# Lecture 2

Basic of mechanical and electrical control system

By

Note
Revise : • Differential equation • Partial fraction

2.0 Objective
• • • • • • Free body and block diagram Block diagram Obtain the differential equation Obtain Laplace transform of the differential equations Solve the resulting algebraic transform Mathematical modeling of physical system

RECAP implified block diagram of closed-loop control system
Compensator or controller Input U(s) Process or plant Output Y(s)

Gc(s)

Gp(s)
Sensor

H(s)

• • •

Process or plant:
– System to be controlled including actuators and power amplifiers

Sensor:
– Instrumentation that measures output and converts it to a signal

Compensator or controller:
– System added to enhance performance of control loop – Output or controlled variable is y(t) is the variable we wish to control – Input is a measure of (but not always equal to) the desired system output u(t) – Error is desired output minus actual output: e(t)= y(t) - u(t)

test waveform

•Refer to control engineering system page 19

Types of input
100
100

Force, N

50

Force, N

50

0

t1

t2 t3 Time, second

t4

0

t1

t2

Time, second

t3

t4

Force, N

100

100

50

0

t1

t2 t3 Time, second

t4

Force, N

50

0

t1

t2 Time, second

t3

Two step input response

Ramp Input Response

Time Constant
• It is defined as time taken by a control plant to achieve output response equal to 63% of its desired value.

Control System Response
• • • • • • • Time response Frequency response Steady state response Transient response Undershoot Overshoot Settling time

Control system stability
• • • • Damping factor Damping ratio Routh’s stability criteria Nyquist stability criteria

Control System Design Process

fig_01_11

•Control engineering system page 16

fig_01_11

2.1 Introduction : Mathematical modeling
• In order to analyze and design a control system knowledge of its behavior through mathematical terms is essential • The mathematical equations are derived from law of physics i.e Newton • Analysis can be done in two operating condition: Steady and Transient • Change as a result of input or disturbance • Output will depend on the system variables and how they interact • Description of dynamic system is obtain from differential equation’ • models of the physical system • Solutions of these mathematical equations simulate the response of the physical system which they represent

• Input and output relationship of a linear measurement system - ordinary differential equation (ODE):
1 dny d n− d y + n− a 1 + +1  a + 0y a n n− 1 d t d t d t

2.2 Differential equation

an

• u = input, y = output; u and y varies with t • n>m and a, b = constant coefficients • DE contain variable and rate of change of or derivative of the variable in control system • Ordinary differential equation (ODE) are main concern in control system , they contain singe dependent and independent variable which is usually time • The order DE relate to the index of the highest derivative

Example 2.1 : Spring mass balance damper
xi xo
m

Fs = FD

Fm

k c

dxi dxo d xo k ( xi − xo ) + c( − )=m 2 dt dt dt

2

d xo c d xo k c d xi k + + xo = + xi 2 dt m dt m m dt m

2

2.3 Physical system modeling
• To obtain linear approximation of physical system Time response solution is obtain: • Obtain the differential equation • Obtain Laplace transform of the differential equations • Solve the resulting algebraic transform

2.3a. Laplace transform
Definition of Laplace transformation of f(t): ∞
0

L[ f (t )] = F ( s ) = ∫ e −st dt [ f (t )] = ∫ f (t )e −st dt
0

where s = σ + jω = a complex variable – Inverse Laplace transformation – f(t) = L-1[F(s)] – L[Af(t)] = AL[f(t)] – L[f1(t) + f2(t)] = L[f1(t)] + L[f2(t)]
f(t)

For step input f(t) = 0 t < 0 ∞ – =At>0 F ( s ) = L[ f (t ) ] = L[ A] =∫ A −st d e t – Laplace transform: 0
t

A

A s t = − e− s

∞ 0

A = s

Find the time response xo(t) for this system if step input xi(t)=1 and initial condition xo(0)=0 c
k=1 c=1 k
c

Example 2

k(xi-x0)

d x d t

0

xi

xo

• • • •

Differential equation: For k =1,c = 1; Laplace transform Partial fraction

dx0 k ( xi − x0 ) − c =0 dt
d x d t
o

c

+o = k x k x

i

d o x + = xo xi d t 1 Inverse Laplace transform: sX 0 ( s ) + X 0 ( s ) = s
xo(t)
1

1 1 X o (s) = + s ( s +) 1

x0 (t ) = 1 − e −t

Transient response

•Control engineering system page 33

table_02_01

table_02_01

table_02_02

•Control engineering system page 34 table_02_02

2.3b. Transfer Functions
• Defined as the ratio of the Laplace Transform of the output to the Laplace Transform of the input to the system • G(s) = Y(s)/X(s) • X(s)
G(s)

Y(s)

Transfer Function
• An assembly of linked components within a boundary. • The motor car is a good example; mechanical, electrical, control and suspension sub-systems within a body-chassis boundary. • A system may have one input and a related output dependent on the effect of that system (transfer function G). • θ 0 =Gθ I
•The boundary, represented as a "black box", may include a complex system which need not be analysed if G is provided. •More complex systems have interconnecting links to related systems. •A system must have input, process, output, and in most systems a source of power and a means of control.

