says that it is a saheeh hadeeth. Ibn al Turkumani says 2/109 that this sanad is saheeh according to the conditions of Muslim. Hafidh Ibn Hajar says in al Dirayah p113 that its narrators are authentic. [99] Abdul Razzaq 2533-2535, Ibn Abi Shaibah 2443 and Tahawi 1/227. Imam Nimawi says that its isnad is jayyid (very good) and mursal. [100] Imam Muhammad in his al Muwatta 109, Ibn Abi Shaibah 2442, Tahawi 1/225 and Baihaqi 2535. Hafidh Zailaee says that it is a saheeh hadeeth 1/406. Hafidh Ibn Hajar says in al Dirayah 1/113 that its narrators are authentic and Hafidh Badr al Deen al Aini says in Umdat al Qari as quoted by Imam Nimawi 404, 'The isnad of Aasim bin Kulaib's hadeeth is saheeh according to the conditions of Muslim.'

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[101] Ibn Abi Shaibah 2446. Ibn al Turkumam says 2/115 that this is a great saheeh sanad. [102] Ibn Abi Shaibah 2452 and Tahawi 1/225. Hafidh Badr al Deen al Aini says Umdat al Qari 5/273 that its isnad is saheeh. [103] Imam Muhammad in al Muwatta 108. [104] Imam Abu Hanifah as recorded in Jam'i al Masaneed 1/353, Imam Muhammad in his al Muwatta of which Muhaddith Dhafar Ahmad Uthmani says that its narrators are authentic (825). Also reported by Tahawi 1/224, Daruqutni 1108 and Baihaqi 2536. [105] Ahmad 20450 & 20522, Muslim 430, Abu Dawood 1000 and Nasai 1184. For a further explanation of this hadeeth see in next volume [106] Tahawi 1/228. Muhaddith Dhafar Ahmad Uthmani says 827, 'Its narrators are those of Bukhari except Ibn Abi Dawood and he is thiqah (authentic).' Muhaddith Yusuf al Binnouri says 2/494 that its sanad is strong. Abu Bakr bin Ayyash is one of the narrators of Bukhari and one of the teachers of Sufyan al Thawri, Ibn al Mubarak and Imam Ahmad. [107] al Mudawwanah al Kubra 1/165. [108] I'ilaa al Sunan 3/76. [109] Aathaar al Sunan p215. [110] For the narrations describing the practice of the above Tabi'un see al Musannaf of Ibn Abi Shaibah 2444-2454. [111] See next volume for discussion of this topic.
… bow down into ruku',

… Allâh says in the Holy Qur'ân: Oh you who believe! Bow down and prostrate, and worship your Lord.[112] [112] al Hajj 22/77.

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… grasping your knees with the fingers outspread, and keeping the back straight, not arching it, neither raising the head nor lowering it. Ensure that your arms are also kept free of your body.[113] Salim al Barrad relates in the longer hadeeth describing Sayyiduna Uqbah bin Amr's radiallahu anhu demonstration of the Rasulullah's sallalahu alaihi wa sallam prayer[114] that 'When he performed the ruku', he placed his palms on his knees with his fingers slightly lower, and distanced his arms from his body until he was motionless'.[115] Sayyiduna Ibn Abbas radiallahu anhu says, 'When Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would bow down into ruku' (his back would be so straight that) if water was poured onto his back it would settle there.'[116] Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah radiallahu anhu reports that once a man entered the masjid and performed his salâh whilst Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam was in the corner of the masjid. He then greeted Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam. Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam returned the greeting and said, 'Return and pray because you have not prayed.' The man went back, prayed and then greeted Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam again. Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam returned the greeting for a second time and said, 'Return and pray because you have not prayed.' On the third time the man said, 'Teach me.' Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said, 'When you stand for prayer, complete the wudhu, face the qiblah, pronounce the takbeer, and recite whatever Qur'ân you may know. Then bow down until you are motionless in ruku'. Now stand erect and then fall down and settle into prostration. Then rise from your prostration and sit motionless. Then fall down again and settle into prostration. Then rise until you stand up straight. Do this throughout your salâh.'[117] Sayyiduna Abu Qatadah radiallahu anhu relates that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said, 'The worst of all thieves is one who steals from his salâh.' They asked, 'Oh Prophet of Allâh! How does he steal from his salâh?' He replied, 'He does not complete its ruku' or sujûd, and nor does he straighten his back in ruku' or sujûd.'[118] The same hadeeth has also been reported on the authority of the noble Sahâbah

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Sayyiduna Nu'man bin Murrah,[119] Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah,[120] and Sayyiduna Abu Saeed al Khudri radiallahu anhum[121] Sayyiduna Ali bin Shaiban radiallahu anhu (who was part of a delegation) reports: 'We came to Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam and pledged our allegiance to him. We prayed behind him, and he noticed a man from the corner of his eye who was not straightening his back in ruku' and sujûd. When Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam completed his salâh, he said, "Oh Muslims! There is no salâh for one who does not straighten his back in ruku' and sujûd."'[122] Sayiiduna Abu Humaid, Sayyiduna Abu Usaid, Sayyiduna Sahl bin Sa'd and Sayyiduna Muhammad bin Salâmah radiallahu anhum came together and discussed the salâh of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam. Sayyiduna Abu Humaid said, 'I am the most knowledgeable of you about the salâh of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam. When he would bow down into ruku' he would place his hands upon his knees as though he was grasping them, and he would bend his arms and distance them from his sides.'[123] Sayyiduna Wail bin Hujr radiallahu anhu reports that when Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would bow down into ruku' he would spread his fingers wide, and when prostrating he would keep them together.[124] The above hadeeth has also been narrated without the mention of the sujûd [125]. Sayyiduna Umar radiallahu anhu said, 'The knees are sunnah for you so grasp your knees.'[126] [113] Unlike men, in ruku', women should tuck their arms into the body and not spread them outward. They should also simply place their hands over their knees with closed fingers, and not grasp them with the fingers spread wide open. See later chapter for details. [114] See Chapter 1 in next volume [115] Ahmad 16628, Darimi 1304, Abu Dawood 863 and Nasai 1036. Imam Nimawi says that its isnad is saheeh.

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[116] Tabarani in al Mu'jam al Kabeer and Abu Ya'laa as quoted by Hafidh Haithami 2/123 who adds that its narrators are authentic [117] Bukhari 6290 & 760. [118] Ahmad 11138, Darimi 1328, Ibn Khuzaimah 663, Tabarani in al Mu'jam al Kabeer 3283 and Hakim 835. Hakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed. Hafidh Haithami also says that its narrators are those of Bukhari [119] Malik 401. [120] Ibn Hibban 1885, and Hakim 836 who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed. [121] Abu Dawood Tayalisi 2219, Ahmad 11549, and Abu Ya'laa 1311. [122] Ahmad 15862, Ibn Majah 871 and Ibn Hibban 1888. Imam Nimawi says that its isnad is saheeh (420). [123] Tirmidhi 260. He adds that the hadeeth is hasan saheeh. [124] Ibn Hibban 1917, Tabarani in al Mu'jam al Kabeer as quoted by Hafidh Haithami 2/135; and Baihaqi 2695. Hafidh Haithami says that its isnad is hasan. [125] Ibn Khuzaimah 594 and Hakim 814 who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed [126] Tirmidhi 258 and Nasai 1034. Imam Tirmidhi says the hadeeth is hasan saheeh.
Say tasbeeh for a minimum of three times.

Allâh says in the Holy Qur'ân: Then hymn with praise the name of your Lord, the Most Great.[127] Sayyiduna Uqbah bin Aamir al Juhani radiallahu anhu narrates, 'When the verse 'And praise the name of your Lord the most great' was revealed to Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam, he said, 'Place this in your ruku'.' And when the verse 'Praise the name of your Lord the Most High' was revealed he said, 'Place this in your prostration.'[128]

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Sayyiduna Hudhaifah radiallahu anhu says that he prayed salâh with Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam who would read 'Subhâna Rabbiyal-Azeem' (Praised be my Lord the Most Great) in his bowing of ruku', and 'Subhâna Rabbiyal-A'lâ' (Praised be my Lord the Most High) in his prostration.[129] Similar ahadeeth about rasulullah's sallallahu alaihi wa sallam own practice have been narrated on the authority of Sayyiduna Abu Bakrah radiallahu anhu [130] and Sayyiduna Jubair bin Mutim [131] Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Mas'ud radiallahu anhu relates that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said, 'When one of you bows down into ruku' he should say 'Subhâna RabbiyalAzeem' three times and this is the minimum, and when he falls into prostration he should say 'Subhâna Rabbiyal-A'lâ' three times and this is the minimum.'[132] [127] al Waqi'ah 56/74. [128] Abu Dawood Tayalisi 1000, Ahmad 16961, Darimi 1305, Ibn Majah 887, Abu Dawood 869, Abu Ya'laa 1738, Ibn Khuzaimah 670, Tahawi 1/235, Ibn Hibban 1895, Tabarani in al Mu'jam al Kabeer 889, Hakim 818 and Baihaqi 2555. Imam Nawawi says that the hadeeth is hasan as quoted by Mulla Ali Qari in al Mirqat, and Imam Nimawi also declares it hasan (424). [129] Ibn Majah 888, Nasai in al Mujtaba 1046 and in al Sunan al Kubra 634, Tahawi 1/235, and Ibn Hibban 1894. Imam Nimawi says that its isnad is saheeh (423). [130] Bazzar as quoted by Hafidh Ibn Hajar in Mukhtasar Zawaid al Bazzar 384. Imam Nimawi says that its isnad is hasan (425). [131] Bazzar as quoted by Hafidh bin Hajar in Mukhtasar Zawaid al Bazzar 383. Also reported by Tabarani in al Mu'jam al Kabeer 1572 and in Musnad al Shamiyyeen 1359. [132] Ibn Majah 890, Abu Dawood 886 and Tirmidhi 261. And then rise again to the standing position (qiyâm) saying 'Sami'-allâhu li man hamidah (Allâh hears those who praise Him)'. You should stand erect and say 'Allâhumma Rabbanâ wa lakal Hamd (Oh Allâh, Our Lord! You are Praised)'.

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Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah radiallahu anhu narrates that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said, 'When the Imam says "Sami Allâhu li man Hamidah" say "Allâhumma Rabbanâ lakal Hamd". For one whose above prayer coincides with that of the angels will have all his past sins forgiven.'[133] Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah radiallahu anhu also reports that when Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would intend to pray salâh, he would pronounce the takbeer when standing and then when bowing into ruku'. When he raised his back from ruku' he would say 'Sami Allâhu li man Hamidah', and then whilst standing he would say 'Rabbanâ lakal Hamd'.[134] [133] Bukhari 763 and Muslim 409. [134] Bukhari 756 and Muslim 392.
Members of the congregation should only say 'Rabbanâ…'.

Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah narrates that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said, 'When the Imam says 'Sami Allâhu li man Hamidah' say 'Allâhumma Rabbanâ lakal Hamd'. For he whose above prayer coincides with that of the angels will have all his past sins forgiven.'[135] Amir al Sha'bi says, 'The congregation behind the Imam will not say 'Sami Allâhu li man Hamidah'. They will only say 'Rabbanâ lakal Hamd'.'[136] [135] Bukhari 763 and Muslim 409. [136] Abu Dawood 849. Sha'bi is a tabiee and Ijli has said that the mursal narrations of Sha'bi are saheeh.
Whilst standing in this position do not fasten your hands but leave them at your sides.

As part of a longer hadeeth it is reported that when Sayyiduna Ali radiallahu anhu would

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stand up for prayer and say the takbeer he would place his right hand on his left wrist. He would remain like this until he bowed down into ruku'.[137] Leaving the hands hanging at the side after ruku' has always been the practice of the entire ummah. The method of fastening the hands at this time as adopted by certain people has never been mentioned by any of the Sahâbah in their narrations despite being so particular and diligent in their description of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam's prayer and in turn this has never been quoted as being the practice of anyone from amongst the Sahâbah, Tabi'un or Tab' Tabieen.[138] [137] Ibn Abi Shaibah 3940 and Baihaqi 2333. [138] See next volume for details.
Then, repeating the takbeer and without raising your hands begin the prostration.

Allâh says in the Holy Qur'ân: Oh you who believe! Bow down and prostrate, and worship your Lord.[139] [139] al Hajj 22/77.
Allow your knees to first touch the ground followed by the hands.

Sayyiduna Wail bin Hujr radiallahu anhu says, 'I saw Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam place his knees (on the ground) before his hands when he would prostrate, and lift up his hands before his knees when rising.'[140] Khattabi,[141] Tibi, Ibn al Mundhir,[142] and Ibn Sayyid al Naas al Ya'muri have all declared the above hadeeth of Sayyiduna Wail bin Hujr radiallahu anhu as more established and authentic than the hadeeth of Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah radiallahu anhu (discussed later in next volume) on the same subject. This hadeeth is supported by the following narrations: Sayyiduna Anas radiallahu anhu says, 'I saw Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam say the takbeer and place his thumbs close to his ears. He bowed down into ruku' until each of

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his joints became motionless, and then descended (into sujûd) with the takbeer. His knees went before his hands.'[143] Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah radiallahu anhu reports that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said, 'When one of you falls down into sajdah he should begin with his knees before his hands and he should not descend in the manner of a camel.'[144] Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah radiallahu anhu reports that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said, 'When one of you falls down into sajdah does he do so in the manner of a camel?'[145] Sayyiduna Sa'd bin Abi Waqqas radiallahu anhu says, 'We used to place our hands before our knees, then we were instructed to place our knees before our hands.'[146] Kulaib narrates that when Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would prostrate his knees would fall to the ground before his hands.[147] Sayyiduna Hakeem bin Hizam radiallahu anhu says, 'I pledged to Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam that I would not descend except whilst being upright.'[148] Sayyiduna Ubayy bin Ka'b radiallahu anhu narrates that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would fall down upon his knees and not lean.[149] Aswad reports that Sayyiduna Umar radiallahu anhu would fall down on his knees.[150] The same has been reported about Sayyiduna Umar radiallahu anhu by Alqamah[151] and Ibrahim al Nakhai.[152]

Ibrahim al Nakhai says, 'It has been remembered of Ibn Mas'ud radiallahu anhu that his knees would fall to the ground before his hands.'[153] Abdullah relates that when his father (Muslim bin asaar)[154] would prostrate his knees would fall to the ground followed by his hands and then his head.[155] Nafi' reports that when Ibn Umar radiallahu anhu would prostrate he would place his

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knees before his hands and when rising from the prostration he would raise his hands before his knees.[156] Abu Ishaq relates that when the companions of Abdullah (bin Masood) radiallahu anhu would descend for sujûd their knees would fall to the ground before their hands.[157] Mahdi bin Maimoon says, 'I saw Ibn Seereen place his knees before his hands.'[158] Mugheerah says, 'I asked Ibraheem (al Nakhai) about a man who places his hands before his knees when falling down into sujûd. He replied, "Only a fool or mad man would do it."'[159] Imam Tirmidhi says after narrating the above hadeeth of Sayyiduna Wail bin Hujr radiallahu anhu, 'This is the practice of most of the people of learning. They are of the view that a man should place his knees before his hands, and when rising he should lift his hands before his knees.'[160] [140] Darimi 1320, Ibn Majah 882, Abu Dawood 838, Tirmidhi 268, Nasai 1089, Ibn Khuzaimah 626, and Tahawi 1/255. Also reported by Ibn al Sakan in his Saheeh as quoted by Hafidh bin Hajar in al Talkhees al Habeer 1/254 no. 379. Narrated also by Ibn Hibban 1909, Hakim 822, Baihaqi 2628 and Baghawi 3/133 no 642. Imam Tirmidhi says that the hadeeth is hasan ghareeb and Hakim has declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed. This hadeeth has also been narrated with other chains. [141] As mentioned by Hafidh in Fath al Bari 2/370, and Baghawi in Sharh al Sunnah 3/135. [142]. In al Awsat 3/166 [143] Hakim 822 and Baihaqi 2632. Hakim classified it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed with him. Hafidh Ibn al Humam quotes Ibn al Jawzi in Fath al Qadeer 1/287 as saying that all of its narrators are authentic [144] Ibn Abi Shaibah 2702, Abu Ya'laa 11/414 no 6540, Tahawi 1/255 and Baihaqi 2635. [145] Abu Dawood 841, Nasai 1090 and Baihaqi 2636.

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[146] Ibn Khuzaimah 828 and Baihaqi 2637. Hafidh Ibn Hajar says in Fath al Bari that two of its narrators are weak. [147] Baihaqi 2630. This hadeeth is mursal. [148] Ahmad 14888 and Nasai 1084. [149] Ibn Hibban as quoted by Hafidh Haithami in Mawarid al Dhamaan 497. [150] Ibn Abi Shaibah 2704. [151] Tahawi 1/256. Imam Nimawi says 432 that its isnad is saheeh. [152] Abdul Razzaq 2955. [153] Tahawi 1/256. Muhaddith Dhafar Ahmad Uthmani says 3/35 that its isnad is saheeh. [154] For details of his life and learning see the biographies. [155] Abdul Razzaq 2958 and Ibn Abi Shaibah 2706. [156] Ibn Abi Shaibah 2705. [157] Ibn Abi Shaibah 2711. [158] Ibn Abi Shaibah 2709. [159] Abdul Razzaq 2956 & 2957, Ibn Abi Shaibah 2707, and Tahawi 1/256. Muhaddith Dhafar Ahmad Uthmani says that its narrators are authentic (3/35). [160] For a more detailed discussion of the topic refer next volume
(Allow your) nose (to touch the ground) and finally the forehead which should be positioned between the two palms laid flat on the ground towards the qiblah.

Sayyiduna Wail bin Hujr radiallahu anhu also says, 'I observed Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam (praying salâh), and when he prostrated he placed his hands close to his ears.'[161] Abu Ishaq says, 'I asked Baraa bin Azib "Where did Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam

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place his face when prostrating?" He replied, "Between his palms."'[162] Sayyiduna Wail bin Hujr radiallahu anhu reports that when Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would prostrate he would do so between his palms.[163] There are other ahadeeth which suggest that a person should place his hands close to his shoulders in sujûd. Muhaddith Yusuf Binnouri explains in his commentary of Tirmidhi that the different narrations of the place of the hands in sujûd are similar to those relating to the raising of the hands in the beginning of salâh. They can be reconciled in the same manner and collectively taken to mean that in sujûd the hands should be placed in such a way that the wrists are close to the shoulders, the fingertips are near the top of the ears and face is in between the palms. Imam Tahawi also explains that those who raise their hands till their shoulders in the beginning of salâh place the hands in the same way in sujûd, and those who raise them till their ears in the beginning of salâh place them close to their ears in sujûd also. Sayyiduna Wail bin Hujr radiallahu anhu reports that when Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would bow down into ruku' he would spread his fingers wide, and when prostrating he would keep them together.[164] Sayyiduna Wail bin Hujr radiallahu anhu narrates that when Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would prostrate he would keep his fingers (tightly closed) together.[165] [161] Abdul Razzaq 2948, Tahawi 1/257 and Baihaqi 2692. Imam Nimawi says that its isnad is saheeh (438). [162] Tirmidhi 271. He adds that the hadeeth is hasan saheeh ghareeb. [163] Ahmad 18365. [164] Ibn Hibban 1917, Tabarani in al Mu'jam al Kabeer as quoted by Hafidh Haithami 2/135. Also reported by Baihaqi 2695. Hafidh Haithami says that its isnad is hasan. [165] Ibn Khuzaimah 642 and Hakim 826. Hakim has declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

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Do not rest your forearms on the ground but keep them raised and away from the body.[166]

Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Malik bin Buhainah radiallahu anhu reports that when Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam prayed and then prostrated he would spread out his arms until the whiteness of his armpits became visible.[167] Ummul Mu'mineen Maimoonah radiallahu anha says that when Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would prostrate (he would spread his arms so much that) if a small lamb wanted to pass under him it could do so.[168] Sayyiduna Anas bin Malik radiallahu anhu relates that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said, 'Complete your prostrations, and let not one of you rest his forearms in the manner of a dog.'[169] Sayyiduna Ibn Abbas radiallahu anhu narrates that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said, 'I have been instructed to prostrate on seven bones: on the forehead, and he also pointed to his nose; on the hands, on the knees, and on the balls of the two feet. And (I have also been instructed that) we do not gather our clothes and hair.'[170] Sayyiduna Abu Humaid radiallahu anhu relates that when Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would prostrate he would firmly rest his forehead and nose on the ground, distance his arms from his sides, and place his palms close to his shoulders.[171] [166] During prostration men should allow for some space and distance between their stomachs and thighs, and arms and the side of the body, whilst women should press these limbs together. Men should also raise their arms off the ground and allow for some distance but women should let them cling to the ground. [166] During prostration men should allow for some space and distance between their stomachs and thighs, and arms and the side of the body, whilst women should press these limbs together. Men should also raise their arms off the ground and allow for some distance but women should let them cling to the ground. [167] Bukhari 383 and Muslim 495.

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[168] Muslim 496. [169] Bukhari 788 and Muslim 493. [170] Bukhari 779 and Muslim 490. [171] Tirmidhi 270. He adds that the hadeeth is hasan saheeh
Also ensure that your thighs are not pressed against your abdomen and your toes are facing qiblah.

Sayyiduna Abu Hurnaid radiallahu anhu reports as part of a longer hadeeth that when Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam prostrated he would distance his thighs (from the upper torso), and would not let his abdomen touch any part of them.[172] Again as part of a longer hadeeth Sayyiduna Abu Humaid al Saidee radiallahu anhu reports that when prostrating he (Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam ) would place his hands without spreading them out or bringing them too close (to himself), and point his toes towards the qiblah [173] [172] Abu Dawood 730. [173] Bukhari 794.
Say tasbeeh for a minimum of three times.

Allâh says in the Holy Qur'ân: Hymn with praise the name of your Lord, the Most High.[174] [174] al A'laa 87/1
And then pronouncing the takbeer raise your head and sit upright, without sitting on the balls of your feet…

Sayyiduna Samurah radiallahu anhu narrates that the Prophet forbade iqa'a[175] in salâh[176] Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah says, 'My beloved friend, Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam

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advised me of three things and forbade three things. He forbade me from pecking like a cock, squatting in the manner of a dog, and looking around like a fox.'[177] Sayyiduna Ali radiallahu anhu says, 'Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said to me, "Oh Ali! I like for you whatever I like for myself and I dislike for you whatever I dislike for myself. Do not sit in an iqa'a position between the two sajdahs."[178] Anas bin Malik radiallahu anhu reports that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said to him, 'When you raise your head from sujûd then do not sit in an iqa'a position as a dog sits, Place your posterior between your feet and firmly place the top part of your feet upon the ground.'[179] Tawoos reports, 'We asked Ibn Abbas about sitting (in the iqa'a position) on the two feet. He replied that it is sunnah. We said, "We view it as an affliction upon the foot." He replied, "Nay. It is the sunnah of your Prophet."'[180] Tawoos's son reports from his father that he saw Abdullah bin Umar, Abdullah bin Zubair, and Abdullah bin Abbas radiallahu anhum sit in an iqa'a position.[181] There is no contradiction here in the ahadeeth. As explained by Imam Baihaqi, Ibn al Salah, Imam Nawawi and others, iqa'a is of two kinds: the iqa'a of a dog, which is to place both the posterior and the hands on the floor and to raise the knees in front. It is this kind of iqa'a that has been prohibited in the ahadeeth. The second form of iqa'a is to sit on the balls of the feet keeping the knees on the ground, and to rest the posterior upon the heels. It is this second kind of iqa'a that has been ascribed to the three Sahâbah in the above hadeeth. However, even this second form is only to be adopted at the time of need because under the general statement of the ahadeeth the ulama have described it as being makrooh also. The correct sunnah method of sitting between the two sajdahs, as described in the next hadeeth by Abdullah bin Umar radiallahu anhu himself, is to sit on the left foot with the right foot erect. Mughirah bin Hakeem relates that he saw Abdullah bin Umar radiallahu anhu sit back from the two sajdahs in salâh on the balls of his feet. When he ended his prayer, he mentioned this to him, upon which he replied, 'This is not the sunnah of salâh. I only do this because I am ill.'[182]

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[175] To place both the posterior and the hands on the floor and to raise the knees in front in the manner of a dog [176] Tabarani in at Mu'jam at Kabeer 7/229 no 6957, Hakim 1005 and Baihaqi 2739. Hakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed [177] Ahmad 8044, Abu Ya'laa and Tabarani in al Mu'jam al Awsat as quoted by Hafidh Haithami 2/80. Hafidh Haithami adds that the isnad of Ahmad is hasan [178] Ibn Majah 894, Tirmidhi 282 and Baihaqi 5790. [179] Ibn Majah 896. Bouseeree says in Misbah al Zujajah Chapter 158, hadeeth 329, 'This is a dhaeef isnad.' He later adds that the hadeeth has a supporting narration reported by Tirmidhi on the authority of Sayyiduna Ali . [180] Muslim 536. [181] Abdul Razzaq 3029. Imam Nimawi says that its isnad is saheeh (442). [182] Malik 201.
… and without leaning to any one side.

Sayyiduna Anas radiallahu anhu reports that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam forbade iqa'a and tawarruk in salâh. [183] Abdullah bin Dinar reports that he had seen Abdullah bin Umar radiallahu anhu with a man praying at his side. When the man sat down, he adopted the tarabbu' position (put out both legs to one side and sat on the ground) and crossed his feet. When Ibn Umar finished he disapproved of this. The man protested, 'But you do the same.' Abdullah bin Umar radiallahu anhu said, 'I am ill.'[184] Abdullah (the son of Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Umar radiallahu anhu ) reports that he used to see his father adopt the tarabbu' position when sitting in salâh. He said, 'So I did the same, and I was young at the time. Abdullah forbade me and said, "The sunnah of the prayer is that you keep your right foot vertical and lay down your left foot." I said to him, "But you do the same." He said, "My feet do not support me."'[185]

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In the above hadeeth Sayyiduna Ibn Umar radiallahu anhu is not quoted as mentioning how a person should sit after spreading the left foot on the ground; by placing the posterior upon the ground or on the left foot? The following hadeeth clarifies this though: Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Umar radiallahu anhu says, 'It is the sunnah of salâh to raise the right foot and face it towards the qiblah with its toes, and to sit on the left foot.'[186] [183] Ahmad 13025. Also reported by Bazzar as quoted by Hafidh Haithami 2/86. Narrated also by Baihaqi 2740. Suyuti has classified it saheeh in his al Jam'i al Sagheer 9333 and Muhaddith 14 Yusuf Binnouri has also declared it saheeh 3/ 162. [184] Malik 200. [185] Malik 202. [186] Nasai 1157 & 1158. Imam Nimawi says that its isnad is saheeh (458). You should sit with both your legs tucked in beneath you, the left foot spread out with the toes in the direction of the right foot which itself should be upright with the toes facing the qiblah. Both hands should be rested upon the thighs with the fingers facing the qiblah. This sitting posture is to be adopted throughout the salâh. There is no difference in the manner of sitting for the second and last rak'ah or for the sitting between the two prostrations. [187] Ummul Mu'mineen A'ishah radiallahu anha reports that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would begin his salâh with the takbeer, and his recitation with 'Alhamdu lillâhi Rabbil 'Âlameen', and when he would bow down into ruku' he would not raise his head nor lower it but keep it in between. Then when he would raise his head from ruku' he would not prostrate until he had stood upright, and having raised his head from sajdah he would not prostrate again until he had sat upright. He would recite the tahiyyah after every two rak'ah, spread his left foot and raise erect his right foot. He would forbid the squatting of the devil, and that a man should spread his arms upon the ground in the manner of animals. He would end his salâh with the salâm.[188]

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Sayyiduna Wail bin Hujr radiallahu anhu reports, 'I prayed salâh behind Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam and said to myself "I will preserve the salâh of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam." When he sat for tashahhud he spread his left foot upon the ground and sat on it, and placed his left palm upon his left thigh and his right arm upon his right thigh. He then shaped his fingers making a circle with the middle finger and the thumb and began praying with the other one (forefinger).'[189] In another narration Sayyiduna Wail bin Hujr radiallahu anhu says, 'I arrived in Madinah and said to myself, "I will observe the prayer of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam." When he sat for tashahhud he spread his left foot, placed his left hand on his left thigh, and raised his right foot upright.'[190] Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Umar radiallahu anhu says, 'It is the sunnah of salâh to raise the right foot and face it towards the qiblah with its toes, and to sit on the left foot.'[191] After narrating the above hadeeth of Sayyiduna Wail bin Hujr radiallahu anhu Imam Tirmidhi says, 'This is the practice of the majority of the people of learning.'
[187] Women should take out both their legs towards the right hand side of the body and rest on the posterior without raising their right foot.

[188] Muslim 498. [189] Saeed bin Mansoor as quoted by Imam Nimawi 457. Also reported by Tahawi 1/259. Imam Nimawi says that its isnad is saheeh. A similar narration has also been recorded by Abu Dawood Tayalisi 1020. [190] Tirmidhi 292 and Tahawi 1/259. Imam Tirmidhi says the hadeeth is hasan saheeh. [191] Nasai 1157 & 1158. Imam Nimawi says that its isnad is saheeh (458) Then repeating the takbeer, fall into the second prostration, and after having recited the tasbeeh as in the first prostration, say the takbeer again and return to the standing position. Whilst standing up, ensure that you first lift your forehead and nose, followed by your hands and finally your knees. Do not support yourself on your hands…

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Sayyiduna Ibn Umar radiallahu anhu reports that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam forbade that a man should support himself on his hands when rising in salâh.[192] Sayyiduna Ibn Umar radiallahu anhu also reports that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam forbade that a man should support himself on his hands in salâh.[193] Sayyiduna Wail bin Hujr radiallahu anhu says, 'I saw Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam place his knees (on the round) before his hands when he would prostrate, and lift up his hands before his knees when rising.'[194] Sayyiduna Wail bin Hujr radiallahu anhu narrates (as part of a longer hadeeth), 'And when he (Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam ) would rise he would do so on his knees, and he would place his hands (for support) upon his thighs.'[195] Sayyiduna Ali radiallahu anhu says, 'It is part of the sunnah of fardh salâh that when a man rises in the first two rak'ahs he should not place his hands upon the earth for support unless he is an old man who cannot stand up without doing so.'[196]
Ibrahim al Nakhai would disapprove of someone leaning on his hands when sitting in between the two rak'ahs or when rising.[197]

[192] Abu Dawood 992 and Baihaqi 2808. Muhaddith Dhafar Ahmad Uthmani says that its narrators are those of Bukhari except Muhammad bin Abdul Malik who is thiqah (810). [193] Ibn Khuzaimah 692, Hakim 837 and Baihaqi 2807. Hakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed with him [194] Darimi 1320, Ibn Majah 882, Abu Dawood 838, Tirmidhi 268, Nasai 1089, Ibn Khuzaimah 626, and Tahawi 1/255. Also reported by Ibn al Sakan in his Saheeh as quoted by Hafidh bin Hajar in al Talkhees al Habeer 1/254 no. 379. Narrated also by Ibn Hibban 1909, Hakim 822, Baihaqi 2628 and Baghawi 3/133 no 642. Imam Tirmidhi says that the hadeeth is hasan ghareeb and Hakim has declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed. This hadeeth has also been narrated with other chains. See next volume for further details. [195] Abu Dawood 839. The hadeeth is munqati' but all the narrators up to Abdul Jabbar are authentic as explained by Muhaddith Dhafar Ahmad Uthmani 811. [196] Ibn Abi Shaibah 3998.

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[197] Abdul Razzaq 2961.
And do not adopt a sitting posture in between.

In the longer hadeeth of Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah radiallahu anhu about the man who did not complete his salâh (who has been identified as Sayyiduna Khallad bin Rafi' radiallahu anhu the brother of Sayyiduna Rifaah bin Rafi', the other narrator of this hadeeth a part from Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah radiallahu anhu) Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam says to Sayyiduna Khallad, 'Then fall down into prostration until you are motionless, then rise and sit until you are motionless, then fall down prostrate again until you are motionless, then rise and stand straight. Do this throughout your salâh.'[198] Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam does not mention any sitting after the second prostration but instructs him to stand up straight. Abbas or Ayyash bin Sahl al Saidee reports that he was in a gathering where his father, who was a companion of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam was present. In the gathering there was also Abu Hurairah radiallahu anhu, Abu Humaid al Saidee radiallahu anhu, and Abu Usaid. He relates a long hadeeth in which he mentions that, 'He (Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) said the takbeer and prostrated. He then said the takbeer again and stood up but did not sit.'[199] Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah radiallahu anhu says, 'Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would stand up on the balls of his feet in salâh.'[200] Nu'maan bin Abu Ayyash says, 'I have seen more than one of the companions of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam. When they raised their heads from the prostration in the first and third rak'ah they would stand up straight as they were and they would not sit.'[201] Abdul Rahman bin Yazeed says, 'I observed Abdullah bin Mas'ud radiallahu anhu in salâh, and saw him rise and not sit.' He adds, 'He would stand up on the balls of his feet in the first and third rak'ah.'[202] Wahb bin Kaysan says, 'I saw Abdullah bin al Zubair radiallahu anhu standing up on the balls of his feet when he had completed the second prostration.'[203]

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Khaithamah and Nafi' both report that Abdullah bin Umar radiallahu anhu would stand up on the balls of his feet in salâh.[204] Abu Atiyyah reports that Ibn Abbas radiallahu anhu and Ibn Umar radiallahu anhu would do the same.[205] Sha'bi says, 'Umar, Ali and the companions radiallahu anhum of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would stand up on the balls of their feet in salâh.'[206] Ubaid bin Abi al Ja'd reports the same about Sayyiduna Ali[207] Zuhri says, 'Our Shaikhs would not do mumayalah (reel), meaning when one of them would rise from the second sajdah in the first rak'ah he would stand up as he was and not sit.'[208] After quoting the above hadeeth of Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah radiallahu anhu, Imam Tirmidhi says, 'This is the practice of the people of learning. They prefer that a man stands up on the balls of his feet in salâh.'

[198] Bukhari 6290 & 760. [199] Abu Dawood 733 & 966. Imam Nimawi says that its isnad is saheeh (449). Also reported by Tahawi 4/354, Ibn Hibban 1863 and Baihaqi 2642. [200] Tirmidhi 288 and Baghawi 669. [201] Ibn Abi Shaibah 3989. Imam Nimawi says that its isnad is hasan (451). [202] Abdul Razzaq 2966 & 2967, Ibn Abi Shaibah 3979 & 3986, Tabarani in al Mu'jam al Kabeer 9/266 no. 9327, and Baihaqi 2764. Hafidh Haithami says 2/136 that its narrators are those of Bukhari, and Baihaqi has also declared it saheeh. [203] Ibn Abi Shaibah 3983 & 3984. Imam Nimawi says that its isnad is saheeh (453). [204] Ibn Abi Shaibah 3980 & 3985. [205] Abdul Razzaq 2968.

