Central Office Concepts

High Level Overview Introduction to Telephony Basics
Created by: Eddie Phillips
Revision date: 6/2002
1 Verizon Course # YYJ8166

C.O. Concepts
Slide
7

- Table of Contents

Topic__________

Purpose
Purpose of High Level Overview

Introduction
9 10 11 21 23 25 26 27 Telephone Services POTS – Plain Old Telephone Service Special Circuits – Generic Types Special Circuit Overview Sound versus Frequency Analog lines, Digital trunks Converting an Analog signal to Digital Filtering, Sampling & PAM PAM – Pulse Amplitude Modulation Quantizing Error PCM Voice to PAM to PCM
2

29
30 31 32

Table of Contents (Continued)
Slide
33 34 36 37 39 43 47 51 53 55 58 59 63 68 70 73 76 77 79

Topic_____________

Data Rate Overview & low bit-rate circuits
Why Digital? Effect of Noise Digital Signal Rate 0 – DS0 Data Rates - DS0, DS1, DS3 Time Division Multiplexing – TDM DS1 - Digital Signal Rate 1 Uni- and Bi-polar signals B8ZS - Binary 8-bit Zero Substitution DS3 Multiplexer DS-30 format Lines versus Trunks Signaling Robbed-bit Signaling Extended Superframe – ESF ISDN BRI ISDN PRI Central Office Layout Main Distribution Frame MDF - Pair protection

3

Table of Contents (Continued)
Slide
89 96 100 102 108 112 115 122 126 127 129 130 133 134 137 143 147 153 148 159

Topic_____ ______

DSX-1 cross-connect D4 channel bank Dual Ringing Generators Special Circuits ISDN channel bank Digital Cross-connect System - DCS DCS 1/0 - DS1 input/DS0 cross-connect DCS Functional types Hi-cap circuit DS1 versus T1 Line Termination Shelf T1 Repeater Housing Repeater Housing Symbol T1 Repeatered Span Line HDSL Fractional T1 (DS1) DSX-3 Cross-connect M13 Asynchronous Multiplexer Fiber Systems - Asynchronous Fiber Optic Systems – interoffice components

4

Table of Contents (Continued)
Slide
166 169 173 174 176 189 190 193 196 199 201 208 218

Topic_____________

SONET Fiber Optic Systems SONET Hierarchy & Rates SONET Rings - UPSR SONET Rings - BLSR Fiber Cable Termination - LGX Tracing an FX circuit through an office Wave Division Multiplexing Dense WDM Wideband DCS Broadband DCS Microwave Radio Digital Loop Carrier (DLC’s) MDF in DLC’s – Equipment protection

5

Table of Contents (Continued)
Slide
220 231 242 249 253 256 257 258

Topic_______________________

ADSL Timing Power Diagram Main Power Board feeding Trans. Dist. Power Board Batteries Generator AC Transfer Switch Grounding - protection from lightning, etc

The pictures on this page are of antique operator cordboards.

6

Central Office Concepts
Purpose: To provide an high level overview of the signal formats, circuits and equipment types that are found in a typical telephone office.
7

Central Office Concepts Overview - Part One
• • • • • • • • Telephone Services - POTS Vs. Special Circuits Analog to Digital Conversion Data Rates - DS0, DS1, DS3 Main Distribution Frame DSX-1, DSX-3 Jacks D4 Channel Bank ISDN Banks DCS 1/0 - Digital Access Cross-connect System
8

Telephone Services
ISP CLEC IXC Operator Special Circuits

POTS

CLASS

Telephone Office
Centrex ACD Automatic Call Distribution

PBX

ADSL

DS1 Hi-caps
9

Call Center

POTS Plain Old Telephone Service

2 wires, 1 pair

Telephone Office

Voice Signal Maximum distance from telephone office – 18,000 feet. Under 12,000 feet is preferred.
10

Everything Else but POTS
Overview of Generic Types
Central Office
Analog Phone ISDN phone Utility company circuit Computer circuits Personal Computer DS1 Hi-cap to Network To distant office To ISDN line circuit Alarm & control circuits Digital Circuits To Internet To customer’s network
11

Special Circuits

POTS & Special Circuits
Telephone Office POTS
Phone line Digital Switch Phone line

Special Circuits
Analog Phone ISDN phone Utility company circuit Computer circuits Personal Computer DS1 Hi-cap to Network

Trunk

Network
Transmission Equipment

12

Digital Switch – Nortel DMS-100

13

Digital Switch - Automatic Electric GTD-5

14

Transmission Equipment

15

Transmission Equipment

16

Main Distribution Frame
- terminates copper outside plant cables & equipment cables
17

Copper outside plant cables

18

Copper cable splice closures in vault

19

Fiber Optic cable & jumper termination

20

Special Circuits Overview 3 Broad Categories
• Voice-grade circuits
– Foreign exchange - draws dial tone from a ‘foreign office’

• Analog Data circuits - non-digital
– ex. Circuits for real-time measurements; – pump starting, water levels, door open/close etc.

• Digital Data circuits
• digital circuits, ISDN, hi-caps, etc.
21

Introduction Summary
What a telephone office does:
• POTS – normal 7 or 10 digit dialing for calls we make everyday. • Special Circuits – unique circuits requested by the customer to meet a specific customer requirements.
22

Sound versus Frequency
Frequency Electrical representation of sound

Sound Waves

- unit of measure is Hertz or cycles per second Human ear - 20 -10,000 Hertz (and higher)
23

Analog Signal - electrical signal analogous to real sound

How voice circuits go through the network
POTS, Special Circuits
Telephone Office

Network

Telephone Office

Voice or Analog signal

Digital signal - analog signal converted to a binary code - 1’s and 0’s.

Voice or Analog signal

24

Analog lines, Digital trunks
Telephone Office
1 0 1 0 1

1

0

1

1

0 1

0 1

Line

Telephone Office
Line

1

0

1

Digital Trunk

Analog Signal

Telephone Office
Line
25

Converting an Analog Signal to a Digital Signal
Analog Signal Digital Signal

Binary digit or ‘bit’

1

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

‘1’ - presence of a pulse ‘0’ - absence of a pulse

Binary 8-bit word or ‘byte’
26

Filtering, Sampling & PAM - Pulse Amplitude Modulation
Original Voice Frequency Signal 20 Hz to 10,000+ Hz

Low-pass Filter Output

20 Hz - 4000 Hz

8000 times per second (Hertz) sampling
125 microseconds

Measuring signal levels in real-time
27

Voice signal voltage ‘sampled’ at 125 microseconds intervals. - 8000 times per second
Voltage

T0

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

T7

T8

T9

Time
28

125 microseconds between measurements

PAM - Pulse Amplitude Modulation
Voltage level compared to Quantization level
Quantization Level
3-bit binary code
7 - 111 6 - 110 5 - 101 4 - 100 3 - 011 2 - 010 1 - 001 0 - 000

T0

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

T7

T8

T9

Time
29

Decimal - Binary

Quantizing Error – small distortion Quantization of signal
Level
7 - 111 6 - 110 5 - 101 4 - 100

3-bit binary code
3 - 011 2 - 010 1 - 001 0 - 000

Quantizing Error

Decimal - Binary

T0

T1

T2

Time

30

8-bit Binary Code
11111111 128 10000110 10000101 10000100 10000011 10000010 10000001 00000000 00000001 00000010 00000011 00000110 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4

PCM Pulse Code Modulation
PAM pulse

Each voltage level has a pre-assigned code
Maximum distortion

Quantization error

time

00000101 -5 00000110 -6 31

01111111 -128

Voice Encoding Voice to PAM to PCM - 8-bit word
Each PAM value
converted to 8-bit word
PCM encoder
125 microseconds

8000 samples/sec X 8 bits/sample = 64,000 bits/sec digital stream per voice channel

1

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

1

0

1

DS0 = 64,000 bits per second
32

8-bits

8-bits

Why Digital?
Analog Transmission Noise Problems
Analog Signal

Signal Plus Noise

After Transmission Attenuation Plus Increased Noise

Amplified Signal Plus Noise 33

Effect of Noise Analog versus Digital
Analog-only signal plus noise:
Signal Noise Received Signal

+
Digital Signal plus noise:
Signal Encoded (PCM)

=
Noise PCM + Noise Received Signal

+

=
34

Summary
• Analog lines, digital trunks • Voice frequency:
– Filtered – Sampled – PAM – Pulse Amplitude Modulation – Quantized – PCM – Pulse Code Modulation 8-BIT word – 8,000 times per second

• PCM – 64,000 bits/second = 1 DS0
35

Digital Signal rate 0 - DS0 8-bit format - 64 kbs
1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 125 microsecond interval per 8-bit word 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

DS0 = 8000 8-bit words per second = 64,000 bits/second = 64 kbs

Fundamental digital signal in telecommunications Building block of most of all other signals
36

Data Rates & Formats
• DS0 - 64,000 bits/sec (64 kbs) channel - digitized voice or data • DS1 - 24 DS0's = 24 x 64,000 = 1.544 Mbit/sec • DS3 - 28 DS1's = 28 x 1.544 Mbs + overhead = 44.736 Mbit/sec - 672 DS0’s = 24 DS0’s x 28 DS1’s
37

Information is on leading edge of pulse 8-bit word represents a
125-microsecond sampling interval
1 0 1 1 0

8-bit word can occupy less time than 125 microseconds
1 0 1

1 2 Information is on the ‘leading edge’ of the pulse.
10110101

3

4

5

6

7

8

Same 8-bit word, but occupying less time. Width of each pulse is ‘squeezed’ to occupy less time so other circuits can be added in the same time frame.

