TheSouthern Baptis journalof Theolory

The Gosp*laccordirg Mark to

Buptismand Cnrcifixion: Christ's The Anointing and Enthronement of God'sSon
,-1. Curtedat, B. is A. B. Caneday ProfessorI'le,r,; I n t r o d u c t i o n of iestament Strrdres Elitrlical and Theol If o n e c -l i d o t al t' eadt' n recogni zc' t, redaci cgyat Northwestern in Saint tion cliticisrl shon,eclrt'hat shotrld have Collegrr Paul, Minnesota rsthcco auliror t r c e r r o t r v i o t r s t o a l l - t h . r t He the Gospel Thonras Schreiner) Tlte r v r i t e r s p l a l ' a c r e . a t i r r eo l e i n s h a p i n g U rvritlr ol r Theol t l r e t h c o l o g i c a l i m p r o r t o i t h e i r n a r r a Sace Before A BiLtlical Ser Us ogv' PersevttranceAssuranceti v e . ;' l c c o r-rnts of & concerni ng Jesr-rs hri st. C (lnterVarsity, 0n Marks 2001) Gospel Aftc .r th e e n tranceoi redarcti on ti ci stn cri "lv4ark's hehaspublished essays: two a n c l th e e m e rgerl ceof l i ter:arycri ti ci sm, Provocative of ScriptureNarra- N e r,r,T e s ta rn ent schol ars have i ocused in Use tiort,HeWas theWrld with Arrrrnals and u p o n t h e n a r r a t i r r e t e c h n i q r - r e o f t h e s Angels MinlsteredHinr" Bulletin to tn for e v a n g e l i s ts .I -i terar:ycri ti ci sm, al so, has Biblical fresearch (1999); "l-le sirrrpll, Llt-rco\rerL.d I and lr'hat is tru11,prescnt Wrote Parables Ricidles, in Mark's lvithirr the Gospel narratil'es, r,r'hiclrto and as Gospel a Lilerary Reproductiorrolrr shame got bltrrred, distclrted,or e\/ell of l vl atthei .r' antl I-uke, has taken pr ior it y i n conternporaryscl rol arshipr . '11' er Ear lit fl r1z nt-,.1 source cri ti cs assigneclpr ior it y to Mark as the fi rst of the iour Clospels. More recentll' tlre programuratic n'orl< of R l -roadsand l v{i chi e ha s siver r f r esh i r t r p e t u st o t h e s t u d y o f M a r k ' s G o s p e l arrclto al l the Gospel s,an im pet us t hat has endured for tr,r'o clecades.r Generalll', their r,r'ork corrtinuesto stirnulate interest irr reardingeach of the Cospels as stor\/. I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e y , L ) r o \ / i r l eg t r i r l a n c e corrcerningMark's narratirrepatterns and stor1,-1glI techniques. i n6; An atomistic reading of lvlark'sCospel,

Teaching Jesus' Method" Ditlaskallal o s t t o C h r i s t i a r r s n ' h o t h o r - r g h t h a t t o or an\r of the Gospel s,gi ves t he im pr esin (1999) 10 r:c a dS c ri p ttr re as l i terature cl i r-ni ni shed si on that the storl ' l i ne corrsist s "a ser ies of the llilrle. Reclisco\/ery thc' Bible as litoi e ra l trl rc , n the harrds oi C hri sti ans rvho i criticalll, engage modern criticism of th e l l i l rl e , rre ednot resul t i n treati ng the R i g h tl r,s e e l r, i e B i bl e i s the or:i gi nalthat tl I i terarl' pa ttern s and featr-r sign if-icantl res 1' irrfluerrced great literary r,t,orks bevond far merL.qtrotations anc-l I lusions. a P a s s 6i s t h e c l a i m t h a t t h e a u t h o r o f th e s e c o n d Gospel " \\,as a cl umsv n' ri ter t t n n ' o r t h ) t o f t t r e t r t i o t ri t r a n 1 ' I i s t o r l ' o f d i s p a r a t e e p i s o d e s s t r : u n gt o s g t h s l l i ke cl i sti nctbeads on a string ot hcnr , ise url col ' l nectedto each other . "l A holist ic reading, horvel'er,yielcls recognition of a a vvholeby n'a1,ol a cotlplex varietl' tli ttrre to hi s story try rcpeating r vor r lsand pl rrases for l i terarl , ei fect and t heological significallce. I-le.trses ioresharion'ing and refl ecti on.R ectrl rence colnpar able of setti ngs arl cievents assi stsr eader st cl see

Il i l rl es i mp i l ' as any other good l i terattrre. storl,line that irrtegrates each eprisode into Ii icllles.Mar k g ives stru cc l a s s i c tc l a tr-rl e has i mi tatecl .S cri pLure' s storl-tel Ii ng tecl-rn

and tcl hear the me.ssage that escapesthe ' fn' el ve l t' hcl se vi si on anrl lr ear iug ar e o f l i t e r a t l l r e . " lT ' h e s a n r e i s t r u e o f t h e . rro ti o rrth a t l v{ark w as theol ogi cal l ;' artless.Mark's Cospel, iormerly passecl over' becatrseits cortttrrts l.r'ere assurtrecl be to i n c o rp o ra te d i nto the l arser Gospel s of i r-npai red.l vl al k frecl uentll' n'r aps one episode arouncl another by telling tlre begi nrri ng of orre epi sode on11, o int er t rupt i t rvi th another anc-l er r t o r e. t t r r n th


to fi nis h t he f ir s t . aBy s o d o i n g , M a rk n o t

e -a rl i ersl -rortstttdi c-sthat cal l l atterl ti or-t

use of o n l y s i g r r a l sf o r r e a c l e r sa r c ' l a t i o n s h i p to Mark's aPfrareritlf il-t1.t-riiorral '15:38 to fortn atr betn,eenthe trvo storics,but by n'rapPilrg schizl in troth 1:10arrcl h o rreepis odear ot t n c la trttth e r, i s a rra n g e ment of the ttvcl episttdes nrakes arpoint rrot that clneepisode aloue n,oulc-l sigrrify. i rrc l usi o el dmore i nsi ghts.rlLane' scl as1,i s i c str-rcl of Mark provocati vel )'cal l s for y "lt is prolralrly lr1' thesestr.rc-lies observiug,

to Another of lviark's fc'aturesis chiasnl or significarrt that in the pre.f;rce the Cos"episodes itt a concetrtric pattertt," sttcl-t prt'lthere is arrerrding of tlte' skl' and the tl-rat Jesusis the divinc' Sotr 2:7-3:6n,iththe A-B-C-81-A1 as ir-r 1-rattern.5 proclat-uatiotr s Nur-rrerotts ttrdies shottt that chiastlr o cc r r r sat t nt t lt iple l e v e l s i r-rMa rk ' s C o s p e l , f r om t he t ex t' s s ttra l l e s tl e v e l , s ttc h a s sl- r or tpr ov er bi a l s ta tc ' trl e l l ts ,tc l th e (Ch. l:'11)to u'hiclt col'respolrdthe-retrclveil and the' confessiotr ing ot'the ten-rple i th a t Jestrs s S otr of God i rl C h. 15:38i ." r3 l'his essay seeks to fill ottt l-atre's pithl'

i evel e n tir c ' t ex t , it r c luc l i n g th e u ' h o l e C c l s p e l bu t u nc-l opccl contnteut cotrcern trg the oi Y n a rl at iv e. 6 et , t lie c o mp l e x i ty o i Ma rk ' s n a r rati ve and theol ogi cal si gni t' i cance i n arrat i rre arra lt g€tlttetrt1rsl Lls tlu llltlroll s, ii r-rotcot'npeting,irrterpt'etit'r'structttral of a rra nger nent s s e v e ra l c h i a s ms n ' i th i l r u'hile Sonrearc c'latrorate a large cl-riasm. rl th e r s ar e t r t or ' les t.7 A W liile r eadir t gD o rra l d H . J tre l ' s M n s T h e Li terary C ompl exi ty Inclusio Van lc'rselfinclsthe trvo etrdsof Mark's of Mark' s lvlark's inclr,rsio.