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[206] Ibn Abi Shaibah 3982. [207] Ibn Abi Shaibah 3978. [208] Ibn Abi Shaibah 3987. With this you will have completed your first rak'ah. All the remaining rak'aat of salâh are to be performed in a similar manner, with the same recitations, movements and postures. However, in the remaining rak'aat you should not recite thana, and istiaadhah, nor should you raise your hands with any takbeer as you did in the beginning of the salâh. Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah radiallahu anhu relates that when Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would rise for the second rak'ah he would begin the recitation with 'Alhamdu lillâhi Rabbil 'Âlameen'and would not remain silent.[209] [209] Muslim 599. You should, however, recite basmalah before Sûrah al Fâtihah at the beginning of each rak'ah. When you have completed your second prostration of the second rak'ah, do not stand up but adopt the sitting posture as before and recite the tashahhud. Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Mas'ud radiallahu anhu relates, 'When we prayed behind Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam, we would say, "Peace (as-Salâm) be upon Allâh." Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam, turned to us and said, "Indeed Allâh is the one who is as-Sâlam so you should say:[210] Athahiayatu lillahi wassalawaatu… Imam Tirmidhi says, 'The hadeeth of Ibn Mas'ud radiallahu anhu has been narrated from him in more than one way. It is the most authentic hadeeth from Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam regarding tashahhud, and it is the basis of the practice of most of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam's companions and the Tabi'un after them' Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Mas'ud radiallahu anhu also reports that it is sunnah to read the tashahhud silently.[211] [210] Bukhari 6946, Muslim 402.

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[211] Abu Dawood 986, Tirmidhi 291, Ibn Khuzaimah 706 and Hakim 838. Hakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed. When you reach the words 'Lâ ilâha' (there is no god…) raise your index finger and tuck the middle, third and last finger into the palm, with the thumb and middle finger touching and forming a circle. Sayyiduna Wail bin Hujr radiallahu anhu says, 'I saw Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam make a circle with his thumb and middle finger, and lift the one next to it (the forefinger) praying with it in tashahhud.[212] Sayyiduna Abdullah bin al Zubair radiallahu anhu narrates that when Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam sat praying (tashahhud) he would place his right hand upon his right thigh and his left hand upon his left thigh. He would point with his forefinger and place his thumb upon his middle finger, whilst his left hand would be grasping his knee.[213]And in the narration of Nasai, Abu Dawood and Ahmad, 'His gaze would not pass beyond his pointing.'[214] Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Umar radiallahu anhu relates that when Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would sit in salâh, he would place his right hand upon his knee and raise his forefinger praying with it, whilst his left hand would be spread out upon his left knee.[215] Sayyiduna Numair al Khuzai radiallahu anhu relates that he saw Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam seated in salâh. He had placed his right arm upon his right thigh and raised his forefinger, having bent it slightly whilst praying.[216] [212] Ibn Majah 912 and Nasai 1264. Bouseeree (Chapter 163, no. 336) and Imam Nimawi (464) have both declared the hadeeth saheeh. [213] Muslim 579 and Abu Dawood 988. [214] Ahmad 15668, Abu Dawood 990 and Nasai 1275. [215] Muslim 580, Tirmidhi 294 and Nasai 1269. [216] Ahmad 15439, Abu Dawood 991, Nasai 1274 and Ibn Hibban 1943.

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The index finger should only be raised once during the tashahhud at the time mentioned. It should not be raised at any other point nor should it be constantly moved.

Sayyiduna Abdullah Ibn al Zubair radiallahu anhu narrates that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would point with his finger when he prayed and he would not move it.[217] [217] Abu Dawood 989, Nasai 1270, Abu Awanah 2/226 (Dar al Ma'rifah edition, Beirut.), Baihaqi 2786 and Baghawi 676. Imam Nawawi has declared it saheeh in his al Majmu' 3/454
The describing of the pointing of the finger according to the Hanafi jurists.

The chosen opinion according to majority of the Hanafi scholars is that the hands should be kept on the thighs (during Qa’dah). At the time of the words showing Tawhid, the little and ring finger (of the right hand) should be folded inwards, a circle should be formed with the middle finger and thumb. Pointing should be done with the index finger; it must be lifted when negating everything (when saying 'Lâ ilâha') and should be dropped when establishing the oneness of Allah (after saying 'ill Allah'). The fingers and the circle should be kept this way till the end of the Salaah. (NB: Dropping does not mean that it should be dropped completely, it should be just lowered). At the same time, the commentator of al Munyah, a Hanafi Fiqh book says that the pointing should be done as the 53 sign, which means that the middle, ring and little fingers should be folded inwards and the tip of the thumb should be placed at the base of the middle finger, the index finger should be then used to point, lifting at the time of negation and dropping at the time of affirmation of the oneness of Allah. This gives us scope for making a choice between the two, because both are established from Nabi (sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam). It would therefore be appropriate to practice upon one sometimes and the other at other times.

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[Ref: Majmua Rasail Ibn Abidin vol.1 pp.120, Fataawa Mahmudiyya vol.5 pp.635, Ahsanul Fataawa vol.3 pp.30]
If this is a three or four rak'ah prayer, then you should recite no more than the above tashahhud and stand up for the third rak'ah.

Towards the end of a longer hadeeth about tashahhud Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Mas'ud radiallahu anhu reports that, 'If Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam was in the middle of his salâh he would stand up after having completed his tashahhud, and if he was at the end of his salâh he would pray after his tashahhud whatever Allâh wished him to pray and then say the salâm.'[218] Ummul Mu'mineen Aisha radiallahu anha reports that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would not pray more than the tashahhud after two rak'aat.[219] Sha'bi says, 'He who recites more than the tashahhud after two rak'aat should perform two sajdahs of sahw.'[220] Hasan al Basri would say that one should not recite more than the tashahhud after two rak'aat.[221] [218] Ahmad 4369 and Ibn Khuzaimah 708. Hafidh Haithami says 2/142 that its narrators are authentic. [219] Abu Ya'laa 7/337 no.4373. Hafidh Haithami says 2/142. 'It seems that Ibn al Huwayrith (one of the narrators) is Khalid bin al Huwayrith who is authentic and the rest of the narrators are those of Bukhari [220] Ibn Abi Shaibah 3022. [221] Ibn Abi Shaibah 3021.
Again whilst rising you should not support yourself on your hands but stand up directly. In the final two rak'aat of a fardh salâh, you should only recite Sûrah al Fâtihah.

Sayyiduna Abu Qatadah radiallahu anhu narrates that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would recite Sûrah al Fâtihah and another sûrah in the first two rak'aat of Dhuhr

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and Asr salâh, and at times he would (read loud enough and) allow us to hear a verse. In the second two rakaat he would read only Sûrah al Fâtihah.[222] [222] Bukhari 725 and Muslim 451.

After completing the second prostration of the final rak'ah you should again adopt the sitting posture and recite the tashahhud as before, followed by prayer and salutations upon Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam as follows. Abdul Rahman bin Abu Layla says, 'K'ab bin Ujrah radiallahu anhu met me and said, "Should I not give you a gift that I have heard from the Messenger sallallahu alaihi wa sallam?" I replied, "Of course. Give me this gift." He said, "We questioned Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam saying, "Oh Apostle of Allâh! How should the 'Salâh' (prayer) be made upon you, the people of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam's household? Indeed Allâh has already shown us how we are to send salutations upon you." He sallallahu alaihi wa sallam replied, "Say:*223+ Allahuma salli alaa mohammadin….., Allahumma baarik alaa mohammadin… [223] Bukhari 3190 and Muslim 406.
You should then recite one or more prayers ensuring that they are known authentic prayers from the Qur'ân and Hadeeth.

Sayyiduna Muawiyah bin al Hakam al Sulami radiallahu anhu relates as part of a longer hadeeth that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said, 'No speech of men is correct in this salâh. It should only be tasbeeh, takbeer and the recitation of the Qur'ân.'[224] Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Mas'ud radiallahu anhu says, 'A man should recite tashahhud, then send prayers and salutations upon Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam and then pray for himself.'[225] [224] Ahmad 23250, Darimi 1502. Muslim 537. Abu Dawood 930 and Nasai 1218. [225] Ibn Abi Shaibah 3026, Hakim 990. Dhahabi says of Hakim's sanad, 'according to the conditions of Bukhari and Muslim.' Also reponed by Baihaqi 2879.

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After completing your prayers you should say 'Assalaamu alaikum wa rahmatullah' once turning your head to the right and then a second time turning yur head to the left. These final words end your salah.

Amir bin Sa'd relates from his father who said 'I used to see Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam do the salam to his right and left until I could see the whiteness of his cheek'.[226] Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Mas'ud radiallahu anhu says, 'Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam would say the takbeer at the time of each descent, rising, standing and sitting, and he would do salam to his right and left (saying) 'Assalamu Alaikum wa Rahmatullah, Assalamu Alaikum wa Rahmatullah' (turning so much that) the whiteness of his cheek could be seen. I saw Abu Bakr and Umar radiallahu anhum do this also.' [227] [226] Muslim 582. [227] Nasai 1319. Also narrated by the following without mentioning Sayyiduna Abu Bakr and Sayyiduna Umar radiallahu anhum: Ahmad 3691. Ibn Majah 914. Abu Dawood 996 and Tirmidhi 295. Imam Tirmidhi also adds that the hadeeth is hasan saheeh.
Difference in salah between men and women:

Some people are of the view that all the laws of salah are common to both men and women, and that there is no difference between them. They also claim that the hadeeth 'Pray as you have seen me praying' is general and, therefore, should be applied equally to both men and women. It should be realised, however, that our own interpretation and logical inference of this hadeeth cannot compare with the other ahadeeth of the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam, and the verdicts and practice of the Sahabah and Tabi’un quoted below. The Shariah has ordained distinct rules for men and women in many important questions of salah. For example,

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1. Jumua’ah is fardh upon men but not on women, and the Eid prayer is wajib for men but again not for women. Sayyiduna Tariq bin Shihab radiallahu anhu reports that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said. Jumuah in congregation is an obligatory duty upon every Muslim except four people: a slave, a woman, a child, and one who is sick[240] Sayyidatuna Umm Atiyyah radiallahu anha says as part of a longer hadeeth, 'We have been forbidden from following funerals and there is no Jumuah upon us’*241+ 2. The reward of congregational prayer for men is twenty seven times more than an individual prayer. Contrary to this, the more rewarding prayer of a woman is that which is most concealed and performed within the confines of her innermost living quarters. Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Mas'ud radiallahu anhu reports that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said, 'The prayer of a woman in her makhda' (partition) is better than her prayer in her hujrah (chamber), and her prayer in her hujrah is better than her prayer in her bait (house).'[242] Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah radiallahu anhu narrates that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said, 'The most beloved salah to Allah of a woman is one that she performs in the darkest spot or her home.' [243]

3. Unlike men, women should not give adhan or say the iqamah Sayyidatuna Asmaa radiallahu anha narrates as part of a longer hadeeth that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam. said, 'There is no adhan, iqamah or Jumuah upon women.'[244] Sayyidatuna Ibn Umar radiallahu anhu says, 'There is no adhan or iqamah upon women.'[245]

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There is a great difference in the awrah of a man and that of a woman in salah. Women must cover their entire body including the hair, leaving only the face, hands and feet exposed. Ummul Mu'mineen Aisha radiallahu anha reports that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said, ‘Allah does not accept the salah of a mature female without a scarf.'[246] 4.Women cannot lead men in salah Abu Bakrah radiallahu anhu reports that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said, 'Never will those people succeed who have appointed a woman over them.'[247] Jabir bin Abdullah reports as part of a longer hadeeth that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said, 'Know that a woman should not lead a man in salah.'[248] 5. For the purpose of correcting or deterring someone in salah men should say 'subhanallah' loudly, whilst women are only allowed to clap their hands. Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah radiallahu anhu reports that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said, 'Tasbeeh is for men, and clapping is for women.'[249] The different postures, positions and rulings concerning the prayer of the female are not the invention of a group or an individual but the teaching of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam himself. He was the very first person to differentiate between the prayer of a man and a woman. Yazid bin Abi Habib reports that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam passed by two women who were praying salah. He said, 'When you prostrate, let part of your body cling to the earth, for women are unlike men in this regard'.[250] Sayyiduna Ibn Umar radiallahu anhu narrates that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said. 'When a woman sits in salah she should place one thigh over the other, and when she prostrates she should press her stomach to her thighs in a manner

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that is the most concealing for her. Indeed Allah looks at her saying, "Oh my angels! I make you witness that I have forgiven her."[251] Sayyiduna Wail bin Hujr radiallahu anhu reports that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said, 'Oh Ibn Hujr! When you pray make your hands level with your ears. And the woman shall raise her hands close to her bosom’*252+ We derive some very important and fundamental principles about the prayer of a woman from all the above ahadeeth. a) The laws of salah are not always the same for men and women. b) The sunnah posture of a female in any position of salah is that which is the most concealing for her . Imam Baihaqi says, ‘All of the laws of salah in which a woman differs from a man are based on the principle of satr (concealment). This means that the woman is instructed to do all that which is more concealing for her. The following chapters of hadeeth explain this meaning in detail.’*253+ [240] Abu Dawood 1067 and Hakim 1062. Hakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.. [241] Ibn Khulaimah 1722 [242] Abu Dawood 570 and lbn Khuzaimah 1690. [243] lbn Khuzaimah 1691, and Tabarani in al M'ujam al Kabeer as mentioned by Hafidh Haithami 2/35. Hafidh Haithami also says that its narrators are authentic. [244] Baihaqi 1921 [245] Baihaqi 1920.

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[246] Ahmad 24012. Ibn Majah 655. Abu Dawood 641. Tirmidhi 377. Ibn Khuzaimah 775. Hakim 917 and Baihaqi 3254. Hakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed. [247] Ahmad 19507. Bukhari 4163. Tirmidhi 2262 and Nasai 5388. [248] Ibn Majah 1081 and Baihaqi 5131. [249] Bukhari 1145. [250] Abu Dawood in his al Marasee1 p18 (Muassahah al Risalah edition), and Baihaqi 3201 [251] Baihaqi 3199. He also declared it dhaeef. [252] Tabarani in at M'ujam al Kabee'r 22/19 no.28. Hafidh aithami says 2/103, 'Tabarani has narrated it as part of a long hadeeth on the virtue of Wail bin Hujr radiallahu anhu with a chain of Maimoonah bint Hujr narrating from her auntie Umm Yahya bint Abdul Jabbar. I have not identified her but the rest of the narrators are reliable.’ [253] Baihaqi 2/314. As mentioned earlier, this variation in the salah of a woman has been prescribed by none other that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam himself. It is also reflected in the rulings of the Sahabah and Tabi'un. The Ulama and fuqaha of all four schools have always recognised this difference and, as is evident in their books of fiqh, have always observed the above principles whenever making a ruling about the salah of a woman. Following are a few narrations detailing the verdicts and practice of the Sahabah radiallahu anhum together with the verdicts of some of the Tabi 'un and the Ulama of the different schools of fiqh:

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Verdicts and practice of the Sahabah radiallahu anhum.

Imam Abu Bakr Ibn Abi Shaybah narrates: "Abd Rabbih Ibn Zaytun said that he saw Umm ud-Dardaa raising her hands parallel to her shoulders when beginning salah. " (al-Musannaf li-Ibn Abi Shaybah: vol. 1 p 239) Khalid bin al Lajlaaj reports as part of a longer hadeeth that women were ordered to do tarabb’u*254+ when sitting in salah.*255+ Nafi' narrates that Safiyyah radiallahu anha would pray and do tarabb'u [256] Nafi' also narrates that the womenfolk of Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Umar's radiallahu anhu family would do tarabb'u. [257] Sayyiduna Ibn Umar radiallahu anhu was once asked. 'How did women pray their sa/ah during the time of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam? He replied. 'They used to sit cross legged until they were told to practice ihtifaz.[258] Sayyiduna Ali radiallahu anhu says, 'When a woman prostrates she should do ihtifaz and press her thighs together', and in Abdul Razzaq's narration 'press her thighs against her stomach.' [259] Sayyiduna Ibn Abbas radiallahu anhu was asked about the prayer of a woman He replied, 'She should pull herself close together and do ihtifaz.[260] [254] i.e., to draw out one's right leg towards the right side of the body and to place the left leg beneath the right leg. [255] Ibn Abi Shaibah 2783.

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[256] Abdul Razzaq 5074 and Ibn Abi Shaibah 2784 [257] Ibn Abi Shaibah 2789. [258] Narrated by all three, Abu Muhammad al Bukhari, Qadhi Umar bin al Hasan al Ashnani, and Ibn Khusruw in their Musnads of Imam Abu Hanifah's ahadeeth. Ihtifaz is to lean to one side and rest on the posterior. It is more or less the same as sadl [259] Abdul Razzaq 5072 and Ibn Abi Shaibah 2777, Muhaddith Dhafar Ahmad Uthmani 3/32 has declared it hasn [260] Ibn Abi Shaibah 2778.
Verdicts of the Tabi'un and other ulama.

Ibn Abi Shaybah has narrated: "Ataa was asked how a woman should raise her hands in salah. He replied that she should raise them till her breast " Based at Makkah, Ataa [the great Follower (tabi`i) and imam] used to issue this fatwa. Ibn Abi Shaybah narrates: "Hammad ibn Salamah al-Basri used to say that a woman should raise her hands parallel to her breast when beginning salah. " Hammad was based at Kufa and he used to issue this fatwa

Ibn Jurayj reports, 'I asked Ataa: "Should a woman motion with her hands at the time of takbeer as a man does?" he replied, "She should not raise her hands with takbeer in the manner of men." Ataa then demonstrated (the way in which she should.) He placed his

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hands very low and then pulled them towards him. He then said. "The posture of a woman in salah is not that of a man” *261+ Ataa also says, ‘A woman should pull herself together when she bows down into ruk'u: she should bring up her hands to her stomach and pull herself together as much as possible. When she prostrates she should bring up her hands close to her and press her bosom and stomach against her thighs: she should pull herself together as much as possible.[262] Hasan al Basri says, ‘A woman should pull herself close together in sujud.’ *263+ Hasan and Qatadah both say, 'When a woman prostrates she should pull herself together as much as possible. She should not allow for any space between her limbs so that her posterior is not raised’.*264+ One certain author has argued that all the descriptions of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam's prayer are equally applicable to both men and women and there is nothing in the sunnah that excludes women from any of them. Insha Allah the contents of this chapter will answer that claim. The author then goes on to say that this is the view of lbrahim al Nakhai who said, 'A woman's actions in the prayer are the same as a man's.' transmitted by Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/75/2) with a saheeh sanad from him. This is not what Ibrahim al Nakhai said at all nor is it his view. His narration transmitted by Ibn Abi Shaibah actually reads, ‘A woman will sit in salah just as a man does.’*265+ This somehow has been misquoted as ‘A woman's actions in the prayer are the same as a man's.’ In fact, Ibrahim al Nakhai’s other narrations quite clearly contradict the above report. His view about the prayer of a woman as reported by Ibn Abi Shaibah and others is as follows: Ibrahin al Nakhai says, ‘When a woman prostates she should press her stomach against her thighs. She should not raise her posterior nor should she allow for any space or distance beween the limbs of her body as a man does.’*266+

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He also says, 'When a woman prostrates she should bring her thighs together and press her abdomen to them.'[267] He also says, ‘A woman should sit to one side in salah.’*268+ Imam Baihaqi says, ‘All of the laws of salah in which a woman differs from a man are based on the principle of satr (concealment). This means that the woman is instructed to do all that which is more concealing for her. The following chapters of hadeeth explain this meaning in detail.’ *269+ Ibn Qudamah al Maqdisi al Hanbali quotes Imam Ahmad Hanbal in his al Mughni as saying, ‘I consider sadl*270+ to be better for a woman.’ He also quotes the narration of Sayyiduna Ali radiallahu anhu who says, ‘When a woman prays salah she should do ihtifaz and press her thighs together.’*271+ Imam Ahamad was asked about how a woman should prostrate and sit for tashahhud. He replied, ‘She would do whatever is more concealing for her.’ He added, ‘She should do tarabb’u in tashahhud and draw her legs to one side (sadl).’*272+ According to narration of Abu Dawood, Imam Ahamd was asked about how a woman should sit in salah. He replied, ‘She should press her thighs together.’*273+ Qadhi Iyadh has also quoted from some Salaf that the sunnah for women is tarabb’u’*274+ Imam Shafi'i writes in Al-Umm "A man and woman in regards to remembrance and salat are the same, except that I instruct that they be more concealing than men in ruku' and prostration by joining their limbs together. All the above quite clearly demonstrates that the prayer of a woman is different in some

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aspects from that of a man, and that this distinction was first made by none other than Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam, and then maintained by the prominent Sahabah and Tabi’un. Furthermore, as can be seen in their works, there is almost universal agreement amongst the scholars of all schools of fiqh on this issue.

[261] Abdul Razzaq 5066 and Ibn Abi Shaibah 2474 [262] Abdul Razzaq 5069. [263] Ibn Abi Shaibah 2781. [264] Abdul Razzaq 5068. [265] Ibn Abi Shaibah 1/242,. no 2788. [266] Abdul Razzaq 5071 and Ibn Abi Shaibah 2782. [267] Ibn Abi Shaibah 2779. [268] Abdul Razzaq 5077 and Ibn Abi Shaibah 2792. [269] Baihaqi 2/314. [270] To draw out the right leg to one side of the body and place the left leg beneath one’s right thigh. In this way the posterior will come to rest on the ground rather than on the left leg. She would, therefore, not be resting on her legs, but on her posterior as mentioned in the narration of Sayyiduna Ali radiallahu anhu [271] Ibn Qadamah in al Mughni 2/135. [272] Masaail of Imam Ahmad narated by his son Abdullah 373

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[273] Masaail of Imam Ahmad narrated by Abu Dawood p51. [274] Awjaz al Masalik 2/119.
List of differences between the prayer of a man and a woman.

Some of the differences as mentioned in the Hanafi books of fiqh listed below. In all the postures and movements of salah, including qiyam, ruk’u, sajdah, and tashahhud a woman should adopt that which is the most modest and concealing for her. 1. At the beginning of salah a woman should not raise her hands to her ears but only to her shoulders or close to her bosom.[275] 2. In qiyam, women are to place their hands on ther bosoms. They can fasten them in any one of the dirrerent ways ‘akdh, (grasping) or ‘wadh’(placing) described earlier or they can simply rest the right palm on the left one. Allamah Abdul-Hayy Luckhnawi writes: "As for women, the jurists are unanimous that it is sunnah for them to place their hands on their bosoms. "[276] There is ijmaa' on this mas'alah. 3. Unlike men, in ruk’u, women should tuck their arms into the body and not spread them outward. They should also merely place their hands over their knees with closed fingers, and not grasp them with the fingers spread wide open.[277] In fact, women should try to keep their fingers close together in all the postures of salah. 4. During prostration men should allow for some space and distance between their stomachs and thighs, and arms and the side of the body, whilst women should press these limbs together. 5. Again in prostration, men should raise their arms off the ground and allow for some distance but women should let them cling to the ground.

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[275] Imam Ahamad bin Hanbal also says that she should raise them slightly and, according to one narration, she should not raise them at all [276] as-Si'aayah: vol. 2 p 152

*277+ In some books of Hanafi fiqh it has been suggested that in ruk’u they should also bend their backs and knees slightly. The hanbali scholar Imam Khirqi also says as part of a longer statement. ‘The woman should gather herself in ruk’u and sujud.’ (al Mughni 1/134.) The great Hanafi jurist Allaamah Muhammad Amin Ibn Abidin as-Shami rahimahullah collects all these differances of women in prayer en thus concludes, "A woman should raise her hands till her shoulders. She should not take her hands out of her sleeves. She should place one palm over the other on her breast . She should bend only slightly in ruku'. She will not spread her fingers out in ruku' but rather keep them close together and place her palms on her knees without clasping them. She should bend her knees slightly. She should contract herself in ruku' and sajdah. She should place her arms flat on the ground. She should sit with her legs out and resting on her posterior in tashahhud. In tashahud she should keep her fingers close together. If any mistake occurs in salah, she should clap her hands without uttering anything. She cannot make imamah of a male. It is makruh to have a female only congregation. The female imam will stand in their midst. It is makruh for her to attend the congregation. In a mixed congregation the females will stand at the rear. Jumu'ah is not obligatory for her, but if she attends it, she will be absolved of responsibility. Neither is Eid compulsory on her nor the takbir of tashriq. It is not mustahab for her to perform Fajr when it brightens up. In the loud salahs she will not raise her voice. " [278] He says in another place:

"A woman should bend slightly in ruku; without spreading her fingers out

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completely. However, she must contract herself and place her palms on her knees and bend them slightly . She must not spread out her arms as this is more concealing for her. " [279] [278] Radd al-Mukhtaar: vol. 1 p 504; see also al-Bahr ar-Raa'iq: vol. 1/320 [279] Radd al-Mukthaar: vol. 1 p 494

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Sunnah Method & Description of Salah Times 1. Faj’r Salah is when the true dawn breaks i.e. when whiteness marks the horizon until sunrise. 'Abdullah b. 'Amr reported (RA): The Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬said: The time of the noon prayer is when the sun passes the meridian and a man's shadow is the same (length) as his height, (and it lasts) as long as the time for the afternoon prayer has not come; the time for the afternoon prayer is as long as the sun has not become pale; the time of the evening prayer is as long as the twilight has not ended; the time of the night prayer is up to the middle of the average night and the time of the morning prayer is from the appearance of dawn, as long as the sun has not risen; but when the sun rises, refrain from prayer for it rises between the horns of the devil. [Muslim] 2. Faj’r Salah does not start with false dawn i.e. first the light appears length-wise (like a vertical pillar) in the horizon (false dawn) followed by darkness and then light appears bredth-wise which is the true dawn. Samura b. Jundub (RA)reported Allah's Messenger (‫ )ﷺ‬as saying: The Adhan of Bilal should not mislead you nor the whiteness (of the pillar) of dawn, for it is not the whiteness of the true dawn, but that of the false dawn which is vertical like a pillar and you can eat food till the streaks of whiteness spread like it. [Muslim] 3. It is Mustahab to pray Faj’r Salah in Asfaar i.e. when the light becomes clear. Raf’e Ibn Khadeej (RA)reported that Allah's Messenger (‫ )ﷺ‬said: Make the Faj’r Salah at the shining of the dawn as your reward will be greater. [Tirmidhi] Ibrahim Nakhai (RA) said, the comapanions of the Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬have not agreed on anything as they agreed on praying Faj’r when it is clear and shining. [Ibn Abi Shaybah] This has also been narrated from Ali Ibn Abi Talib (RA), Abdullah Ibn Masood (RA), Hussain Ibn Ali (RA), Abu Darda (RA), Umar Ibn Abdul-Aziz (RA), Zaid Ibn Aslam (RA), Muhammad Ibn Sireen (RA), Alqamah (RA), Suwayd Ibn Ghafalah (RA), Said Ibn Jubair (RA) and others. [Ibn Abi Shaybah]

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4. Zohar Salah starts from when the sun has gone past the zenith until the time for Asar has started. 'Abdullah b. 'Amr reported (RA): The Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬said: The time of the noon prayer is when the sun passes the meridian and a man's shadow is the same (length) as his height, (and it lasts) as long as the time for the afternoon prayer has not come; the time for the afternoon prayer is as long as the sun has not become pale; the time of the evening prayer is as long as the twilight has not ended; the time of the night prayer is up to the middle of the average night and the time of the morning prayer is from the appearance of dawn, as long as the sun has not risen; but when the sun rises, refrain from prayer for it rises between the horns of the devil. [Muslim] 5. During very hot weather, Zohar Salah should be slightly delayed (until it is relatively cooler) and not prayed immediately or as soon as the time has started. Narrated Abu Huraira (RA): The Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬said, "In very hot weather delay the Zuhr prayer till it becomes (a bit) cooler because the severity of heat is from the raging of Hell-fire. The Hell-fire of Hell complained to its Lord saying: O Lord! My parts are eating (destroying) one another. So Allah allowed it to take two breaths, one in the winter and the other in the summer. The breath in the summer is at the time when you feel the severest heat and the breath in the winter is at the time when you feel the severest cold."[Bukhari] 6. Asar Salah starts when the time for Zohar Salah has expired i.e. when the shadow of an object is equal to twice its length (at midday) according to Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) and when the shadow is equal to its length (at midday) according to Imam Abu Yusuf (RA) and Imam Muhammad (RA). Abdullah ibn Rafi (RA), the mawla of Umm Salama, the wife of the Prophet (‫)ﷺ‬ asked Abu Hurayra (RA) about the time of the prayer. Abu Hurayra (RA) said, "Let me tell you. Pray dhuhr when the length of your shadow matches your height, asr when your shadow is twice your height, maghrib when the sun has set, isha in the

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first third of the night, and subh in the very first light of dawn," i.e. when the dawn has definitely come. [Muwatta Imam Malik] Narrated Abu Al-Mahh (RA): We were with Buraida in a battle on a cloudy day and he said, "Offer the 'Asr prayer early as the Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬said, "Whoever leaves the 'Asr prayer, all his (good) deeds will be annulled."[Bukhari] 7. Asar Salah shouldn’t be delayed to such an extent that the times gets very close to sunset. Al-Ala ibn Abd ar-Rahman (RA) said, "We visited Anas ibn Malik (RA) after dhuhr and he (RA) stood up and prayed asr. When he had finished his prayer, we mentioned doing prayers early in their time, or he mentioned it, and he said that he had heard the Messenger of Allah(‫ )ﷺ‬say, the prayer of the hypocrites, the prayer of the hypocrites, the prayer of the hypocrites is that one of them sits until the sun becomes yellow and is between the horns of Shaytan, or on the horn of Shaytan, and then gets up and rattles off four rakas, hardly remembering Allah in them at all.' "[Muwatta Imam Malik] 8. Maghrib Salah starts as soon as the sunsets until the dissapearnce of the twilight. 'Abdullah b. 'Amr reported (RA): The Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬said: The time of the noon prayer is when the sun passes the meridian and a man's shadow is the same (length) as his height, (and it lasts) as long as the time for the afternoon prayer has not come; the time for the afternoon prayer is as long as the sun has not become pale; the time of the evening prayer is as long as the twilight has not ended; the time of the night prayer is up to the middle of the average night and the time of the morning prayer is from the appearance of dawn, as long as the sun has not risen; but when the sun rises, refrain from prayer for it rises between the horns of the devil. [Muslim] Note:There is a difference of opinion on this matter with Imam Abu Yusuf (RA) and Imam Muhammad (RA) considering twilight to be the redness on the horizon while Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) considering it to be whitness on the horizon which comes after the redness has disappeared.

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9. Maghrib Salah should be prayed as soon as the time starts. Salamah Ibn Akwah (RA) said, “The Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬used to do the Maghrib Salah immediately after the sun had set when its upper side would disappear. [Abu Dawud] 10.Esha Salah starts after Maghrib Salah has ended i.e. when the twilight has ended until the appearance of true dawn (i.e. beginning of Faj’r Salah). 'Abdullah b. 'Amr reported (RA): The Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬said: The time of the noon prayer is when the sun passes the meridian and a man's shadow is the same (length) as his height, (and it lasts) as long as the time for the afternoon prayer has not come; the time for the afternoon prayer is as long as the sun has not become pale; the time of the evening prayer is as long as the twilight has not ended; the time of the night prayer is up to the middle of the average night and the time of the morning prayer is from the appearance of dawn, as long as the sun has not risen; but when the sun rises, refrain from prayer for it rises between the horns of the devil. [Muslim] Aisha (RA) reported , “One night the Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬prayed the Isha Salah after most of the night had gone and most of the people in the Masjid had fallen asleep. Then he came out, prayed and said, “This would be the proper time if it were not a hardship on my nation”. *Bukhari+ 11.However, the preferred time for Esha Salah is upto one third of the night. Abu Hurairah (RA) reported that the Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬said, “If it were not to be a hardship on the Ummah, I would have ordered them to delay the Esha Salah until a third of the night had passed. [Tirmidhi] 12.Sleeping before Isha and talking afterwards is disapproved and disliked. Narrated Abu-l-Minhal (RA): My father and I went to Abi Barza Al-Aslami (RA) and my father said to him, "Tell us how Allah's Apostle (‫ )ﷺ‬used to offer the compulsory congregational prayers." He said, "He (‫ )ﷺ‬used to pray the Zuhr prayer, which you call the first prayer, as the sun declined at noon, the 'Asr at a time when one of us could go to his family at the farthest place in Medina while

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the sun was still hot. (The narrator forgot what Abu Barza had said about the Maghrib prayer), and the Prophet preferred to pray the 'Isha' late and disliked to sleep before it or talk after it. And he used to return after finishing the morning prayer at such a time when it was possible for one to recognize the person sitting by his side and he (the Prophet) used to recite 60 to 100 'Ayat' (verses) of the Qur'an in it." [Bukhari] 13.It is prohibited to perform Salah when the sun is rising, at miday and when the sun is setting. Uqba b. 'Amir said (RA): There were the times at which Allah's Messenger (‫)ﷺ‬ forbade us to pray, or bury our dead: When the sun begins to rise till it is fully up, when the sun is at its height at midday till it passes over the meridian, and when the sun draws near to setting till it sets. [Muslim] 14.It is prohibited to perform Nafl Salah after Faj’r Salah until the sun has risen and after the Asar Salah until the sun has set. Narrated Qaza'a Maula (RA), (freed slave of) Ziyad: I heard Abu Said Al-khudri narrating four things from the Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬and I appreciated them very much. He said, conveying the words of the Prophet: a) "A woman should not go on a two day journey except with her husband or a Dhi-Mahram. b) No fasting is permissible on two days: 'Id-ul-Fitr and 'Id-ul-Adha. c) No prayer after two prayers, i.e. after the Fajr prayer till the sunrises and after the 'Asr prayer till the sun sets. d) Do not prepare yourself for a journey except to three Mosques, i.e. Al-MasjidAI-Haram, the Mosque of Aqsa (Jerusalem) and my Mosque." [Bukhari]

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Sunnah Method & Description of Salah of a Muslim Man Note: In the Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) the postures during Salah for men and women differ, the general evidence for this difference is as follows and the specific evidence will be discussed later with a separate post detailing the Salah for women. http://www.central-mosque.com/fiqh/menwmdiff.htm Please note that there is a difference of opinion amongst scholars about various postures during Salah and may Allah (SWT) reward them all.