12345678

38

Time Division Multiplexing - TDM
DS0 - 64 kbs 1 2 3

The pulse widths of bits in the 24 channels are ‘squeezed’ to put all 24 channels on one high-speed channel.

TDM

DS1 - 1.544 Mbs Bi-directional multiplexer. Only one direction is shown.

24

Low-speed side

High-speed side

39

Time Division Multiplexing
TDM - 24 DS0’s into a DS1
TDM - Interleaved together in time.
Only one direction shown Channel DS0
10101010

One frame = 24 channels X 8 bits/chan. + 1 framing bit =193 bits/frame Rate = 193 bits/frame X 8000 frames/sec = 1,544,000 bits/sec = 1.544 Mbs

1 2 3 4 5

TDM
21 22 23 24

DS0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 24

Framing bit
1

DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 40

Voice to Digital to TDM
1 2 3 Analog to Digital Converter Time Division Multiplexer

24 channels ‘multiplexed’ together in time.

24
41

A/D-Mux - TDM – Demux-D/A
24 channels ‘multiplexed’ together in time.
1 2 3 Analog to Digital Converter Time Division Multiplexer Time Division De-multiplexer Digital to Analog Converter 1 2 3

24

24

Only one direction is shown.

42

DS-1 Digital Signal rate 1
24 channels TDM + Framing bit
Framing bit DS1 Frame 193 bits/frame DS0’s 24 3 2 1

24 DS0 channels (64 kbs) plus one framing bit = 24 channels X 8 bits/channel + 1 framing bit = 193 bits/frame. Rate per second: 193 bits/frame X 8000 frames/sec = 1,544,000 bits/sec -OR- 1.544 Mbs. Framing Bit indicates the beginning of the frame.

1 DS1 frame is:

43

Bits in a DS1 are Bi-polar
Every other ‘1’ bit is reversed in polarity
DS1 bit stream

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

1

0

1

0

1

1

0 0

1

1

0

1

0

1

1

DS0 Max bit rate = 1.544 Mbs

DS0

DS0 Max frequency = 772 kHz
44

One 24-channel frame
A DS1 has a signal going in both directions, a Transmit signal and a Receive signal
125 microseconds
Framing Bit 8-bit channel

1

24

(24x8) +1 = 193 bits/frame

1 One 8-bit channel

8

1 One 8-bit channel
45

8

One DS1 frame
RX - Receive TX - Transmit 125 microseconds 24 8-bit words +1framing bit = 193 bits 24 8-bit words = 192 bits
1 24

Framing bit (1 bit only)

1 2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Least Significant Bit
46

7-bit word

8-bit word

Uni-polar & Bi-polar Signals
Signals look different, but binary codes are the same
Uni-polar signal

1

0

1

1

0

Bi-polar signal

1

0

1

1

0

47

Line Frequency of Uni-polar and Bi-polar signals Uni-polar signal
6 times crossing reference line A
1 0 1 1 0

Bi-polar signal B

3 times crossing reference line

1

0

1

1

0 48

‘B’ has half the frequency of ‘A’

Bi-polar signals cut the effective frequency in half Uni-polar signal
6 times crossing reference line A
1 0 1 1 0

Bi-polar signal B

3 times crossing reference line

1

0

1

1

0 49

‘Bipolar’ has half the frequency of ‘Uni-polar’

Bi-polar Signals
Doubles digital signal distance on copper wire
Uni-polar signal

Distance

Bi-polar signal

2 times Distance

Cutting the frequency in half, doubles the distance the signal can travel

50

The Zero Problem
B8ZS - Binary 8-bit Zero Substitution
A code is substituted when all zero’s appear.
Flat line 8 zero’s
0

One 8-bit word with all ‘0’s
0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Rule: Every 8-bit word MUST have at least one ‘1-bit’ Solution: Substitute with B8ZS line encoding
8 zero’s line code
0 0 0

Bi-polar violation (by design)

1

1

0

1

1 51

Summary
• DS0 – one digitized voice channel • TDM – combines 24 voice channels into a DS1
– Mux – multiplexes DS0’s together in time into a DS1 – DeMux – de-multiplexes DS0’s from a DS1 into individual channels.

• Binary digits in a digital bit stream are bi-polar • Bi-polar signals have lower frequency & can travel further on copper wire. • B8ZS – substitutes a special code for eight zero’s.

52

DS3 Multiplexer
TDM - 28 DS1’s to 1 DS3
DS1 - 1.544 Mbs
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Multiplex : 28 DS1s to 1 DS3
DS3 - 44.736 Mbs

28 DS1’s Low-speed side

DS3 Multiplexer

High-speed side

26 27 28

De-multiplex : 1 DS3 to 28 DS1s

The pulse widths of the bits in the 28 DS1’s are ‘squeezed’ to put 53 all 28 channels on one high-speed DS3 channel.

DS3 Frame Format
24 DS0 channels for each DS1 DS1 DS1 DS1 DS1 DS1 DS1 DS1 DS1 Header

28 27 26

5

4

3 2 1

DS3 rate = 44.736 Mbit/sec
• 28 DS1 channels plus DS3 framing • 672 DS0 channels = (28 DS1’s X 24 DS0’s/DS1) • Bi-directional - TX and RX
54

DS-30
DS-30 Frame 193 bits/frame DS0’s 32 3 2 1

• Like a DS1, but with 32 channels instead of 24 channels; no framing bit used. • 30 channels voice, 2 channels control • European standard • Sometimes used by switch vendors inside digital switches
55

Bit rate
44.736 Mbs

Comparison DS0, DS1, DS3

DS3
28 DS1’s

2.048 Mbs 1.544 Mbs

DS1 24 DS0’s
DS0

DS-30 32 DS0’s

64 kbs

Digital voice
56

• Switching

Central Office

– Lines, Trunks

• Transmission
– connection between offices – special circuits – most anything else

• Switching & Transmission are blending together
57

Lines versus Trunks
Trunk - connection from office-to-office
Telephone Office

Telephone Office

Line - access from customer to the network

Line

1 Trunk = one 2-path digital voice circuit = 1 DS0 Transmit & Receive on two separate facility paths

1 Line = one 1-path voice circuit Transmit & Receive on 1 cable pair - analog or digital connection
58

Signaling
Signaling is the process by which two or more telephone offices communicate between each other to setup and take down a telephone call.

Telephone Office

Telephone Office

Line

Line
59

In-band Signaling from Telephone office to Telephone office
A
Line

B
Trunk
Telephone Office
Line

Telephone Office

A informs B of incoming call. B checks line for on-hook or off-hook condition. B informs A of status of line. B applies ringing to the line. When phone answers, voice path is created between A & B. If off-hook, a busy tone is sent from B to A. 60 When a phone is again on-hook, path is dropped.

Signaling Calling-office to Called-office
Line

Telephone Office

Telephone Office

Line

Digital Trunk - DS0

Robbed-bit Signaling is used to transfer signaling information from calling-office to called-office. Ex. when calling-phone goes off hook; sending dialed digits.
61

Signaling Called-office back to Calling-office
Line

Telephone Office

Telephone Office

Line

Digital Trunk - DS0

Robbed-bit Signaling is used to transfer signaling information back from called-office to calling-office. Ex. When called-phone answers, or hangs up.
62

Robbed-Bit Signaling in DS1
Every 6th frame is robbed of the least significant bit in all channels
A frame
1

Bit is used for signaling, not voice.
6 12 18 24

DS1 – 24 frames shown
Dot is robbed-bit channel
193 bit frame
1

193 bit frame
24
1

Channels

Channels

24

1

8

1

8

1

8

1

63

8

Robbed-bit Signaling 56 kbs - Computer to Computer
Telephone Office
Line

Telephone Office
Line

Digital Trunk - DS0

Robbed-bit Signaling limits the maximum digital bit rate to 56 kbs (DS0=64 kbs).
64

SS7 Signaling - Signaling System 7 Out-of-band signaling
SS7 Signaling uses a separate
data paths to send call setup information from the calling office to the called office. Big City STP data paths Voice path - Trunk Really Big City SCP database

This Town

That Town

Line

Host Office SSP

Host Office SSP

Line

SSP - Signal Service Point - local office STP - Signal Transfer Point - one per regional area SCP - Signal Control Point - database for customer info

SS7 is implemented nationally & regionally and is required for advanced features such as caller id, etc.

65

Summary
• Lines – many one-path circuits • Trunks – fewer two-path circuits • Signaling is used for telephone offices to communicate so a telephone call can be set up and taken down. • Robbed-bit signaling is an in-band signal system that uses the least significant bit in a DS0 trunk to send signaling between offices. • SS7 is an out-of-band signaling system with advanced features.
66

DS1 Superframe
One frame - 193 bits
1

DS1 Superframe – 12 frames
6 12

Framing bit at beginning of frame before first 8-bit word
1

193 bit frame
1 24

8

1

8

Superframe = 12 frames grouped together

67

DS1 Extended Superframe ESF
Extended Superframe = 24 frames grouped together
One frame (193 bits)
1 6 12 18 24

DS1 ESF = 24 frames
Framing bits – 1st bit in each frame - Framing bits of 24 frames = virtual 8000 bits/second channel – just like a DS0. ‘Framing Channel’ used to send call setup information without ‘Robbing bits’ from the bit stream. This allows the entire 64 kbs bandwidth in each DS0 voice channel to send voice information. Also, the Framing Channel sends error checking codes & information about the status of the facility.
68

ISDN - Integrated Subscriber Digital Network
Telephone Office

1 cable pair

Digital Line

• all digital connection from telco to phone • higher quality voice circuits • high speed data lines
69

ISDN BRI - Basic Rate Interface
2 digital voice channels
Network Termination 1 ISDN line card in line bay or channel bank

Entire 64 kbs channel used for voice.