Gospel cotlne'cted lt)' r'r'a)'tlf s)'nrbcllic "dcsert" and first tt'r rtf SLff7.tvi5s,l etlcottntr:recltl-resr-rg- r e p r e s e n t a t i o u , l i r r k i t - t g "tonllr."I4Som e scholars agree,iclett f i rlg ti 1r gestiorr tl-rirtN{ark envelolres his Cospcl as ll n a r r at iv cr t ' it h ar rin c l tts i o .E e c a l l sa tte l r- 1 :2 -73and 15:42-16:8 Mal k' s i trcl ttsi o, ntttrterolls titles tiorr to rt,hat i had Lealc'l The paral l el s thel ' tre a ti ng 1:1as a ti tl e.r5 et'er, are pritnarily cotlcePrvithottt proper attention, tl'ratN4arktlsL's iderrtify, ltc'ltt th it-t t u a l a s s c - r c i a t i o n s a t d e p e n c l h e a v i l y encl of his Gospe'I, schizaonce at eitl-rer "The imagcs form u p o n an i ntel preti tre.errelol ' readi trgthe l He and 15:38. notes, 1:10 r'r'hat mol'es be1u6116 arr incltrsio: A patten-r tl-ratt-reginshere tcxt tl-ratadr-r-rittedly at ]e.sns'baptism eucls tvith his t1c'ath."q t h e ' t e x t i t s e l f s a y s . l 6C a l e l t r l r e a d i n g "Whetl the heavel-Isare shon,sthat stronger verbal linkages occllr Juel contittttes, P and 15:33-39. r:omi rrerrt 1:1-13 and a hcavely b c ' trt' eer1 torrl, the Spirit eutersJestrs ' s o l l .' At th e catchu,ords in these trt'o pericoPes stlgh [si c ] r ' oic e addr es s e s i n r a s 'breatl-red his gest that these ttvo portions form Mark's otrt rnomerrtof his rleath,he au. spirit' (75:37, trans.);the temple cttrtain tears;atrcla cetttltrion-16[ God.-r-nakes a declaration alrottt Jestts'stlnship."lf' Juel stirred mf irnagirrationb1'observ"Reflectionstrggests that the relationirrg, both ends of the irrclttsioare ship Lretrveen corlplex, not simple, atrd urerit fultirer: i r r c l t r s i o ,f e a t u l i n g J e s l t s 'b a p r t i s ma n d c ru ci fi xi ol l as art()i rrti ngand errthronentent respectirrely. With van Iersel or lVailis, one rnight "bookellds" or c'xpectto firrd Mark's i i n c l r . r s i on l : 1 - 1 3 a r r d a c o r r e s p o n d i n g

I-lort'ever, portion at the end itr 15:40-16:8. oue does uot theseportiot-ts, stud1,."ll F{is o\vl1 \\'ork, hc)tvever,sir-rrpl1' upon reaclirrg tl-re linkages Lretr'r'eetr touches Ltporlthis complexity rt'hile chal- find man)' r'erbal tcl lenging reaclers advancethe studl'. lin'o tu,o. Or-iefir'rdsMark's merrtiotr of John's


c a m e l h a i r s a r m e n t ( 1 : 6 )a n d t h e y r ) u n g man's robe (16:5).17 Th.'rugh lvlark's nrerlt i o n o f c l o t l r i n gi s a d n r i t t e d l yu n u s u a l p a s s a g e s s tr onger rrerl rall i nkage of' the , r v i l c l e l r r e s sa l r d t o r n b s e t t i n g s l r ' o u l d

oi rectrrring terrls, expressions, cognates, a n d a s s o c i a t ei d e a s t h a t r r a t u r a l l t ' l i n k rvi th l :1-13.Motyer note.s clt r st er ingoi a botl'rJestrs' baptism (1:9-11) arrcilris death ( 1 5 : 3 6 - 3 9i)r r c l u d i n g ( 1 ) c l e c l a r a t i o n h a t t

a rrc -t i g n i fi cant r,r.i thi rr s eacl r of the tr,r' o rnoti fs that occtrr i n Mark's accour r t at

Ita v e n ra d e the connecti orr unmi stakatrl e. Jesr-rs the S on of God (at b apt isnr ,G od's is A c l e a re rl i n l< nri ght be tl -re expl i ci t nl en- voice;at death, the centurion);(2)a tearing tion of Jestrs'movenlelrts, irr the openine s c e n e " f r o n - rN a z a r e t h o f G a l i l e e " ( 1 : 9 ) ancl at the tornb "the NazArelte" is going " i n to G a l i l e e " (16:7). et, there i s l i ttl e i n Y 1 5 :4 0 -1 6 :8 at comme.nds s porti orl as th thi the clostrreof the inclr-rsio. fact, Mark's In of the sky' nt-,.1 tfuecurtain; (3) desce't oi o[ the Spirit arrrc] tlesccntof the tear in the (4) ctrrtain (from top to L-rottonr); Elijah is s),mbol i cal l ypresent(atbapt isnr ,ir rJohn; at cleath, in the nrockirrg of the people); arrcl(5) recepti onof the S pir it ( pt u, t t n. r r ) 'at

s t o r l ' r e s i s t s c l o s u r e a t 1 6 : 8 . I n s t e a c l , b a p t i s m a n c ld e p a r t u r e o i C h r i s t ' ss p i r i t "N{ark's Gosprel euclslvith Lrothhope ancl at cleatlr (ercpneusen, 75:37, 39), sigrrifierl d i s a rp p o i n tnrent." l ls he fi nal t\t,o vel ' ses rt,itl-r double use of the.noun's cognate the e-rrdthe narratir.e by sr-rstainirrg terrsiclrrs Greek verb as a euphr.nrisrn.2(' these t)o "betr,r'eerr of the storl', tension Lrlir-rdness exhar.rst verbal l i nkage . s t r veenhe the be. t a n d i n s i g h t, conccal rnent;rnd openness, tn o [-rortions? Jtrxtaposingthe tert of both s i l e n c ea n c l procl anrati on.The terrsi oni s tlclt re.solr.ecl."I9 T h trs , l a c k oi str:orrgverbal l rnkages rv i th 1:l -1 3a ncll ack oi cl osureto thc.story Lrorti orrshol ds pronri se fo r ir lent iiying nrore l i nks. 81,l 31,i ng trvo passag es the sicle side, b1,

e\/en in English (but tretter in Greek),LrtL, i n th e re s u rr ecti on narrati ve (15:40-16:8) el i scoversseve.relcatcl rn' o r ds ancl svr r l i s l e s s t l r a n s a t i s f y i r r g .T h e c n r c i f i x i o n or1\'nr phrasestlrat lirrk the tu'o pt.r'icope s as shou' n i n l abl e 1. V I a r k ' s n a r r a t i v e o i fe s u s ' l - r a p t i s n ' r foresl rador,r' s the crr-rci fi xion nar r at ive

p e ri c o p ei rr 1 5:33-39s more.pront i si ng as i the clclsingr-nenrber the inch.rsicl oi Lregun i n 1 :1 -1 3fo r here onc di scoversa cl uster ,