Transfer Function Expression

Characteristics Equation

b1 S +b0 G (s) = 2 a 2 S +a1 S +a 0
Characteristics Equation
•Denominator of the transfer function equated to zero is the characteristics equation of the system •Characteristics equation of the system determines the response of the control system

a2 S a1S + a0 = 0
2

Order of control systems
• Zero Order System
b1 s +b0 s 0 ( s 2 +a 1 s +a 2 )

• First Order System • 2nd Order System
s2

b1 s + 0 b s1 (s 2 + 1 s + 2 ) a a
b1 s + b0 (s 2 + 1 s + 2 ) a a

(Source: Instrumentation and Control Systems by Leslie Jackson)

Poles and Zeros
• Roots of the Characteristics equation are called poles of the system Roots of numerator of the TF are called zeros of the system
Example

2 s +4 1) s 2 +3s + 2

2)

s 2 +6 s + 5 s 3 +6 s 2 +11 s + 6

Ans

(1) zeros ( 2) zeros

=− 2, poles = −1, − 2 ; =−1;−5 ; poles =−1, − 2 , −3 ;

2.4 System modeling
Step for drawing block diagram: • Step 1: Free body diagram • Step 2: Mathematical equations • Step 3: Block diagram

2.4a Mechanical system: Spring
• Spring • Where k = stiffness, x= displacemnet • Fs= Fx
Fs

or
x x k Fs

• Transfer function = k or 1/k • Output variable = transfer function × input variable k • Spring with free at both ends x
1

x2 k Fs(t)

x1(t)

x1- x2

• Block diagram

x (t) Fs = k(x1 -– x2)
2

+

4. Mechanical system: Mass
• Fm = ma
Fm(t) m
x(t)

• Force F acting on mass m
d 2x Fm = m 2 dx

• Use D-operator where: D = d/dt and D2 =d2/dt2
Fm(t)
1 mD 2

x(t)

• Fm = mD2x

Spring mass system
xi(t) m xo(t)

• • • • Equations: Fs = k(xi – x0) Since Fm = ma and Fs = Fm mD2x0(t) = Fs = k(xi – x0)kxi(t)xi(t)-xo(t)-+
xi(t)

xi(t)-xo(t) -

+

k

Block diagram for spring-mass system

Damper
• c = damping coeff. • x = displacement • dx(t)/dt = velocity

x(t) cD

FD(t)

• FD(t) = cdx(t)/dt • FD(t) = cDx

Spring-damper system
xo(t) xi(t)

• Force on spring: Fs = k(xi – xo) • Force on damper: FD = cDxo
xi(t) Fs=FD k

+ -

1/cD

Block diagram for spring-damper system

Spring-mass-damper system

Fs1

FD

Fm

∀ Σ F = ma • Fs1 - FD = Fm
xi(t)
+ -

k

Fs + -

Fm

1 m D

2

xo(t)

FD

cD

Spring Mass System
d2y A ccelera ti n F rce =m g o d 2 t d y D m in a p g F rce = f o d t S rin p g F rc o e =k y d2y d y m +f +k = F ( D rb g y istu in 2 d t d t

F rc ) o e

( m s + fs + k ) Y ( s ) = F ( s )
2

Y ( s) TF = G ( s ) = = F ( s ) ms

1 2 + f s +k

Example 2
fig_02_15

fig_02_15

•Draw free body diagram •Determine forces and direction i.e applied force to the right and impeding forces to the left spring, viscous damper, acceleration

•Write the differential equation

Contd
•Take la place transform

MS 2 (s ) +f sX (s )+ KX (s = F (s ) ) v
•Or

(M S

2

+ sv+K) X( s) F( s) f =

•Solve for transfer function •G(s)=X(s)/F(s) = 1/

( MS 2 + f vs + K )

•Control engineering system page 60

fig_02_17

•Refer to control engineering system page 63
fig_02_17

fig_02_18

fig_02_18

fig_02_20

•Refer to control engineering system page 63

fig_02_20

fig_02_21

fig_02_21

fig_02_22

fig_02_22

table_02_05

table_02_05

2.4b. Electrical system modeling
Electrical components: resistance R, capacitance C and inductance L Variables: voltage V and current i • Resistor -> VR = iR
+