1. There is no Salah before its time, and it must be ensured that the time for Salah has actually started. *4:103+ Once you have finished your Salāh, then, remember Allah while standing, sitting and reclining. As soon as you are secure, perform Salāh as due. Surely, Salāh is an obligation on the believers that is tied up with time. 2. There is no Salah without being in the state of Wudhu. *5:6+ O you who believe, when you rise for Salāh, (prayer) wash your faces and your hands up to the elbows, and make MasH (wiping by hands) of your heads and (wash) your feet up to the ankles. If you are in a state of major impurity, cleanse yourselves well (by taking bath). If you are sick, or on a journey, or if one of you has come after relieving himself, or you have had sexual contact with women, and you find no water, then, go for some clean dust and wipe your faces and hands with it. Allah does not like to impose a problem on you; He, rather likes to cleanse you and to complete His favour upon you, so that you may be grateful. Hammam b. Munabbih (RA) who is the brother of Wahb b. Munabbih. (RA) said: This is what has been transmitted to us by Abu Huraira (RA) from Muhammad, the Messenger

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of Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and then narrated a hadith out of them and observed that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said: The prayer of none amongst you would be accepted in a state of impurity till he performs ablution. [Muslim] 3. Body, clothes and location of prayer must be Taahir (free from impurities). [74:4] and purify your clothes, Jabir Ibn Samra (RA) narrates that a man asked Rasul-ullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), “Should I pray in the same clothes in which I went (cohabited) to my wife in?” He (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) replied, “Yes unless you find some impurity on it which should clean and purify”. *Ahmed+ 4. Awrah of a man must be covered and the Awrah of a man is from the belly-button to the knees. It is Sunnah for men to cover their head while praying Salah. It is related from Ibn 'Abbas (RA), Jarhad (RA) and Muhammad ibn Jahsh (RA) from the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam),"The thigh is one of the private parts." Anas (RA) said, "The Prophet(Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) , uncovered his thigh." The hadith of Anas (RA) is stronger, but the hadith of Jarhad is more complete in order to resolve the disagreement of the scholars .Abu Musa (RA) said, "The Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) covered his knees when 'Uthman (RA) entered." Zayd ibn Thabit (RA) said, "Allah sent down revelation on His Messenger (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) while his thigh was resting on my thigh and it became so heavy that I was afraid that it would bruise my thigh." [Bukhari] Note: It is AGAINST the Sunnah for men to pray bareheaded and the evidence is discussed in detail here: http://www.central-mosque.com/fiqh/bareheadagsunnah.htm

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5. A person must face the Qiblah (direction of Kaba’h) during Salah. [2:144] We have been seeing you turning your face to the heavens. So, We will certainly assign to you a Qiblah that you would like. Now, turn your face in the direction of the Sacred Mosque (Al-Masjid-ul-Harām), and (O Muslims), wherever you are, turn your faces in its direction. Even those who have been given the Book know well that it is the truth from their Lord, and Allah is not unaware of what they do. 6. It is Sunnah to perform Salah in congregation and an act of great reward. [2:144] We have been seeing you turning your face to the heavens. So, We will certainly assign to you a Qiblah that you would like. Now, turn your face in the direction of the Sacred Mosque (Al-Masjid-ul-Harām), and (O Muslims), wherever you are, turn your faces in its direction. Even those who have been given the Book know well that it is the truth from their Lord, and Allah is not unaware of what they do. Abu Huraira (RA) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said "The heaviest salat for the hypocrite is that of Isha'a and Fajr and if they knew what was in them they would have attended them even if it meant crawling, and I have a strong desire to order the salat to be established, then order a man to lead the people in salat then I would go with some men carrying bundles of wood to a people not attending the salat and burn their houses on them." [Muslim] 7. Men should straighten their rows and make sure that there are no gaps in between them but joining ankle to ankle is extremism. Nu’maan ibn Bashir (radhiallaahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) would straighten our Saffs with such care that even arrow shafts could be straightened with them (by using them as a guide) until he saw that we understood (the importance of straightening the Saffs). Once he came out and stood (on his Musalla) and just before making Takbeer he noticed a person’s chest sticking out of the Saff. Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) said, ‘O Servants of Allah! Straighten your Saffs or else Allah will cause division amongst your hearts.’ *Muslim+

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Note: Joining ankle to ankle is not the aim but a means of achieving the aims and to insist on this during Salah is extremism as discussed here: http://www.central-mosque.com/fiqh/anklshyuth.htm 8. It is recommended to place a Sutrah (a barrier or partition) in front when praying. Sahl Ibn Hathmah (RA) reported that Rasul-ullah (‫ )ﷺ‬said, “When one of you prays, he should pray towards his Sutrah and he should be close to it”.*Abu Dawud+ 9. The minimum height of Sutrah should be length of an arm, and its width at least a finger. Sabrah Ibn Ma’bad (RA) reported that Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬said, “When one of you prays, he should make a barrier for his Salah, even it is an arrow”.*Ahmad+ Talha (RA) said that we used to pray and animals would pass in front of us. We mentioned this to the Messenger of Allah (SWT) and he said, “If anything the size of saddle is in front of you, nothing that passes beyond it will harm you”.*Muslim+ Note: The size of saddle has been interpreted by Nafi (RA), Ata (RA), Sufyan Thawri (RA) as the length of an arm. [Musannaf Abdur Razzaq] 10. It is forbidden to cross between the Sutrah and the one who is praying. Narrated Busr bin Said (RA) narrates that Zaid bin Khalid (RA) sent him to Abi Juhaim (RA) to ask him what he had heard from Allah's Apostle (‫ )ﷺ‬about a person passing in front of another person who was praying. Abu Juhaim (RA) replied, "Allah's Apostle (‫ )ﷺ‬said, 'If the person who passes in front of another person in prayer knew the magnitude of his sin he would prefer to wait for 40 (days, months or years) rather than to pass in front of him." Abu An-Nadr (RA) said, "I do not remember exactly whether he said 40 days,

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months or years."[Bukhari] 11. Make the intention for Salah before starting, “I am performing Salah *name of Salah+ for Allah (SWT)” adding “behind the Imam if it is being done in congregation. Rasul-ullah (‫ )ﷺ‬has said, “Every action is based on Intention, and everyone shall have what he intended”. *Bukhari+ Note: Intention doesn’t need to be uttered verbally or loudly, it is an action of the heart. 12. If praying in congregation then after the Imam, both hands should be raised till the fingers are level with the earlobes while uttering the Takbeer, “Allahu-Akbar” Narrated Wa'il ibn Hujr (RA): I saw the Apostle of Allah(‫ )ﷺ‬raising his thumbs in prayer up to the lobes of his ears. [Abu Dawud] Rasul-ullah (‫ )ﷺ‬said, “No one’s Salah is complete unless he does Wudhu and utters the Takbeer”. *Tabarani+ 13. Eyes should be focused at the place of prostration. Rasul-ulah (‫ )ﷺ‬used to incline his head slightly and fix his eyes towards the ground. [Baihiqi & Hakim] 14. Person praying should not look upwards or sideways. Aisha (RA) narrated that Rasul-ulah (‫ )ﷺ‬prayed in a cloak which had some designs in it. He (‫ )ﷺ‬said, “These designs have distracted me. Take this cloak to Abu Jahm and bring me a plain one”. *Muslim+ Abu Hurairah (RA) reported that Rasul-ulah (‫ )ﷺ‬said, “Those who raise their gaze to the sky during Salah should stop doing so or their sight may be taken away”. *Bukhari]

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Ibrahim Nakhai (RA) did not like one to gaze beyond the place of Sajdah (prostration). [Ibn Abi Shaybah] 15. Closing eyes is disliked in Salah. Ibn Abbas(RA) narrated that Rasul-ulah (‫ )ﷺ‬said, “When one of you stands up in Salah, he should not close his eyes”. *Tabarani+ 16. Right palm should be placed over the back of the left and both hands should then be placed below the Navel. Ali (radhiallahu anhu) relates that the sunnah of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is to place one hand over the other below the navel. [Abu Dawud] Note: Scholars have differed about the positioning of hands during Salah and for detailed discussion and evidence, please visit the link below: http://www.central-mosque.com/fiqh/handsslh.htm 17. Then Thana should be recited which is as follows. ‫سبحاًك اللھن وبحودك حبارك اسوك وحعالى جدك وال إلھ غیزك‬ Glory to Thee,0 Allah, and Thine is the Praise, and Blessed is Thy Name. and Exalted is Thy Majesty. and there is no other object of worship beside Thee

'Abda (RA) reported: 'Umar b. al-Khattab (RA) used to recite loudly these words: Subhanak Allahumma wa bi hamdika wa tabarakasmuka wa ta'ala jadduka wa la ilaha ghairuka [Glory to Thee,0 Allah, and Thine is the Praise, and Blessed is Thy Name. and Exalted is Thy Majesty. and there is no other object of worship beside Thee]. Qatada (RA) informed in writing that Anas b. Malik (RA) had narrated to him: I observed prayer behind the Apostle of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and Abu Bakr (RA) and Umar (RA) and

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'Uthman (RA). They started (loud recitation) with: AI-hamdu lillahi Rabb al-'Alamin [All Praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the worlds] and did not recite Bismillah ir- Rahman-irRahim (loudly) at the beginning of the recitation or at the end of it. [Muslim] Note: Imam Muhammad (RA) said, “We say this in the opening of Salah, but we do not say that Imam or follower should say it loudly; Umar (RA) said it loudly in order to teach others what they had asked him [Kitabul Athar]. 18. The one praying alone or the Imam of the congregational Salah should now say Ta’awudh (Audho Billahi Minash-Shaytaanir Rajeem) and Bismillah quietly. *16:98+ So, when you recite the Qur‘ān, seek refuge with Allah against Satan, the accursed. 'Abda (RA) reported: 'Umar b. al-Khattab (RA) used to recite loudly these words: Subhanak Allahumma wa bi hamdika wa tabarakasmuka wa ta'ala jadduka wa la ilaha ghairuka [Glory to Thee,0 Allah, and Thine is the Praise, and Blessed is Thy Name. and Exalted is Thy Majesty. and there is no other object of worship beside Thee]. Qatada (RA) informed in writing that Anas b. Malik (RA) had narrated to him: I observed prayer behind the Apostle of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and Abu Bakr (RA) and Umar (RA) and 'Uthman (RA). They started (loud recitation) with: AI-hamdu lillahi Rabb al-'Alamin [All Praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the worlds] and did not recite Bismillah ir- Rahman-irRahim (loudly) at the beginning of the recitation or at the end of it. [Muslim] Ibrahim Nakhai (RA) said, “Four things should be said quietly by the Imam: i) Thana ii) Ta’awudh iii) Bismillah iv) Amin [Kitabul Athar]

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19. The one praying alone or the Imam of the congregational Salah should now recite Al-Fatiha. Narrated 'Ubada bin As-Samit (RA): Allah's Apostle (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said, "Whoever does not recite Al-Fatiha in his prayer, his prayer is invalid." [Bukhari] 20. The one praying alone or the Imam of the congregational Salah should now recite Al-Fatiha. Narrated 'Ubada bin As-Samit (RA): Allah's Apostle (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said, "Whoever does not recite Al-Fatiha in his prayer, his prayer is invalid." [Bukhari] 21. The one praying alone or the Imam of the congregational Salah should now recite some Qur’aan in the following Rakaats of Salah after Surah Al-Fatihah: i) Both Rakaats of Salat Al-Faj’r ii) First two Rakaat of Salat Az-Zuh’r iii) Both Rakaats of Salat Al-Jummuah iv) First two Rakaat of Salat Al-As’r v) First two Rakaat of Salat Al-Maghrib vi) First two Rakaat of Salat Al-Esha vii) In all Rakaat of all Sunnah prayers viii) In all Rakaat of all Nafila (optional) prayers Narrated 'Abdullah bin Abi Qatada (RA): My father (RA) said, "The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) in Zuhr prayers used to recite Al-Fatiha along with two other Suras in the first two Rakat: a long one in the first Rak'a and a shorter (Sura) in the second, and at times the verses were audible. In the 'Asr prayer the Prophet used to recite Al-Fatiha and two more Suras in the first two Rakat and used to prolong the first Rak'a. And he used to prolong the first Rak'a of the Fajr prayer and shorten the second." [Bukhari] Amir Al-Shabi (RA) narrated that Umar (RA) wrote to Shurayh (RA) asking him to read AlFatihah and another Surah in the first two Rakaats, and Al-Fatihah only in the last two

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Rakaats. [Ibn Abi Shaybah] Ibrahim Nakhai (RA) said, “Do not add anything to Al-Fatihah in the last two Rakaats. Imam Muhammad (RA) said, “This is the opinion of Abu Haneefa (RA) and we adhere to it. [Kitabul Athar] Note: It is my intention to post some of the available Sunnah on what Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) recited in each Salah separately, Insha’Allah. 22. The recitation of the Imam is sufficient for the follower and recitation of Al-Fatihah or the Surah is not required by followers when praying in congregational Salah. *7:204+ When the Qur‘ān is recited, listen to it and be silent, so that you may be blessed. Note: There is a disagreement amongst scholars as to the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and in the Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) it is stated that the recitation of Imam is sufficient. For detailed discussion, please see : http://www.central-mosque.com/fiqh/rectfth.htm 23. Person should now pronounce the Takbeer (Allahu Akbar) and go into Ruku (bowing) and grasp the knees, without raising the hands. It is Sunnah to keep the height of the head equal to the hips. Hudhaifa (RA) reported: I prayed with the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) one night and he started reciting al-Baqara. I thought that he would bow at the end of one hundred verses, but he proceeded on; I then thought that he would perhaps recite the whole (surah) in a rak'ah, but he proceeded and I thought he would perhaps bow on completing (this surah). He then started al-Nisa', and recited it; he then started Al-i'Imran and recited leisurely. And when he recited the verses which referred to the Glory of Allah, he glorified (by saying Subhan Allah-Glory to my Lord the Great), and when he

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recited the verses which tell (how the Lord) is to be begged, he (the Holy Prophet) would then beg (from Him), and when he recited the verses dealing with protection from the Lord, he sought (His) protection and would then bow and say: Glory be to my Mighty Lord; his bowing lasted about the same length of time as his standing (and then on returning to the standing posture after ruku') he would say: Allah listened to him who praised Him, and he would then stand about the same length of time as he had spent in bowing. He would then prostrate himself and say: Glory be to my Lord most High, and his prostration lasted nearly the same length of time as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Muslim] Narrated Mus'ab bin Sa'd (RA): I offered prayer beside my father (RA) and approximated both my hands and placed them in between the knees. My father (RA) told me not to do so and said, "We used to do the same but we were forbidden (by the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)) to do it and were ordered to place the hands on the knees." [Bukhari] Jaabir Ibn Samurah (radhiallahu anhu) relates that once Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) came out of his house towards us and said: "Why is it that I see you all raising your hands as though they are the tails of stubborn horses. Be tranquil in salaah". [Muslim] Abdullah Ibn Mas'ud (radhiallahu anhu) said: "Shall I not show you the manner in which Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) performed his salaah?" Thereafter he performed the salaah but he did not raise his hands except at the beginning (of his salaah). [Tirmidhi] This Hadith is classified Hasan. Ibn Hazm (R.A.) has declared it as sahih. Ahmed Shakir (RA) has also declared it as sahih. Abu Humaid (radhiallahu anhu) reported that when the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) bowed, he would be straight, his head neither up nor down (with respect to his hips), and he would place his hands on his knees as if he was holding them." [Nasai] Note: There is a disagreement amongst scholars as to the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu

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alaihi wasallam) and in the Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) it is preferred that hands should not be raised except at the beginning.

For detailed discussion, please see : http://www.central-mosque.com/fiqh/detraf.htm

24. Person should now pronounce the following at least three times. ‫سبحاى ربی العظین‬ Glory be to my Mighty Lord

Hudhaifa (RA) reported: I prayed with the Apostle of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) one night and he started reciting al-Baqara. I thought that he would bow at the end of one hundred verses, but he proceeded on; I then thought that he would perhaps recite the whole (surah) in a rak'ah, but he proceeded and I thought he would perhaps bow on completing (this surah). He then started al-Nisa', and recited it; he then started Al-i'Imran and recited leisurely. And when he recited the verses which referred to the Glory of Allah, he glorified (by saying Subhan Allah-Glory to my Lord the Great), and when he recited the verses which tell (how the Lord) is to be begged, he (the Holy Prophet) would then beg (from Him), and when he recited the verses dealing with protection from the Lord, he sought (His) protection and would then bow and say: Glory be to my Mighty Lord; his bowing lasted about the same length of time as his standing (and then on returning to the standing posture after ruku') he would say: Allah listened to him who praised Him, and he would then stand about the same length of time as he had spent in bowing. He would then prostrate himself and say: Glory be to my Lord most High, and his prostration lasted nearly the same length of time as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Muslim]

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Note: The scholars prefer the one bowing or prostrating to make the glorifications at least three times." However the minimum that is sufficient for the prostrations or bowings is one glorification [Tirmidhi] There is no harm in making glorifications but making it in odd numbers i.e. 5,7,9,11 is preferred.

25. The one praying alone or the Imam of the congregational Salah rises from the Ruku (bowing) while uttering the following: ‫سوع اللھ لوي حودہ‬ Allah listens to the one who praises Him

Narrated Abu Huraira (RA): The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said, "The Imam is to be followed. Say the Takbir when he says it; bow if he bows; if he says 'Sami a-l-lahu Liman hamida', say, ' Rabbana wa-laka-l-hamd', prostrate if he prostrates and pray sitting altogether if he prays sitting." as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Bukhari] 26. While standing upright the following should be recited: ‫ربٌا و لک الحود‬ Our Lord, [and] to You be all Praise OR ‫ربٌا لک الحود‬ Our Lord, to You be all Praise

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Narrated Abu Huraira (RA): The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said, "The Imam is to be followed. Say the Takbir when he says it; bow if he bows; if he says 'Sami a-l-lahu Liman hamida', say, ' Rabbana wa-laka-l-hamd', prostrate if he prostrates and pray sitting altogether if he prays sitting." as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Bukhari] 27. It is Sunnah to be stand upright and be tranquil before going into Sujood (prostration). Abu Hurairah (RA) said: "My beloved friend, Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) forbade me to perform postures of prayer copying the picking of a rooster; (signifying fast performance of prayer), moving eyes around like a fox and the sitting like monkeys (i.e. to sit on thighs)." [Ahmed] The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: "The worst thief is the one who steals from his own prayer." People asked, 'Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) ! How could one steal from his own prayer?' He (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: "By not completing its rukoo' and sujood." [Tabarni, Hakim] 28. Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) should now be recited while going down into Sujood (prostration). It is Sunnah to place the knees before the hands on the ground. During Sujood (prostration) arms should be kept away from the body, parallel to the shoulders while the elbows should be raised and fingers should be kept together. Narrated Wa'il ibn Hujr (RA): I saw that the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) placed his knees (on the ground) before placing his hands when he prostrated himself. And when he stood up, he raised his hands before his knees. Feet and toes should be positioned in the direction of the Qiblah[Abu Dawud] Abu Humayd (RA) reported, When the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) prostrated, he would place his nose and forehead upon the floor, keep his arms away from his sides, and place his hands parallel to the shoulders. [Abu Dawud]

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Wail Ibn Hajar (RA) reported: When Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) prostrated he would keep his fingers together. [Tirmidhi] Narrated Muhammad bin 'Amr bin 'Ata (RA)': I was sitting with some of the companions of Allah's Apostle (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)and we were discussing about the way of praying of the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). Abu Humaid As-Saidi (RA) said, "I remember the prayer of Allah's Apostle(sallallahu alaihi wasallam) better than any one of you. I saw him raising both his hands up to the level of the shoulders on saying the Takbir; and on bowing he placed his hands on both knees and bent his back straight, then he stood up straight from bowing till all the vertebrate took their normal positions. In prostrations, he placed both his hands on the ground with the forearms away from the ground and away from his body, and his toes were facing the Qibla. On sitting In the second Rak'a he sat on his left foot and propped up the right one; and in the last Rak'a he pushed his left foot forward and kept the other foot propped up and sat over the buttocks " Note: There is a disagreement amongst scholars as to the whether the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is to place the knees first or the hands first on the ground while going into Sujood (prostration). In the Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA), the order should be as follows: i) Knees first ii) Then the hands iii) Then the Nose iv) Then the forehead This disagreement is discussed in detail by Imam Nawawi (RA) in Majmu 29. The following should now be recited at least three times in Sujood (prostration). ‫سبحاى ربی االعلی‬ Glory be to my Exalted Lord

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Hudhaifa (RA) reported: I prayed with the Apostle of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) one night and he started reciting al-Baqara. I thought that he would bow at the end of one hundred verses, but he proceeded on; I then thought that he would perhaps recite the whole (surah) in a rak'ah, but he proceeded and I thought he would perhaps bow on completing (this surah). He then started al-Nisa', and recited it; he then started Al-i'Imran and recited leisurely. And when he recited the verses which referred to the Glory of Allah, he glorified (by saying Subhan Allah-Glory to my Lord the Great), and when he recited the verses which tell (how the Lord) is to be begged, he (the Holy Prophet) would then beg (from Him), and when he recited the verses dealing with protection from the Lord, he sought (His) protection and would then bow and say: Glory be to my Mighty Lord; his bowing lasted about the same length of time as his standing (and then on returning to the standing posture after ruku') he would say: Allah listened to him who praised Him, and he would then stand about the same length of time as he had spent in bowing. He would then prostrate himself and say: Glory be to my Lord most High, and his prostration lasted nearly the same length of time as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Muslim] Note: The scholars prefer the one bowing or prostrating to make the glorifications at least three times." However the minimum that is sufficient for the prostrations or bowings is one glorification [Tirmidhi] There is no harm in making glorifications but making it in odd numbers i.e. 5,7,9,11 is preferred. 30. Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) should now be recited while rising from the Sujood (prostration). It is Sunnah to pause a little while the body rests during the two prostrations. Furthermore the following recitation is praiseworthy during the two prostrations.

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‫اللھن اغفز لی و ارحوٌی و اھدًی و اجبزًی و ارسقٌی‬ O Allah, forgive me, have mercy on me, guide me, deliver free from need (& poverty), and provide for me Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas (RA): The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) used to say between the two prostrations: "O Allah, forgive me, have mercy on me, guide me, heal me, and provide for me." [Abu Dawud] Abu Hurairah (RA) said: "My beloved friend, Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) forbade me to perform postures of prayer copying the picking of a rooster; (signifying fast performance of prayer), moving eyes around like a fox and the sitting like monkeys (i.e. to sit on thighs)." [Ahmed] The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: "The worst thief is the one who steals from his own prayer." People asked, 'Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) ! How could one steal from his own prayer?' He (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: "By not completing its rukoo' and sujood." [Tabarni, Hakim] Note: Students of the great Muhadith Imam Anwar Shah Kashmiri Hanafi (RA) have recorded in their notes that he (RA) used to strongly advise the reading of this dua between the two prostrations. 31 . Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) should now be recited while going down into the second Sujood (prostration) and the following should now be recited at least three times in Sujood (prostration). ‫سبحاى ربی االعلی‬ Glory be to my Exalted Lord

Hudhaifa (RA) reported: I prayed with the Apostle of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) one night and he started reciting al-Baqara. I thought that he would bow at the end of one hundred verses, but he proceeded on; I then thought that he would perhaps recite the

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whole (surah) in a rak'ah, but he proceeded and I thought he would perhaps bow on completing (this surah). He then started al-Nisa', and recited it; he then started Al-i'Imran and recited leisurely. And when he recited the verses which referred to the Glory of Allah, he glorified (by saying Subhan Allah-Glory to my Lord the Great), and when he recited the verses which tell (how the Lord) is to be begged, he (the Holy Prophet) would then beg (from Him), and when he recited the verses dealing with protection from the Lord, he sought (His) protection and would then bow and say: Glory be to my Mighty Lord; his bowing lasted about the same length of time as his standing (and then on returning to the standing posture after ruku') he would say: Allah listened to him who praised Him, and he would then stand about the same length of time as he had spent in bowing. He would then prostrate himself and say: Glory be to my Lord most High, and his prostration lasted nearly the same length of time as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Muslim] Note: The scholars prefer the one bowing or prostrating to make the glorifications at least three times." However the minimum that is sufficient for the prostrations or bowings is one glorification [Tirmidhi] There is no harm in making glorifications but making it in odd numbers i.e. 5,7,9,11 is preferred. 32 . Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) should now be recited while standing for the second Rakaat and standing should be done in one continuous motion i.e. one should not sit and rest and then get up for the second Rakaat. Narrated Abu Huraira (RA): Once the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) entered the mosque, a man came in, offered the prayer and greeted the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) .The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) returned his greeting and said to him, "Go back and pray again for you have not prayed." The man offered the prayer again, came back and greeted the Prophet(sallallahu alaihi wasallam) . He said to him thrice, "Go back and pray again for you have not prayed." The man said, "By Him Who has sent you with the truth! I do not know a better way of praying. Kindly teach Me how to pray."

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He said, "When you stand for the prayer, say Takbir and then recite from the Qur'an what you know and then bow with calmness till you feel at ease, then rise from bowing till you stand straight. Afterwards prostrate calmly till you feel at ease and then raise (your head) and sit with Calmness till you feel at ease and then prostrate with calmness till you feel at ease in prostration and do the same in the whole of your prayer." [Bukhari] Ibn Sahl (radhiallahu anhu) reports that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said the takbeer and simultaneously went into sajdah. Then he said the takbeer and simultaneously stood up erect without sitting. [Abu Daud] Note: There is a disagreement in this matter with some scholars stating that the Sunnah is to rest before standing upright. The Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) is quoted. 33. The one praying alone or the Imam of the congregational Salah should now say Bismillah quietly. 'Abda (RA) reported: 'Umar b. al-Khattab (RA) used to recite loudly these words: Subhanak Allahumma wa bi hamdika wa tabarakasmuka wa ta'ala jadduka wa la ilaha ghairuka [Glory to Thee,0 Allah, and Thine is the Praise, and Blessed is Thy Name. and Exalted is Thy Majesty. and there is no other object of worship beside Thee]. Qatada (RA) informed in writing that Anas b. Malik (RA) had narrated to him: I observed prayer behind the Apostle of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and Abu Bakr (RA) and Umar (RA) and 'Uthman (RA). They started (loud recitation) with: AI-hamdu lillahi Rabb al-'Alamin [All Praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the worlds] and did not recite Bismillah ir- Rahman-irRahim (loudly) at the beginning of the recitation or at the end of it. [Muslim] Ibrahim Nakhai (RA) said, “Four things should be said quietly by the Imam: i) Thana ii) Ta’awudh iii) Bismillah iv) Amin [Kitabul Athar]

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Note: In the Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) Ta’awudh (Audho Billahi MinashShaytaanir Rajeem) is only recited in the first Rakaah because as per the evidence from the Qur’aan (below) the recitation of the Qur’aan was started in the first Rakaat. *16:98+ So, when you recite the Qur‘ān, seek refuge with Allah against Satan, the accursed. 34. The one praying alone or the Imam of the congregational Salah should now recite Al-Fatiha in the second Rakaat. Narrated 'Ubada bin As-Samit (RA): Allah's Apostle (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said, "Whoever does not recite Al-Fatiha in his prayer, his prayer is invalid." [Bukhari] 35. The one praying alone or the Imam of the congregational Salah should now recite some Qur’aan in the following Rakaats of Salah after Surah Al-Fatihah : i) Both Rakaats of Salat Al-Faj’r ii) First two Rakaat of Salat Az-Zuh’r iii) Both Rakaats of Salat Al-Jummuah iv) First two Rakaat of Salat Al-As’r v) First two Rakaat of Salat Al-Maghrib vi) First two Rakaat of Salat Al-Esha vii) In all Rakaat of all Sunnah prayers viii) In all Rakaat of all Nafila (optional) prayers Narrated 'Abdullah bin Abi Qatada (RA): My father (RA) said, "The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) in Zuhr prayers used to recite Al-Fatiha along with two other Suras in the first two Rakat: a long one in the first Rak'a and a shorter (Sura) in the second, and at times the verses were audible. In the 'Asr prayer the Prophet used to recite Al-Fatiha and two more Suras in the first two Rakat and used to prolong the first Rak'a. And he used to prolong the first Rak'a of the Fajr prayer and shorten the second." [Bukhari]

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Amir Al-Shabi (RA) narrated that Umar (RA) wrote to Shurayh (RA) asking him to read AlFatihah and another Surah in the first two Rakaats, and Al-Fatihah only in the last two Rakaats. [Ibn Abi Shaybah] Ibrahim Nakhai (RA) said, “Do not add anything to Al-Fatihah in the last two Rakaats. Imam Muhammad (RA) said, “This is the opinion of Abu Haneefa (RA) and we adhere to it. [Kitabul Athar] Note: It is my intention to post some of the available Sunnah on what Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) recited in each Salah separately, Insha’Allah. 36. The recitation of the Imam is sufficient for the follower and recitation of Al-Fatihah or the Surah is not required by followers when praying in congregational Salah. *7:204+ When the Qur‘ān is recited, listen to it and be silent, so that you may be blessed. Note: There is a disagreement amongst scholars as to the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and in the Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) it is stated that the recitation of Imam is sufficient. For detailed discussion, please see : http://www.central-mosque.com/fiqh/rectfth.htm 37. Person should now pronounce the Takbeer (Allahu Akbar) and go into Ruku (bowing) and grasp the knees, without raising the hands. It is Sunnah to keep the height of the head equal to the hips. Hudhaifa (RA) reported: I prayed with the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) one night and he started reciting al-Baqara. I thought that he would bow at the end of one hundred verses, but he proceeded on; I then thought that he would perhaps recite the whole (surah) in a rak'ah, but he proceeded and I thought he would perhaps bow on completing (this surah). He then started al-Nisa', and recited it; he then started Al-i-

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'Imran and recited leisurely. And when he recited the verses which referred to the Glory of Allah, he glorified (by saying Subhan Allah-Glory to my Lord the Great), and when he recited the verses which tell (how the Lord) is to be begged, he (the Holy Prophet) would then beg (from Him), and when he recited the verses dealing with protection from the Lord, he sought (His) protection and would then bow and say: Glory be to my Mighty Lord; his bowing lasted about the same length of time as his standing (and then on returning to the standing posture after ruku') he would say: Allah listened to him who praised Him, and he would then stand about the same length of time as he had spent in bowing. He would then prostrate himself and say: Glory be to my Lord most High, and his prostration lasted nearly the same length of time as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Muslim] Narrated Mus'ab bin Sa'd (RA): I offered prayer beside my father (RA) and approximated both my hands and placed them in between the knees. My father (RA) told me not to do so and said, "We used to do the same but we were forbidden (by the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)) to do it and were ordered to place the hands on the knees." [Bukhari] Jaabir Ibn Samurah (radhiallahu anhu) relates that once Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) came out of his house towards us and said: "Why is it that I see you all raising your hands as though they are the tails of stubborn horses. Be tranquil in salaah". [Muslim] Abdullah Ibn Mas'ud (radhiallahu anhu) said: "Shall I not show you the manner in which Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) performed his salaah?" Thereafter he performed the salaah but he did not raise his hands except at the beginning (of his salaah). [Tirmidhi] This Hadith is classified Hasan. Ibn Hazm (R.A.) has declared it as sahih. Ahmed Shakir (RA) has also declared it as sahih. Abu Humaid (radhiallahu anhu) reported that when the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) bowed, he would be straight, his head neither up nor down (with respect to his hips), and he would place his hands on his knees as if he was holding them." [Nasai]

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Note: There is a disagreement amongst scholars as to the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and in the Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) it is preferred that hands should not be raised except at the beginning. For detailed discussion, please see : http://www.central-mosque.com/fiqh/detraf.htm

38. Person should now pronounce the following at least three times. ‫سبحاى ربی العظین‬ Glory be to my Mighty Lord

Hudhaifa (RA) reported: I prayed with the Apostle of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) one night and he started reciting al-Baqara. I thought that he would bow at the end of one hundred verses, but he proceeded on; I then thought that he would perhaps recite the whole (surah) in a rak'ah, but he proceeded and I thought he would perhaps bow on completing (this surah). He then started al-Nisa', and recited it; he then started Al-i'Imran and recited leisurely. And when he recited the verses which referred to the Glory of Allah, he glorified (by saying Subhan Allah-Glory to my Lord the Great), and when he recited the verses which tell (how the Lord) is to be begged, he (the Holy Prophet) would then beg (from Him), and when he recited the verses dealing with protection from the Lord, he sought (His) protection and would then bow and say: Glory be to my Mighty Lord; his bowing lasted about the same length of time as his standing (and then on returning to the standing posture after ruku') he would say: Allah listened to him who praised Him, and he would then stand about the same length of time as he had spent in bowing. He would then prostrate himself and say: Glory be to my Lord most High, and his prostration lasted nearly the same length of time as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Muslim]

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Note: The scholars prefer the one bowing or prostrating to make the glorifications at least three times." However the minimum that is sufficient for the prostrations or bowings is one glorification [Tirmidhi] There is no harm in making glorifications but making it in odd numbers i.e. 5,7,9,11 is preferred.

39. The one praying alone or the Imam of the congregational Salah rises from the Ruku (bowing) while uttering the following: ‫سوع اللھ لوي حودہ‬ Allah listens to the one who praises Him

Narrated Abu Huraira (RA): The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said, "The Imam is to be followed. Say the Takbir when he says it; bow if he bows; if he says 'Sami a-l-lahu Liman hamida', say, ' Rabbana wa-laka-l-hamd', prostrate if he prostrates and pray sitting altogether if he prays sitting." as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Bukhari] 40. While standing upright the following should be recited: ‫ربٌا و لک الحود‬ Our Lord, [and] to You be all Praise OR ‫ربٌا لک الحود‬ Our Lord, to You be all Praise

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Narrated Abu Huraira (RA): The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said, "The Imam is to be followed. Say the Takbir when he says it; bow if he bows; if he says 'Sami a-l-lahu Liman hamida', say, ' Rabbana wa-laka-l-hamd', prostrate if he prostrates and pray sitting altogether if he prays sitting." as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Bukhari] 41. It is Sunnah to be stand upright and be tranquil before going into Sujood (prostration). Abu Hurairah (RA) said: "My beloved friend, Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) forbade me to perform postures of prayer copying the picking of a rooster; (signifying fast performance of prayer), moving eyes around like a fox and the sitting like monkeys (i.e. to sit on thighs)." [Ahmed] The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: "The worst thief is the one who steals from his own prayer." People asked, 'Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) ! How could one steal from his own prayer?' He (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: "By not completing its rukoo' and sujood." [Tabarni, Hakim] 42. Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) should now be recited while going down into Sujood (prostration). It is Sunnah to place the knees before the hands on the ground. During Sujood (prostration) arms should be kept away from the body, parallel to the shoulders while the elbows should be raised and fingers should be kept together. Narrated Wa'il ibn Hujr (RA): I saw that the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) placed his knees (on the ground) before placing his hands when he prostrated himself. And when he stood up, he raised his hands before his knees. Feet and toes should be positioned in the direction of the Qiblah[Abu Dawud] Abu Humayd (RA) reported, When the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) prostrated, he

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would place his nose and forehead upon the floor, keep his arms away from his sides, and place his hands parallel to the shoulders. [Abu Dawud] Wail Ibn Hajar (RA) reported: When Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) prostrated he would keep his fingers together. [Tirmidhi] Narrated Muhammad bin 'Amr bin 'Ata (RA)': I was sitting with some of the companions of Allah's Apostle (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)and we were discussing about the way of praying of the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). Abu Humaid As-Saidi (RA) said, "I remember the prayer of Allah's Apostle(sallallahu alaihi wasallam) better than any one of you. I saw him raising both his hands up to the level of the shoulders on saying the Takbir; and on bowing he placed his hands on both knees and bent his back straight, then he stood up straight from bowing till all the vertebrate took their normal positions. In prostrations, he placed both his hands on the ground with the forearms away from the ground and away from his body, and his toes were facing the Qibla. On sitting In the second Rak'a he sat on his left foot and propped up the right one; and in the last Rak'a he pushed his left foot forward and kept the other foot propped up and sat over the buttocks " Note: There is a disagreement amongst scholars as to the whether the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is to place the knees first or the hands first on the ground while going into Sujood (prostration). In the Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA), the order should be as follows: i) Knees first ii) Then the hands iii) Then the Nose iv) Then the forehead This disagreement is discussed in detail by Imam Nawawi (RA) in Majmu 43. The following should now be recited at least three times in Sujood (prostration).