ISDN phone

BRI

2B + D = 160 kbs Local 2-wire loop

NT1

1 Bearer channel 64 kbs 1 Bearer channel 64 kbs

Digital 1-path circuit
Demarcation

ISDN phone
Customer Premise
70

Telephone office and local loop

ISDN BRI - Basic Rate Interface
One 128 kbs channel
ISDN line card in line bay or channel bank

BRI

2B + D = 160 kbs Local 2-wire loop

2 Bearer channels 128 kbs

NT1
Network Termination 1

Digital 1-path circuit

demarcation

Telephone office and local loop

Customer Premise

71

ISDN BRI
BRI - Basic Rate Interface – all digital circuit
D 2B Overhead
16 kbs

64 kbs 64 kbs
16 kbs

160 kbs channel

2B + D - 2 Bearer channels (2 DS0’S)

- 64kb each (voice or data)

1 Data channel - 16kb plus 1 overhead channel for signaling - 16 kb

BRI = 2 x 64kb + 16kb + 16kb = 160kb/sec
72

ISDN PRI - Primary Rate Interface
• DS1 format, but channels are - 23B + D = 24 channels • 23 Bearer channels – 23 DS0’s - 64 kbs each (voice or data) PRI = 23B + D • 1 data channel - 64kbit – 1 DS0
1.544 Mbs DS1 rate
125 microseconds
8-bit, 64 kbs channels

1

24

Framing Bit

BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBD

73

Internet Service Provider (ISP)

PRI Trunking
ISDN BRI Line Internet connection

Telephone Office

Telephone Office

PRI – DS1

PRI – DS1

2B + D

PRI, a DS1, uses each entire 64 kbs DS0 channel for information. Signaling information is sent via the Data channel & ESF. Allows for clear channel data transfer – ALL 8 bits in each DS0. No Robbed-bit signaling is used.
74

Summary
• ISDN BRI – Basic Rate Interface
– – – – 2B+D - 2 ‘Bearer’ channels, 1 Data channel Full 64,000 bits/sec – no robbed bits Higher quality, all digital phone lines Used also for data connections.

• ISDN PRI – 23B+D
– DS1 with 23 full 64kbs rate channels – Used by Internet Service providers for higher speed connections and ISDN connections.
75

Central Office Layout
Digital switch DCS 1/0
DS1

ISDN
DS1 DS1

2B + D BRI

Outside Plant cables

D4 Channel Bank

VF signal

DS1

DSX-1 DSX-1 DSX-1
DS1 DS3

DS1 DS1

HDSL

HDSL DS1

M D F

DS1 line termination shelf
Fiber Optic System

Span powered DS1 (T1) OSP fiber cable

M13 Mux

coaxial cable

DSX-3 DSX-3

DS3 coaxial cable

LGX
fiber jumpers 76

Main Distribution Frame – C.O.
- 2 sided frame
Vertical side - cable protectors Horizontal side - line blocks
Vertical side
77

Horizontal side

Main Distribution Frame Vertical side - pair protection
Protectors - termination of cable pairs - may also have blocks

78

Main Distribution Frame in a typical central office
• Pair Protection
– Protectors
• terminate the outside plant pair • provide lightning protection on the pair

– Blocks
• terminate the lines from the equipment • wired out to a cross connect cabinet
Protector Terminal block
Equipment cabling

Copper pairs in outside plant cable

Line equip. jumper

Line Equipment Bay
79

Vertical side – Cosmic frame

80

Main Distribution Frame cable pair protector (connector)
- 100-pair termination
of cable pairs - lightning protection; sends lightning surge to the c.o. ground field
Protector module (solid state)
81

Main Frame Cable pair protector
- jumpers to line circuits of telephone switch.

82

Main Frame Horizontal side
Blocks - termination
of line circuits

83

Blocks on Main Distribution Frame

84

Blocks – Cosmic frame

85

‘Tipping’ cables from frame to vault

86

Vault – Splice Closures
- connects ‘tipping’ cable to

outside plant cable

87

Summary
• Main Distribution Frame terminates all voice grade connections in a telephone office.
– Outside Plant cables – Line cables – Special circuits

• Pair protection – each cable pair is grounded if a lightning surge occurs.
88

Central Office Functional Layout
Digital switch DCS 1/0
DS1

ISDN
DS1 DS1

2B + D BRI

Outside Plant cables

D4 Channel Bank

VF signal

DS1

DSX-1 DSX-1 DSX-1
DS1 DS3

DS1 DS1

HDSL

HDSL DS1

M D F

DS1 line termination shelf
Fiber Optic System

Span powered DS1 (T1) OSP fiber cable

M13 Mux

coaxial cable

DSX-3 DSX-3

DS3 coaxial cable

LGX
fiber jumpers 89

DSX-1 Cross-connect Connecting DS1 circuits
between equipment
30-pair high-frequency cabling from equipment jacks DS1
Terminates DS1’s from equipment Light
LED MON OUT IN

30-pair high-frequency cabling from equipment jacks
LED MON OUT IN

Bantam patch cord (dual)

DS1
Terminates DS1’s from equipment

DSX-1 module

5-wire jumper (flipped over)

DSX-1 module
90

DSX-1 Bays
Terminations for DS1’s Cross-connects to other DS1’s

91

DSX-1 Bays

92

DSX-1 Bays 5-wire jumpers

93

DSX-1 jumpers – what NOT to do

94

Central Office Layout
Digital switch DCS 1/0
DS1

ISDN
DS1 DS1

2B + D BRI

Outside Plant cables

D4 Channel Bank

VF signal

DS1

DSX-1 DSX-1 DSX-1
DS1 DS3

DS1 DS1

HDSL

HDSL DS1

M D F

DS1 line termination shelf
Fiber Optic System

Span powered DS1 (T1) OSP fiber cable

M13 Mux

coaxial cable

DSX-3 DSX-3

DS3 coaxial cable

LGX
fiber jumpers 95

D4 Channel Bank
A/D, D/A conversion + TDM
24 Voice Frequency circuits A/D, D/A 24 DS0’s

TDM

1

24 Voice channels
24

D4 channel bank

• Aggregates many low speed circuits into one 1 DS1 high speed circuit for transport • 24 low speed circuits 1 DS1 - converted to 64kbit/sec – DS0 • 1 DS1 high speed side - 1.544 Mbit/sec
96

Low-speed side

High-speed side

D4 channel 12 channels bank Common cards
for one di-group

Alcatel (Charles Ind.)

12 channels

- dual di-group - two - 24 channels - common cards in the middle of each di-group (digital group)

97

D4 bank to D4 bank
Office ‘A’
1

Office ‘B’ DS1
1

24 Voice channels

D4 channel bank
24

D4 channel bank
24

24 Voice channels

98

Nortel D4
- dual di-group - two - 24 channels - common cards on right side of shelf
99

Dual Ringing Generators

100

Summary
• DSX-1 jacks – terminating DS1 cables, providing cross-connections between DS1 circuits. • D4 Bank – Combines 24 incoming voice channels into 1 DS1 output. 24 Low-speed VF – A/D, D/A – TDM – High-speed DS1.

101

Special Circuits
Voice Grade:
– FX - Foreign exchange historically most popular special circuit used for extending dial tone from another office
Local office – Austin, TX
DS1

Foreign Dial tone office – Washington, DC
DS1

Network Line Channel Banks
102

Special Circuits
Voice Grade:
E & M - Ear & Mouth - used for trunk circuits in electromechanical offices.
Analog trunks
DS1

Analog trunks

Channel Banks
103

Special Circuits
Analog Data: - ETO - Equalized Transmission Only used mainly for sending analog data
• on/off condition • real-time measurements, etc. • utility company circuits
Channel Banks
DS1
104

Data center

Special Circuits
Digital Data:
- Data rates 64 kbs or less (1 DS0 or less)
• 2.4 kbs, 4.8 kbs, 9.6 kbs, 19.2 kbs, 56 kbs, 64 kbs

- Fractional T1 - data rate multiples of 64 kbs • 128 - 384 kbs (2-6 DS0’s) - operates at a DS1 rate, but with only the DS0’s used turned on. Typically used with Frame Relay circuits.
Channel Banks Digital data
DS1

Digital data

105

Special Circuits
ISDN - Integrated Services Digital Network
– digital connection from telco to phone – 3 DS0's per low speed circuit – 3 slots used.
• ISDN card occupies one slot in channel bank, but the 2nd & 3rd slots are unusable for anything else. • 2 ‘Slot-Blocker’ cards are used to prevent other cards from being placed in the 2nd & 3rd slots.

– 8 ISDN channels MAX per D4 bank or di-group. Channel bank Channel bank
ISDN circuit DS1 3 DS0’s used
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

ISDN circuit

Slots in channel bank

106

Central Office Layout
Digital switch DCS 1/0
DS1

ISDN
DS1 DS1

2B + D BRI

Outside Plant cables

D4 Channel Bank

VF signal

DS1

DSX-1 DSX-1 DSX-1
DS1 DS3

DS1 DS1

HDSL

HDSL DS1

M D F

DS1 line termination shelf
Fiber Optic System

Span powered DS1 (T1) OSP fiber cable

M13 Mux

coaxial cable

DSX-3 DSX-3

DS3 coaxial cable

LGX
fiber jumpers 107

ISDN Channel Bank
Office ‘A’ DS1
ISDN channel bank ISDN channel bank

Office ‘B’

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

• 3 DS0’s per physical slot • Only 8 physical slots, not 24 channels • Can interface another ISDN bank, D4 or DACS
108

Adtran BR1/10 ISDN dual-channel banks - two di-groups (digital groups) per shelf.

