Lecture 1b Continue By Oladokun Sulaiman

1.11 Recap:
• Contribution of control system to modern society • Control system • Types of control system • Example of control system • Case study : Antenna position control

History
• Steam Pressure ( Denis Papin, 1681) : Safety valve • Speed Control ( James Watt) : fly-ball speed governor • Stability, Stabilization ( Feedback control ) Edward John Routh(1874) : Stability criterion to fifth-order systems Lyapunov(1892) : Stability Criterion to nonlinear systems

Twentieth-Centry Developments
Nicholas Minorsky : PID Controller H.W. Bode and H. Nyquist at Bell Lab (1930`s) Walter R. Evans(1948) : root locus

Contemporary Applications
Optimal Control : Apollo Digital Control : Digital computer Adaptive Control Intelligent Control

fig_01_01

fig_01_01

Open loop control system

fig_01_06

close loop control system

fig_01_06

Response of close loop control system

Typical DC closed loop control system

fig_01_12

Typical AC closed loop control system

fig_01_12

Sample data control system

fig_01_14

Digital autopilot system for guided missile

fig_01_14

Figure Elevator input and output

Application

Solar power water extraction system

fig_01_04

Sun tracking control system

fig_01_04

CASE STUDY: ANTENA POSITION CONTROL SYSTEM

fig_01_08

fig_01_08

fig_01_09

fig_01_09

fig_01_09a

fig_01_09a

Response of a position control system showing effect of high and low controller gain on the output response

fig_01_10

Ref: Norman Nise, Also check :PAGE 160-161 INSTRUMENTATION fig_01_10 AND CONTROL BY D. C. RAMSAY

1.12 Roles of control engineer
• Identify components – actuator, controller, sensor • Controller – output as desired output • Model mathematic for controlled system • Block diagram • Analysis – time response, frequency response, stability • Simulation

1.13 Analyzing control system
• The analysis of control system is required to determine its performance • Examination is done in:  Time domain : for simple system  frequency domain: complex system : mostly sinusoidal input where tedious mathematic is avoided. Frequency response result is checked by experimental and graphical analysis

fig_02_01

fig_02_01

Control system design objective
• Production of desired transient respons: to reduce influence on human confort and pateience, mechanical stress, speed of system • Reducing steady state errors: to determine accuracy of how closely the output matches the desired response • Achieving stability:to produce proper steady and transient state response

Steps for design of control system
• Determine physical system and specification from requirement • Draw functional block diagram • Represent the physical system as a schematic • Use schematic to obtain mathematical model such as block diagram • Reduce the block diagram • Analyse and design the system to meet specified requirement and specification hat include stability, transient response and steady state performance

Control System Design Process

fig_01_11

fig_01_11

Table (p.19) : test waveform

100

100

Force, N

50

Force, N

50

0

t1

t2 t3 Time, second

t4

0

t1

t2

Time, second

t3

t4

Force, N

100

100

50

0

t1

t2 t3 Time, second

t4

Force, N

50

0

t1

t2 Time, second

t3

Step Input Response

Ramp Input Response

Time Constant
• It is defined as time taken by a control plant to achieve output response equal to 63% of its desired value.

Control System Response
• • • • • • • Time response Frequency response Steady state response Transient response Undershoot Overshoot Settling time

Control system stability
• • • • Damping factor Damping ratio Routh’s stability criteria Nyquist stability criteria

QUESTIONS
• • • • • • • • • • • What is a control system? How are control systems classified? What provides information to the controller? What is the term transmitter commonly used to describe? What does the behaviour and performance of a control system depend on? What is a control system called if its action is dependent upon the output? What is excessive corrective action called? What is the difference between the input and output signals called? What are the three common essential elements of a control system? What are the three components of a transducer? What is the set point values?

QUESTIONS
• What are the two major factors that have influenced the development of marine automatic controls? • What are the 12 main parameters monitored at sea? • What does the UMS class notation mean? • What does the CCS class notation mean? • What are the five different control media? • What is the process of long distance control signal transmission called? • What is the modern definition of a transducer?

Conclusion
• • • • • • Introduction to control and control system Elements of control system Application of control system Example of control system Case study of control system Block diagram and schematic of control system

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