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‫سبحاى ربی االعلی‬ Glory be to my Exalted Lord

Hudhaifa (RA) reported: I prayed with the Apostle of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) one night and he started reciting al-Baqara. I thought that he would bow at the end of one hundred verses, but he proceeded on; I then thought that he would perhaps recite the whole (surah) in a rak'ah, but he proceeded and I thought he would perhaps bow on completing (this surah). He then started al-Nisa', and recited it; he then started Al-i'Imran and recited leisurely. And when he recited the verses which referred to the Glory of Allah, he glorified (by saying Subhan Allah-Glory to my Lord the Great), and when he recited the verses which tell (how the Lord) is to be begged, he (the Holy Prophet) would then beg (from Him), and when he recited the verses dealing with protection from the Lord, he sought (His) protection and would then bow and say: Glory be to my Mighty Lord; his bowing lasted about the same length of time as his standing (and then on returning to the standing posture after ruku') he would say: Allah listened to him who praised Him, and he would then stand about the same length of time as he had spent in bowing. He would then prostrate himself and say: Glory be to my Lord most High, and his prostration lasted nearly the same length of time as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Muslim] Note: The scholars prefer the one bowing or prostrating to make the glorifications at least three times." However the minimum that is sufficient for the prostrations or bowings is one glorification [Tirmidhi] There is no harm in making glorifications but making it in odd numbers i.e. 5,7,9,11 is preferred. 44. Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) should now be recited while rising from the Sujood (prostration). It is Sunnah to pause a little while the body rests during the two

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prostrations. Furthermore the following recitation is praiseworthy during the two prostrations. ‫اللھن اغفز لی و ارحوٌی و اھدًی و اجبزًی و ارسقٌی‬ O Allah, forgive me, have mercy on me, guide me, deliver free from need (& poverty), and provide for me

Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas (RA): The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) used to say between the two prostrations: "O Allah, forgive me, have mercy on me, guide me, heal me, and provide for me." [Abu Dawud] Abu Hurairah (RA) said: "My beloved friend, Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) forbade me to perform postures of prayer copying the picking of a rooster; (signifying fast performance of prayer), moving eyes around like a fox and the sitting like monkeys (i.e. to sit on thighs)." [Ahmed] The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: "The worst thief is the one who steals from his own prayer." People asked, 'Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) ! How could one steal from his own prayer?' He (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: "By not completing its rukoo' and sujood." [Tabarni, Hakim] Note: Students of the great Muhadith Imam Anwar Shah Kashmiri Hanafi (RA) have recorded in their notes that he (RA) used to strongly advise the reading of this dua between the two prostrations. 45 . Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) should now be recited while going down into the second Sujood (prostration) and the following should now be recited at least three times in Sujood (prostration). ‫سبحاى ربی االعلی‬ Glory be to my Exalted Lord

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Hudhaifa (RA) reported: I prayed with the Apostle of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) one night and he started reciting al-Baqara. I thought that he would bow at the end of one hundred verses, but he proceeded on; I then thought that he would perhaps recite the whole (surah) in a rak'ah, but he proceeded and I thought he would perhaps bow on completing (this surah). He then started al-Nisa', and recited it; he then started Al-i'Imran and recited leisurely. And when he recited the verses which referred to the Glory of Allah, he glorified (by saying Subhan Allah-Glory to my Lord the Great), and when he recited the verses which tell (how the Lord) is to be begged, he (the Holy Prophet) would then beg (from Him), and when he recited the verses dealing with protection from the Lord, he sought (His) protection and would then bow and say: Glory be to my Mighty Lord; his bowing lasted about the same length of time as his standing (and then on returning to the standing posture after ruku') he would say: Allah listened to him who praised Him, and he would then stand about the same length of time as he had spent in bowing. He would then prostrate himself and say: Glory be to my Lord most High, and his prostration lasted nearly the same length of time as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Muslim] Note: The scholars prefer the one bowing or prostrating to make the glorifications at least three times." However the minimum that is sufficient for the prostrations or bowings is one glorification [Tirmidhi] There is no harm in making glorifications but making it in odd numbers i.e. 5,7,9,11 is preferred. 46 . Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) should now be recited while siting down for Tashahudd and the manner of sitting should be that the left foot should be flat on the ground while sitting on it and the right foot should be upright with the toes pointing to the Qiblah. 'A'isha (RA) reported: The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) used to begin prayer with takbir (saying Allih-o-Akbar) and the recitation:" Praise be to Allah, the Lord

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of the Universe." When he bowed he neither kept his head up nor bent it down, but kept it between these extremes; when he raised his bead after bow- ing he did not prostrate himself till he had stood erect; when he raised his head after prostration he did not prostrate himself again till he satup. At the end of every two rak'ahs he recited the tahiyya; and he used to place his left foot flat (on the ground) and raise up the right; he prohibited the devil's way of sitting on the heels, and he forbade people to spread out their arms like a wild beast. And he used to finish the prayer with the taslim.[Bukhari] 47 . Attahiyaat should be read as follows: ‫الخحیاث للھ والصلواث والطیباث‬ ‫رحوت اللھ و بزکاحھ السالم علیک ایھا الٌبی و‬ ‫اسالم علیٌا وعلی عباداللھ الصالحیي‬ ‫اللھ و اشھد اى هحود عبدہ و رسولھ اشھد اى ال الھ اال‬ All services rendered by words, by acts of worship, and all good things are due to Allah. Peace be upon you,0 Prophet, and Allah's mercy and blessings. Peace be upon us and upon Allah's upright servants. I testify that there is no god but Allah and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger

'Abdullah Ibn Masud (RA) said: While observing prayer behind the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) we used to recite: Peace be upon Allah, peace be upon so and so. One day the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said to us: Verily Allah is Himself Peace. When any one of you sits during the prayer. he should say: All services rendered by words, by acts of worship, and all good things are due to Allah. Peace be upon you,0 Prophet, and Allah's mercy and blessings. Peace be upon us and upon Allah's upright servants, for when he says this it reaches every upright servant in heaven and earth (and say further): I testify that there is no god but Allah and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger. Then he may choose any supplication which pleases him and offer it. [Bukhari] 48 . When the following is reached during Attahiyaat the index finger of the right hand

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should be raised during the denial part of Shahada (testimony) and dropped on the right index finger should be put down during the affirmation part of Shahada (testimony) while the other three fingers should be closed (as in a fist) thus making a ring between the thumb and the index finger. ‫اشھد اى ال الھ اال اللھ و اشھد اى هحود عبدہ و رسولھ‬ I testify that there is no god but Allah and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger

Ibn 'Umar (RA) reported that when the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) sat for tashahhud he placed his left hand on his left knee. and his right hand on his right knee. and he raised his right finger, which is next to the thumb, making supplication in this way, and he stretched his left hand on his left knee. Another version on the authority of Ibn Umar (RA) says: When the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) sat for tashahhud, he placed his left hand on his left knee and placed his right hand on his right knee, and he formed a ring like (fifty-three) and pointed with his finger of attestation.[Muslim] Note: There is disagreement amongst the scholars as to how the pointing during Tashahudd should be done with some Hanafi Scholars preferring the opinion that index finger of the right hand should be raised during the denial part of Shahada (testimony) and kept raised till the end of the Salah. 49. If this is a 4 Rakaat Salah then the person should stand and complete the 3rd and the 4th Rakaat as described above. 50. In the last sitting (i.e. the 1st sitting of a 2 Rakaat Salah or the 2nd sitting of a 4 Rakaat Salah), the Salat Alan-Nabi (Durood Shareef) should be recited, which is as follows.

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‫و علی آل ابزاھین اًک حوید هجید اللھن صلی علی هحود و علی آل هحود کوا صلیج علی ابزاھین‬ ‫علی ابزاھین و علی آل ابزاھین اًک حوید هجید اللھن بارک علی هحود و علی آل هحود کوا بارکج‬ 0 Allah, bless Muhammad and the members of his household as Thou didst bless the mernbers of Ibrahim's household. Grant favours to Muhammad and the members of his household as Thou didst grant favours to the members of the household of Ibrahim in the world. Thou art indeed Praiseworthy and Glorious

Abdullah b. Zaid (RA) -he who was shown the call (for prayer in a dream) narrated it on the authority of Mas'ad al-Ansiri (RA) who said: We were sitting in the company of Sa'id b. 'Ubida (RA) when the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) came to us. Bashir b. S'ad (RA) said: Allah has commanded us to bless you. Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)! But how should we bless you? He (the narrator) said: The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) kept quiet (and we were so much perturbed over his silence) that we wished we had not asked him. The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) then said: (For blessing me) say:" 0 Allah, bless Muhammad and the members of his household as Thou didst bless the mernbers of Ibrahim's household. Grant favours to Muhammad and the members of his household as Thou didst grant favours to the members of the household of Ibrahim in the world. Thou art indeed Praiseworthy and Glorious" ; and salutation as you know. 51. It is Sunnah to supplicate (make dua) for whatever one wishes after Salat Alan-Nabi (Durood Shareef). The following is one of the duas mentioned in Hadeeth:

‫فاغفز لی هغفزة هي عٌدک وارحوٌی اًک اًج الغفور اللھن اًی ظلوج ًفسی ظلوا کثیزا وال یغفز الذًوب اال اًج‬ ‫الزحین‬ O Allah, verily I have greatly wronged myself and no one forgives sins except You so

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forgive me with a forgiveness from You and have mercy on me. You are indeed AllForgiving and All-Merciful. Abdullah Ibn Amr (RA) reported that Abu Bakr (RA) said to the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam), “Teach me a supplication that I may use in my Salahs, He(sallallahu alaihi wasallam) replied, Say, “O Allah, verily I have greatly wronged myself and no one forgives sins except You so forgive me with a forgiveness from You and have mercy on me. You are indeed All-Forgiving and All-Merciful. 52. Salah should now be finished by saying Salam to the right side and then the left side while saying “Asslamo Allaikum Wa Rahmatullah”. Narrated Wa'il ibn Hujr (RA): I offered prayer along with the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). He would give the salutation to his right side (saying): Peace be upon you and mercy of Allah; and to his left side (saying): Peace be upon you and mercy of Allah.[Abu Dawud] 53. There are many Adhkar related in the Sunnah e.g. uttering Subhanullah (33 times), Alhumdolillah (33 times) and Allahu Akbar (34 times). Ka'b b. 'Ujra (RA) reported Allah's Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) as saying: There are certain utterances, the repeaters of which or the performers of which after every prescribed prayer will never be caused disappointment:" Glory be to Allah" thirty-three times." Praise be to Allah" thirty-three times, and" Allah is most Great" thirty-four times. 54. There are many supplications related in the Sunnah and some of them are listed below after reading Astaghfirullah (3 times) Mu`adh (bin Jabal) (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) held my hand and said, "O Mu`adh, By Allah, I love you and advise you not to miss supplicating after every Salat (prayer) saying: `Allahumma a`inni `ala dhikrika wa shukrika, wa husni `ibadatika,' (O Allah, help me remember You, expressing gratitude to You and

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worship You in the best manner)".[Abu Dawud and An-Nasa'i]. ‫علی ذکزک ً شکزک ًحسن عبادتک اللين اعنی‬ Thauban (RA) reported: When the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) finished his prayer. he begged forgiveness three times and said: O Allah! Thou art Peace, and peace comes from Thee; Blessed art Thou, O Possessor of Glory and Honour. Walid reported: I said to Auza'i: How Is the seeking of forgiveness? He replied: You should say:, I beg forgiveness from Allah, 1 beg forgiveness from Allah." ‫تبارکت یا ذا الجالل ً الالکزام اللين انت السالم ً هنک السالم‬
Compulsory actions of Salah (Faraidh):

If any of these are missed then the prayer will need to be repeated 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. To say Takbeer-e-Tahreema i.e. ‫اللھ اکبز‬ Qiyam i.e. Standing Recitation of the Qur’aan of at least three short or one long verse Ruku i.e. bowing To perform both Sajdahs Qa’dah Akheerah i.e. to sit for so long at the end of the Salah that one can read Tashahud

Necessary actions of Salah (Waajibat): If any of these are missed unknowingly then Sajda Sah’w will need to be performed to correct the prayer; however if it is missed knowingly or no Sajda Sah’w is performed then the prayer will need to be repeated 1. Fixing the first two Rakaat of Fardh Salah for recitation 2. It is Waajib to recite Al-Fatiha in all Rakaats of all prayers except 3rd and 4th Rakaat of Fardh in which it is Sunnah 3. To recite at least three short or one long verse after Al-Fatiha in the first two Rakaats of Fardh and in all Rakaats of all other prayers 4. To recite Al-Fatiha before any other Surah 5. To maintain order between Qiyaam, Ruku, Sajdah & Rakaats 6. Qaumah i.e. standing after Ruku 7. Jalsah i.e. sitting between the two Sajdahs

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8. Ta’deele Arkaan i.e. performing Ruku, Sajdah with contentment and in a good manner 9. Qa’dah oola i.e. to sit after the first two Rakaat in 4 Rakaat prayer to the extent of reciting Tashahud 10.To read Tashahud in the two Qa’dahs 11.Imam to recite loudly during the first two Rakaat of Maghrib and Esha and in all Rakaats of Faj’r Jummah, Taraweeh, Eid & Wit’r (in Ramadhan) 12.To complete the prayers after saying Salam 13.To say Takbeer after Qunoot in Wit’r 14.To say six additional takbeers in Eidain
Sajda Sah’w:

If any of the Waajib is missed unknowingly then at the end of the Salah after Attihiyaat Salam should be done on the right side only and then two additional Sajdahs performed and finally Salah should then be finished as normal
Sunnah actions of Salah:

1. To raise the hands up to the ears before saying Takbeer-e-Tahreema 2. While raising the hands for Takbeer, keeping the fingers together and palms facing the Qiblah 3. Not to bend the head while saying the Takbeer 4. Saying of Takbeers (Takbeer-e-Takreema) and others aloud by the Imam 5. To fold the right hand over the left hand below the navel 6. Saying Thana 7. To recite Ta’awwuz 8. To recite the complete Bismillah 9. To only recite Al-Fatiha in the 3rd and 4th Rakaat of Fardh Salah 10.To say Ameen (softly) 11.To recite Thana, Ta’awwuz, Bismillah and Ameen softly 12.To recite as much of the Qur’aan is Sunnah: a. Faj’r: From Surah Hujarat (26th Part) up to Surah Inshiqaaq (30th part) b. Zoh’r, Asar & Esha: From Surah Al-Burooj (30th part) till Surah Al-Qad’r (30th Part) c. Maghrib: From Surah Al-Bayyinah (30th part) till Surah An-Naas (30th part) 13.To say Tasbeeh at least three times in Ruku and Sajdah 14.To keep the back and the head at the same level during Ruku while holding both knees with fingers of both hands

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15.For the Imam to say “Sami-Allahu Liman Hamida” and the Muqtadi (followers) to read “Rabbana Wa Lakal Hamd” and the individual to recite both 16.While going into Sajdah to place the knees, palms, then the nose and then the forehead 17.In Qa’dah (or Jalsa) to place the left foot on the ground horizontally and sitting on it and keep the right foot vertically with the toes pointing towards the Qiblah 18.To raise the index finger when one recite the Kalima in Tashahud 19.To recite Durood Shareef in Qa’dah Akheerah after Tashahud 20.To read dua after Durood Shareef in Qa’dah Akheerah after Tashahud 21.To turn the face to the right during Salam first
Desirable actions of Salah (Mustahabbat):

1. To pull the palms out of the sleeves while saying the Takbeer-e- Takreema 2. To say the Tasbeeh more then three times during Ruku and Sajdah 3. To fix the gaze towards the place of Sajdah in Qiyaam, towards the feet in Ruku and on the lap during Qa’dah and on the shoulders during Salam 4. To try not to cough 5. To try not to yawn and if the mouth is opened to cover it with the back of the right hand in Qiyaam and with the back of the left hand in all other postures
Undesirable actions of Salah (Makroohat):

1. To pray bareheaded due to laziness or to pray while arms are exposed above the elbows 2. To play with the clothes or the body during Prayers 3. Praying in clothes in which people ordinarily do not go out 4. To dust the floor with one’s hand to prevent the soiling of clothes 5. Praying when one has the urge to urinate or pass stool 6. To crack fingers or putting the fingers of one hand into the other 7. Turning the face away from Qiblah and looking around 8. For men to rest both arms and wrists on the ground during Sajdah 9. Praying one someone else in sitting in front facing you 10.Yawning intentionally and not trying to prevent it 11.Closing the eyes but if it is done to enhance concentration then it is permissible 12.Standing alone in a row when there is space in the front row for a mature (baaligh) person 13.Praying in clothes with pictures of living things on them 14.Praying in a place where this is a picture in front, above, right or left or at the place of Sajdah

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15.To count Ayahs, Surahs, Tasbeehs on the fingers while praying 16.Praying while sheets or clothes wrapped around in such a way which will make it difficult to free the hands quickly 17.To yawn or stretch arms to remove laziness 18.Doing something against Sunnah while praying

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Sunnah Method & Description of Salah of a Muslim Woman Note: In the Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) the postures during Salah for men and women differ, the general evidence for this difference is as follows and the specific evidence will be discussed later with a separate post detailing the Salah for women. http://www.central-mosque.com/fiqh/menwmdiff.htm The sunnah posture of a female in any position of salah is that which is the most concealing for her. Imam Baihaqi says,”All of the laws of salah in which a woman differs from a man are based on the principle of satr (concealment). This means that the woman is instructed to do all that which is more concealing for her.”[Baihaqi 2/314] In the Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) due to the principle of satr (concealment) there are five fundamental differences in posture during Salah: a) At the beginning of Salah women should raise their hands upto the shoulders or close to bosom b) During Qiyaam (standing) women should place their hands on their bosom and in doing so they can adopt “Akdh (grasping)” or “wadh (placing)” according to personal preference c) During Ruku they should tuck their arms into the body and bend enough for the hands to reach the knees and hands should be placed on the knees (as opposed to grasping the knees) d) In prostration they should cling to the ground e) During Tashahhud women should take out both legs to the right and sit on their posterior without raising the right foot

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1. There is no Salah before its time, and it must be ensured that the time for Salah has actually started. [4:103] Once you have finished your Salāh, then, remember Allah while standing, sitting and reclining. As soon as you are secure, perform Salāh as due. Surely, Salāh is an obligation on the believers that is tied up with time. 2. There is no Salah without being in the state of Wudhu. [5:6] O you who believe, when you rise for Salāh, (prayer) wash your faces and your hands up to the elbows, and make MasH (wiping by hands) of your heads and (wash) your feet up to the ankles. If you are in a state of major impurity, cleanse yourselves well (by taking bath). If you are sick, or on a journey, or if one of you has come after relieving himself, or you have had sexual contact with women, and you find no water, then, go for some clean dust and wipe your faces and hands with it. Allah does not like to impose a problem on you; He, rather likes to cleanse you and to complete His favour upon you, so that you may be grateful. Hammam b. Munabbih (RA) who is the brother of Wahb b. Munabbih. (RA) said: This is what has been transmitted to us by Abu Huraira (RA) from Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬and then narrated a hadith out of them and observed that the Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬said: The prayer of none amongst you would be accepted in a state of impurity till he performs ablution. [Muslim] 3. Body, clothes and location of prayer must be Taahir (free from impurities). [74:4] and purify your clothes, Jabir Ibn Samra (RA) narrates that a man asked Rasul-ullah (‫“ ,)ﷺ‬Should I pray in the same clothes in which I went (cohabited) to my wife in?” He (‫ )ﷺ‬replied, “Yes unless you find some impurity on it which should clean and purify”. [Ahmed]

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4. Awrah of a woman must be covered and her Awrah is all her body except the face, palms and feet. [24:31] And tell the believing women that they must lower their gazes and guard their private parts, and must not expose their adornment, except that which appears thereof, and must wrap their bosoms with their shawls, and must not expose their adornment, except to their husbands or their fathers or the fathers of their husbands, or to their sons or the sons of their husbands, or to their brothers or the sons of their brothers or the sons of their sisters, or to their women, or to those owned by their right hands, or male attendants having no (sexual) urge, or to the children who are not yet conscious of the shames of women. And let them not stamp their feet in a way that the adornment they conceal is known. And repent to Allah O believers, all of you, so that you may achieve success. Aisha (RA) narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) said, “Allah (SWT) does not accept the Salah of an adult woman unless she is wearing a Khimar (head covering).” [Abu Dawud] It is related from Umm Salamah (RA) that she asked Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam), “Can a woman pray in a long shirt and head covering without a loincloth?” He (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) said, “If the shirt is long and flowing and covers the top of her feet.” [Abu Dawud] Note: There is a difference of opinion amongst scholars about the feet being covered in Salah and it is preferable and more precautionary for them to be covered, however the one who chooses to follow the other opinion (i.e. the feet not being covered) should not be criticized & the matter is discussed in detail here: http://www.central-mosque.com/fiqh/hanwofeet.htm

5. A person must face the Qiblah (direction of Kaba’h) during Salah. [2:144] We have been seeing you turning your face to the heavens. So, We will certainly assign to you a Qiblah that you would like. Now, turn your face in the

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direction of the Sacred Mosque (Al-Masjid-ul-Harām), and (O Muslims), wherever you are, turn your faces in its direction. Even those who have been given the Book know well that it is the truth from their Lord, and Allah is not unaware of what they do. 6. The best place to pray for a woman is her home, rather a corner of her room. [2:144] Narrated Umm Humaid As-Sa’diyah (RA) who once said to the Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam): Messenger of Allah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam)! I love to pray with you (i.e. in the mosque)! Upon hearing this, Allah’s Messenger (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) said: "I know that you love to say your prayer with me. However, the prayer you offer in your residence is more excellent than that you offer in your people’s mosque. And your prayer in your people’s mosque is better for you than you prayer in the (lager) congregational mosque." [Abu Dawud;, Musnad of Imaam Ahmad; & At-Tabarani] Note: There is no obligation on women to visit the Mosque & perform regular congregational Salah (at the Mosque) and no evidence to suggest that praying in the Mosque with congregation carries greater reward or can be classed as Sunnah, rather the promise of greater reward is with praying at home, however they shouldn’t be prevented from attending the Mosque. 7. During congregational Salah; similar to men, woman should also straighten their rows and make sure that there are no gaps in between them but joining ankle to ankle is extremism. Nu’maan ibn Bashir (radhiallaahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) would straighten our Saffs with such care that even arrow shafts could be straightened with them (by using them as a guide) until he saw that we understood (the importance of straightening the Saffs). Once he came out and stood (on his Musalla) and just before making Takbeer he noticed a person’s chest sticking out of the Saff. Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) said, ‘O Servants of Allah! Straighten your Saffs or else Allah will cause division amongst your hearts.’ [Muslim]

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Note: Joining ankle to ankle is not the aim but a means of achieving the aims and to insist on this during Salah is extremism as discussed here: http://www.central-mosque.com/fiqh/anklshyuth.htm

8. It is recommended to place a Sutrah (a barrier or partition) in front when praying. Sahl Ibn Hathmah (RA) reported that Rasul-ullah (‫ )ﷺ‬said, “When one of you prays, he should pray towards his Sutrah and he should be close to it”.[Abu Dawud] 9. The minimum height of Sutrah should be length of an arm, and its width at least a finger. Sabrah Ibn Ma’bad (RA) reported that Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬said, “When one of you prays, he should make a barrier for his Salah, even it is an arrow”.[Ahmad] Talha (RA) said that we used to pray and animals would pass in front of us. We mentioned this to the Messenger of Allah (SWT) and he said, “If anything the size of saddle is in front of you, nothing that passes beyond it will harm you”.[Muslim] Note: The size of saddle has been interpreted by Nafi (RA), Ata (RA), Sufyan Thawri (RA) as the length of an arm. [Musannaf Abdur Razzaq] 10. It is forbidden to cross between the Sutrah and the one who is praying. Narrated Busr bin Said (RA) narrates that Zaid bin Khalid (RA) sent him to Abi Juhaim (RA) to ask him what he had heard from Allah's Apostle (‫ )ﷺ‬about a person passing in front of another person who was praying. Abu Juhaim (RA) replied, "Allah's Apostle (‫ )ﷺ‬said, 'If the person who passes in front of another person in prayer knew the magnitude of his sin he would prefer to wait for 40 (days, months or years) rather than to pass in front of him." Abu An-Nadr (RA) said, "I do not

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remember exactly whether he said 40 days, months or years."[Bukhari] 11. Make the intention for Salah before starting, “I am performing Salah [name of Salah] for Allah (SWT)” adding “behind the Imam if it is being done in congregation. Rasul-ullah (‫ )ﷺ‬has said, “Every action is based on Intention, and everyone shall have what he intended”. [Bukhari] Note: Intention doesn’t need to be uttered verbally or loudly, it is an action of the heart. 12. Both feet should be kept together as it is more concealment for her & then both hands should be raised while uttering the Takbeer, “Allahu-Akbar”, however women should not raise their hands higher than the shoulders. Sayyiduna Wail bin Hujr (RA) reports that the Prophet (‫ )ًسلن صلى اهلل عليو‬said, “O Ibn Hujr (RA) ! When you pray make your hands level with your ears. And the woman shall raise her hands close to her bosom”. [Tabarani] The great Tabiyyah scholar Umm Al-Darda (RA) used to raise her hands up to the level of the shoulders when she started Salah. [Ibn Abi Shaybah] Ata Ibn Abi Rabah (RA) was asked how a woman should raise her hands in Salah and he (RA) replied, “Opposite to her breasts”. [Ibn Abi Shaybah] Imam Zuhri (RA) said that a woman should raise her hands up to her shoulders. [Ibn Abi Shaybah] 13. Eyes should now be focused at the place of prostration. Rasul-ulah (‫ )ﷺ‬used to incline his head slightly and fix his eyes towards the ground. [Baihiqi & Hakim]

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14. Person praying should not look upwards or sideways. Aisha (RA) narrated that Rasul-ulah (‫ )ﷺ‬prayed in a cloak which had some designs in it. He (‫ )ﷺ‬said, “These designs have distracted me. Take this cloak to Abu Jahm and bring me a plain one”. [Muslim] Abu Hurairah (RA) reported that Rasul-ulah (‫ )ﷺ‬said, “Those who raise their gaze to the sky during Salah should stop doing so or their sight may be taken away”. [Bukhari] Ibrahim Nakhai (RA) did not like one to gaze beyond the place of Sajdah (prostration). [Ibn Abi Shaybah] 15. Closing eyes is disliked in Salah. Ibn Abbas(RA) narrated that Rasul-ulah (‫ )ﷺ‬said, “When one of you stands up in Salah, he should not close his eyes”. [Tabarani] 16. A woman should place her hands over her chest because this provides more concealment for her. [Al-Mawsili] 17. Then Thana should be recited which is as follows. ‫سبحاًك اللھن وبحودك حبارك اسوك وحعالى جدك وال إلھ غیزك‬ Glory to Thee,0 Allah, and Thine is the Praise, and Blessed is Thy Name. and Exalted is Thy Majesty. and there is no other object of worship beside Thee

'Abda (RA) reported: 'Umar b. al-Khattab (RA) used to recite loudly these words: Subhanak Allahumma wa bi hamdika wa tabarakasmuka wa ta'ala jadduka wa la ilaha ghairuka [Glory to Thee,0 Allah, and Thine is the Praise, and Blessed is Thy Name. and Exalted is Thy Majesty. and there is no other object of worship beside Thee]. Qatada (RA) informed in writing that Anas b. Malik (RA) had narrated to him: I

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observed prayer behind the Apostle of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬and Abu Bakr (RA) and Umar (RA) and 'Uthman (RA). They started (loud recitation) with: AI-hamdu lillahi Rabb al'Alamin [All Praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the worlds] and did not recite Bismillah ir- Rahman-ir-Rahim (loudly) at the beginning of the recitation or at the end of it. [Muslim] Note: Imam Muhammad (RA) said, “We say this in the opening of Salah, but we do not say that Imam or follower should say it loudly; Umar (RA) said it loudly in order to teach others what they had asked him [Kitabul Athar]. 18. Person should now recite Ta’awudh (Audho Billahi Minash-Shaytaanir Rajeem) and Bismillah quietly. [16:98] So, when you recite the Qur‘ān, seek refuge with Allah against Satan, the accursed. 'Abda (RA) reported: 'Umar b. al-Khattab (RA) used to recite loudly these words: Subhanak Allahumma wa bi hamdika wa tabarakasmuka wa ta'ala jadduka wa la ilaha ghairuka [Glory to Thee,0 Allah, and Thine is the Praise, and Blessed is Thy Name. and Exalted is Thy Majesty. and there is no other object of worship beside Thee]. Qatada (RA) informed in writing that Anas b. Malik (RA) had narrated to him: I observed prayer behind the Apostle of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬and Abu Bakr (RA) and Umar (RA) and 'Uthman (RA). They started (loud recitation) with: AI-hamdu lillahi Rabb al'Alamin [All Praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the worlds] and did not recite Bismillah ir- Rahman-ir-Rahim (loudly) at the beginning of the recitation or at the end of it. [Muslim] Ibrahim Nakhai (RA) said, “Four things should be said quietly by the Imam: i) Thana ii) Ta’awudh iii) Bismillah iv) Amin

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[Kitabul Athar] 19. Person should now recite Al-Fatiha. Narrated 'Ubada bin As-Samit (RA): Allah's Apostle (‫ )ﷺ‬said, "Whoever does not recite Al-Fatiha in his prayer, his prayer is invalid." [Bukhari] 20. Person praying alone should now recite Al-Fatiha. Narrated 'Ubada bin As-Samit (RA): Allah's Apostle (‫ )ﷺ‬said, "Whoever does not recite Al-Fatiha in his prayer, his prayer is invalid." [Bukhari] 21. Person praying alone should now recite some Qur’aan in the following Rakaats of Salah after Surah Al-Fatihah: i) Both Rakaats of Salat Al-Faj’r ii) First two Rakaat of Salat Az-Zuh’r iii) Both Rakaats of Salat Al-Jummuah iv) First two Rakaat of Salat Al-As’r v) First two Rakaat of Salat Al-Maghrib vi) First two Rakaat of Salat Al-Esha vii) In all Rakaat of all Sunnah prayers viii) In all Rakaat of all Nafila (optional) prayers Narrated 'Abdullah bin Abi Qatada (RA): My father (RA) said, "The Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬in Zuhr prayers used to recite Al-Fatiha along with two other Suras in the first two Rakat: a long one in the first Rak'a and a shorter (Sura) in the second, and at times the verses were audible. In the 'Asr prayer the Prophet used to recite Al-Fatiha and two more Suras in the first two Rakat and used to prolong the first Rak'a. And he used to prolong the first Rak'a of the Fajr prayer and shorten the second." [Bukhari] Amir Al-Shabi (RA) narrated that Umar (RA) wrote to Shurayh (RA) asking him to read Al-Fatihah and another Surah in the first two Rakaats, and Al-Fatihah only in the last two Rakaats. [Ibn Abi Shaybah]

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Ibrahim Nakhai (RA) said, “Do not add anything to Al-Fatihah in the last two Rakaats. Imam Muhammad (RA) said, “This is the opinion of Abu Haneefa (RA) and we adhere to it. [Kitabul Athar] Note: It is my intention to post some of the available Sunnah on what Prophet (‫)ﷺ‬ recited in each Salah separately, Insha’Allah. 22. If praying in congregational Salah then the recitation of the Imam is sufficient for the follower and recitation of Al-Fatihah or the Surah is not required by followers when praying in congregational Salah. [7:204] When the Qur‘ān is recited, listen to it and be silent, so that you may be blessed. Note: There is a disagreement amongst scholars as to the Sunnah of Prophet (‫)ﷺ‬ and in the Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) it is stated that the recitation of Imam is sufficient. For detailed discussion, please see : http://www.central-mosque.com/fiqh/rectfth.htm

23. Person should now pronounce the Takbeer (Allahu Akbar) and go into Ruku (bowing) and the most concealing posture for a woman should be adopted i.e. : a) A woman should only bend enough for the hands to reach the knees b) The hands should be placed (rather than grasping) on the knees with the fingers kept together c) Elbows should touch the side of the body Hudhaifa (RA) reported: I prayed with the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) one night and he started reciting al-Baqara. I thought that he would bow at the end of

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one hundred verses, but he proceeded on; I then thought that he would perhaps recite the whole (surah) in a rak'ah, but he proceeded and I thought he would perhaps bow on completing (this surah). He then started al-Nisa', and recited it; he then started Al-i-'Imran and recited leisurely. And when he recited the verses which referred to the Glory of Allah, he glorified (by saying Subhan Allah-Glory to my Lord the Great), and when he recited the verses which tell (how the Lord) is to be begged, he (the Holy Prophet) would then beg (from Him), and when he recited the verses dealing with protection from the Lord, he sought (His) protection and would then bow and say: Glory be to my Mighty Lord; his bowing lasted about the same length of time as his standing (and then on returning to the standing posture after ruku') he would say: Allah listened to him who praised Him, and he would then stand about the same length of time as he had spent in bowing. He would then prostrate himself and say: Glory be to my Lord most High, and his prostration lasted nearly the same length of time as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Muslim] Narrated Mus'ab bin Sa'd (RA): I offered prayer beside my father (RA) and approximated both my hands and placed them in between the knees. My father (RA) told me not to do so and said, "We used to do the same but we were forbidden (by the Prophet (‫ ))ﷺ‬to do it and were ordered to place the hands on the knees." [Bukhari] Ataa (RA) says, “A woman should pull herself together when she bows down into ruk'u: she should bring up her arms to her stomach and pull herself together as much as possible. When she prostrates she should bring up her arms close to her and press her bosom and stomach against her thighs: she should pull herself together as much as possible.” [Musannaf Abdur Razzaq] Note: There is a disagreement amongst scholars as to the Sunnah of Prophet (‫)ﷺ‬ and in the Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) it is preferred that hands should not be raised except at the beginning. For detailed discussion, please see : http://www.central-mosque.com/fiqh/detraf.htm

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24. Person should now pronounce the following at least three times. ‫سبحاى ربی العظین‬ Glory be to my Mighty Lord

Hudhaifa (RA) reported: I prayed with the Apostle of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬one night and he started reciting al-Baqara. I thought that he would bow at the end of one hundred verses, but he proceeded on; I then thought that he would perhaps recite the whole (surah) in a rak'ah, but he proceeded and I thought he would perhaps bow on completing (this surah). He then started al-Nisa', and recited it; he then started Al-i'Imran and recited leisurely. And when he recited the verses which referred to the Glory of Allah, he glorified (by saying Subhan Allah-Glory to my Lord the Great), and when he recited the verses which tell (how the Lord) is to be begged, he (the Holy Prophet) would then beg (from Him), and when he recited the verses dealing with protection from the Lord, he sought (His) protection and would then bow and say: Glory be to my Mighty Lord; his bowing lasted about the same length of time as his standing (and then on returning to the standing posture after ruku') he would say: Allah listened to him who praised Him, and he would then stand about the same length of time as he had spent in bowing. He would then prostrate himself and say: Glory be to my Lord most High, and his prostration lasted nearly the same length of time as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Muslim] Note: The scholars prefer the one bowing or prostrating to make the glorifications at least three times." However the minimum that is sufficient for the prostrations or bowings is one glorification [Tirmidhi] There is no harm in making glorifications but making it in odd numbers i.e. 5,7,9,11 is preferred.