109

Summary
• Special Circuits:
– – – – – Foreign Exchange – dial tone from a different c.o. E & M – Ear & Mouth – analog trunks ETO – Equalized Transmission Only – analog data. Digital Data – data rates from 2.4 kbs to 64 kbs. ISDN in channel bank uses 3 slots.

• ISDN Banks have 8 channels per di-group.
110

Central Office Layout
Digital switch DCS 1/0
DS1

ISDN
DS1 DS1

2B + D BRI

Outside Plant cables

D4 Channel Bank

VF signal

DS1

DSX-1 DSX-1 DSX-1
DS1 DS3

DS1 DS1

HDSL

HDSL DS1

M D F

DS1 line termination shelf
Fiber Optic System

Span powered DS1 (T1) OSP fiber cable

M13 Mux

coaxial cable

DSX-3 DSX-3

DS3 coaxial cable

LGX
fiber jumpers 111

DCS
– Digital Cross-connect System
• Partial elimination of channel banks • Device to access the DS0’s in a DS1 bit stream, while keeping the circuits all digital • No analog to digital conversion necessary. • Facilitates a cost-effective management of special circuits in an office. DS1 • Higher quality circuits DS1
DS1

DACS

DS1

DS1

DS1

112

DCS Digital Cross-connect System
24 DS0’s each DS1

DACS
DS1 DS1 DS1 DS1 DS1
113

DS1

DS0 cross-connects

Why have a DCS?
Before DCS: Back-to-Back D4’s
VF circuits D4 Channel Bank Jumpers VF circuits D4 Channel Bank DS1 DS1

DS1

D4 Channel Bank

D4 Channel Bank

DS1

DS1

D4 Channel Bank

D4 Channel Bank

DS1

Main Distribution Frame

114

DCS - 1/0
DS1 input / DS0 cross-connect Back-to-Back D4 elimination
Port cards

DS1 DS1 DS1 DS1

DACS 1/0

Permanently connected ‘virtual’ cross-connected DS1 DS0 circuits.

DS1 DS1
DS0 cross-connects in matrix
D4 Channel Bank
. . . .

DS0 cross connects in 1/0 DACS

D4 bank for local circuits.

115

Digital Cross-connect System
Unit shelves & Matrix
Unit Shelves 28 DS1’s 28 DS1’s 28 DS1’s 28 DS1’s Unit Shelves

Matrix
28 DS1’s

28 DS1’s

DS0 cross-connects in matrix DS1 input / DS0 cross-connect

28 DS1’s

Inter-shelf bus
116

DSC - ALCATEL DEXCS Bay layout
Fuse Panel Fuse Panel
Fuse Panel Fuse Panel Fuse Panel

Filler Panel Admin Shelf Disk Drive Matrix Shelf

DS1 Unit Shelf DS1 Unit Shelf

DS1 Unit Shelf DS1 Unit Shelf DS1 Unit Shelf DS1 Unit Shelf

DS1 Unit Shelf DS1 Unit Shelf

Unit Bay Expansions to 5,376 DS1s

Admin and/or Matrix Bay

DS1 Unit Bay

DS1 Unit Bay

Dual, on-line matrices and dual data paths for full circuit protection Fully distributed A and B power feeds Dual power supply architecture Single DS1 per port card Distributed processing 117

Alcatel DS1 Unit Bay
1 DS1 per port card
28 ports per unit shelf

28 ports per unit shelf

28 ports per unit shelf

28 ports per unit shelf

112 ports per bay

118

Alcatel
DEXCS 1/0 Bay lineup
Unit bays Matrix bay Admin bay
119

Alcatel DEXCS Unit Shelf
28 DS1 Ports per shelf
Unit cards ( 28 1-DS1 cards )

Power Supply card

Controller cards Power Supply card

120

Alcatel Narrowband DEXCS sizes - matrix Size
• CS1S - 84 DS1's - small • CS1 - 336 DS1's - medium • CS1L - 1544 DS1's - large • CS1VL - 5376 DS1's - very large
121 Fuse Panel
Filler Panel Admin Shelf Disk Drive Matrix Shelf

Digital Cross-connect Systems Functional types – Generic terms
• Narrowband - 1 / 0
– DS1 input, DS0 cross-connect

• Wideband - 3 / 1
– DS3 & DS1 input, DS1 cross-connect

• Broadband - 3 / 3 / fiber
– DS3 & fiber optic input, DS3 cross-connect

122

Summary
• 1/0 DCS – DS1 input, DS0 cross-connect • DCS accesses all DS0’s in a DS1 bit stream, while keeping the circuits digital; no A/D conversion • reduces the need for back-to-back channel banks for ‘through’ circuits. • Saves on equipment quantity and cost, keeps quality of signal high. • Easier to add, delete, & manage circuits.
123

Central Office Concepts Overview Part Two
• • • • • • • • • • T1 Span lines, HDSL M13 Multiplexer Introduction to Fiber Systems Fiber Cable Termination – LGX Broadband DCS Digital Loop Carrier ADSL Timing - BITS Clock Power - AC/DC, Batteries, Generator Grounding - protection from lightning, etc.

124

Central Office Layout
DCS Digital switch
DS1

ISDN
DS1 DS1

2B + D BRI

Outside Plant cables

D4 Channel Bank

VF signal

DS1

DSX-1 DSX-1 DSX-1
DS1 DS3

DS1 DS1

HDSL

HDSL DS1

M D F

DS1 line termination shelf
Fiber Optic System

Span powered DS1 (T1) OSP fiber cable

M13 Mux

coaxial cable

DSX-3 DSX-3

DS3 coaxial cable

LGX
fiber jumpers 125

Hi-Cap
High Capacity Line – DS1 to Customer
DS1 Frame Framing bit DS0’s 1 2 3 24 Business or Industry DS1 193 bits/frame

Telephone Office

• Various services can be carried on a hi-cap circuit: PBX trunks (voice), Frame Relay, ATM, ISDN PRI, video, etc. • Hi-caps can connect directly to local telco network or 126 pass through to another carrier.

Max bit rate = 1.544 Mbs Max frequency = 772 kHz
+ 5 Volts 0 Volts - 5 Volts

DS1 versus T1
Limitation of 400 ft in an office.

DS1 - low voltage levels, typically 5-12 volts.

T1 - has added DC power component
used to power line repeaters.
+135 Volts +130 Volts +125 Volts

0 Volts

DC power component added
127

Central Office Layout
Digital switch DCS 1/0
DS1

ISDN
DS1 DS1

2B + D BRI

Outside Plant cables

D4 Channel Bank

VF signal

DS1

DSX-1 DSX-1 DSX-1
DS1 DS3

DS1 DS1

HDSL

HDSL DS1

M D F

DS1 line termination shelf
Fiber Optic System

Span powered DS1 (T1) OSP fiber cable

M13 Mux

coaxial cable

DSX-3 DSX-3

DS3 coaxial cable

LGX
fiber jumpers 128

Line Termination Shelf
(span shelf)
12-slot shelf
Two 12-pair Shielded Cables Two 12-pair Shielded Cables

D S X 1

Wired to DSX-1 jacks
C.O. repeater cards

To cable pairs

Wired to block On MDF to access cable pairs
129

T1 Repeater Housing
Telephone pole 12 - Position 25 - Position 50 - Position Housings

Aerial or Buried Cable Local Cable or Toll Cable (T-Screen)

From previous repeater housing

To next repeater housing
130

Span line repeater housing regeneration of signal
Pulse degenerates into: Repeater makes a new pulse:

Line repeater card

From previous repeater housing

To next repeater housing
131

New Pulse Generation symbols
One pair in and out

Side 1

Side 2
Repeater makes a new pulse in each direction
132

Repeater Housing Symbol
Side 1

Side 2
133

T1 Repeatered Span Line
Central Office ‘A’ Line Termination Shelf C.O. repeater Repeater Housings
Line Repeater, 12, 25, 50 slots

Central Office ‘B’ Line Termination Shelf

Outside plant copper cable
134

T1 Span Line - Schematic
DC power component added to signal to power repeater housings - see slide ‘DS1 vs. T1’ DS1 in Office A T1 signal (DC powered DS1)

Spacing Between Housings - 3000-5000 feet
Office B DS1 out

DS1 out

C.O. Repeater

DS1 in

Line termination shelf

T1 Repeaters

Line termination shelf
135

Typically, no new T1 span lines are placed, except in rural areas.

Central Office Layout
Digital switch DCS 1/0
DS1

ISDN
DS1 DS1

2B + D BRI

Outside Plant cables

D4 Channel Bank

VF signal

DS1

DSX-1 DSX-1 DSX-1
DS1 DS3

DS1 DS1

HDSL

HDSL DS1

M D F

DS1 line termination shelf
Fiber Optic System

Span powered DS1 (T1) OSP fiber cable

M13 Mux

coaxial cable

DSX-3 DSX-3

DS3 coaxial cable

LGX
fiber jumpers 136

HDSL
High-bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line
Delivers DS1’s to remotes, DS1’s for customer high-caps WITHOUT a repeater up to 12,000 feet.
Central Office HDSL No repeater housings

Remote / Customer Premise HDSL

Up to 12,000 feet

137

HDSL
01 00
• 2B1Q - 2 binary, 1 Quaternary • Two Binary digits per pulse • 4 Pulse levels • cuts line frequency in half from T1 HDSL=384 kHz; T1=772 kHz

Distances up to 12,000 without a repeater.