Table I C a t c h w o r d s a n d S y n o n y m P h r a s e st h a t F o r m t h e I n c l u s i o Mark 1:l-13 l:l Son of God a v o t c ec n e s o u t heavenstorn open Spirit descendinginto him descending a voice came fiom heaven a v o i c e c a n r ef r o m h e a y e n he was with the wild animals [ a n g e l s ]w e r e m i n i s t e r i n g t o h i n r

Mark 15:33-41 l5:39 I5:34 l5:3 8
Son of God Jesuscried out with a loud voice. temple curtain torn open in frvo

l:2 l:10
l :l 0

l 5 : 3 7 , 3 9 he yielded his spirit
l -5:38 from top to bottom Jesusreleaseda loud voice darknesscanre upon the earth Ithe centurion] who stood by in hostility to him [women]were ministering to him

l:lI l:lI l:13

l5:31 l5:33




and s)'nolr)'nr phrases. r,r'itl-r c;rtchr'r'ords o Bot]r prortiorrs f the irtclusioincltrde l ru clear aif ir m at iorr o f J e s trsi' rl e rrti tr,' t i n

n 'i l derness Jesttsi s bl essedb1, the voi ce n, tl r at conrcs ottttei l l ,e speaki ng C ocl ' s .ft' l Worcl of anoi nti ng to hi rl from P sal m 2:Z

(cf. Cen rcrlzsl orc1L.r. The evangelist tregins tl-re 11 rLr\/erse 1'rsalt-r-r Isa 42:1;2Sam T:il4; ))' 2,72,l 6). On the cross, teat' en' s l ence l si r,r,ith the titular t-leclarastor'\,abclutJesr,rs "The darktress that contes of tiorr, begirrr-rirrg the gospel of Jr-stts acconrpanieshc'ar/-\, oi tnrtlr, renriniscernt Ccld's tlrc T C lr r is t ,t he S or t t i Go d "(l :1 ). h e s u rp ri s i n g ttL)on rplrctlt "Tr r-rlt' of this j u cl gn-rent darknessthat came upon the cr-lriessiotl, Gentile centtrriort's (E brir-rgs rr' hol el and of E g),Lrt xoci10:21-23).l esus n-ran\\r;rstl're Sorro.iGod" (15:39), c n the ev angelis t ' s a rt' a ti v eto a tr i ro r-ri c l i mar.ll This irorr), is lr)' design, for Marrk cries alour-lhis lamerrt oi abatrc-lotrtrteut, of qtrotirrg Psalrn 2a:7,in thc rniclc-llc the

terlls hou' Jeslts,throughotrt his utitristl'r,', d a 1' rvl ten the sttn ordi nari l r,,shi nes. In s re v eals him s e' lf r,t,i thv e i l c c -l p e c c h a n c l k ee' pi rrgn' i th Mark' s al l usi ve ref' erence that seebut clo trcltprr'rccive to S cri ptnre, cl arknessat the si xth hotrr' action to e1,es j do and to ears that hear L-rut t-toi ttuder- o t the da1' 15C od' s eschatol ogi caludg"Ancl jesus' final act upolt the cross ment, as in Amos 8:t orr tl'ratduy,' Nclr,rl star-rd. tru l t i ror r ic allt r r r t r . e i l s-ri s e i d e rrti tl ,a s So rl make the sttn declare.s l-orclGoq'I r,r'il1 the at o.fCod, not to orre of his follor,t'ersLrttt tt.r g o don,r-r noon and darken the earth i n oac-l a1,lt1-',."' cl 1 corttes Lrr tvltose cotrie'ssic-lrl his c'xectrtiorrer i n r es pons et o t h e n ' l a n n e ro f J e s trs ' c l e a th . Bec aus e es r - r si e l c 1h i s s p i ri t o i h i s ttrt' u J ), s 131' the executiorter'ss\r'ot'c1. his deatlt lie elicits flom his enetny n,hat nolte of his " T rttl y tl -ri s rl a n fo llon' er s c or lf e s s e c l : So, rt'asthe Son of Goc1."21 as Mark's storl' N , [ a r k ' sn a r r a t i r . e d r a \ \ ' s a c o u t r a s t l-retr,r'een Jesus' baptisnr aucl crucifixion ti he r.olitiorr,url,eilirrg his iclentit)', sl'reaths u ,hi l e at the san-re me l i nki ng the trt' o fot itrsepraratrl)' l1tttuaI intc'rpretatio1.At the lte'ars hcavetllz 1261.u his Lraptism Jesus of approbatiorr(lr4arkl:11).At his crucifix-

is ion hear.err silent and cottersJesusu'itl-r A l -' eginsit als o en d s l v i th a p l a i n a ffi r:n ra - tl ie darkness of j udgnrent (15:33). t hi s tion of Jesus'identitl', but ironicalll, it'ntrr kel), character.2l an ur-rli Lraptismin the u'ilclelness the z,oice .fronr evidently Irent,ert speaksapproval to Jestrs,

oi Upon the cross ar-rdrt,ith a lotrd uoice for hinr alone, for there is no t-nentiotr cf. heari ng (1:11; Mati 3:17;Ltrke Je s usc r ies out in th e d a rk n e s s th a t l -ra s o tl -rers " M )' C J o c l My 3:22).At his cnrcifixiotl, Jesus'r,ttice ! con' leLlpon hir n (1 5 :3 1 1 ). ft'ortt f G o c i ! W h y h a r . e 1 ' 6 1 1 o r s a k e l t l r L ' ? " t'nrtlrspeaks lamerrt to God, directecl to n' p unc t r - r at es it h l a n re rrt th e s to rl ' th a t otrt cl'1ri1-'t btrt Lreginstvith auttther rtt'tict: "Pt'epare thc' tvitl' of irr the rvilderrress, th e t - or d; m alc e s tra i g h t p a th s fo r h i t' u " ( 1 : 3 ) .I s a i a h ' s " h i g h n , a v f o r t h e L o r d " rt'ith in reachesits zer-rith tl-rer-rr-rcitlxiotr Je s t r s c r \ / ir 1got t t, fo rs a k e trb \' h i s F a th e r ' oi uoit:e approbation he heard in r,r'lrose hear n'ithout hirn alorre,Lrut b)rstarrder"s u r r c l e r s t a r - r r l i na n d m o c k h i u r ( 1 5 : 3 5 ) . g the l n the rt,i l cl erness Jesusexperi errces Lr-1, of aLridingpresenceof Goc-l 1n'uy angels (Mark 1:13). t l i i s cruA i vho rri rri sttn'ttthhn t Lry ci ii x ion Jesustrnd ergoes aLrandont-rren and evel-l by God, by atlge'ls, l-risfollor'r'ers,

trtirristet' faithful tt^t by rvonren rvho r,\/el'e j n Gal i l ee (15:40). euuotutcethe u'ilderness r,r'henhe rvas l-raptizecl, to l ri tn Jestts' "YoLl are ri-ly Sorr, the Lrelclvedt-ltre;it't merrtof his Cod-appointerlnrissiotrcomes Irr yot r I am r , r ' ellp l e a s e d " (1 :1 0 -1 1 ). th e to pass-" The S on of Mrrtr di d rrot come