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25. Person now rises from the Ruku (bowing) while uttering the following: ‫سوع اللھ لوي حودہ‬ Allah listens to the one who praises Him

Narrated Abu Huraira (RA): The Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬said, "The Imam is to be followed. Say the Takbir when he says it; bow if he bows; if he says 'Sami a-l-lahu Liman hamida', say, ' Rabbana wa-laka-l-hamd', prostrate if he prostrates and pray sitting altogether if he prays sitting." as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Bukhari] 26. While standing upright the following should be recited: ‫ربٌا و لک الحود‬ Our Lord, [and] to You be all Praise OR ‫ربٌا لک الحود‬ Our Lord, to You be all Praise

Narrated Abu Huraira (RA): The Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬said, "The Imam is to be followed. Say the Takbir when he says it; bow if he bows; if he says 'Sami a-l-lahu Liman hamida', say, ' Rabbana wa-laka-l-hamd', prostrate if he prostrates and pray sitting altogether if he prays sitting." as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Bukhari] 27. It is Sunnah to be stand upright and be tranquil before going into Sujood (prostration).

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Abu Hurairah (RA) said: "My beloved friend, Muhammad (‫ )ﷺ‬forbade me to perform postures of prayer copying the picking of a rooster; (signifying fast performance of prayer), moving eyes around like a fox and the sitting like monkeys (i.e. to sit on thighs)." [Ahmed] The Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬said: "The worst thief is the one who steals from his own prayer." People asked, 'Messenger of Allah (‫ ! )ﷺ‬How could one steal from his own prayer?' He (‫ )ﷺ‬said: "By not completing its rukoo' and sujood." [Tabarni, Hakim] 28. Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) should now be recited while going down into Sujood (prostration). It is Sunnah to place the knees before the hands on the ground. During Sujood (prostration) the body should be drawn together with the front of the thighs touching the stomach and the back placed on the calves, the shins placed flat on the ground and buttocks should touch the heels of the feet. Narrated Wa'il ibn Hujr (RA): I saw that the Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬placed his knees (on the ground) before placing his hands when he prostrated himself. And when he stood up, he raised his hands before his knees. Feet and toes should be positioned in the direction of the Qiblah[Abu Dawud] Ali Ibn Abi Talib (RA) said, “When a woman does Sajdah she should hold herself and join her thighs”. [Ibn Abi Shaybah] Ibn Abbas (RA) was asked about the Salah of a woman and he (RA) answered. “She should gather and join herself”. [Ibn Abi Shaybah] Ibrahim An-Nakhai (RA) said, “When the woman does Sajdah she should draw and join her thighs and her stomach should touch her thighs.” [Ibn Abi Shaybah]

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29. The following should now be recited at least three times in Sujood (prostration). ‫سبحاى ربی االعلی‬ Glory be to my Exalted Lord Hudhaifa (RA) reported: I prayed with the Apostle of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬one night and he started reciting al-Baqara. I thought that he would bow at the end of one hundred verses, but he proceeded on; I then thought that he would perhaps recite the whole (surah) in a rak'ah, but he proceeded and I thought he would perhaps bow on completing (this surah). He then started al-Nisa', and recited it; he then started Al-i'Imran and recited leisurely. And when he recited the verses which referred to the Glory of Allah, he glorified (by saying Subhan Allah-Glory to my Lord the Great), and when he recited the verses which tell (how the Lord) is to be begged, he (the Holy Prophet) would then beg (from Him), and when he recited the verses dealing with protection from the Lord, he sought (His) protection and would then bow and say: Glory be to my Mighty Lord; his bowing lasted about the same length of time as his standing (and then on returning to the standing posture after ruku') he would say: Allah listened to him who praised Him, and he would then stand about the same length of time as he had spent in bowing. He would then prostrate himself and say: Glory be to my Lord most High, and his prostration lasted nearly the same length of time as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Muslim] Note: The scholars prefer the one bowing or prostrating to make the glorifications at least three times." However the minimum that is sufficient for the prostrations or bowings is one glorification [Tirmidhi] There is no harm in making glorifications but making it in odd numbers i.e. 5,7,9,11 is preferred. 30. Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) should now be recited while rising from the Sujood (prostration) and while sitting both legs should be drawn to the right side and

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the right foot should not be kept standing. It is Sunnah to pause a little while the body rests during the two prostrations. Furthermore the following recitation is praiseworthy during the two prostrations. ‫اللھن اغفز لی و ارحوٌی و اھدًی و اجبزًی و ارسقٌی‬ O Allah, forgive me, have mercy on me, guide me, deliver free from need (& poverty), and provide for me

Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas (RA): The Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬used to say between the two prostrations: "O Allah, forgive me, have mercy on me, guide me, heal me, and provide for me." [Abu Dawud] Abu Hurairah (RA) said: "My beloved friend, Muhammad (‫ )ﷺ‬forbade me to perform postures of prayer copying the picking of a rooster; (signifying fast performance of prayer), moving eyes around like a fox and the sitting like monkeys (i.e. to sit on thighs)." [Ahmed] Khalid bin al Lajlaaj (RA) reports as part of a longer hadeeth that women were ordered to do tarabb'u (.e., to draw out one's right leg towards the right side of the body and to place the left leg beneath the right leg) when sitting in salah.[Ibn Abi Shaybah] Nafi' (RA) narrates that Safiyyah ( ‫ ) رضئ اهلل عنيا‬would pray and do tarabb'u. [Ibn Abi Shaybah & Musannaf Abdur Razzaq] Nafi' (RA) also narrates that the womenfolk of Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Umar's ( ‫رضئ‬ ‫ ) اهلل عنو‬family would do tarabb'u.[Ibn Abi Shaybah] Sayyiduna Ibn Umar (‫ ) رضئ اهلل عنو‬was once asked, 'How did women pray their salah during the time of the Prophet (‫ ' )ﷺ‬He replied, 'They used to sit cross legged until they were told to practice ihtifaz [Narrated by all three, Abu Muhammad al Bukhari, Qadhi Umar bin al Hasan Ashnani, and Ibn Khusruw in their Musnads of Imam Abu

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Hanifah's ahadeeth Ihtifaz is to lean to one side and rest on the posterior. It is more or less the same a sadl]. Students of the great Muhadith Imam Anwar Shah Kashmiri Hanafi (RA) have recorded in their notes that he (RA) used to strongly advise the reading of this dua between the two prostrations. 31 . Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) should now be recited while going down into second Sujood (prostration). It is Sunnah to place the knees before the hands on the ground. During Sujood (prostration) the body should be drawn together with the front of the thighs touching the stomach and the back placed on the calves, the shins placed flat on the ground and buttocks should touch the heels of the feet. Narrated Wa'il ibn Hujr (RA): I saw that the Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬placed his knees (on the ground) before placing his hands when he prostrated himself. And when he stood up, he raised his hands before his knees. Feet and toes should be positioned in the direction of the Qiblah[Abu Dawud] Ali Ibn Abi Talib (RA) said, “When a woman does Sajdah she should hold herself and join her thighs”. [Ibn Abi Shaybah] Ibn Abbas (RA) was asked about the Salah of a woman and he (RA) answered. “She should gather and join herself”. [Ibn Abi Shaybah] Ibrahim An-Nakhai (RA) said, “When the woman does Sajdah she should draw and join her thighs and her stomach should touch her thighs.” [Ibn Abi Shaybah] Note: The scholars prefer the one bowing or prostrating to make the glorifications at least three times." However the minimum that is sufficient for the prostrations or bowings is one glorification [Tirmidhi] There is no harm in making glorifications but making it in odd numbers i.e. 5,7,9,11 is

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preferred. 32 . Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) should now be recited while standing for the second Rakaat. Narrated Abu Huraira (RA): Once the Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬entered the mosque, a man came in, offered the prayer and greeted the Prophet (‫. )ﷺ‬The Prophet (‫)ﷺ‬ returned his greeting and said to him, "Go back and pray again for you have not prayed." The man offered the prayer again, came back and greeted the Prophet(‫)ﷺ‬ . He said to him thrice, "Go back and pray again for you have not prayed." The man said, "By Him Who has sent you with the truth! I do not know a better way of praying. Kindly teach Me how to pray." He said, "When you stand for the prayer, say Takbir and then recite from the Qur'an what you know and then bow with calmness till you feel at ease, then rise from bowing till you stand straight. Afterwards prostrate calmly till you feel at ease and then raise (your head) and sit with Calmness till you feel at ease and then prostrate with calmness till you feel at ease in prostration and do the same in the whole of your prayer." [Bukhari] Note: There is a disagreement in this matter with some scholars stating that the Sunnah is to rest before standing upright. The Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) is quoted. 33. The one praying alone should now say Bismillah quietly. 'Abda (RA) reported: 'Umar b. al-Khattab (RA) used to recite loudly these words: Subhanak Allahumma wa bi hamdika wa tabarakasmuka wa ta'ala jadduka wa la ilaha ghairuka [Glory to Thee,0 Allah, and Thine is the Praise, and Blessed is Thy Name. and Exalted is Thy Majesty. and there is no other object of worship beside Thee]. Qatada (RA) informed in writing that Anas b. Malik (RA) had narrated to him: I observed prayer behind the Apostle of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬and Abu Bakr (RA) and Umar (RA) and 'Uthman (RA). They started (loud recitation) with: AI-hamdu lillahi Rabb al'Alamin [All Praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the worlds] and did not recite Bismillah ir- Rahman-ir-Rahim (loudly) at the beginning of the recitation or at the end of it.

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[Muslim] Ibrahim Nakhai (RA) said, “Four things should be said quietly by the Imam: i) Thana ii) Ta’awudh iii) Bismillah iv) Amin[Kitabul Athar] Note: In the Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) Ta’awudh (Audho Billahi MinashShaytaanir Rajeem) is only recited in the first Rakaah because as per the evidence from the Qur’aan (below) the recitation of the Qur’aan was started in the first Rakaat. [16:98] So, when you recite the Qur‘ān, seek refuge with Allah against Satan, the accursed. 34. The one praying alone should now recite Al-Fatiha in the second Rakaat. Narrated 'Ubada bin As-Samit (RA): Allah's Apostle (‫ )ﷺ‬said, "Whoever does not recite Al-Fatiha in his prayer, his prayer is invalid." [Bukhari] 35. The one praying alone should now recite some Qur’aan in the following Rakaats of Salah after Surah Al-Fatihah : i) Both Rakaats of Salat Al-Faj’r ii) First two Rakaat of Salat Az-Zuh’r iii) Both Rakaats of Salat Al-Jummuah iv) First two Rakaat of Salat Al-As’r v) First two Rakaat of Salat Al-Maghrib vi) First two Rakaat of Salat Al-Esha vii) In all Rakaat of all Sunnah prayers viii) In all Rakaat of all Nafila (optional) prayers Narrated 'Abdullah bin Abi Qatada (RA): My father (RA) said, "The Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬in

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Zuhr prayers used to recite Al-Fatiha along with two other Suras in the first two Rakat: a long one in the first Rak'a and a shorter (Sura) in the second, and at times the verses were audible. In the 'Asr prayer the Prophet used to recite Al-Fatiha and two more Suras in the first two Rakat and used to prolong the first Rak'a. And he used to prolong the first Rak'a of the Fajr prayer and shorten the second." [Bukhari] Amir Al-Shabi (RA) narrated that Umar (RA) wrote to Shurayh (RA) asking him to read Al-Fatihah and another Surah in the first two Rakaats, and Al-Fatihah only in the last two Rakaats. [Ibn Abi Shaybah] Ibrahim Nakhai (RA) said, “Do not add anything to Al-Fatihah in the last two Rakaats. Imam Muhammad (RA) said, “This is the opinion of Abu Haneefa (RA) and we adhere to it. [Kitabul Athar] Note: It is my intention to post some of the available Sunnah on what Prophet (‫)ﷺ‬ recited in each Salah separately, Insha’Allah. 36. The recitation of the Imam is sufficient for the follower and recitation of AlFatihah or the Surah is not required by followers when praying in congregational Salah. [7:204] When the Qur‘ān is recited, listen to it and be silent, so that you may be blessed. Note: There is a disagreement amongst scholars as to the Sunnah of Prophet (‫)ﷺ‬ and in the Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) it is stated that the recitation of Imam is sufficient. For detailed discussion, please see : http://www.central-mosque.com/fiqh/rectfth.htm

37. Person should now pronounce the Takbeer (Allahu Akbar) and go into

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Ruku (bowing) and the most concealing posture for a woman should be adopted i.e. : a) A woman should only bend enough for the hands to reach the knees b) The hands should be placed (rather than grasping) on the knees with the fingers kept together c) Elbows should touch the side of the body Hudhaifa (RA) reported: I prayed with the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) one night and he started reciting al-Baqara. I thought that he would bow at the end of one hundred verses, but he proceeded on; I then thought that he would perhaps recite the whole (surah) in a rak'ah, but he proceeded and I thought he would perhaps bow on completing (this surah). He then started al-Nisa', and recited it; he then started Al-i-'Imran and recited leisurely. And when he recited the verses which referred to the Glory of Allah, he glorified (by saying Subhan Allah-Glory to my Lord the Great), and when he recited the verses which tell (how the Lord) is to be begged, he (the Holy Prophet) would then beg (from Him), and when he recited the verses dealing with protection from the Lord, he sought (His) protection and would then bow and say: Glory be to my Mighty Lord; his bowing lasted about the same length of time as his standing (and then on returning to the standing posture after ruku') he would say: Allah listened to him who praised Him, and he would then stand about the same length of time as he had spent in bowing. He would then prostrate himself and say: Glory be to my Lord most High, and his prostration lasted nearly the same length of time as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Muslim] Narrated Mus'ab bin Sa'd (RA): I offered prayer beside my father (RA) and approximated both my hands and placed them in between the knees. My father (RA) told me not to do so and said, "We used to do the same but we were forbidden (by the Prophet (‫ ))ﷺ‬to do it and were ordered to place the hands on the knees." [Bukhari] Ataa (RA) says, “A woman should pull herself together when she bows down into ruk'u: she should bring up her arms to her stomach and pull herself together as much

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as possible. When she prostrates she should bring up her arms close to her and press her bosom and stomach against her thighs: she should pull herself together as much as possible.” [Musannaf Abdur Razzaq] Note: There is a disagreement amongst scholars as to the Sunnah of Prophet (‫)ﷺ‬ and in the Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) it is preferred that hands should not be raised except at the beginning. For detailed discussion, please see : http://www.central-mosque.com/fiqh/detraf.htm 38. Person should now pronounce the following at least three times. ‫سبحاى ربی العظین‬ Glory be to my Mighty Lord

Hudhaifa (RA) reported: I prayed with the Apostle of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬one night and he started reciting al-Baqara. I thought that he would bow at the end of one hundred verses, but he proceeded on; I then thought that he would perhaps recite the whole (surah) in a rak'ah, but he proceeded and I thought he would perhaps bow on completing (this surah). He then started al-Nisa', and recited it; he then started Al-i'Imran and recited leisurely. And when he recited the verses which referred to the Glory of Allah, he glorified (by saying Subhan Allah-Glory to my Lord the Great), and when he recited the verses which tell (how the Lord) is to be begged, he (the Holy Prophet) would then beg (from Him), and when he recited the verses dealing with protection from the Lord, he sought (His) protection and would then bow and say: Glory be to my Mighty Lord; his bowing lasted about the same length of time as his standing (and then on returning to the standing posture after ruku') he would say: Allah listened to him who praised Him, and he would then stand about the same length of time as he had spent in bowing. He would then prostrate himself and say: Glory be to my Lord most High, and his prostration lasted nearly the same length of time as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy

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Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Muslim] Note: The scholars prefer the one bowing or prostrating to make the glorifications at least three times." However the minimum that is sufficient for the prostrations or bowings is one glorification [Tirmidhi] There is no harm in making glorifications but making it in odd numbers i.e. 5,7,9,11 is preferred. 39. The one praying alone rises from the Ruku (bowing) while uttering the following: ‫سوع اللھ لوي حودہ‬ Allah listens to the one who praises Him

Narrated Abu Huraira (RA): The Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬said, "The Imam is to be followed. Say the Takbir when he says it; bow if he bows; if he says 'Sami a-l-lahu Liman hamida', say, ' Rabbana wa-laka-l-hamd', prostrate if he prostrates and pray sitting altogether if he prays sitting." as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Bukhari] 40. While standing upright the following should be recited: ‫ربٌا و لک الحود‬ Our Lord, [and] to You be all Praise OR ‫ربٌا لک الحود‬ Our Lord, to You be all Praise

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Narrated Abu Huraira (RA): The Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬said, "The Imam is to be followed. Say the Takbir when he says it; bow if he bows; if he says 'Sami a-l-lahu Liman hamida', say, ' Rabbana wa-laka-l-hamd', prostrate if he prostrates and pray sitting altogether if he prays sitting." as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Bukhari] 41. It is Sunnah to be stand upright and be tranquil before going into Sujood (prostration). Abu Hurairah (RA) said: "My beloved friend, Muhammad (‫ )ﷺ‬forbade me to perform postures of prayer copying the picking of a rooster; (signifying fast performance of prayer), moving eyes around like a fox and the sitting like monkeys (i.e. to sit on thighs)." [Ahmed] The Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬said: "The worst thief is the one who steals from his own prayer." People asked, 'Messenger of Allah (‫ ! )ﷺ‬How could one steal from his own prayer?' He (‫ )ﷺ‬said: "By not completing its rukoo' and sujood." [Tabarni, Hakim 42. Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) should now be recited while going down into Sujood (prostration). It is Sunnah to place the knees before the hands on the ground. During Sujood (prostration) the body should be drawn together with the front of the thighs touching the stomach and the back placed on the calves, the shins placed flat on the ground and buttocks should touch the heels of the feet. Narrated Wa'il ibn Hujr (RA): I saw that the Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬placed his knees (on the ground) before placing his hands when he prostrated himself. And when he stood up, he raised his hands before his knees. Feet and toes should be positioned in the direction of the Qiblah[Abu Dawud]

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Ali Ibn Abi Talib (RA) said, “When a woman does Sajdah she should hold herself and join her thighs”. [Ibn Abi Shaybah] Ibn Abbas (RA) was asked about the Salah of a woman and he (RA) answered. “She should gather and join herself”. [Ibn Abi Shaybah] Ibrahim An-Nakhai (RA) said, “When the woman does Sajdah she should draw and join her thighs and her stomach should touch her thighs.” [Ibn Abi Shaybah] 43. The following should now be recited at least three times in Sujood (prostration). ‫سبحاى ربی االعلی‬ Glory be to my Exalted Lord

Hudhaifa (RA) reported: I prayed with the Apostle of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬one night and he started reciting al-Baqara. I thought that he would bow at the end of one hundred verses, but he proceeded on; I then thought that he would perhaps recite the whole (surah) in a rak'ah, but he proceeded and I thought he would perhaps bow on completing (this surah). He then started al-Nisa', and recited it; he then started Al-i'Imran and recited leisurely. And when he recited the verses which referred to the Glory of Allah, he glorified (by saying Subhan Allah-Glory to my Lord the Great), and when he recited the verses which tell (how the Lord) is to be begged, he (the Holy Prophet) would then beg (from Him), and when he recited the verses dealing with protection from the Lord, he sought (His) protection and would then bow and say: Glory be to my Mighty Lord; his bowing lasted about the same length of time as his standing (and then on returning to the standing posture after ruku') he would say: Allah listened to him who praised Him, and he would then stand about the same length of time as he had spent in bowing. He would then prostrate himself and say: Glory be to my Lord most High, and his prostration lasted nearly the same length of time as his standing. In the hadith transmitted by Jarir the words are:" He (the Holy

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Prophet) would say:" Allah listened to him who praised Him, our Lord, to Thee the praise." [Muslim] The scholars prefer the one bowing or prostrating to make the glorifications at least three times." However the minimum that is sufficient for the prostrations or bowings is one glorification [Tirmidhi] There is no harm in making glorifications but making it in odd numbers i.e. 5,7,9,11 is preferred. 44. Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) should now be recited while rising from the Sujood (prostration). It is Sunnah to pause a little while the body rests during the two prostrations. Furthermore the following recitation is praiseworthy during the two prostrations. ‫اللھن اغفز لی و ارحوٌی و اھدًی و اجبزًی و ارسقٌی‬ O Allah, forgive me, have mercy on me, guide me, deliver free from need (& poverty), and provide for me

Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas (RA): The Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬used to say between the two prostrations: "O Allah, forgive me, have mercy on me, guide me, heal me, and provide for me." [Abu Dawud] Abu Hurairah (RA) said: "My beloved friend, Muhammad (‫ )ﷺ‬forbade me to perform postures of prayer copying the picking of a rooster; (signifying fast performance of prayer), moving eyes around like a fox and the sitting like monkeys (i.e. to sit on thighs)." [Ahmed] The Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬said: "The worst thief is the one who steals from his own prayer." People asked, 'Messenger of Allah (‫ ! )ﷺ‬How could one steal from his own prayer?' He (‫ )ﷺ‬said: "By not completing its rukoo' and sujood." [Tabarni, Hakim]

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Students of the great Muhadith Imam Anwar Shah Kashmiri Hanafi (RA) have recorded in their notes that he (RA) used to strongly advise the reading of this dua between the two prostrations. 45 . Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) should now be recited while going down into second Sujood (prostration). It is Sunnah to place the knees before the hands on the ground. During Sujood (prostration) the body should be drawn together with the front of the thighs touching the stomach and the back placed on the calves, the shins placed flat on the ground and buttocks should touch the heels of the feet. Narrated Wa'il ibn Hujr (RA): I saw that the Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬placed his knees (on the ground) before placing his hands when he prostrated himself. And when he stood up, he raised his hands before his knees. Feet and toes should be positioned in the direction of the Qiblah[Abu Dawud] Ali Ibn Abi Talib (RA) said, “When a woman does Sajdah she should hold herself and join her thighs”. [Ibn Abi Shaybah] Ibn Abbas (RA) was asked about the Salah of a woman and he (RA) answered. “She should gather and join herself”. [Ibn Abi Shaybah] Ibrahim An-Nakhai (RA) said, “When the woman does Sajdah she should draw and join her thighs and her stomach should touch her thighs.” [Ibn Abi Shaybah] Note: The scholars prefer the one bowing or prostrating to make the glorifications at least three times." However the minimum that is sufficient for the prostrations or bowings is one glorification [Tirmidhi] There is no harm in making glorifications but making it in odd numbers i.e. 5,7,9,11 is preferred. 46 . Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) should now be recited while siting down for Tashahudd while sitting both legs should be drawn to the right side and the

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right foot should not be kept standing. 'A'isha (RA) reported: The Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬used to begin prayer with takbir (saying Allih-o-Akbar) and the recitation:" Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Universe." When he bowed he neither kept his head up nor bent it down, but kept it between these extremes; when he raised his bead after bow- ing he did not prostrate himself till he had stood erect; when he raised his head after prostration he did not prostrate himself again till he satup. At the end of every two rak'ahs he recited the tahiyya; and he used to place his left foot flat (on the ground) and raise up the right; he prohibited the devil's way of sitting on the heels, and he forbade people to spread out their arms like a wild beast. And he used to finish the prayer with the taslim.[Bukhari] Khalid bin al Lajlaaj (RA) reports as part of a longer hadeeth that women were ordered to do tarabb'u (.e., to draw out one's right leg towards the right side of the body and to place the left leg beneath the right leg) when sitting in salah.[Ibn Abi Shaybah] Nafi' (RA) narrates that Safiyyah ( ‫ ) رضئ اهلل عنيا‬would pray and do tarabb'u. [Ibn Abi Shaybah & Musannaf Abdur Razzaq] Nafi' (RA) also narrates that the womenfolk of Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Umar's ( ‫رضئ‬ ‫ ) عنو اهلل‬family would do tarabb'u.[Ibn Abi Shaybah] Sayyiduna Ibn Umar (‫ ) اهلل عنو رضئ‬was once asked, 'How did women pray their salah during the time of the Prophet (‫ ' )ﷺ‬He replied, 'They used to sit cross legged until they were told to practice ihtifaz [Narrated by all three, Abu Muhammad al Bukhari, Qadhi Umar bin al Hasan Ashnani, and Ibn Khusruw in their Musnads of Imam Abu Hanifah's ahadeeth Ihtifaz is to lean to one side and rest on the posterior. It is more or less the same a sadl] 47 . Attahiyaat should be read as follows:

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‫الخحیاث للھ والصلواث والطیباث‬ ‫رحوت اللھ و بزکاحھ السالم علیک ایھا الٌبی و‬ ‫اسالم علیٌا وعلی عباداللھ الصالحیي‬ ‫اللھ و اشھد اى هحود عبدہ و رسولھ اشھد اى ال الھ اال‬ All services rendered by words, by acts of worship, and all good things are due to Allah. Peace be upon you,0 Prophet, and Allah's mercy and blessings. Peace be upon us and upon Allah's upright servants. I testify that there is no god but Allah and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger

'Abdullah Ibn Masud (RA) said: While observing prayer behind the Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬we used to recite: Peace be upon Allah, peace be upon so and so. One day the Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬said to us: Verily Allah is Himself Peace. When any one of you sits during the prayer. he should say: All services rendered by words, by acts of worship, and all good things are due to Allah. Peace be upon you,0 Prophet, and Allah's mercy and blessings. Peace be upon us and upon Allah's upright servants, for when he says this it reaches every upright servant in heaven and earth (and say further): I testify that there is no god but Allah and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger. Then he may choose any supplication which pleases him and offer it. [Bukhari] 48 . When the following is reached during Attahiyaat the index finger of the right hand should be raised during the denial part of Shahada (testimony) and dropped on the right index finger should be put down during the affirmation part of Shahada (testimony) while the other three fingers should be closed (as in a fist) thus making a ring between the thumb and the index finger.

‫رسولھ اشھد اى ال الھ اال اللھ و اشھد اى هحود عبدہ و‬ I testify that there is no god but Allah and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger

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Ibn 'Umar (RA) reported that when the Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬sat for tashahhud he placed his left hand on his left knee. and his right hand on his right knee. and he raised his right finger, which is next to the thumb, making supplication in this way, and he stretched his left hand on his left knee. Another version on the authority of Ibn Umar (RA) says: When the Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬sat for tashahhud, he placed his left hand on his left knee and placed his right hand on his right knee, and he formed a ring like (fifty-three) and pointed with his finger of attestation.[Muslim] There is disagreement amongst the scholars as to how the pointing during Tashahudd should be done with some Hanafi Scholars preferring the opinion that index finger of the right hand should be raised during the denial part of Shahada (testimony) and kept raised till the end of the Salah. 49. If this is a 4 Rakaat Salah then the person should stand and complete the 3rd and the 4th Rakaat as described above. 50. In the last sitting (i.e. the 1st sitting of a 2 Rakaat Salah or the 2nd sitting of a 4 Rakaat Salah), the Salat Alan-Nabi (Durood Shareef) should be recited, which is as follows.

‫ابزاھین و علی آل ابزاھین اًک حوید هجید اللھن صلی علی هحود و علی آل هحود کوا صلیج علی‬ ‫بارکج علی ابزاھین و علی آل ابزاھین اًک حوید هجید اللھن بارک علی هحود و علی آل هحود کوا‬ 0 Allah, bless Muhammad and the members of his household as Thou didst bless the mernbers of Ibrahim's household. Grant favours to Muhammad and the members of his household as Thou didst grant favours to the members of the household of Ibrahim in the world. Thou art indeed Praiseworthy and Glorious

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Abdullah b. Zaid (RA) -he who was shown the call (for prayer in a dream) narrated it on the authority of Mas'ad al-Ansiri (RA) who said: We were sitting in the company of Sa'id b. 'Ubida (RA) when the Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬came to us. Bashir b. S'ad (RA) said: Allah has commanded us to bless you. Messenger of Allah (‫ !)ﷺ‬But how should we bless you? He (the narrator) said: The Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬kept quiet (and we were so much perturbed over his silence) that we wished we had not asked him. The Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬then said: (For blessing me) say:" 0 Allah, bless Muhammad and the members of his household as Thou didst bless the mernbers of Ibrahim's household. Grant favours to Muhammad and the members of his household as Thou didst grant favours to the members of the household of Ibrahim in the world. Thou art indeed Praiseworthy and Glorious" ; and salutation as you know. 51. It is Sunnah to supplicate (make dua) for whatever one wishes after Salat Alan-Nabi (Durood Shareef). The following is one of the duas mentioned in Hadeeth:

‫فاغفز لی هغفزة هي عٌدک وارحوٌی اًک اًج الغفور اللھن اًی ظلوج ًفسی ظلوا کثیزا وال یغفز الذًوب اال اًج‬ ‫الزحین‬ O Allah, verily I have greatly wronged myself and no one forgives sins except You so forgive me with a forgiveness from You and have mercy on me. You are indeed All-Forgiving and All-Merciful. Abdullah Ibn Amr (RA) reported that Abu Bakr (RA) said to the Messenger of Allah (‫“ ,)ﷺ‬Teach me a supplication that I may use in my Salahs, He(‫ )ﷺ‬replied, Say, “O Allah, verily I have greatly wronged myself and no one forgives sins except You so forgive me with a forgiveness from You and have mercy on me. You are indeed AllForgiving and All-Merciful.