10 11
138

HDSL shelf & wiring
H D S L C N T R L H T U R H T U R H T U R H T U R H T U R H T U R H T U R H T U R H T U R H T U R H T U R H T U R H T U R

12-pair high-frequency cabling to DSX-1 jacks

12-pair high-frequency cabling to main distribution frame
139

HDSL shelf
Two 12-pair Shielded Cables

13-slot shelf

Two 12-pair Shielded Cables

To cable pairs

D S X 1

MDF Block

Wired to DSX-1 jacks

HTU-C cards

HDSL controller card

Wired to block on MDF to access cable pairs
140

HDSL
Central Office
DS0 DS0

HTU-C & HTU-R
DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0

Customer Premise
DS0 DS0

DS1

HTU-C

2-wire circuit

12 DS0’s

HTU-R

DS1
2-wire circuit 12 DS0’s

DS0

DS0

DS0

DS0

DS0

DS0

DS0

DS0

DS0

DS0

DS0

DS0

DS0

DS0

DS0

DS0

DS0

DS0

DS0

DS0

DS0

DS0

DS0

DS0

HTU-C - HDSL Terminating Unit - Central Office HTU-R - HDSL Terminating Unit - Remote Up to 12,000 feet
141

HDSL Repeater
doubles the distance
HTU-C
2-wire circuit

HDSL Repeater
12 DS0’s 2-wire circuit 12 DS0’s

HTU-R

DS1
2-wire circuit 12 DS0’s 2-wire circuit 12 DS0’s

DS1

12,000 feet

12,000 feet

Central Office

Customer Premise

Two HDSL repeaters may be used to go 36,000 feet
142

Fractional T1 (Fractional DS1)
• DS1 rate, but with only a portion of the 24 DS0’s carrying traffic - can be delivered via a T1 span line or HDSL • customer wanting MORE than ONE 64Kbps channel • typically 2-6 DS0's - rate - 128kbps to 384kpbs • Can be provisioned on one pair
6 DS0’s shown

24

6

1

Framing bit (1 bit only) 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

24 8-bit words +1framing bit = 193 bits
143

Fractional T1 over HDSL
Fractional DS1 (6-DS0) 2-wire circuit
Central Office
12 1
DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0

Customer Premise
12
DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0

6
DS0 DS0 DS0

6
DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0

1
DS0

High-speed side

Low-speed side D4 bank

DS0

2-wire circuit, 2-6 DS0’s, 12 max
HTU-C HTU-R

DS1
4-wire circuit

LC

Only one pair required Up to 12,000 feet

Customer’s Equipment

MDF

6 DS0’s in D4 bank
1
DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0

Fractional T1 with 6 DS0’s carrying traffic
DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0

24
DS0

DS0

DS0

DS0

DS0

DS0

DS0

DS0

DS0

DS0

DS0

DS0

DS0

DS0

DS0

DS0

DS0

DS0

DS0

24

1

144

Summary
• Hi-cap – DS1 to customer • T1 span line – transports DS1’s on copper cable facilities from one office to another; uses T1 repeater housings 3000-5000 feet apart. • HDSL – transports DS1’s on copper cable facilities up to 12,000 feet without a repeater housing.
145

Central Office Layout
Digital switch DCS 1/0
DS1

ISDN
DS1 DS1

2B + D BRI

Outside Plant cables

D4 Channel Bank

VF signal

DS1

DSX-1 DSX-1 DSX-1
DS1 DS3

DS1 DS1

HDSL

HDSL DS1

M D F

DS1 line termination shelf
Fiber Optic System

Span powered DS1 (T1) OSP fiber cable

M13 Mux

coaxial cable

DSX-3 DSX-3

DS3 coaxial cable

LGX
fiber jumpers 146

DSX-3 Cross-Connect
- connecting DS3 circuits between equipment
coaxial cabling Rear from fiber optic terminal DS3
Light
MON IN OUT I-X O-X

Front

Front

Rear coaxial cabling
MON IN OUT I-X O-X

From M13 mux DS3

jacks

Patch cords

jacks

DSX-3 module

DSX-3 module

Cables flipped over

cross-connect cables (backside of modules)
147

DSX-3 Bay – front

148

DSX-3 Lineup

149

DSX-3 BayRear View - equipment termination - cross-connect cables
150

Coaxial Terminations

151

Central Office Layout
Digital switch DCS 1/0
DS1

ISDN
DS1 DS1

2B + D BRI

Outside Plant cables

D4 Channel Bank

VF signal

DS1

DSX-1 DSX-1 DSX-1
DS1 DS3

DS1 DS1

HDSL

HDSL DS1

M D F

DS1 line termination shelf
Fiber Optic System

Span powered DS1 (T1) OSP fiber cable

M13 Mux

coaxial cable

DSX-3 DSX-3

DS3 coaxial cable

LGX
fiber jumpers 152

M13 Asynchronous Multiplexer
• 28 DS1's multiplex up to 1 DS3 • typically use Nortel DMT-300 mux or Telco Systems RC-28D

DS1
1
to DSX-1 jacks

. . . . . .

M13 Multiplexer

DS3

28

to DSX-3 jacks

153

Nortel DMT-300 M13 multiplexer
4 drawers per shelf
30-pair High-frequency Cabling for 28 DS1 terminations coaxial cables for DS3 terminations

Multiplexer (mux) drawer

empty slot

154

Telco 828 M13 multiplexer

155

NEC RC-28D M13 Multiplexer

156

Central Office Layout
Digital switch DCS 1/0
DS1

ISDN
DS1 DS1

2B + D BRI

Outside Plant cables

D4 Channel Bank

VF signal

DS1

DSX-1 DSX-1 DSX-1
DS1 DS3

DS1 DS1

HDSL

HDSL DS1

M D F

DS1 line termination shelf
Fiber Optic System

Span powered DS1 (T1) OSP fiber cable

M13 Mux

coaxial cable

DSX-3 DSX-3

DS3 coaxial cable

LGX
fiber jumpers 157

Fiber System - Async Fundamental structure
DS3
D S X 3
. . . .

working Fiber Optic Terminal Tx Rx Tx Rx protection
158

DS3

Fiber optic system interoffice components
Point-to-Point configuration
Office A
D S X 3
DS3’s

Office B
DS3’s

Fiber Optic Terminal FOT

L G X Outside plant fiber cable

L G X

Fiber Optic Terminal FOT

D S X 3

Inside plant ‘mic’ cable

Fiber termination panel Fiber optic 159 splice closure

Basic Fiber Optic Terminal
Simplified block diagram
To DSX-3 panels 45 Mb/s DS3 #1 DS3 #2 Tx or In DS3 #3 Rx or Out Low-speed side, or Equipment side
D S 3 D S 3 D S 3

135 Mb/s M U X
D E M U X
X C V R X C V R

To outside plant fiber facilities working Light – 1300 nm wavelength protection High-speed side, or Facility side
160

3-DS3 Fiber Optic Terminal

FD-565 Fiber Optic Terminal
Power supplies Fiber jumper slack storage Controller card Working side Optics cards (Tx, Rx, Mux, Demux) Coaxial termination Protection side Optics cards
161

DS3 interface cards

Transmit card

Receive card

Multiplexing Hierarchy & wiring
DS0 channel 1

64 Kbs

DS0 channel 24

D4 Channel bank

1.544 Mbs
DS1 #1

45.736 Mbs
DS3

M13 mux
DS1 #28

Fiber Optic Terminal FOT

25-pair 24-gauge voice frequency cable

30-pair 24-gauge shielded cable

Fibers to next office Coaxial cable
162

DS1, DS3, SONET T-Berd Acterna Products - formerly TTC

Test Equipment

163

Mux, DSX-3, & F.O.T. connections
DS1

coaxial cross-connect cords
DS3

M13 MUX Highfrequency cabling

DS3

coaxial cable DSX-3 PANEL

. . . DS3

Fiber Optic Terminal

working

Tx Rx Tx Rx

coaxial DSX-3 cable PANEL

protection
To fiber termination panel

164

Summary
• DSX-3 jacks - terminating DS3 cables, providing cross-connections between DS3 circuits. Connects to M13 muxes & FOT’s. • M13 Multiplexer – TDM device combining 28 DS1’s into one DS3. • Fiber Optic Terminal – TDM device combining lower speed DS3 (and DS1) circuits together into a high speed circuit. This high speed circuit is converted into light pulses and connected to a fiber cable.
165

SONET
Synchronous Optical NETwork
• SONET is a standard for synchronous data transmission on fiber optic equipment. • STS-1 Synchronous Transport Signal rate 1. - fundamental bit rate within SONET hierarchy. • SONET rate = 51.840 Mbs. When transmitted via light, called Optical Carrier rate 1, or OC-1. • STS-1 typically is a DS3 signal within a SONET frame.
SONET Frame DS1 DS1 DS1 28 27 26
DS1 DS1 DS1 DS1 DS1 DS1 DS1 Header

5

4

3

2

1

DS3

166

Synchronous Transport Signal Rate - 1 Optical Carrier - Rate 1
Transport Overhead

SONET Frame

STS-1 – electrical, OC-1 - optical
90 Columns 87 Columns

9 Rows

8-bit word

Payload

8-bit word

Frame Rate=9 Rows X 90 Columns X 8 bits/sec X 8000 frames/sec = 51.84 Mbs Payload = 50.112 Mbs, Transport Overhead = 1.728 Mbs 167

SONET
Advantages: • Mix and match fiber vendors on same span. • Since the SONET bit streams are byteinterleaved and timed from a common, stable clock source, the individual lowerrate bit streams can be accessed without demultiplexing the entire bit stream.
Vendor “A”
. . . . .. ..

Vendor “B”
SONET Fiber Optic System
. . . . . . . . . .

.