nc) IJ

(10:45). seenlsto foreshac-krn, descriptionof the ttt lte rnilristcred Lrtrtto tttittister'" fo his Sigrriiicarltllr \,1ot'p's dttal ttse'oidinkorre0 in e p i s o tl e (i :1 3 ) arrc' forc.shadorvs ts trse l i i rr tl re c rtrc i fixi on account (15:40). These a l e th e o n l y ' t rses of the vertr i n Mark' s C o s ;re l . B e s i c l e s a u s i n g t h e c e n t u r i o n ' sc r ) l t c fe s s i o n -" T rtrh' tl ri s nrarn rvas the S on ot I{ otnan centuri on.16 The rvi l c lt r east s, hosall tt'ho a1-lplo,,.ed cr"ucifixicln, in bttt Jestts' parti ctrl ar to the r-enturi onn 'ho st ood by ( the cl oss i n l i osti l i trr ton,arclJest r s 15: 39; lut pnrest€kds etrnrrtins ej\ ntftott). it4ark's Lrap i sr-rr at'rative also i r-n i ct n prl th i s p -r3 5 5 ;1 g eroes ts use i n the trapti snr tile ioes in the r,r'ilclerness, e cl i corresponrl tr-r

i tl t, for:eshadon'hi s crtrci fi xionn. rr r at ive s (1 5 :3 9 )-j esus' l oudl y voi cecl),i el cl - r,r,ith Cod" reference Elijah.The drama Lrt'gins to irrg of lris spirit tenrsctpett tlre tenrple r,'eil u,i th the eschatol ogi cal l i j a h pr : eaching E fronr top to bottonr into tr.t'o pieces. I'hese ti t' o e ffe c tso f Jesr-rs' ci yi rrg-(1) teari ng the i n the l vi l dernessand adrni nist er ingpur ifi cati or-r tes for l ' eP entarrce sir r in t he ri of

o f th e c trrta i rrand (2) the cerrttrri on' s corr- Jordan River (Mark l,:2-9). The prol',hecies i e s s i o rr-s i g n i f1,that tl ri s i s not the cl ose ci ted (7:2-3; Mal achi 3:1;Isa iah 40: 3)and o f a tra g i c l i fe btrt the i roni c di scl osure the. urrarnbi guous notati on on clot l- r ir - r g o f th e s a n reJestrsn,ho sarv the heavens by rt' hi ch E l i j ah rvas i denti ti ed ( M ar k 1: 6; trtrrt 1 :trt,rrto rvhotn the S pi ri t descarrtl etl2 K i ngs 1:B )rnake i t evi cl e r r tt hat lvI ar k o i , "YoLl and n,ho hcarc'la r,oiceacclatinr, are vie\,r'sJohn as the last davs Elijah rt,ho rn y S o n , th e b el ovecl orre; i n yotr I arn scrves eistl-reheralci for one to conre rvho (1:1i ).fhree escl ratol ogi cal i s " m o r e p o r t ' e r i u l " ( M a r k 1 : 8 ) . 1 7 h i s n'ell pleaseel" T events occur at once-(1) tlie renclinq o[ tlre ho.avens([sa (t4:I), the anoilrting b1' a n c l th e v o i c e or:i ei nati ng from hcaven (l s a4 2 :1 ; s 2 .7).24 P Thesethl ec' si gni fy that Isaiah'sprophecy concerrrinsthe "Wa1'6,; H o l i n e s s ," \\' hereno uncl ean person rvi l l s u l rn ti ts to J ohrr' scl eansi ng l i te, l rot to c o n i e s ss i n s a s others cl o (Mark 1:5),btrt a s C o d ' s b e l o rred S on rvho pl eases the F a th e r to l e a cl C od' s p-reopl e fronr exi l e i n to p ro m i s e . The Li terary S i gni fi cance of In k e e p i n g r,vi tl iJesus' anoi nted carl l , Mark' s Incl usi o thcSpirit,girrentoJestts,castshirnoutinto As state.cearlier, the strtrcttrre of l th e n ' i l c l e n l e s s be tempted b1' S atanfor IvIark' sGospel i s compl ex rvit h var ious to fo rtt' d a 1 ' s ,re pl i cati ng l srael ' sexperi ence epi sodes tangl eci toeether so t hat t he. y i u th e ' u ' i l c l e rtress fort1,years.l sIn t]i e for a l l i e s ,l re i s u ,i th w i l d bensts not al one, but fo r a n g e l s trti rti ster hi nt (I:12-13; P s to cf. r,vildbeastsis Lrriei(etrrrretn tlreri0rr), tdrt it bear nl ore than one Ii tel ar], r 'elat ionshipr . N oti ce that Mark 6:30-44has t r n, olit erar)/ rol es. Fi rst, i t provi des t he secor r d arrd r,r'raps arou nd 6:74-29. Second,Mark v v i l c l e rtre s J e sus dr,r' el l s s anrong S atau' s For exarnpl e, consi cl er Tabl e2. allusive reference to Elijah foreshaelou,s thc' Lrystanders'taunting; anticipation of dorvn fror-nthe cross (Mark 15:35-36). Tlie taunti ng crcl r,vd' s mockerv-"19pf t ! He cal l s for E l i j ah" -r' esponds to Jesus'loucl cry irr Ararnaic, "Ekti! Eloi! Lartn snltnchJolrn as the prornised Elijah figure (77:2733), tl'rey also clo not ackrrou,ledgt'Jesus as Sorr of God (12:7-72).

tl re Sp i ri t d e s cendi ng i nto hi m (l sa 67:7), Elijah'simminerrt appearance takeJesus to

tra v e l , i s rro rt'i trl fi l l ed (Isa 35:B )as Jesus thttni !" 28 ecausethel ' fai l to r ecognize B

9 1 9 -1 3 ).T i ro trghMark' scl escri pti onoi the hal f of the fr;-rme. that L-reg ins 6: 6b- 13 in



Framing B A


6:6b-13 6:14-29 6:30-44

E1 B1 Dr D E A1 cl C r--L-l 1 3 6 : 3 0 - 4 46 : 4 5 - 5 67 : 1 - 2 3 7 :2 4 -3 0 7 : 3 1 - 3 78 : 1 9 8 : 1 0 8 : 1 - 1 8 : 1 4 - 2 18:22-26





lnclusio B

/ \ 8 1 8:22-26 :2 7-9 :2 9 9 : 3 0 - 1 0 : 310:32-45 1 0 : 4 6 - 5 2


6 :30- 44is t he f ir s t e p i s o c l eo t' fi r,e , n ,i th r each having corresporrclirrgccursivc' o e p is odesir r 8: i- 2 6 .So , 6 :3 0 -4 4(fe ' e d i n g f' th e 5000) c or r el a te sto 8 :1 -9(fe e c l i n go f e p i s o d e s . S i m i l e r r l ) ' ,8 : 2 2 - 2 6 f u n c t i o u s pivotalll, for trt'o literary portio.s. First, it

trr-rit, corrcspondthe otrtliner-l a d istir-rct as i rr g i ncl usi o porti on to n,hi ch i t l i nks l i teri l, a ri l 1,(15:33-41)s i r-rseparatrlenrbcddcd i n the cmci fi xi on narrati ve (15:21-41).s A It4ark' s cor-npl ex1i terar1'arrange' mertts

the 400t1) r'r'hichbegirrs the livc're'ctrrsit.e s h ort' n above, thi s i s the di ffi cul tl . that Pose for identiff ilg strttcture, even n-Iore outlirresfor teac|i.g arrd is the firral episode in the recursirrec1,cle so for arrall'11631 prcacl-ring. \Vhat is the significance of Mark's above alread;' hints at much ot the significance.The qtrestionis r,r'orthyoi some foctrserlreflectiorr. Marrk' sC ospel uses i ncl trsi o to en\/ecpi l ope a si r-rgl c' socl e or to encl ose an exterrdec'l rrarraLiveportion. An erarnple to t he t r lind nla n o f Be tl i s a i d a (8 :2 2 -2 6 ) nlan to hearing and spee.cli the c-leaf-r-utrte (7:31-37).)e Secorrd,Jesus' giving sight at (B:22-26)b eg i n s t h e nr i c1 ect i o n s Bet l'rsai r1 a recotrntsJestts' thrce oi the Cospel, rvhicl'r e xplic it annollnce n re n tsth a t fe a ttrreh i s n'ith lrrief nrentiotr of impencling clc-ath

that s pans 6: 30- 8 :2 6 [e s u s ' g i v i n g s i g h t .