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52. Salah should now be finished by saying Salam to the right side and then the left side while saying “Asslamo Allaikum Wa Rahmatullah”. Narrated Wa'il ibn Hujr (RA): I offered prayer along with the Prophet (‫ .)ﷺ‬He would give the salutation to his right side (saying): Peace be upon you and mercy of Allah; and to his left side (saying): Peace be upon you and mercy of Allah.[Abu Dawud] 53. There are many Adhkar related in the Sunnah e.g. uttering Subhanullah (33 times), Alhumdolillah (33 times) and Allahu Akbar (34 times). Ka'b b. 'Ujra (RA) reported Allah's Messenger (‫ )ﷺ‬as saying: There are certain utterances, the repeaters of which or the performers of which after every prescribed prayer will never be caused disappointment:" Glory be to Allah" thirty-three times." Praise be to Allah" thirty-three times, and" Allah is most Great" thirty-four times. 54. There are many supplications related in the Sunnah and some of them are listed below after reading Astaghfirullah (3 times) Mu`adh (bin Jabal) (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬held my hand and said, "O Mu`adh, By Allah, I love you and advise you not to miss supplicating after every Salat (prayer) saying: `Allahumma a`inni `ala dhikrika wa shukrika, wa husni `ibadatika,' (O Allah, help me remember You, expressing gratitude to You and worship You in the best manner)".[Abu Dawud and An-Nasa'i]. ‫اللِن اعٌی علی ذکرک ّ شکرک ّحسي عبادتک‬ Thauban (RA) reported: When the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) finished his prayer. he begged forgiveness three times and said: O Allah! Thou art Peace, and peace comes from Thee; Blessed art Thou, O Possessor of Glory and Honour. Walid reported: I said to Auza'i: How Is the seeking of forgiveness? He replied: You should say:, I beg forgiveness from Allah, 1 beg forgiveness from Allah." ‫اللِن اًت السالم ّ هٌک السالم تبارکت یا ذا الجالل ّ الالکرام‬

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Compulsory actions of Salah (Faraidh): If any of these are missed then the prayer will need to be repeated 7. To say Takbeer-e-Tahreema i.e. ‫اللھ اکبز‬ 8. Qiyam i.e. Standing 9. Recitation of the Qur’aan of at least three short or one long verse 10. Ruku i.e. bowing 11. To perform both Sajdahs 12. Qa’dah Akheerah i.e. to sit for so long at the end of the Salah that one can read Tashahud Necessary actions of Salah (Waajibat): If any of these are missed unknowingly then Sajda Sah’w will need to be performed to correct the prayer; however if it is missed knowingly or no Sajda Sah’w is performed then the prayer will need to be repeated 15. Fixing the first two Rakaat of Fardh Salah for recitation 16. It is Waajib to recite Al-Fatiha in all Rakaats of all prayers except 3rd and 4th Rakaat of Fardh in which it is Sunnah 17. To recite at least three short or one long verse after Al-Fatiha in the first two Rakaats of Fardh and in all Rakaats of all other prayers 18. To recite Al-Fatiha before any other Surah 19. To maintain order between Qiyaam, Ruku, Sajdah & Rakaats 20. Qaumah i.e. standing after Ruku 21. Jalsah i.e. sitting between the two Sajdahs 22. Ta’deele Arkaan i.e. performing Ruku, Sajdah with contentment and in a good manner 23. Qa’dah oola i.e. to sit after the first two Rakaat in 4 Rakaat prayer to the extent of reciting Tashahud 24. To read Tashahud in the two Qa’dahs 25. Imam to recite loudly during the first two Rakaat of Maghrib and Esha and in all Rakaats of Faj’r Jummah, Taraweeh, Eid & Wit’r (in Ramadhan) 26. To complete the prayers after saying Salam 27. To say Takbeer after Qunoot in Wit’r 28. To say six additional takbeers in Eidain

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Sajda Sah’w: If any of the Waajib is missed unknowingly then at the end of the Salah after Attihiyaat Salam should be done on the right side only and then two additional Sajdahs performed and finally Salah should then be finished as normal Sunnah actions of Salah: 22. To raise the hands up to the ears before saying Takbeer-e-Tahreema 23. While raising the hands for Takbeer, keeping the fingers together and palms facing the Qiblah 24. Not to bend the head while saying the Takbeer 25. Saying of Takbeers (Takbeer-e-Takreema) and others aloud by the Imam 26. To fold the right hand over the left hand below the navel 27. Saying Thana 28. To recite Ta’awwuz 29. To recite the complete Bismillah 30. To only recite Al-Fatiha in the 3rd and 4th Rakaat of Fardh Salah 31. To say Ameen (softly) 32. To recite Thana, Ta’awwuz, Bismillah and Ameen softly 33. To recite as much of the Qur’aan is Sunnah: a. Faj’r: From Surah Hujarat (26th Part) up to Surah Inshiqaaq (30th part) b. Zoh’r, Asar & Esha: From Surah Al-Burooj (30th part) till Surah AlQad’r (30th Part) c. Maghrib: From Surah Al-Bayyinah (30th part) till Surah An-Naas (30th part) 34. To say Tasbeeh at least three times in Ruku and Sajdah 35. To keep the back and the head at the same level during Ruku while holding both knees with fingers of both hands 36. For the Imam to say “Sami-Allahu Liman Hamida” and the Muqtadi (followers) to read “Rabbana Wa Lakal Hamd” and the individual to recite both 37. While going into Sajdah to place the knees, palms, then the nose and then the forehead 38. In Qa’dah (or Jalsa) to place the left foot on the ground horizontally and sitting on it and keep the right foot vertically with the toes pointing towards the Qiblah 39. To raise the index finger when one recite the Kalima in Tashahud 40. To recite Durood Shareef in Qa’dah Akheerah after Tashahud 41. To read dua after Durood Shareef in Qa’dah Akheerah after Tashahud 42. To turn the face to the right during Salam first

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Desirable actions of Salah (Mustahabbat): 6. To pull the palms out of the sleeves while saying the Takbeer-e- Takreema 7. To say the Tasbeeh more then three times during Ruku and Sajdah 8. To fix the gaze towards the place of Sajdah in Qiyaam, towards the feet in Ruku and on the lap during Qa’dah and on the shoulders during Salam 9. To try not to cough 10. To try not to yawn and if the mouth is opened to cover it with the back of the right hand in Qiyaam and with the back of the left hand in all other postures Undesirable actions of Salah (Makroohat): 19. To pray bareheaded due to laziness or to pray while arms are exposed above the elbows 20. To play with the clothes or the body during Prayers 21. Praying in clothes in which people ordinarily do not go out 22. To dust the floor with one’s hand to prevent the soiling of clothes 23. Praying when one has the urge to urinate or pass stool 24. To crack fingers or putting the fingers of one hand into the other 25. Turning the face away from Qiblah and looking around 26. For men to rest both arms and wrists on the ground during Sajdah 27. Praying one someone else in sitting in front facing you 28. Yawning intentionally and not trying to prevent it 29. Closing the eyes but if it is done to enhance concentration then it is permissible 30. Standing alone in a row when there is space in the front row for a mature (baaligh) person 31. Praying in clothes with pictures of living things on them 32. Praying in a place where this is a picture in front, above, right or left or at the place of Sajdah 33. To count Ayahs, Surahs, Tasbeehs on the fingers while praying 34. Praying while sheets or clothes wrapped around in such a way which will make it difficult to free the hands quickly 35. To yawn or stretch arms to remove laziness 36.Doing something against Sunnah while praying

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Sunnah method & description of Wit’r

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Sunnah method & description of Janazah Salah (Funeral Prayer) 1. The Funeral prayer of a deceased Muslim is a communal obligation (Fard Kifayah). If someone is buried without it being performed then the whole community is geld responsible but as long as some gather and perform it, the obligation is removed from the whole community. Abu Hurayra (RA) reported that the Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬said, "The rights one Muslim has over another Muslim are five: 1) Returning the greeting, 2) Visiting the sick, 3) Joining funeral processions, 4) Accepting invitations and 5) Blessing those who sneeze." [Agreed upon] In the variant of Saheeh Muslim, "The Muslim has six rights. 1) When you meet him, you should greet him. 2) When he invites you, you should accept his invitation. 3) When he asks you for counsel, you should counsel him. 4) When he sneezes and praises Allah, you should bless him. 5) When he is ill, you should visit him. 6) When he dies, you should follow him." 2. It is Sunnah, praiseworthy and extremely virtuous to participate in the Funeral prayer and burial of a Muslim. Abu Hurayra (RA) reported that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said, "Anyone who joins a funeral procession, staying until he has done the prayer, will have one qirat. Anyone who stays until after the burial will have two qirats." It was asked, "What are two qirats?" He said, "Like two huge mountains." [Agreed upon] Abu Hurayra (RA) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said, "Anyone who follows the funeral procession of a Muslim motivated by belief and in expectation of the reward and stays with it until the prayer has been said

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over him and his burial is over, comes back with the reward of two qirats. Each qirat is the size of Uhud. And whoever prays over him and leaves before he is buried, comes back with one qirat." [Bukhari] 3. The Funeral prayer is performed in congregation and there is no evidence from Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) or Sahaba (RA) to the contrary. 4. All participants in the Funeral prayer must be in a state of Wudhu . Abdullah Ibn Umar (RA) used to say, “No one should pray over a dead person unless he is in a state of Wudhu” *Muwatta Imam Malik (RA)+ Imam Muhammad (RA) says, “And we adhere to this; one should not pray Janazah Salah unless one is in a state of Wudhu” *Muwatta Imam Muhammad (RA)+

5. It is permissible to perform Tayammum if one does not have time to do Wudhu. Abdullah Ibn UMar (RA) used to say, “No one should pray over a dead person unless he is in a state of Wudhu” *Muwatta Imam Malik (RA)+ Imam Muhammad (RA) says, “And we adhere to this; one should not pray Janazah Salah unless one is in a state of Wudhu. If the Salah is being established and one does not have time to do Wudhu then it is permissible to pray with Tayammum. This is the opinion of Abu Haneefa (RA)” *Muwatta Imam Muhammad (RA)+

6. There is no Adhan or Iqamah for Janazah Salah. 7. Funeral Prayer should be performed outside the Masjid. Abu Hurayra (RA) reported that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) informed (the people) about the death of An-Najashi on the very day he died. He went towards the Musalla (praying place) and the people stood behind him in rows. He said four Takbirs (i.e. offered the Funeral prayer). [Bukhari]

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Abdullah Ibn Umar (RA) reported that the Jews brought to the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) a man and a woman who had committed (adultery) illegal sexual intercourse. He ordered both of them to be stoned (to death), near the place of offering the funeral prayers beside the mosque." [Bukhari]

8. The most suited person to lead the Salah is the Muslim ruler (if present) then the Qadhi (Judge), then the Imam of the locality, then the guardian of the deceased, then the blood relative of the deceased. Abu Hazim (RA) said, “Verily I was present on the day of Hasan Ibn Ali (RA)’s death and I heard Hussain Ibn Ali (RA) say to Saeed Ibn Al-Aas (RA), “Go Forward (and lead the Salah) for it was not in (accordance with the) Sunnah, I wouldn’t have put you forward” (Baihaqi) Note: If the Muslim ruler (or his representative) is not present then the order is given as stipulated in the Madhab of Abu Haneefa (RA) as quoted in TuhfatulFuqaha by Al-Samarqandi (RA). 9. It is recommended that the Imam should arrange the people in three rows as it was the practise of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). Malik Ibn Hubayrah (RA)who had enjoyed the honour of companionship of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is reported to have said, “ When the bier was brought to Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and those who followed it were considered small in number, he (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) would divide them into three rows. Then he (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) would do the Funeral prayer and say “Whenever three rows of Muslims do Funeral prayer over the deceased they ensure paradise for him. [Abu Dawud] 10. Funeral prayer consist of 4 Takbeers. Abu Hurayra (RA) reported that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) informed (the people) about the death of An-Najashi on the very day he died. He went towards the Musalla (praying place) and the people stood behind him in rows. He said four Takbirs (i.e. offered the Funeral prayer). [Bukhari]

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2. Imam Tirmidhi (RA) said, “Most of the learned companions of Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and others followed and acted in accordance with the Prophet’s (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) example above. They hold that four Takbeers should be said in the Funeral prayers. Amongst these scholars are Sufyan Al-Thauri (RA), Malik Ibn Anas (RA), Ibn Al-Mubarak (RA), , Ash-Shaf’ae (RA), Ahmed (RA) and Ishaq (RA). Ibrahim An-Nakhai (RA) narrated that Umar Ibn Khattab (RA) consulted the companions and asked them what was the last funeral that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) prayed and how many Takbeers he(Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said? The response was that he said four Takbeers in the last Funeral that he prayed. Imam Muhammad (RA) said, “We adhere to it; and this is the opinion of Abu Haneefa (RA). [Kitabul-Athar] Note: The Madhab of Abu Haneefa (RA) is quoted and some scholars list the number of Takbeers to be higher. (Allah (SWT) knows best)

10. If there are multiple bodies then: a) The male bodies should be placed immediately before the Imam (even if it is a child) b) Female bodies should be followed by the male bodies The Funeral prayer of Umm Kulthum (RA) (daughter of Ali (RA) and wife of Umar (RA) and her son Zaid was led by Saad Ibn Al-Aas (RA) and amongst the people attending the funeral were Ibn Abbas (RA), Abu Hurayrah (RA),Abu Said (RA), and Abu Qatadah (RA). The little boy was placed before the Imam. A man did not like this way and looked towards Ibn Abbas (RA), Abu Hurayrah (RA),Abu Said (RA), and Abu Qatadah (RA) and said to them “What is this?”. They said “This is Sunnah”. [An-Nasai] Imam Muhammad (RA) said, “This is the opinion of Abu Haneefa (RA) and we adhere to it”. *Kitabul-Athar]

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11. Imam should stand: a) Opposite the head of the dead male b) Opposite the middle of the dead female Narrated Anas ibn Malik: Nafi' AbuGhalib said: I was in the Sikkat al-Mirbad. A bier passed and a large number of people were accompanying it. They said: Bier of Abdullah ibn Umayr. So I followed it. Suddenly I saw a man, who had a thin garment on riding his small mule. He had a piece of cloth on his head to protect himself from the sun. I asked: Who is this important man? People said: This is Anas ibn Malik. When the bier was placed, Anas stood and led the funeral prayer over him while I was just behind him, and there was no obstruction between me and him. He stood near his head, and uttered four takbirs (Allah is Most Great). He neither lengthened the prayer nor hurried it. He then went to sit down. They said: AbuHamzah, (here is the bier of) an Ansari woman. They brought her near him and there was a green cupola-shaped structure over her bier. He stood opposite her hips and led the funeral prayer over her as he had led it over the man. He then sat down. Al-Ala' ibn Ziyad asked: AbuHamzah, did the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) say the funeral prayer over the dead as you have done, uttering four takbirs (Allah is Most Great) over her, and standing opposite the head of a man and the hips of a woman? He replied: Yes. He asked: AbuHamzah, did you fight with the Apostle of Allah? He replied: Yes. I fought with him in the battle of Hunayn. The polytheists came out and invaded us so severely that we saw our horses behind our backs. Among the people (i.e. the unbelievers) there was a man who was attacking us, and striking and wounding us (with his sword). Allah then defeated them. They were then brought and began to take the oath of allegiance to him for Islam. A man from among the companions of the Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) said: I make a vow to myself that if Allah brings the man who was striking us (with his

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sword) that day, I shall behead him. The Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) kept silent and the man was brought (as a captive). When he saw the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him), he said: Apostle of Allah, I have repented to Allah. The Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) stopped (for a while) receiving his oath of allegiance, so that the other man might fulfil his vow. But the man began to wait for the order of the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) for his murder. He was afraid of the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) to kill him. When the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) saw that he did not do anything, he received his oath of allegiance. The man said: Apostle of Allah, what about my vow? He said: I stopped (receiving his oath of allegiance) today so that you might fulfil your vow. He said: Apostle of Allah, why did you not give any signal to me? The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) said: It is not worthy of a Prophet to give a signal. AbuGhalib said: I asked (the people) about Anas standing opposite the hips of a woman. They told me that this practice was due to the fact that (in the days of the Prophet) there were no cupola-shaped structures over the biers of women. So the imam used to stand opposite the hips of a woman to hide her from the people. [Abu Dawud]

12. Make the intention for Janaza Salah before starting, “I am performing Janaza Salah for Allah (SWT) with four Takbeers” Rasul-ullah (‫ )ﷺ‬has said, “Every action is based on Intention, and everyone shall have what he intended”. [Bukhari] Note: Intention doesn’t need to be uttered verbally or loudly, it is an action of the heart. 13. The prayer begins with the first Takbeer i.e. Takbeeratul-Ihraam after which the hands are tied (as in normal prayer) and Thana is read. ‫سبحاًك اللِن ّبحودك تبارك اسوك ّتعالى جدك ّال إلَ غيرك‬ Glory to Thee,0 Allah, and Thine is the Praise, and Blessed is Thy Name. and Exalted is Thy Majesty. and there is no other object of worship beside Thee.

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Said ibn Abi Said al-Maqburi (RA) narrates from from his father that he (RA) had asked Abu Hurayra (RA) , "How do you pray over the dead?" and Abu Hurayra (RA) replied, "By the Life of Allah, I will tell you! I follow with the family and when the corpse is put down I say 'Allah is greater' and praise Allah and ask for blessings on His Prophet. Then I say, 'O Allah, he is Your slave and the son of Your male slave and Your female slave. He used to testify that there is no god but You and that Muhammad is Your slave and Your Messenger, and You know that best. O Allah, if he acted well, then increase for him his good action, and if he acted wrongly, then overlook his wrong actions. O Allah, do not deprive us of his reward, and do not try us after him.'" [Muwatta Imam Malik (RA)] Imam Malik (RA) narrates that verily in our city of Madina it is not the practise to read AlFatiha in Janaza Salah [Bidayatul-Mujtahid]

Note: The common position of Ulama within the Hanafi Madhab is quoted, however there are scholars e.g. Imam Shurunabli (RA), Sahib-Nurul-Aida & Shaykh Abdul-Haq Lakhnawi (RA) who consider it superior to recite Al-Fatiha in Janaza Salah (Kitabul-Janaiz by Abdur-Rahman Mubarpuri (RA). Hanafee Scholars explain that in the Ahadeeth where it has been narrated from the Sahaba (RA) that Al-Fatiha was read in Janazah Salah, it was read as a dua (prayer) and not as Tilawa and there is nothing wrong with reading Al-Fatiha as a dua. (BazlulMajhood) 14. The Imam then recites the second Takbeer but hands will not be raised as it is only done the first time. Ibn Abbas (RA) reported that the Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) used to raise hands in the first Takbeer and then not repeat it. [DarQutni] Ubaydullah (RA) narrated that Ibraheem Nakhai (RA) used to raise his hands on the first Takbeer and then he did not raise his hands. [Al-Musannaf Abdur-Razzaq]

15. Durood (Salat-Alan-Nabi) should be recited after the second Takbeer.

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‫إبراُين إًك حويد هجيد اللِن بارك على هحود ّعلى اللِن صل على هحود ّعلى آل هحود كوا صليت على آل‬ ‫على آل إبراُين إًك حويد هجيد آل هحود كوا باركت‬ Abu Umamah (RA) in describing the funeral prayer went on to say, “Then the prayer for the Prophet should be made (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) [An-Nasai] 15. The Imam then recites the third Takbeer and dua (prayer) should be made for the deceased adult (male or female). ‫ّشاُدًا ّغائبٌا اللِن هي أحييتَ هٌا فأحيَ على اإلیواى اللِن اغفر لحيٌا ّهيتٌا ّصغيرًا ّكبيرًا ّذكرًا ّأًثاًا‬ ‫اإلسالم اللِن ال تحرهٌا أجرٍ ّال تضلٌا بعدٍ ّهي تْفيتَ هٌا فتْفَ على‬ O Allah, forgive those of us who are living and those of us who are dead, those of us who are present and those of us who are absent, our young and our old, our male and our female. O Allah, to whomsoever of us Thou givest life grant him life as a believer, and whomsoever of us Thou takest in death take him in death as a follower of Islam. O Allah, do not withhold from us the reward (of faith) and do not lead us astray after his death.

Narrated AbuHurayrah (RA): When the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) prayed over a dead person, he said: O Allah, forgive those of us who are living and those of us who are dead, those of us who are present and those of us who are absent, our young and our old, our male and our female. O Allah, to whomsoever of us Thou givest life grant him life as a believer, and whomsoever of us Thou takest in death take him in death as a follower of Islam. O Allah, do not withhold from us the reward (of faith) and do not lead us astray after his death. [Abu Dawud] Note: There are other duas also narrated in the Sunnah and any of them can be recited, Insha'Allah. 16. If the deceased is a child then the following dua can be recited ‫َأجْ ًا الَِن اج َلَْ لَ َا فَر ًا ، ّذخْ ًا ّ َلَ ًا‬ ‫َّ ر ل ُ َ ْع ُ ٌ َط َ ُ ر َس ف‬ O Allah, make him (or her) a means of happiness, treasure, forerunner and reward or us.

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17. The Imam then recites the fourth Takbeer and concludes the prayer by doing Salam on both sides. Abdullah Ibn Masood (RA) narrates that there are three things which the Messenger of Allah (SWT) used to do and which people have neglected and amongst them is doing Tasleem (Salam) after Janazah Salah like regular Salah. [Baihiqi] Note: There is a difference of opinion amongst scholars with some concluding that it is superior to say Salam on one side ONLY, nevertheless the Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa(RA) is quoted here. 18. The bier should carried from all sides. Abdullah Ibn Masood (RA) says, "Whosoever follows a funeral procession should carry the bier from all sides for this is the Sunnah of Rasul-ullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). [Ibn Majah] Imam Muhammad (RA) said, "We adhere to it...You should first put the front right then the rear right of the deceased (bier) on one's right, then the front left on one's left, and the rear left on one's left and this is the opinion of Abu Haneefa (RA). [Muwatta Imam Muhammad] 19. The bier should be carried at a birsk pace. Narrated Abu Huraira (RA): The Prophet said, "Hurry up with the dead body for if it was righteous, you are forwarding it to welfare; and if it was otherwise, then you are putting off an evil thing down your necks." [Bukhari] Imam Muhammad (RA) said, "We adhere to it. Walking briskly is better in our view than walking slowly. And this is the opinion of Abu Haneefa (RA).[Muwatta Imam Muhammad]

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Sunnah method & description of Eid Salah 1. It is preferred to make the ghusl, perfume one's self and don one's best attire on the occasions of the two 'ids. ” Ja'far ibn-Muhammad (RA) relates from his father on the authority of his grandfather who reported that the Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬would wear a Yemeni cloak on every 'id. [Musnad Imam Shaf’ae+ Al-Hassan as-Sibt says: "The Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬ordered us to wear the best clothes we could find for the two 'ids and to apply the best perfume we could find and to sacrifice the best animal we could find." [Hakim] Ibn al-Qayyim writes: "The Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬used to wear his most beautiful clothes for them and he had a special cloak that he would wear on the two 'ids and Jumu'ah.

2. It is Sunnah to eat before going to the salah for 'idul fitr, (the end of Ramadan) but not do so on the occasion of the 'idul azha (commemmorating Prophet Ibrahim's sacrifice). For 'idul fitr, it is a sunnah to eat an odd number of dates before going to pray salatul 'id while for 'idul azha the eating should be delayed until one returns from the 'id prayers and then he may eat of his sacrifice if he has sacrificed an animal. Anas (RA) reports: "The Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬would not go out on the festival of breaking the fast until he had eaten an odd number of dates." This is related by Ahmad and al-Bukhari. Buraidah (RA) reports: "The Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬would not go out on the day of breaking the fast ('idul fitr) until he had eaten and on the day of sacrifice ('idul azha) he would not eat until he had returned [from salah]." [Tirmidhi] Narration in Ahmad who added: "And he would eat from his sacrifice." [Ahmed] In al-Muwatta' it is recorded from Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab (RA) that the people were ordered to eat before they go out on the day of breaking the fast. Ibn-Qudamah (RA) said: "I do not know of any difference of opinion over the fact that one should hasten in eating [eat early] on the day of breaking of the fast."

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3. Salatul 'id can be performed in the mosque but it is preferred to perform in a place outside the city as long as there is no excuse or reason to do otherwise (e.g., rain and so on) as the Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬would pray the two 'ids in the outskirts of Medinah and he never prayed it in his mosque, except once and because it was raining. Abu Hurairah (RA) reports that it was raining on the day of 'id, so the Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬led them in salatul 'id in the mosque. [Hakim] 4. Indeed in the time of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) women attended the Eid Salaah, however the practises of women for attending Mosque (adherence to rules of Hijab etc.) must be followed and practised. Ibn 'Abbas (RA) says that the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) would take his wives and daughters to the two 'ids. [Ibne Majah] Ibn 'Abbas (RA) further reports: "I went out with the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) on the day of breaking the fast or of the sacrifice, and he prayed and gave a khutbah, and then he went to the women and admonished them, reminded them of Allah, and ordered them to give charity." [Bukhari] Aisha (RA) reports that women used to come to the Musjid completely covered in their sheets [Bukhari]. Zainub (RA), the wife of Abdullah bin Masood (RA), reports that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said: "If any woman attends the Musjid, she should not use any perfume" [Muslim] It is reported that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) was in the Musjid when a woman from the people of Muzaina who had adorned herself came into the Musjid. Upon this Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said: “O People, prevent your women from wearing attractive garments and walking proudly in the Musjid since the people of Bani Israeel were cursed because of this very action of their women [Ibne Majah] Umm 'Atiyah (RA) reports: "We were ordered to go out with the single and menstruating women to the two 'ids in order to witness the good and the supplications of the Muslims. The menstruating women would be separate from the others." [Agreed upon]

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Imam Tirmidhi (RA) has recorded the narration of Umme Atiya (RA) in his famous collection of Hadith. She (RA) says: “We were ordered to go out with the single and menstruating women to the two Eids…” After quoting the statement of Umme Atiy'a (RA), Imam Tirmidhi (RA) quotes the statement of the great Muhaddith Abdullah bin Mubarak (RA) who said: “I believe that in these times it is makrooh for women to go for the Eid Salaah to the Mussalla. If a woman insists on going, her husband should permit her to go in old clothes and she should not adorn herself. If she does not agree to this, he must prevent her…” It is also reported from Sufyaan Thawri (RA) that he regarded it as makrooh for the women to go to the Eid Salaah in these times [Tirmidhi] 5. Most of the people of knowledge are of the opinion that it is preferred for a person to go to the salah by one route and then to return home through another route, regardless of whether he be the imam or a member of the congregation. Jabir (RA) reports: "On the days of 'id, the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) would take different routes." [Bukhari] Abu Hurairah (RA) says: "When the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) went to salatul 'id, he would return through a different route." [Muslim] Note: It is permissible to return through the same route by which one goes to the musalla. Bakr ibn Mubashir says: "I used to go with the companions of the Prophet to the musalla on 'idul azha and on 'idul fitr, and we passed through a specific valley in Medinah until we came to the place of salah and prayed with the Messenger of Allah, and then we would return to our houses through the same valley." This is related by Abu Dawud, alHakim, and by al-Bukhari in his Tarikh. Ibn as-Sakin says that its chain is acceptable. 6. There is no Adhan or Iqamah for Eid Salah. Ibn al-Qayyim (RA) writes: "When the Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬went to the musalla (place of prayer), he would perform the salah without any adhan or Iqamah and without saying 'as-salatu jami'ah' (prayer in congregation). The sunnah is not to do any of that." Ibn 'Abbas (RA) and Jabir (RA) both report that there was no adhan on the day of the breaking of the fast or on the day of sacrifice. This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim. Muslim records that 'Ata (RA) said: "Jabir (RA) informed me that there is no adhan for the 'id of breaking the fast, neither when the imam arrives nor afterward. And there is no Iqamah or call of any kind."

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Sa'd ibn abi-Waqqas (RA) reports: "The Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬prayed salatul 'id without any adhan or Iqamah. He would deliver two khutbahs standing and would seperate them by sitting between them.' [Bazzar] 7. There is no Salah before or after the Eid Salah Ibn 'Abbas (RA) reports: "The Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬went out to the site of the 'id prayer and prayed two rak'at [i.e., the 'id prayer] without praying anything before or after it." This is related by the group. It is reported that Ibn 'Umar (RA) did the same and he stated that this was the practice of the Prophet (‫.)ﷺ‬ Al-Bukhari records that Ibn 'Abbas (RA) disliked that one should perform a prayer before salatul 'id. Concerning voluntary prayers at such a time, Ibn Hajar (RA) has stated in Fath al-Bari that there is no evidence to show that it is not allowed, unless it is at the times in which it is disliked to pray on any day. 8. Eid Salah consists of two Rakaats. Umar (RA) reported, “The traveller’s prayer is two Rakaat, the Adha prayer is two Rakaat, the Fit’r (prayer of Eid-AlFit’r) prayer is two Rakaat, the Adha prayer is two Rakaat and this is their full length as came upon the tongue of Muhammad (‫[ .)ﷺ‬Ahmed] 9. There are six additional Takbeers in Eid Salah. Hazrat Abu Musa Ash’ari (radhiallahu anhu) was asked regarding the number of takbeers that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) used to say in both the Eid salaahs. He replied: "He (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) used to say four takbeers (in every rakaat), in the same way as he used to say the takbeers in the salaat al-Janaaza". Hazrat Hudhaifa (radhiallahu anhu) also confirmed this practice of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). [Abu Dawud] Imaam Tirmidhi (RA) has also recorded several narrations of similar meaning from Abdullah Ibn Mas'ud (RA) and other Sahaabah-e-Kiraam (radhiallahu anhum). Note: There is some disagreement amongst the Scholars on the number oF additional Takbeers and the opinion in the Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) is quoted, however

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the Imam leading the Salah should be followed. There is no disagreement on the occurrence and sequencing of this Takbeers and matter of disagreement is only on the number. 10. Make the intention for Salah, “I am performing Salatul-Eid for Allah (SWT) with six (or any other number) additional Takbeers” Rasul-ullah (‫ )ﷺ‬has said, “Every action is based on Intention, and everyone shall have what he intended”. [Bukhari] Note: Intention doesn’t need to be uttered verbally or loudly, it is an action of the heart. It has been stated previously that scholars have differed upon the number of Takbeers, therefore it is advised to use the appropriate number of Takbeers as specified by the Imam leading the Salah. 11. The prayer begins with the first Takbeer i.e. Takbeeratul-Ihraam followed by reciting Bismillah (softly). Anas (RA) states, "I have performed congregational salaah behind Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam), Abu Bakr(RA), Umar (RA) and Uthmaan (RA) and I did not hear any one of them recite Bismillahir rahmaan nir raheem" [Sahih Muslim] Imaam Tirmidhi (RA) states that the majority of the Sahaba (radhiallahu anhum) also used to recite Bismillah softly. 12. Then Thana should be recited as in normal Salah. ‫سبحاًك اللِن ّبحودك تبارك اسوك ّتعالى جدك ّال إلَ غيرك‬ Glory to Thee,0 Allah, and Thine is the Praise, and Blessed is Thy Name. and Exalted is Thy Majesty. and there is no other object of worship beside Thee

'Abda (RA) reported: 'Umar b. al-Khattab (RA) used to recite loudly these words: Subhanak Allahumma wa bi hamdika wa tabarakasmuka wa ta'ala jadduka wa la ilaha ghairuka [Glory to Thee,0 Allah, and Thine is the Praise, and Blessed is Thy Name. and Exalted is Thy Majesty. and there is no other object of worship beside Thee]. Qatada (RA) informed in writing that Anas b. Malik (RA) had narrated to him: I observed prayer behind

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the Apostle of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and Abu Bakr (RA) and Umar (RA) and 'Uthman (RA). They started (loud recitation) with: AI-hamdu lillahi Rabb al-'Alamin [All Praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the worlds] and did not recite Bismillah ir- Rahman-irRahim (loudly) at the beginning of the recitation or at the end of it. [Muslim] Note: Scholars have explained that the loud recitation of Umar (RA) was for teaching and in reality it should be recited silently as the later traditions indicate. 13. The Imam will then recite 3 (or the number as practised by the Imam leading the Salah) additional Takbeers. ” 14. The followers will silently recite the Takbeer. There is no evidence of the followers reciting the Takbeer loudly.

15. The followers will raise hands with each Takbeer and let them hang but on the last Takbeer fasten their hands as normal during Salah. Ibnul Qayyim (RA) has reported that Umar (RA) with his strict adherence in following the Sunnah used to raise his hands with each Takbeer [Zaadul-Ma’ad] 16. There are no authentic supplications related from Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) in between the Takbeers. 17. The Imam will then recite Surah Al-Fatihah, followed by another Surah and complete the Rakaat as normal. 18. The Imam will then recite Surah Al-Fatihah, followed by another Surah in the second Rakaat and then perform the 3 (or the number as practised by the Imam leading the Salah) additional Takbeers and followers will recite the Takbeer silently, raise their hands and drop it to the sides. Hazrat Abu Musa Ash’ari (radhiallahu anhu) was asked regarding the number of takbeers that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) used to say in both the Eid salaahs. He replied: "He (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) used to say four takbeers (in every rakaat), in the same way as he used to say the takbeers in the salaat al-Janaaza". Hazrat Hudhaifa (radhiallahu

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anhu) also confirmed this practice of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). [Abu Dawud] Imaam Tirmidhi (RA) has also recorded several narrations of similar meaning from Abdullah Ibn Mas'ud (RA) and other Sahaabah-e-Kiraam (radhiallahu anhum). 19. Imam will then recite the fourth (or the number as practised by the Imam leading the Salah) Takbeer and Salah will be completed as normal. 20. The Imam will then recite the Khutbah after Salah and the followers listen to it. It is reported in Musnad Ahmad from the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Abbaas (RA), who testified that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) prayed before the khutbah on Eid, then he gave the khutbah.” *Ahmed]

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Sunnah method & description of Salah of a Musafir (Traveller) 1. When a person is deemed to be a Musaafir (traveller according to Islamic Shariah) it is Waajib (obligatory) to shorten the Prayer. [4:101]When you travel on the earth, there is no sin on you in shortening your Salah, if you fear that the disbelievers would put you in trouble. Surely, the disbelievers are an open enemy for you. 2. A casual reading of the verse indicates that shortening of prayer must be done due to fear, however Rasul-ullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and Sahaba (RA) shortened prayers with or without fear during travel. Yahya b. Umayya (RA) said: I told 'Umar b. al-Khattab (RA) that Allah had said:" When you travel on the earth, there is no sin on you in shortening your Salah, if you fear that the disbelievers would put you in trouble "[4:101], whereas the people are now safe. He (RA) replied: I wondered about it in the same way as you wonder about it, so I asked the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) about it and he said: It is an act of charity which Allah has done to you, so accept His charity. [Muslim] 3. During Travel Salatul Zohar, Asar and Esha are shortened from 4 Rakaat to 2 Rakaat but the rest remain the same. Narrated Asiha (RA): Two Rakaat were obligated in Makkah, however when Allah's Apostle (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) migrated to Madinah two (additional) Rakaat were added to it except for Maghrib as it is Wit’r of the day and Morning prayer because it has a long recitation (in it), but whenever Allah's Apostle (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) travelled he prayed the earlier prayers (i.e. Two Rakaat as the obligation was during Makkah). [Ahmed] Narrated Ibn 'Umar (RA): I accompanied Allah's Apostle (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and he never offered more than two Rakat during the journey. Abu Bakr (RA), 'Umar (RA)and 'Uthman (RA) used to do the same. [Bukhari]

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4. There is a consensus of opinion that there is no shortening of Salah for Faj’r and Maghrib. 5. The majority of scholars in Hanafi, Shaf’ae, Maliki and Hanbali Madhab agree that the minimum required distance for a person to be considered a Musaafir (traveller according to Islamic Shariah) is 4 Burud which is equivalent to 16 Farsakh or 48 (Shariah Miles) or 88 Kilometres or 55 miles. Ibn Umar (RA) and Ibn Abbas (RA) used to shorten their prayers and not fast at a distance of 4 Burud, which is 16 Farsakh [Bukhari] Note: There is some disagreement in the matter which arises from the Ulama calculating the distance which can be travelled in 3 days (or 1 day) rather then the distance (itself) which is stipulated in the Hadeeth. 6. Intention must be made to travel the minimum distance as stipulated above, without intention the person shall not be deemed a Musaafir (traveller according to Islamic Shariah). Rasul-ullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said, “Every action is based on Intention, and everyone shall havewhat he intended” *Bukhari+ 7. Shortening of prayer cannot begin until the person has left the city-limits as this was the practise of Rasul-ullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam). Narrated Anas bin Malik (RA): I offered four Rakat of Zuhr prayer with the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) at Madinah and two Rakat at Dhul-Hulaifa. (i.e. shortened the 'Asr prayer). [Bukhari] Note: Dhul-Hulaifa is outside of Madinah. 8. In addition to shortening of prayers Musaafir (traveller according to Islamic Shariah) is also entitled to delay his/her obligatory fasts (to be made up later) and perform

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Masa’h on the socks for up to 3 days (a resident can only perform Masah for upto 1 day) . [2:183]O you who believe, the fasts have been enjoined upon you as they were enjoined upon those before you, so that you may be God-fearing,[2:184]for days few in number. However, should any one of you be sick or on a journey, then (he should fast) a number of other days (equal to the missed ones); and those who have the strength, (still, they do not opt for fasting,) on them there is a fidyah (compensation), that is, the feeding of a poor person. Then whoever does good voluntarily, that is better for him. However, that you fast is better for you, if you only knew. Sayyidina Safwan Ibn Assal (RA) narrates that Rasul-ullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) ordered us to perform Masah on our socks for 3 days and 3 nights during travel and for one day and one night when at home when we had put our socks after Taharah and not to take them off for any reason except for Janabah (sexual cohabitation). [Ahmed] 9. When a person intends to stay at a place for longer then 15 days he/she will cease to be a Musaafir (traveller according to Islamic Shariah) and prayers must be offered in full. Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas (RA): The Apostle of Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) stayed fifteen days in Mecca in the year of Conquest, shortening the prayer. [Abi Dawud] Note: There is some disagreement in the matter and other periods (19 days, 17 days, 10 days etc.) are also mentioned , therefore the Hanafi Ulama have adopted the middle period as mentioned in the Hadeeth above. 10 . There was consensus amongst the Sahaba (RA) that if a person got stranded at a location (without intending it to be so) then he can continue to be a Musaafir (traveller according to Islamic Shariah) and this is the opinion of Hanafi, Maliki and Hanbali Ulama.