SONET Fiber Optic System

DS3

DS3

168

SONET Hierarchy & Rates
# DS3's 1 3 12 48 192 SONET STS-1 STS-3 STS-12 STS-48 STS-192 OPTICAL OC-1 OC-3 OC-12 OC-48 OC-192 Rate 51.84 Mbs 155 Mbs 622 Mbs 2488 Mbs - 2.4 Gbs 9953 Mbs - 9.9 Gbs Capacity - DS1's 28 DS1's 84 DS1's 336 DS1's 1344 DS1's 5376 DS1's

DS3
169

. .. .. .

.

SONET Fiber Optic System

Lucent DDM-2000 OC-3 shelf Transceiver cards
Timing Cards

Processor cards

DS1 Interface cards – Group A 28 DS1’s Group B - empty Group C - empty

Drop down door
170

SONET Fiber Optic System
Synchronous Optical NETwork – OC12
Transceiver cards

Operational Controller OPC

Timing cards

Processor card DS3 or DS1 Interface cards Fan shelf
171

Fujitsu FLM-150 Fiber Shelf

172

SONET Rings
UPSR - Uni-directional Path Switched Ring
OC-12 UPSR Ring Number of available STS-1’s = rated capacity of system (N) 12 STS-1’s maximum available around the ring. DS3’s
C O N T R O L P M M R A A O O S O P P C C W P P T P P I O O . E E 12 12 T W W M R R X X C E E A 14 14 C C H R R P D D V V E P S- SR R R E 1' 1' R S S

A

M A P P E R 14 D S1' S

M A P P E R 14 D S1' S

M A P P E R 14 D S1' S

M A P P E R 14 D S1' S

T I M I N G

C O N T R O L

P M M R A A O O S O P P C C W P P T P P I O O . E E 12 12 T W W M R R X X C E E A 14 14 C C H R R P D D V V E P S- SR R R E 1' 1' R S S

B B

M A P P E R 14 D S1' S

M A P P E R 14 D S1' S

M A P P E R 14 D S1' S

M A P P E R 14 D S1' S

DS3’s
T I M I N G

Example: A-B - Ch.1 working B-C-A - Ch.1 protection X – where DS3 interfaces the ring.

12 STS-1’s
P M M R A A O O S O P P C C W P P T P P I O O . E E 12 12 T W W M R R X X C E E A 14 14 C C H R R P D D V V E P S- SR R R E 1' 1' R S S

C O N T R O L

C

M A P P E R 14 D S1' S

M A P P E R 14 D S1' S

M A P P E R 14 D S1' S

M A P P E R 14 D S1' S

T I M I N G

DS3’s

173

SONET Rings
BLSR –Bi-directional Line Switched Ring
Number of available STS-1’s = N/2 * number of nodes

Each segment is has ½ working STS-1’s and ½ protection STS-1’s
½ STS-1’s working & ½ STS-1’s protection DS3’s
C O N T R O L M M P R A A S O O O P P W C C P P P P T I O O . E E T 12 12 W W R R M X X C E E 14 14 A H C C R R P D D E V V S- SP R R R 1' 1' E R S S

A

A

M A P P E R 14 D S1' S

M A P P E R 14 D S1' S

M A P P E R 14 D S1' S

M A P P E R 14 D S1' S

T I M I N G

OC-12 BLSR Ring 6 STS-1’s available in each segment.

C O N T R O L

P M M R A A O O S O P P C C W P P T P P I O O . E E 12 12 T W W M R R X X C E E A 14 14 C C H R R P D D V V E P S- SR R R E 1' 1' R S S

B

B

M A P P E R 14 D S1' S

M A P P E R 14 D S1' S

M A P P E R 14 D S1' S

M A P P E R 14 D S1' S

DS3’s
T I M I N G

½ STS-1’s working, ½ STS-1’s protection

C O N T R O L

P M M R A A O O S O P P C C W P P T P P I O O . E E 12 12 T W W M R R X X C E E A 14 14 C C H R R P D D V V E P S- SR R R E 1' 1' R S S

C C

M A P P E R 14 D S1' S

M A P P E R 14 D S1' S

M A P P E R 14 D S1' S

M A P P E R 14 D S1' S

T I M I N G

½ STS-1’s working, ½ STS-1’s protection
DS3’s
174

Summary
• SONET – standard format for fiber optic equipment. • Accesses bits in the bit stream without de-multiplexing the entire bit stream. • Allows concatenation of signals together for higher speeds. • Equipment must be synchronized or timed together.
175

Fiber Cable Termination
OSP cable - closure - fiber panel
Fiber closure fiber connector panel

Outside Plant fiber cable

Inside Plant fiber cable (mic cable)
176

LGX Light Guide Cross-Connect
Fiber connectors

6-pack Bulkhead connector - mates to fiber optic connector

Pigtail (or jumper) Fiber optic connector
177

Fiber optic connectors
Bulkhead connector in termination shelf Fiber optic connector

Fiber optic pigtail

facility side

Mated together in fiber termination shelf

Fiber optic jumper

equipment side
178

Fiber Optical connectors

ST
Most commonly used in telephony

SC

FC
Used in video applications

Biconic
Older type, not being placed in new systems
179

Fiber Termination Bays - Lucent
LGX – Light Guide Cross-connect also called, OSX - Optical Signal Cross-connect Facility-side bay & | equipment-side bay
180

Fiber Termination Bay - ADC

Fiber termination panel – jumpers slide out to side
181

Fiber termination shelves
Fiber pigtail (72 in bundle) Connectors (72 per shelf) Fiber jumpers

Fiber termination shelf Designation strip

182

OCEF Optical Cable Entrance Facility

MIC cable from LGX bay

183

Fiber Jumper Inter-connect
Fiber closure LGX panel Fiber Optic Terminal Outside Plant Fiber MIC cable - terminates on back of LGX panel Fiber Jumper - connects to front of LGX panel
184

Fiber Jumper Connections Inter-connect
Fiber optic connectors

Fiber closure

LGX panel – top view

Equipment Jumpers (4)

MIC cable 12-, 24-, 72-fiber, etc.

Fiber Optic Terminal

185

Fiber Jumper cross-connect
LGX panel facility side LGX panel equipment side

Fiber closure

Fiber Optic Terminal

mic cable - terminates on back of LGX panel

Fiber X-C Jumper - terminates on front

Fiber equipment Jumper - terminates on rear

186

Fiber Jumper Connections Cross-connect
LGX panel facility-side Fiber closure LGX panel equipment-side
Equipment Jumpers (4)

Fiber Optic Terminal

MIC cable 12-, 24-, 72-fiber, etc.

ST connectors

Cross-connect Jumpers (4)
187

Summary
• LGX – fiber cable & jumper termination; allows for fiber cable management. • MIC cable is fire retardant • ST & SC connectors are the most commonly used in telephony. • Inter-connect & cross-connect are both used.
188

Tracing an FX circuit through an office
Summary of circuits, signals & equipment
M13 D4 channel bank DS1 DS1 Multiplexer DS3

FX circuit

DSX-1 DSX-1
DS1

DSX-1 DSX-1
DS1

D S X 3

D S X 3

DS3

Fiber Optic Terminal

work

prot

Fiber jumpers

MDF

DS0 matrix

LGX LGX

DACS

Outside Plant fiber cable

Over network to ‘foreign exchange’ for dial tone
189

Wave Division Multiplexing WDM
WDM is used to place multiple wavelengths of light on a single fiber.

Fiber Optic Tx Terminal #1

WDM Device

WDM Device

Fiber Optic Rx Terminal #1

Office A +

Office B

Fiber Optic Tx Terminal #2

Fiber Optic Rx Terminal #2 190

Wave Division Multiplexing
Wavelengths of Light
Nanometers – nm

Wave length(s)

Lambda - λ

Fiber optic lasers traditionally operated at 1310 nm, 1550 nm. Dense Wave Division Multiplexing uses finer increments of wavelengths – 0.1 nanometers. DWDM uses wavelengths such as 1557.1, 1557.2, 1557.3, 1557.4, and higher. 191

Basic Wave Division Multiplexing
Both 1310 nm and 1550 nm light signals are on same fiber in one direction.

Office A
Fiber Optic Tx Terminal #1 Rx

Only the Working side is displayed. WDM Device WDM Device

Office B
Tx Fiber Optic Rx Terminal #1

1310 nm

λ−1

λ−1 1310 nm

WDM - passive devices, no power required

1550 nm

λ−2

Fiber Optic Tx Terminal #2 Rx

Fiber optic cable Between telephone offices

λ−2 1550 nm
Tx Fiber Optic Rx Terminal #2

Requires ONLY four fibers, NOT eight fibers.
192

Not shown are the fiber termination panels, etc.

DWDM – Four wave length system
Office A Requires only four fibers, not sixteen fibers.
F.O.T.#1 1557.1 Tx F.O.T.#2 1557.2 Tx F.O.T.#3 1557.3 Tx F.O.T.#4 1557.4 Tx

Office B
Rx F.O.T.#1 1557.1 Rx F.O.T.#2 1557.2 Rx F.O.T.#3 1557.3 Rx F.O.T.#4 1557.4

F.O.T.#1 1557.1 Rx F.O.T.#2 1557.2 Rx F.O.T.#3 1557.3 Rx F.O.T.#4 1557.4 Rx

Tx F.O.T.#1 1557.1

4-input WDM Device

4-input WDM Device

Tx F.O.T.#2 1557.2 Tx F.O.T.#3 1557.3 Tx F.O.T.#4 1557.4 193

Transmitter and receivers must be matched properly. Only the Working side is displayed.

Office A 8-input F.O.T. Transmitters WDM device
1557.1 1557.2 1557.3 1557.4 1557.5 1557.6 1557.7 1557.8

DWDM – 8 wavelength system
8-input WDM device Office B F.O.T. Receivers
1557.1 1557.2 1557.3 1557.4 1557.5 1557.6 1557.7 1557.8 Requires only four fibers, not thirty-two fibers.