co lr es pondst o Je s u s 'g i rri rrgu r-ri n rp a i re d r t , h o l e n a r r a t i v e i n c l u s i o ? D i s c n s s i o r - r

(8:27-9:29; o f a si ngl e epi sode i r-rcl trsiio the P arabl e s after lris restrrrectic'rr-r three cla1,s an 9 :30- 10: 31; 70. 3 2 -1 5 )d e n d s rt' i th [e s tts ' o f the S oi l s rvi th Jesus'cal l at i ts outset tcr " Li sten!" (4:3) and hi s appeal at i ts cl ose, g i v ir r g s ight t o L rl i n d Ba rti tl a e u s (1 0 :-1 6 "Lct the one rt'ho has ears tcl hear listen!" givirrg sight 52).The trvo episodesof Jestts' t o b l i n d e y e s f o r m a r r i r r c l n s i o a r o u n d (a :9).l -l -ri sLrri efi rrcl usi o si gnal s hearers Mark entangles epihis Becatrse 8:27-70:45. t so dest his r v ay it i s d i ffi c r.rl to o u tl i n e th e Cospel'rt'ith fi rm literarl, f.l6s11daries. i) W hile t he bap ti s m e p i s o d e (.1 :1 -1 3s d i s c er r r ablcas t h e p ro l o g u e a n rl c a u b e ' of a lrout the i r-nportance heari rrgthe paral''le for understarrding. Orre u'ho he'eds ]estrs'call to listerrrecognizesthat the parand alrleis atroutl-rearinS; various levelsoi hears i mpai red heari ng. Thus, ol re r,r' ho




c l o e sn o t n c ccl to ask for an expl anati on -fivelve of the paralrle. The fact that the a s kJ e s u s o r a n exprl anati onnc-l i catesrat i i tl th t' i r h e a r:i rrqs 1' g1ntpai red. i i 'ln.o exarrrples f inclusio that spilll o

r r a r r a t i v e ?C r r - r c i a la s t h e r e s t r r " r ' e c t i o n rrarrativeis to the frrll storl,of Jetsus, Ir,,[ark does rrot feattrreit r,r,itlrinthe Gospel or as l i i s l i terar:yi rrcl usi oor b1' giving it r - nt r ch

l ength.30 i th numerous cat chn, or cls W and l o rrg e r rra l ra ti ves are (1) gi vi ng si ght tcr synon\/n-r phrases that l i rrk t he bapr t isnr (8:22-26) i th arrc-l r,rci xion n arratives,Ma r'l< tur:es th e b l i n c l m a n at B ethsai ci a n' cr fi fea g i v i n g s i g h t t o b l i r r c lB a r t i m a e l r s r - r e r i i l c l ro (1 0 :4 6 -5 2) errcl osi nsthe rrarrati veof C hri st' s cr:uci fl xi c-ut, hi s r est r r lect ior r , not as the clinrax of the story, placing the thrr.ea11llollltcentents the Tr,r'elve Lrr-rr:iarI reslrrrc'ctionepisoclesbet,ond to Testts' and c o n c e rl ri n g h i s i n-i pe.ncl i ng dc.arth rr.hi l e thc. feattrreclcl i max. The m anllL- r r , r 'it h -10 t raveli n g torrra Je. saIenr (8:27 :45); rvhi ch Mark ends hi s Gospc'lin a kir r clof l'rl ru (2) the rvidor,r,r,r'ho,from her anrl 1-ror'- narrarti l ' esuspensi on has l or r g iur pelled er:t1iplacesall lrer r,r'ealt]r into thc tenrple readc.rsto l ook for a sui ta r lr le. r lr t ' clist trearsurl,(12:4i-44)u'ith the.nornrrrr r,r'iro nrax.sll \,{ ark' si ncl trsi o i cl en t if iest he clia n o i n ts J e s u srt' i th extravagantperftrrne nrax to be C hri st' s cruci fi xi o n ar s glor l' his (1a:1-11) Lrr:acketing ivlor-rnt Olir,es oi Jestrs' D i s c c l rr e th a i cal l s for u' atchful nessancl rs and enthronemel tters the S o n of G od. I r or it is here that orreproprerlyrecoi;rrizes arrc-l p e rs c rv e ra l l c cr rentai rr l o1' al cl i sci pl es confessesJestrs'trtre character, irlcrrtitl', to (13:l-37). anci rl i ssi orr. l t i s as the cru cif ieciSon oi In c l trs i o ,s i r l i l ar to sandr,r' i chi ng scr C ocl that Jestrs (al recei vesstrLr jectint o his s c a l l e d f r a m i r r g ) ,i s M a r k ' s b u i l t - i n i r r t e r - kingdor-rr,rvhere erremies arrrj are -i,ielc-l p r e t i v e a s s i s t a n c e o r h i s r e a C e r st h a t m;rc-l corrfessi ng f e strLrj ectsk e t he cer r t uli " c a l l sa tte n ti o r r the l i terarl ' rel ati onshi p-rs ri on n' ho ackrroi n' l ecl ges, uly, t lr is m an to fr a n ro l l g tl i e e ncl oseclrrarl ati ve epi sodes. r,r'as the Son of God." Ma rk ' s n a rra t i rre. Jesns'bapti sm fol e.oi S i gni fi carrtas C l -rri st' s ur r ect ior -is, res r s h a d o r,r' s e rcruci fi ri on narrati ve rt' i th th c a tc h n ,t' rrd s rrcl s)/l 1orl vl -n a phrases rrot fo r Ii te ra r),c u ri osi t)rl l or even for:l i terarl ' Mark' s C osperli eature-sthe cr t r cif ixion i n Lroth tl ' re i ncl usi cl arrcl th e nar r at ir r e

botrncl ecl ' tl re i ncl usi clE achof t he t hr ec bl . b e a trtvb u t i o r theol ogi calurrderstandi rrg. a n n o u r r c e m e n t so i J e s u s /a p f r r o a c h i n g l v l a rk i o rg e s t hersei ntra-tcxtual verl ral d e a t h i n J e r t r s a l e m r o v i d e s i r r c r e a s i n s p l i rrk s to s i g n a l readers that fesr-rs' barp- c l e t a i l c c l n c e r n i n g t h e m i t l l n e r o f h i s ti s n r ;rn d h i s c rr-rci fi xi on theol ogi cal l i ' death rvi th the sar-rre are attach nr ent ,"af t cr inseparalrleancl that these tr,r,cl bookc.nds b i n c i th e u ' h o l e narrati ve together-so that, tlrlee c-la1's r,t'ill rise again" (ktti rtrt,ttt he trei sl rl rrterns nnsstesetni ;:31 ; 31; l0: 34) . B 9:

n ' i th o r,rtth e m, n' h.rt l i es betureen them Mark's featureof the crl-rcifixiotr eviclerrt is n'ill not be pr:operh'reacl or under.stooci. fronr the nri dsecti on of the . G osl- r gl, 1s ; Yet, the liter:ar'1, relatiorrshipis urutual, for hi rrteclat i n tl re carl i er di sct r ssionof t he p r()p e r n rrd e rstanr-l i ng Jesus'Lrapti snr l i tcrarl , arral l gemetrtof N { ark 8: 22- 10: 52. of a n rl o f h i s c r" trci fi xi on recei ves ts fr-rl l ness This, the heart of lvfarl<'s i Gospel, is rvhere from thc narratirreencaseci r,r'ithinMark's I ite ra-r Lroclkco\/ers. ry A l l th i s p ro r upts a questi on:W hv does th e i n c l u s i c ln o t encl osethe' resnnecti on rt,e find catchu'ords apd s)/l1ol1)/11 p[rases front the baptisrnarrd crtrcifixionc.pisocles i rrtersecti ng. Jesus'tri pl e al tlt oult cem t nt of hi s i mpendi ng crtrci fi xi on f eat ur eshis


sa crif ic ialdeat h as h i s g l o ri o trse n th ro n c me.ntarrd thus the clin-raxof lvlark's Cosp e i . \ , V er t ' ill f oc t r s a ttr.rrti o rtu L ro rttrv o

P c t e r c o n f e ' s s e s",Y o u e r e t h e C h r i s t ! " (8 :2 9), u,i th the.other di sci pl es,i nrmehe, diatcll, shon's hort' faintlt, he hears ancl

rii rii


l i

p e ri c opes :J es us ' L ra r-rs fi g u ra ti o(9 :2 -1 3 ) h ttrv di nrl l , l re sees Je' stts' n true i denti ty a rrd J am es ar r d J o h r-r' s trrru s u a l rc c l trc s t (c t. 8:31-33). ke the bl i nd r-nanertJestrs' Li (10:35-45). Th e inc his io c - rJe s u s ' g i v i n g s i g h t to i L rl i n de) ' eslr our r dsM a rk 8 :2 2 -1 0 :5u ,h i c h 2 f e a t r - r r eh i n r g i v i n g i n s t n r c t i o n t h r e e s th ti me s t o all his disc i p l e s c o n c e l n i r-rg e rl p l rrp os e oi his ir - rrp e n d i r-rge a th a n d a fo trr t h t it ne pr iv aL e l l ' to th re e .d i s c i p l e s fi rs t toLrch,thei r serl sesl acl <cl ari t), ancl definiticln. Accnrate as Pc.tet''s conf-ession i s , i t l a c k s c o l r p l e t e l r e s s ,r v h i c h J r ' s t r s b e g irrs to ruake pl ai n by sayi ng that l -re n ' i l l suffer ancl di e at the hands of tl -re rtl i g i ous l eacl ers ancln' i l l ri se agai n after' thrc'e da1'3. Peter'spatlorrizilrg arrd srt,ift

i1 ll




at his transfigtrratior-r. shor'r,ne'arlier, rebtrkeexposesthe inar-le(luac\/ his conAs of lb a u'ithor.rt J e s u s ' o p e r - r i n t€ . \ ' e s t B e t h s a i d a i s a s fessiorr.3l acknorvledge Je'sus t'or l i t e r a r i l y l i n k e c l t o h i s g i i t s o f s p e e c h ;rccotrnting his crucifixion at the hancls as arrd lrearing to tl-redeaf mrrtc (7:37-37) n 5 2 ) . 8 1 . h c ' . r l i r - rig ' r p a i r e d h e a r i n g a n d o i th e rel i gi ous l eader:ss i narl ecl uate i arrd Iieginning in tl-re traptism pericope ar-rd to h i s giv ing s ight to B a rti n ra e u s(1 0 :-1 5 - i n n eed of furthel i nstructi on. and r.ision (8:22-26) Clcispelis a speeclr(7:31-37) Jesr-rs running ll-rrolrghotrtN4arl<'s "\'oice (7ilntto) ica zes rnotii" n'ith r,r'ords s1'r'nlrol II1,6lro,r-rati h is teachi ng role expressfc'attrres rvith the T\r'eh,e. Se-\,eral nrakc'it i n g recogrri ti onof Jestrs C l od' s on,for, as S th cl e a r t hat J es usc lesi g rre c l e s e tn ' o s i g n s in part, the plotted conflict the rrarratirze to repr es et t t s 1r 11 [ro l i c a l l th e d i s c i p l c ' s capttrres devc'lopsal'oul-rc-l voices.'A y rival n 'i th t heir dt r ll ear s , i rl rp s l 6 g p ti v ee \/e s , voicecrf ing in the rtrilderness"app-rointed "pre1-rare arrc-l their inatrilitl, to arrnotrrrce rvith clar- to the u'ity of tl-reLord" (1:3)is ' fl ' ,. "voice d i s c i p l e s a re joinecl b)t it i t1 'Je s t t s 't r ue ider r ti ty . frour hea\zr'lt"sa1,it-tg, "YoLr like these t\r,o lnen u,hont Jesusheals. As are my Son, the belovec-l orre;irr )/ou I arlso has drau'rr r,r'iththese t\,r'onren, Jcsr,rs the T\r,el',,e aside frorn the crorvclsto give special attt.ntiorrto thenr to unstop their' d e a f ear s and t o ope rl th e i r b l i n d e y e s(c f. anr r,r'ell This prir,atedivine pleased"(l:11). " S on i rrv e sti ttrre Jesusn' i th thr. ti tl e of of Cod" tinds rival voicesfrom demons r,r'ho s e e k to preempt Jesus'sel f-cl i scl osnre i rr

i 4:17-72;7:77tf\. I-ike the deaf arrd mtrte t h e a p p o i r - r t e ct 1m e t r y p t r b l i s h i n g h i s 'frve'lve otrt lteat' onll' folt-ttl1'1"1-t-1 ide'ntitl' openllt. 'Aud Cr1zi1-tt f itft a I-ltal'I, the 'What do y,611 have to Je su s is t c , ac hir r ga tro u t h i n -rs e l f.T h e i r loud voice, l-resaid, S i mp air ed s peec lrf a i l s to c o n fe s sp l a i n l l ' d o rvi th nre, Jesus, on of the Most H i gh I Cod, c]or-tott6ruteut n'ho Jesustrttllz is because their eal's arL' Coc-l? acljtrre1'olrLr1, "' Ias L'tt-etr nref (5:7). Even thor,rgh demorrscclrrc.ctll' ]-t"' rirrg tryfiatJc'stts trc)tPrqpslll, sa yi rr g ( c f . 4: lO f f 7 :7 7 i f). e s u sp € rfo m rs ; J mA h i s s ign r v it h t he L rl i r-rd rl L re fo reth e disciprles'cYes,lrtri thsy fail t6 perceiye disciples pe'rceiveonly clirlll' 11'11.', Jc'stts is. They hc'ar or-rlyiairrtl\' 1.'1't', Jestrsis te a ching c onc r ' r nirrgh i n rs e l i . E i ' e n a ftc r iclerrtifl'lrim as Goc-l's Son (cf. 7:23-26,31), 1'..1-,.,Oes becar.tse tht'ur Jesusconsisterrtly, h e i rr terrds trnvei Ihi s or,r' rr to i dtnti t1' rt' i tl -r

(c T i ts trtr e s igr r if ic anc e f. 6 :5 2 ;8 :7 7 -2 t).' h e h i s orvn r,oi cei n l -ri sappoi nteclti me ancl
ltt allrler.