VR VL
+

-

-

• • •

Inductance

-> VL = Ldi/dt = LDi
+

i

VC
-

Capacitance->i = CdV/dt = CDV
V1 V2

Circuit theory • Series V = V1 + V2 • Parallel • V = V1 = V2
– i = i1 + i2

+

V

+ V1 V2 V -

Example 3
• • • • Vi = VL + VC + VR; VL = Ldi/dt = LDi CdVC/dt = i; Vo = iR VR = Vo
+ Vi L1 + i1 i2 L2 i3 R VA C + Vo

VL

VC Vo

VC = i/CD

Equations: i1 = i2 + i3 Vi – VA = L1Di1 VA = L2Di2 i3 = (VA – Vo)CD Vo = i3R

Vi

-

i3

Vi

-

Block diagram

+ -

1 L1 D

i1 +

i2

L2D

VA + -

CD
i3

R

Vo

VA

Vo

•Use D-operator where D = d/dt and D2

Example
Summing the voltage around the loop -> assuming zero initial condition

• •

Subtitute i(t)=dq(t) Subtitute capacitor voltage charge relationship Q(T)=CvC(t) Take la place transform, rearrange terms and simplify Solve TF Vc(s)/V(s)

• •

( LCs2 + RCs + 1)C v
vC ( ) s vC ( ) s 1 L / C = R s2 + S + L
1 L C

=V ( s )

R-L-C Circuit
L 1 C 1 d i +i + R d t C it ∫d =0 e L pa e al c t a som r nf r gv s ie it ∫d =i e

T kn ai g

L s I ( s) + I ( s) R

1 1 I ( s) = i ( s) E C s

1 1 I ( s) = 0 ( s) E C s

•Combining two equations from previous slide gives
T F = s)= G( LC s
2

1 + R C

s + 1

TF of spring mass system and RLC circuit are mathematically similar and will give identical response

•Solution for electrical can also be done through KVL, KCL, • voltage divider, current divider •Refer to control engineering system page 45

Steps for electrical modeling
• Replace passive element value wit their impedance • Replace all source and time value with their Laplace transform • Assume transform current and current direction is each loop • Write KVL around each loop • Solve simultaneous equation for the output • Form the transfer function

fig_02_05

fig_02_05

fig_02_11

fig_02_11

2.3 Block diagram manipulation
• • • Block diagram – can be simplified to fewer blocks Block diagram transformation and reduction –refer to table Output input relationship – transfer function

Block diagram manipulation
Series block diagram reduction

∀ θ 2 = F1(D)θ 1 ; θ 3 = F2(D)θ 2 ∀ θ 3 = F1(D) F2(D)θ 1 • Transfer function = θ 3 / θ 1 = F1(D) F2(D)
Parallel block diagram reduction

θ
1

F1(D)

θ

2 2

F (D)
θ
3

θ
3

θ
1

F1(D)F2(D)

θ 4=θ 2+θ 3 θ 4 = F1(D)θ 1 + F2(D)θ 1 θ 4 = [F1(D) + F2(D)]θ 1 Transfer function = θ 4 / θ 1 = F1(D) + F2(D)

θ

1

F1(s)

θ

2

θ
+

4

+

F2(s)

θ

3

θ
1

F1(D)+F2(D)

θ
4

Closed loop block diagram
• • • • The negative feedback: E(s) = U(s) – B(s) = U(s) – H(s)Y(s) Y(s) = G(s)E(s) = G(s)[U(s) - H(s)Y(s)] Y(s)[1 + G(s)H(s)] = G(s)U(s)
Inpu t + B(s) H(s) E(s) G(s) Output

Y (s) G( s) = U (s) 1 + G (s) H (s)

Close-loop transfer function = (Forward transfer function)/(1+ Open-loop transfer function)

U ( s )

G ( s) 1 + G(s) H (s)

Y ( s )

Example
• Derive transfer function for spring-mass k x + mD system i

xo
2

 k  x0 = xi − x0  2  mD  

x
xo k = xi mD 2 + k
i

x

k mD 2 + k

o

Multiple-loop feedback control system
To eliminate G3(s)G4(s)H(s), move H2 behind G4(s) Rule 4:
H2 G4 H2 /G4 G4

G3G4H1 = positive feedback control system Rule 6 – eliminate feedback loops

•Eliminate inner loop containing H2/G4 and G2 and G3G4/(1-G3G4H1) Reduce the loop containing H3

Revise your digital last semester digital electronics

Tutorial Exercises
• • • Define transfer function of a control system. Define what is time constant. Describe the advantages of control and automation

Home work
Chapter 2 : NISE Control -> • Answer all short questions • Problem 7,9,10,16,17,20,28

• Due date January 7

Summary
• • • • Free body and block diagram Block diagram Obtain the differential equation Obtain Laplace transform of the differential equations • Solve the resulting algebraic transform • Mathematical modeling of physical system