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Sunnah method & description of Salah of Eclipse (Solar & Lunar) 1. The Sun and Moon Eclipse as a Sign from Allah (SWT). Narrated Abu Bakra (RA): We were with Allah's Apostle (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) when the sun eclipsed. Allah's Apostle (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) stood up dragging his cloak till he entered the Mosque. He led us in a two-Rakat prayer till the sun (eclipse) had cleared. Then the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said, "The sun and the moon do not eclipse because of someone's death. So whenever you see these eclipses pray and invoke (Allah) till the eclipse is over." [Bukhari] 2. Solar or Lunar eclipse has nothing to do with someone’s birth or death. Narrated Al-Mughira bin Shu'ba: "The sun eclipsed in the life-time of Allah's Apostle (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) on the day when (his son) Ibrahim died. So the people said that the sun had eclipsed because of the death of Ibrahim. Allah's Apostle (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said, "The sun and the moon do not eclipse because of the death or life (i.e. birth) of some-one. When you see the eclipse pray and invoke Allah." [Bukhari] 3. In the event of Solar or Lunar eclipse the believers should be mindful of Akhira & turn towards Allah (SWT) and pray. Narrated Abu Bakra (RA) In the life-time of the Allah's Apostle (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) the sun eclipsed and he went out dragging his clothes till he reached the Mosque. The people gathered around him and he led them and offered two Rakat. When the sun (eclipse) cleared, he said, "The sun and the moon are two signs amongst the signs of Allah; they do not eclipse because of the death of someone, and so when an eclipse occurs, pray and invoke Allah till the eclipse is over." It happened that a son of the Prophet called Ibrahim died on that day and the people were talking about that (saying that the eclipse was caused by his death). [Bukhari] 4. The prayer for Solar Eclipse is with congregation . Narrated Abu Bakra (RA) In the life-time of the Allah's Apostle (Sallallahu Alaihi

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Wasallam) the sun eclipsed and he went out dragging his clothes till he reached the Mosque. The people gathered around him and he led them and offered two Rakat. When the sun (eclipse) cleared, he said, "The sun and the moon are two signs amongst the signs of Allah; they do not eclipse because of the death of someone, and so when an eclipse occurs, pray and invoke Allah till the eclipse is over." It happened that a son of the Prophet called Ibrahim died on that day and the people were talking about that (saying that the eclipse was caused by his death). [Bukhari] 5. Ulama have stated that only eclipse occurred in the lifetime of Rasul-ullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and it was Solar. 6. This congregational Solar eclipse is Two Rakaah similar to any other Two Rakaah Salah in the Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA). Nauman Ibn Bashir (RA) said that the Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) prayed the Salatul-Khusoof with us like one of your Salahs. He went into Ruku and performed the Sajdah, praying two Rakaats two Rakaats with two Rukuhs and supplicated to Allah (SWT) until the sun clearly reappeared. [Abi Dawud] Note: As previously stated that there was only one Solar Eclipse (i.e. one congregational Salah) during the lifetime of Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam), however many narrations are found and in some Two Ruku are mentioned (per Rakaah), however according to Scholars in the Hanafi Madhab the most Authentic way is to have one Ruku per Rakaah. Imam Shaf’ae (RA) and others have differed on the matter. 6. Imam can do the recitation loudly or silently. Note: The opinion of Imam Abu Haneefa is to recite silently but Imam Abu Yusuf (RA) says that the recitation should be done loudly and Imam Muhammad (RA) has recorded both opinions. [Tuhfatul-Fuqaha] 7. Salah should be lengthened until the eclipse is finished.

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Note: There is no disagreement on the matter, however if Imam finishes the Salah early then Muslims should still remain engaged in the remembrance of Allah (SWT). 8. Salah for Lunar Eclipse should be prayed individually and not with congregation. Note: This is the Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) and there are many reasons for this position: 1) There is no evidence from Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) of congregational Lunar Eclipse Salah. 2) The Hadeeth of Saheeh Bukhari (step 1) mentions praying but doesn’t stipulate prayer with congregation. 3) Imposing congregational Salah of Lunar Eclipse on people will be undue hardship as it occurs in the Night. Imam Shaf’ae (RA) has however differed on the matter and his given the evidence from the Sahaba (RA) as follows: Imam Hasan Al-Basari (RA) narrates that when Abdullah Ibn Abbas (RA) was the Ameer of Basrah the moon was eclipsed. Therefore he came into the Masjid and lead people in two Rakaat Salah and in each Salah he performed two Rukuhs and said, “I have performed it the same way as I saw Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) perform his prayer” *Musnad Imam Shaf’ae (RA)+ 9. Khutbah is neither obligatory nor part of Salah.

Note: Hanafi, Maliki and Hanbali Ulama agree that Khutbah given on this occasion by Allah's Apostle (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) was to eradicate the thought in people's mind that the sun had eclipsed due to the death (of Rasul-ullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) 's son) and to establish that Eclipse is a sign of Allah (SWT) and does not occur due to someone's birth or death, therefore Khutbah is neither an obligation nor part of Salah

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(like Jummuah Salah, Eid Salah) etc. Imam Shaf'ae (RA) however differs on the matter. [Fiqh Alal- Madhahib Arb'a]

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Sunnah method & description of Fasting

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Sunnah method & description of Zakat

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Sunnah method & description of Umrah For a detailed Hajj & Umrah guide please use the following link

http://www.central-mosque.com/fiqh/simpleh.pdf 1. Umrah literally means to make intention of visiting a habitable place. In Shariah it means ‘to pass the miqaat in Ihraam, to do Tawaaf of Baitullah, to perform Sa'ee of Safaa and Marwah and to shave or trim the hair. 2. For performing Umrah, a person MUST enter in a “state” of Ihram before Miqat. State of Ihram is wearing two white sheets of cloth (for men), making intention and reciting Talbiyah, it is a common misunderstanding that “state” of Ihram is simply wearing the two white sheets of cloth (for men). 3. State of Ihram must be adopted before entering Miqat which is a boundary around Makkah designated in all directions. Pilgrims getting to Makkah must take their respective direction (or travel) and Miqat into consideration. Residents of Makkah or those who have become (temporary) residents of Makkah should adopt the Ihram of Umrah from Tan’eem, which is just outside of Makkah, Masjid Aisha (RA) is situated at Tan’eem; it is not required for them to travel to the nearest Miqat. Narrated Ibn Abbas (RA): Allah's Apostle (‫)ﷺ‬had fixed Dhul Hulaifa as the Miqat for the people of Medina; Al-Juhfa for the people of Sham; and Qarn Ul-Manazil for the people of Najd; and Yalamlam for the people of Yemen. So, these (above mentioned) are the Mawaqit for all those living at those places, and besides them for those who come through those places with the intention of performing Hajj and 'Umra and whoever lives within these places should assume Ihram from his dwelling place, and similarly the people of Mecca can assume lhram from Mecca. [Bukhari] Narrated Al-Qasim bin Muhammad (RA): ' Aisha (RA) said, "We set out with Allah's Apostles in the months of Hajj, and (in) the nights of Hajj, and at the time and places of

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Hajj and in a state of Hajj. We dismounted at Sarif (a village six miles from Mecca). The Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬then addressed his companions and said, "Anyone who has not got the Hadi and likes to do Umra instead of Hajj may do so (i.e. Hajj-al-Tamattu) and anyone who has got the Hadi should not finish the Ihram after performing ' Umra). (i.e. Hajj-alQiran). Aisha (RA) added, "The companions of the Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬obeyed the above (order) and some of them (i.e. who did not have Hadi) finished their Ihram after Umra." Allah's Apostle (‫ )ﷺ‬and some of his companions were resourceful and had the Hadi with them, they could not perform Umra (alone) (but had to perform both Hajj and Umra with one Ihram). Aisha (RA) added, "Allah's Apostle (‫ )ﷺ‬came to me and saw me weeping and said, "What makes you weep, O Hantah?" I replied, "I have heard your conversation with your companions and I cannot perform the Umra." He asked, "What is wrong with you?' I replied, ' I do not offer the prayers (i.e. I have my menses).' He said, ' It will not harm you for you are one of the daughters of Adam, and Allah has written for you (this state) as He has written it for them. Keep on with your intentions for Hajj and Allah may reward you that." Aisha (RA) further added, "Then we proceeded for Hajj till we reached Mina and I became clean from my menses. Then I went out from Mina and performed Tawaf round the Ka'ba." Aisha (RA) added, "I went along with the Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬in his final departure (from Hajj) till he dismounted at Al-Muhassab (a valley outside Mecca), and we too, dismounted with him." He (‫ )ﷺ‬called ' Abdur-Rahman bin Abu Bakr (RA) and said to him, ' Take your sister outside the sanctuary of Mecca and let her assume Ihram for ' Umra, and when you had finished ' Umra, return to this place and I will wait for you both till you both return to me.' " ' Aisha (RA) added, ' ' So we went out of the sanctuary of Mecca and after finishing from the ' Umra and the Tawaf we returned to the Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬at dawn. He (‫ )ﷺ‬said, 'Have you performed the ' Umra?' We replied in the affirmative. So he announced the departure amongst his companions and the people set out for the journey, and the Prophet: too left for Medina.'' [Bukhari] Note: Miqat from various locations are as follows:

a) From Madina & North: Dhul-Hulaifa which is approximately 410 KM North of Makkah b) From Iraq and North-East: Dhat-Iraq which is approximately 90 KM North-East of Makkah

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c) From Syria and North-West: Juhfa which is approximately 187 KM North-West of Makkah d) From Naj’d and East: Qarnal-Manail which is approximately 80 KM East of Makkah e) From Yemen and South-East: Yalamlam which is approximately 130 KM South-East of Makkah 4. It is recommended to clip the nails, remove hair (from under-ram & pubic hair), make Ghusl, wear the two white sheets of cloth (for men), apply fragrance and then pay two Rakaat of Salah for Ihram. Since it is impressible to cut hair and clip nails afterwards, it is recommended to do so before adopting the state of Ihram. There is a consensus of opinion that it is Sunnah-Moakkidah to perform Ghusl before adopting the state of Ihram. [Fathur-Rabbani] Ibn-Abbas (RA) narrates that Rasul-ullah (‫ )ﷺ‬peformed Ghusl and thereafter he donned the sheets of Ihraam, then he (‫ )ﷺ‬arrived at Dhul-Hulaifa and paryed two Rakaats. He (‫ )ﷺ‬then mounted his camel and when he reached the plain of Bai’da he assumed the Ihraam for Hajj (i.e. recited the Talibiyah). [Tirmidhi] 'A'isha (RA), the wife of the Apostle of Allah (‫ ,)ﷺ‬reported: I applied perfume to the Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬with my own hand before he entered upon the state of Ihram, and as he concluded it before-circumambulating the House (for Tawaf-i-lfada). [Bukhari] Note: There are no designated clothes of Ihram for women and they should not apply fragrance for the smell to reach men who are strangers to them. 5. Make the intention for Umrah before starting, “I am performing Umrah for Allah (SWT)”. Rasul-ullah (‫ )ﷺ‬has said, “Every action is based on Intention, and everyone shall have what he intended”. *Bukhari+

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Note: Intention doesn’t need to be uttered verbally or loudly, it is an action of the heart. 6. Talbiyah should now be recited audibly and loudly by men and in a low voice by women and should be continued as often as possible during the state of Ihram. ‫ب ْك اّ ُن ب ْك ب ْك‬ َ ‫لَ َی َ َللٰھ َ لَ َی َ . لَ َی‬ ‫ِى ْح ْد و ٌ وت َك و و ْك‬ َ ‫ا َ ال َو َ َال ِعْ َ َ ل َ َالْ ُل‬ ّ ‫ْك َك ب ْك‬ َ ‫الَ شَزِی َ ل َ لَ َی‬ ‫ْك َك‬ َ ‫الَ شَزِی َ ل‬

I am present, O Allah! I am present. I am present, You have no partners, I am present. All praise and bounty is for You and the kingdom is for You and You have no partners. 'Abdullah b. 'Umar (RA) reported that the Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬entered upon the state of Ihram near the mosque at Dhu'l-Hulaifa as his camel stood by it and he said: Here I am at Thy service, O Lord; here I am at Thy service: here I am at Thy service. There is no associate with Thee. Here I am at Thy service. All praise and grace is due to Thee and the sovereignty (too). There is no associate with Thee. They (the people) said that 'Abdullah b. 'Umar said that that was the Talbiya of the Messenger of Allah (‫ .)ﷺ‬Nafi' said: 'Abdullah (RA) made this addition to it: Here I am at Thy service; here I am at Thy service; ready to obey Thee. The Good is in Thy Hand. Here I am at Thy service. Unto Thee is the petition and deed (is also for Thee). [Muslim] 7. After donning the two white sheets (for men), making intention and reciting the Talbiyah, the following acts become Haram: a) Fighting backbiting, swearing and arguing b) To hunt or kill any land based animals or assist anyone else in such an act c) To cut hair or clip nails or comb hair in a manner that hair fall out d) For both men and women to cover their faces in a manner that a piece of cloth will touch their faces e) For men to cover their head f) To use perfume, perfumed soap or perfumed towels (commonly distributed during

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flights) g) For men to cover the ankle-bone and the bone sticking out on the top of the foot (*) h) Talking about sexual desires, kissing or touching the spouse with sexual intent [2:197] The Hajj is (to be performed in) the months that are well-known. So whoever undertakes Hajj in them, there should be no obscenity, no sin, no quarrel in the Hajj. Whatever good you do, Allah will know it. Take provisions along, for the merit of (having) provision is to abstain (from begging), and fear Me, O men of understanding! *5:95+ O you who believe, do not kill game when you are in Ihrām (state of consecration for Hajj or Umrah). If someone from among you kills it deliberately, then compensation (will be required) from cattle equal to what one has killed, according to the judgement of two just men from among you, as an offering due to reach the Ka‘bah, or an expiation, that is, to feed the poor, or its equal in fasts, so that he may taste the punishment of what he did. Allah has forgiven what has passed, but whoever does it again, Allah shall subject him to retribution. Allah is Mighty, Lord of Retribution. [5:96] Made lawful for you is the game of the sea and eating thereof, as a benefit for you and for travellers. But the game of the land has been made unlawful for you as long as you are in the state of Ihrām. Fear Allah (the One) towards Whom you are to be brought together. [2:196] Accomplish the Hajj and the ‗Umrah for Allah, but if you are restricted, then (sacrifice) whatever animal of offering is available, and do not shave your heads until the offering reaches its place. But if anyone of you is ill, or has some trouble with his scalp, then there is a ransom through fasting or alms giving. And when you are safe, then, whoever avails the advantage of the ‗Umrah along with the Hajj shall make an offering of whatever animal is available. However, any one who finds none shall fast for three days during Hajj, and for seven days when you return; thus they are ten in all. This is for him whose family folk are not residents of Al-Masjid-ul-Harām. Fear Allah and be aware that Allah is severe in punishment. There is a consensus of opinion amongst scholars that it is Haram to clip nails during the state of Ihram. [Al-Mughni]

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Narrated 'Abdullah bin Umar (RA): A person stood up and asked, "O Allah's: Apostle(‫ !)ﷺ‬What clothes may be worn in the state of Ihram?" The Prophet replied (‫" ,)ﷺ‬Do not wear a shirt or trousers, or any headgear (e.g. a turban), or a hooded cloak; but if somebody has no shoes he can wear leather stockings provided they are cut short off the ankles, and also, do not wear anything perfumed with Wars or saffron, and the Muhrima (a woman in the state of Ihram) should not cover her face, or wear gloves." [Bukhari] Note: There is a difference of opinion on the issue, however in the Hanafi Madhab the exposing of the bone is interpreted to mean to expose the top bone of the foot as well as the ankle-bone. 8. Continue to recite the Talbiyah (loudly and audibly for men) and ask Allah (SWT) for forgiveness after the Talbiyah. Jabir Ibn Abdullah (RA) narrates that Rasul-ullah (‫ )ﷺ‬used to recite the Talbiyah when he saw a caravan, when he ascended a hill, when he descended into a valley, after Fardh Salah and in the last part of the Night. [Ibn Asakar] Khuzaima Ibn Thabit (RA) that Rasul-ullah (‫ )ﷺ‬used to ask for forgiveness (from Allah (SWT)), His (SWT)’s pleasure and deliverance from the fire of hell after the Talbiyah.[Tabarani] ] 9. It is preferable to perform Ghusl and spend the night in Dhi-Tuwa and to enter Makkah through Al-Mu’alla (Higher Thaniyah), then enter Majidul-Haram through Bab As-Salam and make due when Kabah is sighted. Narrated Nafi (RA): Ibn 'Umar (RA) used to spend the night at Dhi-Tuwa in between the two Thaniyas and then he would enter Mecca through the Thaniya which is at the higher region of Mecca, and whenever he came to Mecca for Hajj or 'Umra, he never made his she camel kneel down except near the gate of the Masjid (Sacred Mosque) and then he would enter (it) and go to the Black (stone) Corner and start from there

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circumambulating the Ka'ba seven times: hastening in the first three rounds (Ramal) and walking in the last four. On finishing, he would offer two Rakat prayer and set out to perform Tawaf between Safa and Marwa before returning to his dwelling place. On returning (to Medina) from Hajj or 'Umra, he used to make his camel kneel down at AlBatha which is at Dhu-l-Hulaifa, the place where the Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬used to make his camel kneel down. Jabir (RA) narrates that Rasul-ullah (‫ )ﷺ‬entered Makkah when the sun had risen sufficiently and made his camel kneel down near Baab Bani-Shaiba and then entered the Masjid. [Muslim] Hudaifa Ibn Aseed (RA) narrates that Rasul-ullah (‫ )ﷺ‬used to make dua upon looking at the Kabah saying, “O Allah! Increase the honour, status and magnitude of your house”. [Tabarani] Imam Saeed Ibn Mussayab (RA) narrates that I have heard Abdullah Ibn Umar (RA) making a dua and no one else hearing it is alive today, upon seeing the Kaabah he used to make dua, “O Allah! You are peace and from You is peace. Keep us alive with peace.” [Baihaqi] The two Ahadeeth quoted above have weakness in their chain of transmission but it is Mustahab according to all Four Imams of Fiqh to make dua upon seeing the Kaabah. [Fathur-Rabbani] Makhool (RA) narrates that when Rasul-ullah (‫ )ﷺ‬used to enter Makkah and his sight used to fall on the Kaabah he used to raise his hands, utter the Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) and make the dua, “O Allah! You are peace and from You is peace. Keep us alive with peace. O Allah! Increase the honour, status and magnitude of this house and increase the honour, status and magnitude of the one who performs Hajj or Umrah of this house.” *Baihaqi, Musnad Imam Shaf’ae+ ‫َّ ين ا ت َالم‬ ُ َ ‫اللٰ ُ َ َنْ َ الس‬ ‫َه ْك َالم فح ِن رّب ّب َالم‬ ِ َ ‫ً ِن َ الس َ ُ َ َ ّ َا َ َنَا ِالس‬ ‫ي‬ .

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‫اللٰ ُ َ ِدْ ىٰ َا‬ ‫َّ ين س ذ‬ ‫تش ِیْفًا‬ ‫َ ْز‬ ْ‫الْ َيْ َ تش ِیْفًا َتع ِيوًا َتك ِیوًا ًهيَاّبَ ً ً ِدْ َن‬ ‫ب ت َ ْز ً َ ْظ ْ ً َ ْز ْ َ َ ة َس ه‬ ‫‘ش َفَو‘ ًآرهَو‘ ه َنْ َ َو‘ َ ِاعْتو َه‬ ‫َز ََ َ ِو حج اً َ َز‬ ‫َتع ِيوًا َتك ِیوًا َّب ًا‬ ‫ً َ ْظ ْ ً َ ْز ْ ً ِز‬ .

O Allah, You are the (giver of) security and it is only from You that security is obtained. O our Lord keep us alive with security (well-being).

O Allah, increase the virtue, grandeur, eminence and awe of this House and that person who respects and honours this House, from amongst them those who perform Hajj and Umrah of it, increase their virtue, grandeur, eminence and prosperity. 10. Make the intention for Tawaf of Umrah before starting, “I am performing Tawaf of Umrah for Allah (SWT)”. Rasul-ullah (‫ )ﷺ‬has said, “Every action is based on Intention, and everyone shall have what he intended”. *Bukhari+ Note: Intention doesn’t need to be uttered verbally or loudly, it is an action of the heart. 11. It is preferable to recite ُ ‫ اَآْبَ ُ وَ ِ ال ِو ُ بس ِ ا ِ ا‬raise hands (like at the beginning of ‫ز هلل ْح ْد ِ ْن هلل َهلل‬ Salah) while facing Hajrul-Aswad (black stone) before starting Tawaf and it should only be done once. Makhool (RA) narrates that when Rasul-ullah (‫ )ﷺ‬used to enter Makkah and his sight used to fall on the Kaabah he used to raise his hands, utter the Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) and make the dua, “O Allah! You are peace and from You is peace. Keep us alive with peace. O Allah! Increase the honour, status and magnitude of this house and increase the honour, status and magnitude of the one who performs Hajj or Umrah of this house.” *Baihaqi, Musnad Imam Shaf’ae+ Note: There is a difference of opinion amongst Scholars on raising the hands with some declaring it preferable while others regarding it neither preferable nor blameworthy since

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the Hadeeth mentioned above is Mursal.

12. Before starting Tawaf it is Sunnah to kiss the black stone or point in its direction (due to crowds etc.). There is no Tahiyatul-Masjid Salah for Masjidul Haram as its Tahiyatul-Masjid is Tawaf. Jabir b. Abdullah (RA) reported that when Allah's Messenger (‫ )ﷺ‬proceeded to Mecca, he came to it (the Black Stone). he kissed it. and moved to his right. and moved quickly in three circuits, and walked in four circuits. Narrated Ibn Abbas (RA): In his Last Hajj the Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬performed Tawaf of the Ka'ba riding a camel and pointed a bent-headed stick towards the Corner (Black Stone). [Bukhari] Tahiyatul-Masjid Salah should not be done upon entering Masjidul-Haram as Tawaf is the Tahiyatul-Masjid. If one enters the Mosque at the time of Fardh Salah then he should join the congregation or if the time for Fardh Salah is escaping and one has not prayed then Fardh Salah should be performed. There is no disagreement amongst Scholars on this matter [Al-Mughni] 13. Men should expose their right shoulder during Tawaf (for Hajj & Umrah). Men should also walk briskly and defiantly while jutting their chests and shoulders in the first three rounds. Tawaf should be done counter clockwise and it is Sunnah to kiss the black stone or point in its direction (due to crowds etc.) at the completion of each round while saying ُ ‫ ,ا ُ اَآْبَ ُ وَ ِ ال ِو‬thus completing seven rounds and both shoulders ‫َهلل ز هلل ْح ْد‬ should then be covered up. Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas (RA): The Apostle of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬and his Companions performed umrah from al-Ji'ranah. They went quickly round the House (the Ka'bah) moving their shoulders) proudly. They put their upper garments under their armpits and threw the ends over their left shoulders. [Abu Dawud] Narrated Abdullah bin Umar (RA): The Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬did Ramal (walking briskly and

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defiantly while jutting chests and shoulders) in (first) three rounds (of Tawaf), and walked in the remaining four, in Hajj and Umra. [Bukhari] Narrated Umar ibn al-Khattab (RA): Aslam (RA) said: I heard Umar ibn al-Khattab (RA) say: What is the need of walking proudly (ramal) and moving the shoulders (while going round the Ka'bah)? Allah has now strengthened Islam and obliterated disbelief and the infidels. In spite of that we shall not forsake anything that we used to do during the time of the Apostle of Allah (‫.)ﷺ‬ [Bukhari]

To kiss the black stone or point in its direction (due to crowds etc.) at the completion of each round is Sunnah and there is no disagreement on this matter. [Fathur-Rabbani] Note: Imam Nawawi (RA) has reported that to expose the right Shoulder (Idhthiba) and Ramal (walking briskly and defiantly while jutting chests and shoulders) is Sunnah for men only and there is no disagreement on the matter. [Fathur-Rabbani] It is Haram to push and shove people to get near and kiss the black stone and to try to reach near to Maqam Al-Ibraheem in the state of Ihram. 14. During Tawaf walking should be done outside of Hateem as it is part of Kabah, during Tawaf a person is free to make any duas or make any Dhik’r or recite the Qur’aan. It is permissible to talk during Tawaf but it is preferable and superior to abstain from talking and engage in the remembrance of Allah (SWT). Narrated 'Aisha (RA): I asked the Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬whether the round wall (near Ka'ba) was part of the Ka'ba. The Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬replied in the affirmative. I (ra) further said, "What is wrong with them, why have they not included it in the building of the Ka'ba?" He (‫)ﷺ‬said, "Don't you see that your people (Quraish) ran short of money (so they could not include it inside the building of Ka'ba)?" I (ra) asked, "What about its gate? Why is it so high?" He (‫ )ﷺ‬replied, "Your people did this so as to admit into it whomever they liked and prevent whomever they liked. Were your people not close to the Pre-lslamic Period of ignorance (i.e. they have recently embraced Islam) and were I (‫ )ﷺ‬not afraid that they would dislike it, surely I (‫ )ﷺ‬would have included the (area of the) wall inside the building of the Ka'ba and I (‫ )ﷺ‬would have lowered its gate to the level of the

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ground." [Bukhari]

Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas (RA): The Apostle of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬said, “Tawaf of the Kabah is similar to Salah except that you speak in it and let the one who wants to speak (during it) speak good. [Tirmidhi] 15. After Tawaf it is preferable (according to the Madhab of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA)) to kiss the black stone or point in its direction (due to crowds etc.). Then two Rakaat of Salah should be performed while keeping Maqaam Al-Ibraheem between yourself and the Kabah, Surah Qul Ya Ayuhal Kaafiron should be recited in the first Rakaah while Surah Qul Ho Wallahu Ahad should be recited in the second Rakaah. [2:125] When We made the House (Ka‗bah of Makkah) a frequented place for men, and a place of peace! Make from the Station of Ibrāhīm a place of prayer. We gave the (following directive) to Ibrāhīm and Ismā‗īl (Ishmael): ―Purify My House for those who are to circumambulate (make Tawāf) and those who stay in I‗tikāf, and those who bow down or prostrate themselves (in prayers). Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Umar (RA): When Allah's Apostle performed Tawaf of the Ka'ba for Hajj or 'Umra, he used to do Ramal during the first three rounds, and in the last four rounds he used to walk; then after the Tawaf he used to offer two Rakat (near Maqam AlIbraheem) and then performed Tawaf between Safa and Marwa. [Bukhari] Ja'far b Muhammad (RA) reported on the authority of his father: We went to Jabir b. Abdullah (RA) and he began inquiring about the people (who had gone to see him) till it was my turn. I said: I am Muhammad b. 'Ali b. Husain. He (RA) placed his hand upon my head and opened my upper button and then the lower one and then placed his palm on my chest (in order to bless me), and I was, during those days, a young boy, and he said: You are welcome, my nephew. Ask whatever you want to ask. And I asked him but as he was blind (he could not respond to me immediately), and the time for prayer came. He stood up covering himself in his mantle. And whenever he placed its ends upon his shoulders they slipped down on account of being short (in size). Another mantle was,

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however, lying on the clothes rack near by. And he led us in the prayer. I said to him: Tell me about the Hajj of Allah's Messenger (May peace be upon him). And he pointed with his hand nine, and then stated: The Messenger of Allah (‫)ﷺ‬stayed in (Medina) for nine years but did not perform Hajj, then he made a public announcement in the tenth year to the effect that Allah's Messenger (‫)ﷺ‬was about to perform the Hajj. A large number of persons came to Medina and all of them were anxious to follow the Messenger of Allah (‫)ﷺ‬and do according to his doing. We set out with him till we reached Dhu'l-Hulaifa. Asma' daughter of Umais gave birth to Muhammad b. Abu Bakr. She sent message to the Messenger of Allah (‫)ﷺ‬asking him: What should 1 do? He (the Holy Prophet) said: Take a bath, bandage your private parts and put on Ihram. The Messenger of Allah (‫)ﷺ‬then prayed in the mosque and then mounted al-Qaswa (his she-camel) and it stood erect with him on its back at al-Baida'. And I saw as far as I could see in front of me but riders and pedestrians, and also on my right and on my left and behind me like this. And the Messenger of Allah (‫)ﷺ‬was prominent among us and the (revelation) of the Holy Qur'an was descending upon him. And it is he who knows (its true) significance. And whatever he did, we also did that. He pronounced the Oneness of Allah (saying):" Labbaik,0 Allah, Labbaik, Labbaik. Thou hast no partner, praise and grace is Thine and the Sovereignty too; Thou hast no partner." And the people also pronounced this Talbiya which they pronounce (today). The Messenger of Allah (‫)ﷺ‬did not reject anything out of it. But the Messenger of Allah (May peace. be upon him) adhered to his own Talbiya. Jabir (Allah be pleased with him) said: We did not have any other intention but that of Hajj only, being unaware of the Umra (at that season), but when we came with him to the House, he touched the pillar and (made seven circuits) running three of them and walking four. And then going to the Station of Ibrahim, he recited:" And adopt the Station of Ibrahim as a place of prayer." And this Station was between him and the House. My father said (and I do not know whether he had made a mention of it but that was from Allah's Apostle [May peace be upon him] that he recited in two rak'ahs:" say: He is Allah One," and say:" Say: 0 unbelievers." He then returned to the pillar (Hajar Aswad) and kissed it. He then went out of the gate to al-Safa' and as he reached near it he recited:" Al-Safa' and al-Marwa are among the signs appointed by Allah," (adding: ) I begin with what Allah (has commanded

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me) to begin. He first mounted al-Safa' till he saw the House, and facing Qibla he declared the Oneness of Allah and glorified Him, and said:" There is no god but Allah, One, there is no partner with Him. His is the Sovereignty. to Him praise is due. and He is Powerful over everything. There is no god but Allah alone, Who fulfilled His promise, helped His servant and routed the confederates alone." He then made supplication in the course of that saying such words three times. He then descended and walked towards alMarwa, and when his feet came down in the bottom of the valley, he ran, and when he began to ascend he walked till he reached al-Marwa. There he did as he had done at alSafa'. And when it was his last running at al-Marwa he said: If I had known beforehand what I have come to know afterwards, I would not have brought sacrificial animals and would have performed an 'Umra. So, he who among you has not the sacrificial animals with him should put off Ihram and treat it as an Umra. Suraqa b. Malik b. Ju'sham got up and said: Messenger of Allah, does it apply to the present year, or does it apply forever? Thereupon the Messenger of Allah (‫)ﷺ‬intertwined the fingers (of one hand) into another and said twice: The 'Umra has become incorporated in the Hajj (adding):" No, but for ever and ever." 'All came from the Yemen with the sacrificial animals for the Prophet (‫)ﷺ‬and found Fatimah (Allah be pleased with her) to be one among those who had put off Ihram and had put on dyed clothes and had applied antimony. He (Hadrat'Ali) showed disapproval to it, whereupon she said: My father has commanded me to do this. He (the narrator) said that 'Ali used to say in Iraq: I went to the Messenger of Allah (‫)ﷺ‬showing annoyance at Fatimah for what she had done, and asked the (verdict) of Allah's Messenger (‫)ﷺ‬regarding what she had narrated from him, and told him that I was angry with her, whereupon he said: She has told the truth, she has told the truth. (The Holy Prophet then asked 'Ali): What did you say when you undertook to go for Hajj? I ('Ali) said: 0 Allah, I am putting on Ihram for the same purpose as Thy Messenger has put it on. He said: I have with me sacrificial animals, so do not put off the Ihram. He (Jabir) said: The total number of those sacrificial animals brought by 'Ali from the Yemen and of those brought by the Apostle (‫)ﷺ‬was one hundred. Then all the people except the Apostle (‫)ﷺ‬and those who had with them sacrificial animals, put off Ihram, and got their hair clipped; when it was the day of Tarwiya (8th of Dhu'l-Hijja) they went to Mina and put on

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the Ihram for Hajj and the Messenger of Ailah (‫)ﷺ‬rode and led the noon, afternoon, sunset 'Isha' and dawn prayers. He then waited a little till the sun rose, and commanded that a tent of hair should be pitched at Namira. The Messenger of Allah (‫)ﷺ‬then set out and the Quraish did not doubt that he would halt at al-Mash'ar al-Haram (the sacred site) as the Quraish used to do in the pre-Islamic period. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), however, passed on till he came to 'Arafa and he found that the tent had been pitched for him at Namira. There he got down till the sun had passed the meridian; he commanded that al-Qaswa should be brought and saddled for him. Then he came to the bottom of the valley, and addressed the people saying: Verily your blood, your property are as sacred and inviolable as the sacredness of this day of yours, in this month of yours, in this town of yours. Behold! Everything pertaining to the Days of Ignorance is under my feet completely abolished. Abolished are also the blood-revenges of the Days of Ignorance. The first claim of ours on blood-revenge which I abolish is that of the son of Rabi'a b. alHarith, who was nursed among the tribe of Sa'd and killed by Hudhail. And the usury of she pre-Islamic period is abolished, and the first of our usury I abolish is that of 'Abbas b. 'Abd al-Muttalib, for it is all abolished. Fear Allah concerning women! Verily you have taken them on the security of Allah, and intercourse with them has been made lawful unto you by words of Allah. You too have right over them, and that they should not allow anyone to sit on your bed whom you do not like. But if they do that, you can chastise them but not severely. Their rights upon you are that you should provide them with food and clothing in a fitting manner. I have left among you the Book of Allah, and if you hold fast to it, you would never go astray. And you would be asked about me (on the Day of Resurrection), (now tell me) what would you say? They (the audience) said: We will bear witness that you have conveyed (the message), discharged (the ministry of Prophethood) and given wise (sincere) counsel. He (the narrator) said: He (the Holy Prophet) then raised his forefinger towards the sky and pointing it at the people (said):" O Allah, be witness. 0 Allah, be witness," saying it thrice. (Bilal then) pronounced Adhan and later on Iqama and he (the Holy Prophet) led the noon prayer. He (Bilal) then uttered Iqama and he (the Holy Prophet) led the afternoon prayer and he observed no other prayer in between the two.