Only one direction of the working sides shown.

194

Summary
• Wave Division Multiplexing is used to add another fiber optic system to the same set of fibers, but with optic cards with different wavelengths. • DWDM adds many fiber systems to the same set of fibers, with optic cards only 0.1 nm apart in wavelength.
195

Wideband DCS
DS3, SONET fiber input, DS1 cross-connect
Verizon approved Tellabs Titan 5500 DS3 DS3 DS3 DS3
DS1 cross-connects in matrix

-‘Grooming’ DS1 circuits from one port to another. - Reduces back-to-back equipment.

DCS 3/1

Port cards

DS3 DS3 SONET Fiber optic interface OC-1, OC-3, OC-12
196

DS1 cross connects in 3/1 DCS

Tellabs Titan 5500 SONET 3/1 DCS

197

Titan 5500 unit shelf
DS3 input

198

SONET Broadband DCS
DS3, SONET fiber input, DS3 cross-connect
‘Grooming’ DS3 circuits from one port to another.

DCS 3/3

Port cards

DS3 DS3 SONET Fiber optic interface OC-1, OC-3, OC-12
199

DS3

DS3 cross-connects in matrix

DS3 cross connects in 3/3 DCS

Summary
• Wideband DACS – DS3/fiber input, DS1 crossconnect; management of DS1 circuits. • Reduces the need for M13 multiplexers, DSX-1 jack panels, etc. • Broadband DACS – DS3/fiber input, DS3 cross-connect; management of DS3 circuits. • Reduces the need for fiber optic terminals; allows direct interface of fiber optics. • Reduces the need for DSX-3 jack panels.
200

Microwave Radio
Point-to-Point Radio Transmission

201

Microwave Radio
Point-to-Point - DS1 & DS3 circuits
2 – 11 GigaHertz Microwave carrier frequencies
Parabolic Dish Antenna

Waveguide

Telephone Office

Telephone Office

Tower structure

202

Microwave Radio Waveguide
Waveguide

DS3

DS3

Microwave Radio Terminal

Parabolic Dish Antenna

coaxial 3-DS3 maximum DSX-3 per radio cable Panel

Tower structure
203

Microwave Radio Equipment
Telephone Office
Wave guide

Radio/Antenna Interface - Rigid Waveguide Ports

MW Radio Equipment DS1 or DS3 Inputs

Tower structure
204

Microwave Radio
Frequencies & Distances
• 2 GHz – now used for PCS. Existing systems - grandfathered • 6 GHz – 11 to 30 miles • 11 GHz – 3 to 15 miles • 18 GHz – 0 to 5 miles • 38 GHz – across the street
Typically, transmit power is only one Watt. Microwave dishes are from 2 – 15 feet in diameter. The larger the dish, the higher the gain, hence greater distance 205 is achieved.

Microwave Radio
Passive Reflector

Reflectors are used to bounce microwave beam over or around an obstruction.
Telephone Office Telephone Office 206

Summary
• Microwave Radio – used to transport telephony signals in lieu of fiber cable; over mountains, bodies of water, etc. • Both DS1 and DS3 circuits are transported

207

Digital Loop Carrier
Existing copper plant
Distribution cables Telephone Office 600-pair ‘Feeder’ cable 450 homes 500-pair feeder cable

100-pair feeder cable

Distribution cables

75 homes
208

Digital Loop Carrier
DLC added in growing subdivision
Distribution cables Telephone Office 600-pair ‘Feeder’ cable 450 homes 500-pair feeder cable

100-pair feeder cable

DLC
75 homes Distribution cables 300 new homes
209

Digital Loop Carrier
DLC distribution cable & span cable added
Distribution cables Telephone Office 600-pair ‘Feeder’ cable 450 homes 500-pair feeder cable

100-pair feeder cable

Existing distribution cable

DLC

New T1 ( or HDSL) span cable

New DLC 75 homes distribution cable Distribution cables 300 new homes
210

Digital Loop Carrier
DLC is cutover; old feeder cable is free to be reused
Distribution cables Telephone Office 600-pair ‘Feeder’ cable 450 homes 500-pair feeder cable

Existing 100-pair feeder cable can be reused for other customers New distribution cables for another subdivision Distribution cables

100-pair feeder cable

DLC

New T1 ( or HDSL) span cable

New DLC 75 homes distribution cable 300 new homes
211

NGDLC Next Generation Digital Loop Carrier
To provide telephone services to areas where it would be economically unfeasible to place copper cable.
Fiber or copper DS1’s to central office

DLC cabinet
Cross-connect cabinet

• POTS • Special Circuits - ISDN, FX, etc. • Hi-caps • ADSL

Concrete pad AFC AccessMax (formerly UMC-1000A), Alcatel Litespan, Zhone (formerly Nortel) AccessNode, Lucent SLC-96, SLC-5, SLC-2000 Marconi DISC*S (Reltec), and others.

212

Digital Loop Carrier cabinet site
672 lines maximum
Generator Digital Loop Carrier cabinet AC Power cabinet Cross connect cabinet

Outside plant cable
213

Walk-in Cabinet
672 to 2688+ lines

214

Walk-in Cabinet
Digital Loop Carrier equipment (lines) directly cabled to protectors. Protectors Cabled to external cross-connect cabinet – no blocks, no jumpers required in DLC cabinet.
DLC bays Protectors
215

DLC
Digital Loop Carrier Universal arrangement
Central office / remote MDF Line bay Central Office DLC Fiber optics or copper DS1’s DLC cabinet COT - Central Office Terminal

672 lines

672 lines Cross-connect cabinet

Jumpers 240 lines

216

DLC
Digital Loop Carrier Direct interface into switch
Host central office DS1 port bay Central Office DLC DLC cabinet 672 lines

DS1 interfaces

4-6 DS1 connections

Fiber optics no lines Cross-connect cabinet DLC cabinet 672 lines

4-6 DS1 connections Line termination shelf

Copper span lines

217

Main Distribution Frame in DLC’s & walk-in cabinets
• Equipment Protection
– Protectors
• terminate the lines from the equipment • provide lightning protection on the equipment

– Blocks – terminate the outside plant pair – also used in walk-in cabinets
Terminal block Protector

Cable pair

Line equip. jumper

Equipment cabling

DLC line equipment
218

Digital Loop Carrier
DLC is telephone line equipment placed in an area where it is more cost effective than placing copper DLC facilities to the area.
Fiber termination panel Fiber cable to central office
protectors Cross-Connect cabinet
800-pair Equipment Side 1600-pair Field side

jumpers terminals

Inter-cabinet cabling

Outside Plant distribution Ground rods 219 for ground field cable

ADSL Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line
Telephone Office
ADSL

Basic phone circuit And Digital Subscriber Line for High Speed Internet Service On

One cable pair

220

Signal level

Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line ADSL
Cable Pair Spectrum
High speed internet with phone both working at same time.

POTS

ADSL Upstream bandwidth
4kHz 20 kHz 140 KHz

ADSL Downstream bandwidth
1.1 MHz

Frequency

Signal versus Frequency

221

Basic phone circuit – before ADSL
POTS Line Bay
LC Line Block

Telephone Office
Jumper

Regular NID

Line cabling

Protector

Cable Pair

LC-line card

Main Distribution Frame

222

Basic phone circuit - with ADSL
POTS Line Bay
LC
ATU-R

Telephone Office
Line Block Protector Splitter NID

DS1 to Frame Relay switch

Line cabling
A T U | C

Jumpers

Cable Pair

ADSL

Ethernet connection

Splitter Block

Fujitsu Speedport ADSL

Main Distribution Frame

xLC=xDSL line card
223

Fujitsu ADSL shelf

MDF-mounted splitter block passive electronics

48 circuits per shelf. 16 circuits per splitter block. 3 splitter blocks required per shelf.

Jumper to line circuit, and jumper to cable pair
224

Newer installations use rack-mounted splitter

ADSL Service Offerings
• Bronze CIR=10 kbs 256 kbs downstream / 64 kbs upstream • Silver CIR= 32 kbs 384 kbs downstream / 384 kbs upstream • Gold CIR = 64 kbs 768 kbs downstream / 768 kbs upstream • Platinum CIR = 192 kbs 1.5 Mbs downstream / 768 kbs upstream • Platinum Plus - Multi-User CIR=384 kbs 1.5 Mbs downstream / 768 kbs upstream

CIR = Committed Information Rate
225

‘Carriers’ used by ADSL
to send high-speed digital bit stream
Signal level
Bit rate 64 Kbs-768 Kbs
Upstream
POTS

QAM – Quadrature Amplitude Modulation. 2-8 bits per carrier. Bit rate 256 Kbs-1.5 Mbs
Downstream

3 kHz spacing between carriers

frequency
0 kHz 4kHz 20 kHz 140 KHz ‘Weak’ frequency in cable pair 1.1 MHz

ADSL “carriers” or “channels 227 maximum carriers

226

Test Board in C.O.
6 Line Protector

ADSL Components at Customer Premise
RADSL Modem CAT 5 Patch Cable between RJ48 and Modem RJ48 ADSL Data

RJ11 Voice

Power Supply

CAT 5 Patch Cable between Modem and NIC card in PC Homerun RJ48 if Customer has second line. Network Interface Card 227

G.Lite Universal ADSL
Universal ADSL or G.Lite
• Lower bit-rate & lower frequency ADSL service
– 1.5 Mbs downstream / 384 kbs upstream
Microfilter

• Splitter-less NID • Works through special line card in existing line bay.
Upstream

Cable pair Regular NID
Downstream

G.Lite

POTS 20 kHz 4kHz
140 KHz 550 KHz

0 kHz

1.1 MHz

228

POTS Line Bay
xLC

G.Lite Universal ADSL
1-pair 2-wire jumper

Microfilter

Regular NID

D-BIC

Line cabling

Line Block

G.Lite

Protector

Cable Pair

DS1 to Frame Relay switch Modification to Line bay; D-BIC Data-Bus Interface Card

- Splitter-less, lower bit-rate ADSL - 1.5 Mbs downstream - 384 kbs upstream - Standard protocol - works with any vendor’s ADSL equipment - Small modification to line bay

Main Distribution Frame

xLC=xDSL line card
229

Summary
• ADSL – POTS & high speed data over same cable pair. • Keeps Internet traffic off of the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). • G.Lite – lower speed & splitter-less version of ADSL.