at So, Mark featr,rres the center of his (i i -rspel the trarrsfi gurati onof the S orr of



Il'lan rr,hen tlie dil'ine voice comes fronr

(9:7; t:gerreto rreTtlrcle cpiskinzousanufois).

the clotrclto iclenLif1' unambiguous11, The clotrclforcshaclorvs darkness that the Jesr-rs "Son as o f Gocl ." l lOther featuresbesi des comes upon the lr,hole earth at mic'lclav th e c l i rri n ev oi ce l i nk the tl ansfi gurati on (9 e ' p i s o d c :2 -13) th the bapti snraccotr rvi rrt ( 1 5 : 3 3 - 4 1 T.h e s e t h r e e a c c o u r r t s e p o r t ) r i n g a p o c a l l zpti cever-l tsi terari l y fol m a l (A-ll-Ar; see Table 3). cl'riasnr
Table3 Inclusio and Chiasm Apocalyptic Events in l\'[ark's Gospel 34

(15:33). r,r'lteu The voice. Jestrsis cr:r-rciiicd h e a r c l a t J e s t r s 'b a p t i s n r s p e a k s a g a i r r . abl e. l n the rvi l dernessat Jesus'bapr t isr n ( . tl teutti ce cotnes oJhenret r 1: 11)O n t he ottt nrotrrrtainat Jesus'tr:ansfigtrration uctice thc

( l : l - 1 3 )a n d r v i t h t h e c r u c i f i x i o nr r a r r a t i v e M a r k ' s n a r r a t i v e e c h o e s a r e L l n m i s t a k -

A I\larkl: l-13
Baptism l:l0 l:4-9 Heavens torn John as Elijah

B I\Iark 9;2-13

AI I\Iark l5:3341 Crucifrtiotr

9:3 9:4 9:7 9:l 9:l

Garments become radiant white Elijah appearswith Moses Cloud descends Voice from the cloud is my Son, the beloved one. Listen to himl" "This

l5:38 l5:34


curtain torn he calls ElUah.'


l:lI l:ll

Spirit descends
Voice from heaven are my Son, the beloved one, in you I am u,ell pleased. "You


Darkness comes

1 5 : 3 3 Jesus'loud voice
l5:39 "Truly, this man was the Son of God."

Six davs after Jestrs'iirstexplicit annolrncernetrof his God-appointed t c n rc i fi x i c tn , h e tal < esP etc.r, Jarnes,anci J o h n to a h i gh ul ol l nt.ri rr i or a pri vate a p o c a l l ,p ti cd i scl osLl re, gni l yi rrg vi si tasi ti o n c l f G o d i s at hand. On the mountai n

contes o.fthc clotrd(9:7).J-heclotrclthat ortf once shror-rded Mor-rntSinai (Exorl 24:7516),tl-ratcovered the r,r'ildentess ttrbcrnacle as the glory of the Lorcl inhabitecl it (Exori 4 0 : 3 5 ) ,a n d t h a t l a t e r f i l l c . c lS o l o n r o n ' s (1 tenrprls Kings B:10-1 r1o\^r 1) o\/e1s|adorvs

he is joinecl b), ttt',, sigtrificalt charactc.Ls the trarrsfi guredJestrs, s ancier r tcor nhi from lsrael'spast, It4osesand Elijah. Just pani ons, ar-rc1 three cl i sci ples, sigr r iil, ir r g a s C o d h a c l r. i si teci Israel i n theophani es orr N'lount Sinai (Exocl 24:15-78; Kings 1 1 9 :B), o J e s usrnc-rr.rrcntariilft" ti re vei l s l v o f h i s h trrn a n i ty to shi rre r,r' i th raci i ant the presence ancl glorv of Goct. Heaverr and earth collverge in Jesus;in liirlr Cot-l drvel l s bocl i l l ' amorl fi htrma r r s. 35 n t lr e O hi gh rnotrntai n LheS on oi Man is r . isilr ll,

splerrclor u'hile-spr.akirrgrt,ith Moses arrcl arrclatrdil-rly' reveraledas the Son of God E l i j a h ,i u d i c a ti ngthat the ti me of sal vati on and n' i tnesseclby three of his clisciples proprhesiecl the Lau' and the Prophets ['t' h a s n o n ' c o rn ei rr Jesus. n,hor" nJestrs i orbi cl s tcl tell anl, t t ne oi u' hat the1,l 1n6seen trrrti l the Son 'f M a. r

Ec h o e sfro rl Jesus'bapti sm narrati ve r,r' orrl d se i ronr the cl ead ( 9: 9) . O n t l- r e ri revellrera i rr the tla nsfig trr:at episocle. mountai n Jesus'di vi rre desigr r at ionand te ion hi s l reavcnl l rgl orv starkl )' cont r ast ivit h foreshac1c-nvs elenrcntsfouncl in the crtrci- hi s pl ai n speechof l i trnri l i at ion t hat "t he 'l'he fixion accotrnt. glory of Jesr-rs' tr.ans- S on of N 4arr rnust suffer nran] / t hings ancl ligtr ration Lreconres s[rrtucieclryitfi a clcttrtl Lrerej ecteclb1, the el tl ers a nd t hc clr iei tltnt cortt: ot e rsl ntlotuirtg e\/er)/ol1e t s r present pl i ests anrl the scri bes, and b e killecl,and Liken'ise,the transfigurationnarrative



s a i ter t hr ee c lc l\ . r i s e a g a i n " (8 :3 1 ). i1 b ear s s igniiic ar r c e s u b tl i ' d e v e l o l -re ' ctr Mark's Cospel fclr all n'ho havc' e)/es to se.eancl c.arsto hear.l6 Eliiah's presence n'ith the' Son of Gocl on the urottntait'tis

oi of tl-re coalescerlce Moses' presence, the s poken Lr1't,he di r.i ne voi ce, and of the g l ori ous di spl a;, of tl ' rcS on of C l od bears It l g reat si grri fi cance. foreshadcl n' s t' l tat breaths out his last takes placen'hern Jesus

o l - h e p r e s L r n c e i E l i j a h r o i f l r l \ z f o s e s clotrd oltthe Lord's presellce,of the r,r,ords