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The Messenger of Allah (‫)ﷺ‬then mounted his camel and came to the place of stay, making his she-camel al-Qaswa, turn towards the side where there we are rocks, having the path taken by those who went on foot in front of him, and faced the Qibla. He kept standing there till the sun set, and the yellow light had somewhat gone, and the disc of the sun had disappeared. He made Usama sit behind him, and he pulled the nosestring of Qaswa so forcefully that its head touched the saddle (in order to keep her under perfect control), and he pointed out to the people with his right hand to be moderate (in speed), and whenever he happened to pass over an elevated tract of sand, he slightly loosened it (the nose-string of his camel) till she climbed up and this is how he reached al-Muzdalifa. There he led the evening and 'Isha prayers with one Adhan and two Iqamas and did not glorify (Allah) in between them (i. e. he did not observe supererogatory rak'ahs between Maghrib and 'Isha' prayers). The Messenger of Allah (‫)ﷺ‬then lay down till dawn and offered the dawn prayer with an Adhan and Iqama when the morning light was clear. He again mounted al-Qaswa, and when he came to al-Mash'ar al-Haram, he faced towards Qibla, supplicated Him, Glorified Him, and pronounced His Uniqueness (La ilaha illa Allah) and Oneness, and kept standing till the daylight was very clear. He then went quickly before the sun rose, and seated behind him was al-Fadl b. 'Abbas and he was a man having beautiful hair and fair complexion and handsome face. As the Messenger of Allah (‫)ﷺ‬was moving on, there was also going a group of women (side by side with them). Al-Fadl began to look at them. The Messenger of Allah (‫)ﷺ‬placed his hand on the face of Fadl who then turned his face to the other side, and began to see, and the Messenger of Allah (‫)ﷺ‬turned his hand to the other side and placed it on the face of al-Fadl. He again turned his face to the other side till he came to the bottom of Muhassir. 1680 He urged her (al-Qaswa) a little, and, following the middle road, which comes out at the greatest jamra, he came to the jamra which is near the tree. At this be threw seven small pebbles, saying Allah-o-Akbar while throwing every one of them in a manner in which the small pebbles are thrown (with the help of fingers) and this he did in the bottom of the valley. He then went to the place of sacrifice, and sacrificed sixty-three (camels) with his own hand. Then he gave the remaining number to 'All who sacrificed them, and he shared him in his sacrifice. He then commanded that a piece of flesh from

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each animal sacrificed should be put in a pot, and when it was cooked, both of them (the Holy Prophet and Hadrat 'All) took some meat out of it and drank its soup. The Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬again rode and came to the House, and offered the Zuhr prayer at Mecca. He came to the tribe of Abd al-Muttalib, who were supplying water at Zamzam, and said: Draw water. O Bani 'Abd al-Muttalib; were it not that people would usurp this right of supplying water from you, I would have drawn it along with you. So they handed him a basket and he drank from it. [Muslim] Note: It is Haram to push and shove people to get near and kiss the black stone and to try to reach near to Maqam Al-Ibraheem in the state of Ihram. 16. Make the intention for Sa’ee of Umrah before starting, “I am performing Sa’ee of Umrah for Allah (SWT)”. Rasul-ullah (‫ )ﷺ‬has said, “Every action is based on Intention, and everyone shall have what he intended”. *Bukhari+ Note: Intention doesn’t need to be uttered verbally or loudly, it is an action of the heart. 17. It is recommended to kiss the black stone or point in its direction (due to crowds etc.) while saying ِ َ‫ ال ِو ُ ا ُ اَآْبَ ُ و‬before proceeding to Safa as Sa’ee must be started ‫ْح ْد َهلل ز هلل‬ from there. The entire distance between Safa and Marwah should be covered and at each end the little incline should be walked and the person should face the Kaabah at the height, raise hands and make dua. Seven rounds should be completed i.e. from Safa to Marwah is one round, therefore Sa’ee should culminate at Marwah. Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Umar (RA): When Allah's Apostle (‫ )ﷺ‬performed Tawaf of the Ka'ba for Hajj or 'Umra, he used to do Ramal during the first three rounds, and in the last four rounds he used to walk; then after the Tawaf he used to offer two Rakat and then performed Tawaf between Safa and Marwa. [Bukhari] . 18. Engage in remembrance of Alah (SWT) during Sa’ee, make duas and men should

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jog/briskly walk between the two points illuminated by Green lights. Please note that it is recommended to ascend the two hills (Safa & Marwah) fully. Narrated Ibn 'Umar(RA): When the Prophet (‫)ﷺ‬performed the Tawaf of the Ka'ba, he did Ramal during the first three rounds and in the last four rounds he used to walk and while doing Tawaf between Safa and Marwa, he used to run in the midst of the rain water passage. [Bukhari] Jabir ibn Abdullah (RA) narrates that the Messenger of Allah, (‫ ,)ﷺ‬used to say, "Allah is greater" three times when he stopped on Safa, and "There is no god but Allah, alone, without any partner. To Him belong the Kingdom and praise, and He has power over everything" three times, and make dua. He would then do the same on Marwa. [Muwatta] 19. After finishing the 7 rounds of Sa’ee it is recommended for men to shave their hair or have it trimmed although shaving is superior and for women to have their hair trimmed. Anas b. Malik (RA) reported that Allah's Messenger (‫ )ﷺ‬came to Mina; he went to the Jamra and threw pebbles at it, after which he went to his lodging in Mina, and sacrificed the animal. He then called for a barber and, turning his right side to him, let him shave him; after which he tiimed his left side. He then gave (these hair) to the people.[Muslim] Note: Women must trim at approximately one inch (length of a finger-tip).

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Sunnah method & description of Hajj Ifrad

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Sunnah method & description of Hajj Tamauttu

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Sunnah method & description of Hajj Qiran

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Appendix: Taraveeh 8 or 20? By Ahmed Ibn Muhammad In a handout by al-Albani's followers in England, by the title "Some common questions answered" (dated October 1990), there appeared the following question and answer (No. 22): (a) Aisha (Allah be pleased with her) reports that the Prophet (Peace be upon him) never prayed more than 8 rak'aats in taraweeh, so how come nobody disapproves of 20? (b) Is it true that Umar (Allah be pleased with him) introduced it? Ans. 22 (a) As regards the taraweeh prayer - people agree that the Sunnah of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) and the best way is 11 rak'aats. As regards any addition - then this is DISAPPROVED of and DECLARED AS A BID'AH (A bad innovation) by Shaykh al-Albani and by a few earlier scholars - that being reported from Imam Malik, Ibn ul-Arabee and as-San'aanee (see Salat-ut-taraweeh of Shaykh al-Albani). (b) It is not true that Umar (Allah be pleased with him) either prayed or ordered 20 rak'aats. Rather he ordered Ubayy ibn Ka'b to lead the people with 11 rak'aats (alMuwatta 1/137, with a Sahih Isnad). I do not wish to go into much detail on this issue, but Insha'Allah a separate publication is what is really required, to show which opinion is the most correct. But any way it should be said that the vast MAJORITY of the scholars of hadith, Fiqh, and even the four Mujtahid Imams are in agreement that 20 rak'ahs are the most appropriate, followed by 3 rak'ahs of witr, and this is also the opinion of the Imam of the "Salafiyya", Ahmad ibn Taymiyya! First, it should be said that the hadith reported from Aisha (Allah be pleased with her) about 11 rak'ahs is not at all to do with taraweeh, according to the majority of scholars,

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but in fact concerns the number of rak'ahs of TAHAJJUD prayer! The hadith in question is as follows:Narrated Abu Salama ibn Abdur Rahman that he asked Aisha (Allah be pleased with her), "How was the prayer of Allah's Apostle (Peace be upon him) in Ramadan?" She replied, "He did not pray more than eleven raka'at in Ramadan or in any other month. He used to pray four raka'at - let alone their beauty and length - and then he would pray four - let alone their beauty and length - and then he would pray three rak'aat (witr)." She added, "I asked, 'O Allah's Apostle! Do you sleep before praying the witr?' He replied, 'O Aisha, My eyes sleep but my heart does not sleep.'" (Bukhari, 3/230, English edn) According to the author of "Fatawa Rahimiyyah", Mufti Abdur Rahim Lajpuri (vol. 1, pg. 275); in his defence of 20 rak'ahs of taraweeh: "The commentator of al-Sahih al-Bukhari and the erudite traditionist, Shaykh Shamsud-Din al-Kermani (d. 786 AH; Rahimahullah) said: 'In the hadith (above), the tahajjud prayer is meant. Abu Salama's question and Hadrat Aisha's answer concerned the tahajjud.' He adds further: 'If the tahajjud prayer is not meant, then this tradition will be at variance with the tradition that states that the Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) led twenty rak'ahs each for two nights, and in the case of such clash the tradition of twenty rak'ahs which is affirmative (muthbit) shall have precedence because according to the principles of hadith, the affirmative takes precedence over the negative (naaf)" (vide: Al-Kawakib ud-Durari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, vol. 9, pg 155-156). I say, does this not mean that people who perform 8 rak'ahs of taraweeh, should pray 20 rak'ahs instead? Since according to the principles of hhadith (as affirmed by al-Albani), "The affirmative takes precedence over the negative in certain cases." A great fact that should also be noted by the reader is that the Imam's of hadith have placed the hadith from Aisha (Allah be pleased with her) under the section of tahajjud prayers, which indicates their belief that the hadith applies to tahajjud only. The Imam alMuhaddithin al-Bukhari (Rahimahullah) has placed the hadith from Aisha under at least two sections of his Sahih, first under the section of '21: The tahajjud Prayer at Night' (see Sahih al-Bukhari, vol. 2, chapter 15, no. 248, English ed'n) and then under the section of '32: The Book of taraweeh Prayers' (see Sahih al-Bukhari, 3/230, pg. 128 English ed'n). This means that Imam Bukhari believed that the prayer mentioned by Aisha was that of tahajjud only, and since the tahajjud prayer is performed also in Ramadan, then Imam Bukhari also quoted the same hadith under 'The book of taraweeh prayers', but Allah knows best. Imam Muslim (Rahimahullah) has also placed the hadith from Aisha under the tahajjud prayer section (see Sahih Muslim 1/1607, pg. 356, English ed'n). Also Imam

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Malik (Rahimahullah) has placed Aisha's hadith under the Book of tahajjud (see AlMuwatta, Book 7, section 7.2, no. 9, pg. 5, English ed'n). The Imam Abu Dawood (Rahimahullah) has also placed the same hadith under the chapter 'On the number of rak'ahs of the prayer at night (tahajjud)' (see Abu Dawood 1/1336, pg. 351, English version). Even Imam's Tirmidhi and Nisai (Allah's mercy be upon them) placed Aisha's hadith under the tahajjud section (see Tirmidhi, vol. 1, pg. 58 and Nisai, vol. 1, pg. 154). Even one of the most prominent Imams of the 'Salafiyya', Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya placed the aforementioned hadith in the section of tahajjud prayers in his book Zaad al Ma'ad (vol. 1, pg. 86)! Mufti Abdur Rahim said about Aisha's hadith: "And if this tradition may have been quoted in some book under the devotions of Ramadan along with the taraweeh. Like the taraweeh, the tahajjud, too, is a prayer of Ramadan, and because of this affinity, it can be mentioned along with the taraweeh (as Imam Bukhari did). Hence, supposing it may have been mentioned in some book, it cannot be made thereby a categorical argument. 'When uncertainty creeps in, the argument is falsified.' Moreover, Hafiz al-hadith Imam Qurtubi's (d. 671/1273; Rahimahullah) statement regarding this hadith (of Aisha) should not be overlooked that, 'many a man of knowledge considers the aforesaid hadith mudtarib (i.e. confounded).'" (vide: Imam Ayni in his Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, vol. 2, pg. 187). In short, the aforesaid report is in no way a proof for eight rak'ahs of taraweeh. In contradistinction to this, as regards the twenty rak'ahs the Companions Consensus (Ijmaas-Sahaba) has taken place over the approval of Ibn Abbas' hadith (about 20 rak'ahs being performed by the Prophet, peace be upon him) and practically the majority of Ulama have accepted it." (Fatawa Rahimmiyah, vol. 1, pg 276-277). Although Aisha (Allah be pleased with her) had said: "He did not pray more than 11 Raka'at," we also have reports from her that the Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) also prayed more than 11 Raka'ats! The proof for this was given by her in another narration involving Abu Salama ibn Abdal Rahman (Rahimahullah). Abu Salama asked Aisha about the prayer of the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him), she said, "He observed 13 Raka'ahs (in the night prayer). He observed 8 raka'ahs and would then observe (three rak'ahs of) witr and then observe two raka'ahs sitting (nafl prayer), and when he wanted to bow he stood up and then bowed down, and then he observed two raka'ahs in between the Azan and Iqama of the dawn prayer (i.e. fajr)." (See Sahih Muslim 1/1603, pg. 357 and also al-Albani's Sifah Salah an-Nabee, appendix 7, pg. 110). So does this not mean that the 'Salafiyya' should perform 13 Raka'ats of Taraweeh in Ramadan?

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Now, the statement 'the best way is 11 rak'aats' is only the opinion of a small group of the ulama, in fact there are more than 50 opinions to say that the best way is 20 rak'ahs according to the Prophet (Peace be upon him) and his Companions (Allah be pleased with them all) practise! What is more interesting to note is that the four great Mujtahids, Abu Hanifah, Malik, Shafi'i and Ahmad ibn Hanbal (Allah's mercy be upon them) are in agreement that the Taraweeh consists of twenty Rak'ahs. The statement that Imam Malik approved of eight Rak'ahs needs to be proved, most likely this ascription was made to him because he quoted the Hadith which is used to prove eight Rak'ahs of Taraweeh in his al-Muwatta (see Muwatta, 6.2, no. 4, pg. 48) by a small group of scholars. Although Imam Malik (Rahimahullah) quoted this Hadith in his book, it has no bearing on what his actual opinion and practise was, on the contrary Imam Malik believes in thirty-six rak'ahs of Taraweeh (i.e. 20 Rak'ahs and 16 rak'ahs of extra nafl prayers, see later for the official verdict of the Maliki Madhhab)! Also the Hadith which seems to prove 11 Rak'ahs of Taraweeh (including three rak'ahs of Witr) in Imam Malik's Muwatta has been explained away by many other convincing arguments. Recently I came across a booklet by the title, "Is Taraweeh 20 Rakaats?" (Published by Madrasah Arabia Islamia, Azaadville, South Africa, author unknown). In this booklet the Hadith quoted from the Muwatta of Imam Malik (Rahimahullah), about 11 rak'ahs of Taraweeh (including three Witr) was quite eloquently analysed. The actual Hadith in question was related by Yahya ibn Yahya al-Laythi, who related from his teacher Imam Malik, who related from Muhammad ibn Yusuf, who said that as-Saaib ibn Yazid said, "Umar ibn Khattab (Allah be pleased with him) ordered Ubayy ibn Ka'b and Tamim ad-Dari (Allah be pleased with them) to watch the night in prayer with the people for eleven rak'ahs. The reciter of the Qur'an would recite the Mi'in (a group of medium sized surah's) until we would be leaning on our staffs from having stood so long in prayer. And we would not leave until the approach of dawn." (see above reference in alMuwatta). It was stated in the aforementioned booklet (chapter 7, pg. 20), after quoting the above narration, "If we analyse the chain (Isnad) of this Hadith, we notice that Muhammad ibn Yusuf narrates from Saaib ibn Yazid. Muhammad (ibn Yusuf) has 5 students and the narration of each student differs from the next (i.e. the text of the Hadith is different from each student). The five students are: 1. Imam Malik

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2. 3. 4. 5. Yahya ibn Qattan Abdul Aziz ibn Muhammad Ibn Ishaq and Abdur Razzaq

Their narrations are as follows: 1. Imam Malik says that Umar ordered Ubayy ibn Ka'b and Tamim Dari to perform 11 rakaats. (What practise occurred thereafter is not mentioned, nor is Ramadaan mentioned). 2. Yahya ibn Qattan says that Umar made the people gather with Ubayy ibn Ka'b and Tamim Dari and both of them began performing 11 rakaats. (Hadrat Umar's command is not mentioned, nor is any mention of Ramadaan made). 3. Abdul Aziz (ibn Muhammad) says that we used to perform 11 rakaats in the era of Umar. (Neither is the command mentioned, nor is Ubayy ibn Ka'b or Ramadaan mentioned. 4. Ibn Ishaq says that we used to perform 13 rakaats in Ramadaan during the era of Umar. (Neither is the command of Umar mentioned. Instead of 11 rakaats, 13 are mentioned). 5. Abdur Razzaq says that Umar gave the command of 21 rakaats. (In this narration 21 rakaats are mentioned instead of 11). Besides the narration of Imam Malik (Rahimahullah), 11 rakaats can not be established from the other narrations. Due to this difference, the narrator Ibn Ishaq gave preference to 13 while Ibn Abdal Barr al-Maliki preferred 21 (from the narration of Abdur Razzaq). Therefore this narration is Mudtarib (A Hadith that is transmitted in different manners, so that the contents of each transmission differ, and it is not possible to give preference to any particular transmission) with regards to the number (of rak'ahs) and hence unacceptable. The above was an analysis of Muhammad ibn Yusuf's narration via Saaib ibn Yazid. Now let us examine the narration of Yazid ibn Khaseefah via Saaib (ibn Yazid), which is

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mentioned in the Sunan al- Kubra of al-Bayhaqi (vol. 2, pg. 496): Abu Zi'b narrates from Yazid ibn Khaseefah, who reports from Saaib ibn Yazid that the people used to perform 20 rakaats in the month of Ramadaan during the era of Umar. Imam Nawawi, Iraqi and Suyuti (all three were great scholars of Hadith) amongst others have accepted the authenticity of this Hadith (see Tuhfatul Akhyaar, pg. 192 and Irshaadus Saari, pg. 74, (by Imam al-Qastallani]). Muhammad ibn Jafar (another narrator in the chain) has quoted the statement from Yazid (ibn Khaseefah) as Abu Zi'b (had). This narration is mentioned in Marifatus Sunan of al-Bayhaqi. Allamah Subki and Mullah Ali al-Qari have stated in Sharh Minhaaj and Sharh Muwatta respectively that the chain of narrators of this Hadith are correct. (Tuhfatul Ahwazee, vol.2, pg 75). From the above narration we can clearly see that both the students of Yazid (ibn Khaseefah), unanimously narrate the fact that during Umar's (Allah be pleased with him) era 20 rakaats was the standard practise. On the contrary, the 5 students of Muhammad ibn Yusuf quote Saaib (ibn Yazid) differently. In such a situation the correct approach would be to rely on the narration of Yazid ibn Khaseefah. However the Ahl al-Hadith (another name for the "Salafiyya") have unjustly discarded this narration and adopted the doubtful one of Muhammad ibn Yusuf, which has differing versions. This goes against the principles of Hadith." Here ends the quote . Another Hadith that is used by the protagonists of eight rak'ahs of Taraweeh has been related by Jabir ibn Abdullah (Allah be pleased with him): "The Prophet (Peace be upon him) led the people in prayer during Ramadan with 8 rak'ahs and the Witr. We gathered in the Mosque the following night hoping that he would come again. We remained waiting till the next morning (until he came out). The Prophet (Peace be upon him) said, 'I feared that the Witr may become incumbent on you.'" (related by Ibn Nasr al-Marwazi in Qiyamul-Layl, pg. 90, al-Tabarani and Ibn Hibban - see below for the actual Hadith) The above Hadith has been analysed by Shaykh Abdur Rahim in his "Fatawa" (vol. 1, pg. 278-9) with the conclusion that the Hadith is Daeef. The Shaykh said: "The strange thing about this Hadith is that its chain of authorities (Isnad) is not trustworthy. Please examine the statements of the Imams of this science concerning the narrators of this chain. In this chain one narrator is Ibn Hameed Razi, about whom the opinions of the great and august critics of Hadith are as under:

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 'He is weak.' - Hafiz al-Dhahabi (see his Mizanul I'tidal, vol.3, pp. 49-50) 'He narrates many disowned (munkar ) Hadiths.' - Ya'qub ibn Shaybah 'He is objectionable.' - Imam Bukhari 'He is a liar.' - Abu Zur'ah 'I testify that he is a liar.' - Ishaq Kausaj

6. 'He narrates Hadiths about everything; I have not seen a man bolder than him vis-avis God.' - Sauleh Jazrah 7. 8. 'By God! He is a liar.' - Ibn Kharash 'He is not reliable.' - Imam Nisai

Now, about the second narrator, Ya'qub ibn Abdullah Ash'ari al-Qummi:1. 'He is not strong.' - Daraqutni (see Mizanul I'tidal, vol. 3, pg. 324).

About the third narrator, Isa ibn Jariyah:1. 2. 3. 4. 'He has had disowned (munkar) Hadiths.' - Ibn Ma'een 'His Hadiths are disavowed.' - Nisai 'His Hadiths are rejected (matruk ).' - Nisai 'His Hadiths are disavowed.' - Abu Dawood - synopsis

5. He is counted among the weak.' - (see Mizanul-I'tidal, vol. 2, pg. 311, by Hafiz alDhahabi)." Here ends the quote. Hafiz Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (Rahimahullah) has reported a similar narration to the above Hadith in his Bulugh al-Maram min Adillat al-Ahkam (no. 396, pg. 159), on the authority of Hafiz Ibn Hibban (Rahimahullah): "Narrated Jabir ibn Abdullah (Allah be pleaed with him): Allah's Apostle (Peace be upon him) prayed during the night in Ramadan; the people waited for him on the next day, but he did not come out; and he said, 'I feared that the Witr might be enjoined on you.'" Note the above narration does not even state

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how many rak'ahs were performed by the Prophet (Peace be upon him)!! The above two Hadiths can not be used as justifiable proof in favour of 8 rak'ahs of Taraweeh on their own. Al-Imam Malik (Rahimahullah) has in fact quoted a Hadith which proves the performance of 20 rak'ahs of Taraweeh in Ramadan; and that is as follows:Yahya related to me from Malik that Yazid ibn Ruman said,"The people used to watch the night in prayer during Ramadaan for 23 rak'ahs (i.e 20 rak'ahs of Taraweeh, followed by 3 rak'ahs of witr) in the time of Umar ibn al-Khattab." (vide: al-Muwatta, 6.2, No. 5, pg. 48, English ed'n) Although the above Hadith is Munqati (a link is missing in the chain) and has thus been declared to be Daeef by some scholars (including al-Albani), it never the less has been used as proof. Besides, the Hadith has been given a full Isnad (chain) by either Imam Ibn Abdal Barr al-Maliki (d. 463/1071; Rahimahullah) or Shaykh Muhammad Habibullah ibn Mayabi ash-Shanqiti (Rahimahullah), in their thorough research to complete all the chains of transmission (Isnad) which have an incomplete chain; as found in the Muwatta of Imam Malik! In fact the latest edition of the English version of al-Muwatta (translated by A. A. atTarjumana and Yaqub Johnson) says (pg. xxxiv): "Ibn Hajar (al-Asqalani) said, 'The book of Malik is sound by all the criteria that are demanded as proofs in the mursal, munqati (two types of Hadith which have a missing link) and other types of transmission.' Then asSuyuti followed what Ibn Hajar said here; and said, 'The mursal Hadith in it are a proof with him (i.e. ash-Shafi'i) as well because the mursal is a proof with us when it is properly supported. Every mursal in the Muwatta has one or more supports as will be made clear in this commentary (i.e. Suyuti's commentary on al-Muwatta called Tanwir al-Hawalik). It is absolutely correct to say that the Muwatta is sound without exception.' Ibn Abdal-Barr collected together all the mursal, munqati and mu'addil Hadiths in the Muwatta and said that the total number of Hadiths in the Muwatta which do not have an Isnad are sixty one. He stated that he found the isnads of all of them in other sources with the exception of four Hadiths. The erudite scholar of Hadith, Shaykh Muhammad Habibullah ibn Mayabi ash-Shanqiti says in Ida'a al-Halik that he had found witnesses for these four Hadith and he then mentioned these witnesses. He said, 'Some of the people of knowledge made these Isnads complete.' He mentioned from Ibn Abdal-Barr that

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there was no munkar(rejected) Hadith in the Muwatta, nor anything fundamentally refuted." In the light of what the erudite scholars of Hadith have said above, we may emphatically state that the apparently 'munqati' Hadith from Yazid ibn Ruman has a complete Isnad; hence it may be used as a proof, since Imam Ibn Abdal-Barr has said that there is, "No munkar Hadith in the Muwatta nor anything fundamentally rejected." Hence, many scholars of Hadith and Fiqh have used the above Hadith as a proof in favour of 20 rak'ahs of Taraweeh. The quote from "Some common questions answered," also claimed that, "Rather he (Umar) ordered Ubayy ibn Ka'b to lead the people with 11 rakaats." I say, this is half of the truth, since it is clearly stated in al-Muwatta :"Umar ibn Khattab ordered Ubayy ibn Ka'b AND Tamim ad-Dari ....(see Muwatta, 6.2, no. 4, pg. 48)!! Al-Albani has said that if anyone performs more than 11 rak'ahs of Taraweeh, then he or she is basically committing a Bid'ah (a very bad innovation)! We seek refuge in Allah from such a disgusting statement! Since this tantamountally means that the foremost Imams of the saved sect (al-Firqat an-Najiyyah) of Ahl-al-Sunnah wa'l Jama'ah have been committing a gross innovation (Allah forbid). Al-Albani seems to be implying that the venerable Companions (may Allah be pleased with them and increase their rank), the four great Mujtahid Imams (Allah's mercy be upon them), as well as the foremost scholars of Hadith and Fiqh of the last 1400 years have 'innovated' the practise of 20 rak'ahs of Taraweeh, if considered in the light of penetrative elaboration, implicitly and covertly! What alternative conclusion can one derive, if the "Albani Madhhab" says, "As regards any addition (to 11 rak'ahs) - then this is disapproved of and declared as a bid'ah by 'Shaykh' al-Albani?" I ask you, are the so called "Salafiyya" in the true path of the original and true Salaf-asSalihin (the pious predecessors of the first three generations of Islam), when they have declared the practise of 20 rak'ahs to be a bid'ah, even though the Salaf have been reported to have practised 20 rak'ahs? The actual Hadith which states that the Holy Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) performed 20 rak'ahs of taraweeh has been reported by Ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with him). He said, "Verily, the Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) in the month of Ramadaan, used to perform 20 rak'ahs and the witr prayer (afterwards) without congregation." (Reported in al-Sunan al-Bayhaqi, vol.2, pg. 496, Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, Kabiri of

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Imam al-Tabarani, Ibn Aadi in his Musnad, and by Imam Baghawi in his Majmua-asSahabah ) Although some scholars have declared this Hadith to be Daeef on its own, it does not mean that it should be whole heartedly rejected; since Daeef does not mean Maudu (fabricated). Please refer to the next section on Daeef Hadiths, and when they are acceptable to scholars for further elaboration. The Hadith related from Ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with him) is supported by many other narrations coming from great Companions like Uthman, Ali, Ibn Masood...(Allah be pleased with them all), as well as their successors (Tabi'in). Besides, some of the scholars of Hadith have even declared some weak Ahadith to be Sahih, if it has a firm basis. It was stated in the book "Criticism of Hadith among Muslims with reference to Sunan Ibn Maja," (pg. 131, by one of the leading "Salafi" Shaykhs in Britain, Suhaib Hasan): "Shafi'i also recognises a weak Hadith as authentic (sahih) if it is found to be accepted by the whole Ummah (see al-Sakhawi: Fath al-Mugith). But he does not accept Malik's view of restricting the practise to the people of Madinah. According to the later scholars of the Hanafi school like Ibn alHumam, a Hadith will be declared Sahih, if it is supported by the practise of the Ummah (see Abdal Rashid Nu'mani: Ma tamusu ilaihe al-Haja, pg. 18). Among traditionalists, Tirmidhi often remarks, after quoting a less authentic Hadith: 'It is being practised by the people of learning (Ahl al-Ilm).' Suyuti deduces: 'It indicates that the Hadith is supported by the sayings of the people of learning. More than one scholar has said that a Hadith is declared Sahih if supported by the sayings of the people of learning, even if it lacks a proper Isnad (see Suyuti: al-Ta'aqubat, folio 20)." As stated above, the great research scholar (Muhaqqiq) Hafiz Kamal ibn al-Humam (d. 861/1457; Rahimahullah) had actually said: "One of the factors from which the authenticity of a Hadith is known is that the learned (Ulama) may conform to it, which is a proof of its being sound (vide: Fath al-Qadir, vol. 3, pg. 349). There are many quotes from scholars which prove a near universal juridical acceptance of 20 rak'ahs of Taraweeh, but I content myself by quoting a select few from some of the foremost scholars of the Ahl-as-Sunnah, as well as the Imam of the "Salafiyya" (when it suits their whims and desires), Ahmad ibn Taymiyya. 1. Shaykh al-Islam Ahmad ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (d. 852/1449; R.A.)

The Hafiz of Hadith, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani has reproduced from Imam Rafi'i (Allah's mercy be on him):

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"For two nights the Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) led twenty rak'ahs of prayer each night; on the third night the people gathered but the Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) did not come out. Then the next morning, he told the people, 'It so occurred to me that it would be made obligatory for you, and you would not be able to discharge this obligation.'" After reproducing this tradition, Hafiz Ibn Hajar said: "All the traditionalists (Muhaddithin) are unanimous about the soundness of this report." (see Talkhis al-habir fi takhrij ahadith al-Rafi'i al-Kabir, vol. 1, pg. 119, by Hafiz ibn Hajar). 2. Imam al-Azam Abu Hanifah (d. 150 AH; Rahimahullah) It was stated in Fayd ul-Bari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari (by Shaykh Anwar Shah Kashmiri): "Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahimahullah) asked Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahimahullah), 'Did Hadrat Umar (Allah be pleased with him) have any compact from the Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) for 20 rak'ahs of Taraweeh?' The Imam replied, 'Hadrat Umar was not one to invent on his own; certainly he had some proof with him for this!'" (also found in Maraqi ul-Falah, pg. 81, by Imam al-Shurunbulali and Bahr ur Ra'iq, vol.2, pg. 66, by Imam ibn Nujaim al-Misri). 3. Imam al-Tirmidhi (d. 279/892; Rahimahullah) Imam Tirmidhi said: "Umar, Ali as well as other Companions (Allah be pleased with them all) and Sufyan alThauri, Ibn al-Mubarak and Imam al-Shafi'i (Allah's mercy be upon them), all believed in 20 rak'ahs of Taraweeh, and Imam Shafi'i has stated that he had seen the people of Makkah saying 20 rak'ahs (see Sunan al-Tirmidhi, vol.1, pg. 99). 4. Imam Malik ibn Anas (d. 179 AH; Rahimahullah) It was written in the most authentic book on Maliki Fiqh, al-Mudawwanah (vol.1, pg. 19394), by Qadi Sahnoon (Rahimahullah): "Ibn al-Qasim said, 'The rak'ahs (of Taraweeh) with witr are 39.' Imam Malik said, 'This is what the people have agreed upon from amongst the predecessors, and the people have

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not stopped doing it.'" (For an explanation of why it was 36 rak'ahs see the quote below from Allamah Anwar Shah Kashmiri). 5. Hafiz Ibn Humam (d. 861/1457; Rahimahullah) Allamah Ibn Humam asserts that it has been established from genuine authority that the Companions and their Successors (tabi'in) used to say twenty rak'ahs of Taraweeh during the auspicious time of Umar (Allah be pleased with him); this authority of Yazid ibn Ruman has been reported from Sa'ib ibn Yazid that, 'during Umar's auspicious time we used to say twenty rak'ahs.' The genuineness of this authority has been verified by Imam Nawawi in the synopsis (see Fath al-Qadir, vol.1, pg. 407 and Nasb-ur-Rayah, vol.1, pg. 294, by Hafiz al-Zaylai). Hafiz Ibn Humam also said in Fath al-Qadir (vol.1, pg. 470): "At last unanimity was formed on 20 rak'ahs of prayer and this alone is in succession." This last statement has also been said in similar words by Ibn Taymiyya in his Minhaj usSunnah (vol.2, pg. 224). 6. Imam Ata ibn Abi Rabah (Rahimahullah) The august successor (Tabi'in) and Mufti of Makkah in his time said: "I have seen the Companions, and other people in Makkah saying 23 rak'ahs, including the witr." This report is Hasan (good). (see Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, pg. 406, Fath al-Bari, vol.4, pg. 219, of Hafiz Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, Qiyam ul-Layl, pg. 91, by Imam Ibn Nasr alMarwazi). 7. Imam Muwaffaq al-Din Ibn Qudama al-Maqdisi (d. 620/1223; R.A)

The Imam of the Hanbali's in his time, Ibn Qudama al-Maqdisi, said in his book al-Mughni (vol.1, pg 803): "There has been the Companion's consensus (Ijma-as-Sahaba) on 20 rak'ahs of Taraweeh." 8. Allamah Anwar Shah Kashmiri (d. 1352 AH; Rahimahullah) It was stated in his published lecture, Tirmidhi al-ma'ruf ba-Arfa'sh-Shazzi (vol.1 pg. 329) :

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"Not even one of the the four Imams believes in less than 20 rak'ahs of Taraweeh; the practise and belief of the majority of the Companions was also this. Imam Malik (Allah's mercy be upon him) believes in more than 20 rak'ahs; he is positive that they are 36. According to Imam Malik's practise only 20 rak'ahs of Taraweeh will be said in congregation, but the general practise and method of the citizens of Madinah was that during the brief rest interval (after every 4 rak'ahs), when the Imam sat down after 4 rak'ahs, they used to perform 4 more rak'ahs. The men who said the Taraweeh in the sacred mosque at Makkah, used to circumambulate (Tawaf) the Ka'ba during this brief recess. The people of Madinah, naturally, could not circumambulate the Ka'ba and hence, instead, they used to perform 16 rak'ahs more (in total) during these brief recesses." 9. Imam al-Ayni (d. 855/1451; Rahimahullah) Allamah Ayni wrote in his Sharh al-Bukhari: "The number of rak'ahs in the Taraweeh is twenty. Imam Shafi'i and Imam Ahmed (Allah's mercy be upon them) assert the same thing. Their proof is the report which Bayhaqi has, with genuine authority, narrated from Sa'ib ibn Yazid. The great Companions, including Umar, Uthman and Ali (may Allah be pleased with them), as also the revered Successors (Tabi'in), used to perform twenty rak'ahs." Then he said: "The most excellent and the most advisable course to conform to is that of the Holy Prophet's and his (Peace and blessings be upon him) Companions (practise)." (Umdat ulQari Sharh-al-Bukhari, vol. 7, pg. 178). 10.Hafiz Taqi-ad-Din Ahmad Ibn Taymiyya al-Hanbali (d. 728/1328) He has said in his Fatawa Ibn Taymiyya (vol.1, pg. 191): "It has been proven without doubt that Ubayy ibn Ka'b (Allah be pleased with him) used to lead the Companions, during Ramadan, for 20 rak'ahs and 3 rak'ahs of witr. Hence it is the principle (maslak) of most of the Ulama that this is the Sunnah, because Ubayy ibn Ka'b led 20 rak'ahs of prayer in the presence of the Muhajirin (the emigrants) and the Ansars (the helpers) and not a single Companion repudiated it!"

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So please ask yourselves: "Who are the 'Salafiyya'; are they the people who conform to the way of the Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him), his Companions (may Allah be pleased with them all), and their successors (this includes the four Mujtahid Imams, Allah's mercy be upon them) consensus on 20 rak'ahs, or is it the likes of al-Albani and his followers?" May Allah guide them.

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