230

TIMING - What is it?
• Everybody is marching to the same 'beat'

• BITS - Building Integrated Timing Supply
– Stable timing source for digital networks

• allows equipment to synchronize or 'sync up’ to one reliable timing source so digital circuits are timed together.
231

TIMING - Why is it?
• Required for prevention of Binary Digit Slips • a slip is loss of a block of bits due to frequency shift, phase shift, etc. between networks. • causes outages, loss of data, audible clicking on line, facsimile distortions
Bit Slip Original Signal
232

TIMING - For what equipment?
• Purely analog circuits DO NOT require timing. Timing required for: • D4 channel banks – only for digital circuits • SONET fiber systems • DACS • Digital switch
233

TIMING - How?
• BITS Clock Building Integrated Timing Supply Clock
– accurate & stable clock oscillator – obtains timing from the GPS - Global Positioning System

• GPS distributes a timing reference to non-GPS sites
234

GPS & BITS Clock
GPS satellites

gathers timing references from multiple satellites
power cable to roof mounted receiver

GPS receiver on roof
Coaxial or fiber cable from roof to timing shelf

Stratum 2 Clock

235

GPS Antenna

236

3 clock levels of timing - Stratum Levels
Telephone Office Telephone Office

GPS

GPS

Stratum 1
Stratum 2 Stratum 2

Stratum 1

Stratum 3
Telephone Office

Stratum 3
Telephone Office

Stratum 3
Telephone Office
237

TIMING - Stratum levels
• Stratum 1 Clock - directly from GPS receiver – typically put at host offices with Stratum 2 – stability – infinite – continuously connected to GPS • Stratum 2 Clock - stability - 28 days w/out external input • Stratum 3 Clock - stability - 5 days w/out external input – typically put at main wire centers other than hosts • Stratum 4 Clock - stability - less than 24 hours – typically for clocks put on fiber optic cards
238

BITS Clock/Timing Distribution Shelf & GPS Antenna control shelf

239

BITS
GPS Antenna
Power cable to roof mounted receiver Coaxial cable or fiber cable from roof to timing shelf

Stratum 2 Clock

Timing Outputs
“TOTA” output. DS1 outputs to digital switch, 1/0 DACS, 3/1 DACS, Broadband DACS, SONET fiber optic terminals, etc.
240

“TOCA” output or ‘composite clock’. DS0 outputs to channel banks, ISDN banks, DLC’s.

TOCA Output

TOTA Output

Summary
• Timing – keeping all digital circuits and equipment synchronized together to prevent loss of information. • GPS – Global Positioning System – an accurate timing source sent from satellites to a roof mounted receiver.\ • BITS – Building Integrated Timing Supply – supplies accurate timing signals for all equipment in a telephone office.
241

c.o. ground bus

Power
Common bus for (+) & ( -)

+
AC

-48V DC

-

+
-48V

shunt

+
To C.O. equipment -48V

meters
DC

AC

Fuses

Rectifiers AC to DC

Batteries

Power Board

Input power: - 120/240 Volts-AC - 208 or 440 Volts-AC 3-phase

Output power: large office - 600-10,000+ Amps @ -48 VDC small office - 100-600 Amps @ -48 VDC
242

Main Power Board
4 main fuses (600 Amp) - for feeding secondary power boards Distribution: 32 ‘A’ fuses (30 Amp) 32 ‘B’ fuses (30 Amp) - for feeding fuse panels in equipment bays.

243

POWER
Main Power Board
Shunt
Voltage Current

• measures voltage & current used by office
– Shunt - measures current - ammeter

• provides main fuses to power secondary distribution boards • may provide distribution fuses for transmission racks (remote) • provides a 'battery return' bus for battery grounds
244

Fuses

Shunt – used to measure office current
individual plates

Shunt - Measures current by measuring voltage. - provides protection for power plant - plates heat up & fall out or burn up Measured Current = Voltage drop across shunt Resistance plates - known, accurate
245

POWER Secondary Power Distribution Boards
Switching – PDC - Power Distribution Center
– located in switching lineup

Transmission - BDFB - Battery Distribution Fuse Board
– located in transmission equipment area

Voltage Current

246

Nortel Switching PDC

Power Distribution Center for digital switch

247

POWER Transmission Distribution Power Board
shunt shunt

• • • • •

Voltage

Current

B-side

A-side

provides secondary power distribution to transmission racks may be fuses or breakers A & B sides - 2 Shunts, 2 voltmeters, 2 ammeters powers A & B battery & ground to fuse panels with 2 power inputs distribution fuses typically 10 to 30 Amp

• requires two 600-Amp fuses from Main Power Board for diversity protection
Fuses or breakers
248

Main Power Board feeding Transmission Power Board
Main Power Board
shunt
Voltage Current

Transmission Power Board
shunt
Voltage

shunt
Current

‘A’ side
To Transmission Racks to Power fuse panels.

-48V

‘B’ side

600 Amp fuses

BDFB

30-70 Amp fuses / breakers
249

Power Distribution
Dual power feeds with ground
Battery plant Ground Bar
Shunt shunt
Voltage Current

Ground cable

BDFB Ground Bar
Shunt
Voltage

Ground leads
Fuse panel

Shunt
Current

‘A’ side

-48V

Telephone Equipment

‘B’ side Main Power Board BDFB

Equipment Rack

250

Transmission Distribution Power Board

Power cables Feeding power Board, and Powering other Equipment.

A side Distribution Meter Panel for A & B sides 30 Amp breakers

B side Distribution
251

Secondary Distribution panel Shunt panel Meter panel Main Distribution panel Secondary Distribution panel

Remote building Two Rectifiers, Power Board 100-Amp each - Load not to with Rectifiers exceed 100
Amps (Maximum load +1 rectifier)
252

Batteries
C.O. ground bus
Common bus for (+) & ( -)

+
AC

-48V DC

-

+
-48V DC

Shunt
Voltage

+
Current

To C.O. equipment -48V

AC

Rectifier AC to DC

Power Board Main or 3-hour backup with Generator 8-hour backup without Generator Distribution

Batteries

253

Batteries
24 Cells -48 Volts nominal -52 Volts Charge voltage Wet Cell lead calcium 20 -25 year life

254

Batteries
- Sealed ‘Dry’ cells - Valve Regulated - GNB “Absolyte” has Absorbent glass mat. - 20 year life

255

Backup Generator
• provides electrical power to run the office in event of A/C power failure - typically 7.5 kW to 60 kW units • larger sizes for main central offices – 250kW to 750kW+ • runs on propane (older installations) or diesel fuel (newer installations.
Shown is a 365 kW diesel Generator.

256

AC Transfer Switch
Commercial AC Power Automatic Transfer Switch

Normal

AC Load
Emergency

Backup Generator

To: rectifiers air conditioning lights
257

Grounding
Keep People & Equipment Safe from Lightning 4 Grounding Elements: – Producers – Absorbers – Isolated Ground Zone - IGZ – Non-Isolated Ground Zone - Non-IGZ
258

Grounding
Producers – anything
that allows lightning gets into a telephone office.
– sheath of cables entering office – firing point of protector modules – radio towers Outside plant Copper cable
Grounding points connected to ground bar
259

MDF

protectors

Grounding
Absorbers – anything
that absorbs a lightning surge.
– ground field around office - 5 ohm ground desired – building structure / metal water pipes
Ground field/ring – 8-foot deep ground rods buried 8-feet apart
260

Telephone Office

Grounding
Master Ground Bar – MGB
• • • • • • • •

Producer

Absorber

Non-IGZ

IGZ

261

Master Ground Bar - MGB

Producers

Absorbers

Non-IGZ

IGZ

P.A.N.I. bar

262

Grounding IGZ
IGZ - Isolated Ground Zone
– All cards in equipment bays are isolated from the bay ironwork.

Digital switch has a separate IGZ bus bar Ground Window Bar - GWB
– GWB connects to IGZ zone on MGB
Ground Window Bar - GWB To IGZ (digital switch)
• • • •

MGB
263

Grounding Non-IGZ
Non-Isolated Ground Zone Transmission equipment: Fuse panel
– May not have the cards isolated from the shelves – May not have the shelves isolated from the bays
Transmission Equipment

Cards

shelf

– i.e. the cards & shelves may be grounded to the ironwork which violates the IGZ concept

Transmission Equipment Rack
264

Central Office Layout
Digital switch DCS 1/0
DS1

ISDN
DS1 DS1

2B + D BRI

Outside Plant cables

D4 Channel Bank

VF signal

DS1

DSX-1 DSX-1 DSX-1
DS1 DS3

DS1 DS1

HDSL

HDSL DS1

M D F

DS1 line termination shelf
Fiber Optic System

Span powered DS1 (T1) OSP fiber cable

M13 Mux

coaxial cable

DSX-3 DSX-3

DS3 coaxial cable

LGX
fiber jumpers 265

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