the cross ancl thc' temple i.or-t-r f a n e- c ho r om t he b a p ti s rr c p i s o d e .J trh n , loutl Cr'1, fo s th e las t c la1,E liia h (c f.6 :1 1 -2 9 ), re to l d o f c u rtai n i s torn frout top to bottorn.I-i kel y, "\\'ho is t'uorepotverir-tl the torn clrltair-t refers fo the outer rreil, the Corling Otrc' t[t- r 1 1. " Lik er y iS e ,i 1 th e p re s e n c eo f tl -re betn'eertthe Court of Jsraelatrd the clttte'r E S trans f igr , r r ed orro f N ,l a n , l i j a h y i e l d s to c o trrts,l ,i si H e to the C errti l ece' tttttri t' rtt.37 cl th e.S on of G oc lu' h o m h e a n d a l l th e g rc ' a t If so, tl -ri s i vi ne tcari ng si gni fi esa tri pl c 56:6-7, speakl fr" rl fi l l ment.t ful fi l l s Isai al ' r him in line of proprlrets Israelthat follt-rtt'ccl " tl tese u' i l l bri ng to nty' I s foreshadott'ed aucl proprhesied. Je'strcotr- i rr g oi Ge' nti l es, j oyftrl i rr firn-rstlie significatrceoi Elijal"r's Presetrce h o l 1,mcl nntai n,and rl al < e them house of pral'er; their btlrnt offc'rilrgs to the on the mountaitr as he rc-s;-rt-lttcls dis- t-u1' "\A/hl' and theil sacrifices acceptedor1my r'r'illt-re during tl'redescettt, ciples' rllrestiotr a l tar;for nrl , house shal l be cal l ed a hortse 'fearirrg (ESV). th rc rl u s t c om e f ir s t ? " (9 :1 1 ).e s u s ' c a s ts e i r of pral'e1 for all 1-ret'rplcs" J "\\'l-Iet1 o f t l i e c u l t a i n f u l f i l l s rltrestionof curiosity about Eliiali. T e s u sd r a m a t i z e d o d o t he t eac he' r s f th e l a u ' s a 1 'th a t E l i j a h a El ijah c onles iir st h e re ' s to re s l l th i n g s . prtlphecl/ Collcerllilg t6e tenr'le's doot' dtrri ng u,]ri ch he cl uotesIsai ah Arrci rvh)' then is it t'r'ritten that the Sor-r (1 1:15-33) Ironi cal l y the teari ng of the cr,rrfai r-t lrc of Man rlust suffer mttch anc-l rejected? 5 6 :7. reported that Elijah has come, and aIsoftrIiilIs the trvistc'dpr:ciphecl' 16 Ilut I Salz 1'or-r fal at thet' did to hir-n tvhatever they desirecl, L r )' sen,i tnesses hi s mock tri al (14:58) just as it is r,r'rittenof ltint" (9:12). The significance oi lvfoses'presetrceis a n d used by mockers at hi s crtrci fi xi orr (1 5:29).38

i F o r o u r p u l ' L r o s e so r r c 1 - r e r i c o p en confirnted tr1' the' divirte voice from the "This is tl1' Sott,tt'hour I love. I-istett Mark's Cospcl retuairrs for consideratiot-t clotrd: t T v to him ! " ( 9: 7;c i. 1 :1 1 ). l -re o i c e d o e s n o t b e f o r e c - l r a r t ' i r r g h i s d i s c t t s s i o t r t o a (1 ) i Mark 10:35-45 s crtrci al for as sp eak t o J es t r s a t h i s b a p ti s r-n :1 1L rtrt c oncl nsi c-rn. "Liste'ttto trnderstar-rcling sigrrificaltceof Mark's the to the three disciples.The n'ot'ds hinr!" arc'a clear allusion to Detttelollotlly 1 8 : 15- " T he Lor d )' o tl r Go d n ' i l l ra i s e u p like tue frour antollg for 1,ou a 1-rrophet irrcltrsio,Each oi tl-rcthree r,r,hole-Gospel ti mes Jesus anl l ol ul ces hi s i nrper-rdi ng c r u c i f i x i o n r , r ' i t hi n c r e a s e d c l e t a i l , h i s

trrothers. You ttrttst listerl tc-l d isci pl esexhi bi t thei r l ack of ttuderst;rudvollr o\,\''11 "proprhetlike tue" tl-ratMoses i rrg (B :31-34; 70:35-45). l on' i ng Fol 9:33-37; hinr." The has colrle, and he is greater Lrropl-resied than M os es . He i s a l s o g re a te r th a n th e that canle thlor.rgh ir-rstitutiorrs corzenant M os es , inc ludin g th e ta l re rn a c l ea n c l i ts oi h is pl ai nh, spoken anntl tl rl cemetrt hi s strfferings arrd death irr Jerr-tsaletn, Jat-nes and Jol-rnr-nakea request-"[]gcf1l\t' to tts that rve may sit one on )rottr right side arrd

tilled rvith tl-re one on )/our lc'ft in ).our glor1," (10:37).re rvhich had Lreerr sLlccessor, frot-u r'r'hich T li i s recl uest serves as a11occasi ou for' cloud of the Lord's pl'eseltcL' God's voice carne.T'hus,on the tlot-ttltaitt, irrstruction abottt Jesusto provide f r-rrther


h i s c l e a t h a r r c li t s r a r n i f i c a t i o r r sf o r h i s clisciples. E v i d e n tl y Jamcs arrclJohn thi rrk that to Jesus, rt,ltcltrr the1, (1-1qr\r' be lvlessiah thc glorl, of tl-rc falle'rr th'o'e of Da'irl

a sense somen,hat clifferent tront his use of tl i enr r,r' i threi erence to ] r ir nscli. I r or him, the ctrp arrclbaprtisnr entail his Cr-rt1-

allottec-l role as one n'ho is r-rot serveclLrut (8 :2 7 -3 0 ), g o i ng to restore to Jertrsal erl serves[1' gi vi ne ]ri s ortrnl i i e as a t 'a11solt 1 is for nrarrl ' (10:45), cl ear al l tr siont o I saiah a 53:10. his rlisciprles, irtrap;e.r1, oi For the prair the ctrp and oi Lrapti snrrcfer s t o pe. r secuti on that i s appoi nted to the - r 'n Clr r ist 's as follou'ers.

tty t,nseatingthe Ronransand clriving th e m o u t. J c .sus' respol tse i s sharp and relrtrking in riddlc iorrl: "YoLl do not t r n d e r s t a n d n ' h a t ) / o u a r e a s k i r r g .A r e )tou ablc'to c-lrirrkthe cr-rpthat I rlrink or

r'idclle-'like resporlse Jantes to ancl Jestrs' Lre bi'rprtized n'itl-rthe Lraptismrvitl-rr,r'hich John concernitrgbaptism verl-rallv echoes (l0:38).Tlreil aflirnrative the narrati ve of hi s bapti sm ir r t he Jor clan I anr Lrapttzer1?" reslronseclran,svet arrother ritlclle: "The R i ver and l ' oreshacl ol vs s cr ucif ixion hi c u p th a t I d ri rrk, yotr n' i l l dri nk, and the rt,ith s)/nonyltl pftrases.Jvl.rrk's mentio' baptisrtr r,r.ithr,vhich I am baptizecl, \/olr l v i l l b e L ra p ti zed,but to si t at m1' ri ght Llr nr)/ left is not nrine to trestort,Lrtrtfor of the truvo robbers cruciiied vr,'ith]estrs, "one on his right and one on his left"

(N zl ark15:27),recal l s Jarne s anc'lJohn's tl'roseto rt'hom it is preparecl" (10:39-a0). l equest: " Let one oi trs si t at ) / our r ight T h e c r,r1o f' rvi ne i s a coptrrrop i rrrager' )' arrd the other at youl l ef-ti rr -' ) / opr glor lr " o i d i v i n e a l l o tment, parti ctrl ar:i yas here (l\'lar:k 70:37).I'he irorrl'of the arrcl i o r C o c l ' s r v r a t h f u l j u c l s r n e n t ( c f ' . I t s of Jesus' response shotrl d n or v l- r econr e 75:B;Isir 51:17-23; 25:15-28). That Jestrs cl ear. The " gl c-rt)," :errthl onem ent t he ol Jer s p e a k so f th e angl ri sh of hi s cl cathtrurl er c i i s c i p l e q x p e c t e c li r o n i c a l l y t t u r - r so u t e d i v i n e j trri g n "rents denti n hi s use ol i th e i r-n ;rg e r't rvi ce agai n i n V {ark. Tl i i s \, i n r;rg e rv a p p e ars n,i ren he i nsti tr-rtes s hi to be Jesus' cruci ti xi orr. l ' he shanr eless ntockerl' heaped upolr Jesus, Lr1, he t R omarrsol di e:rsn thei r tnoc k cor onat ion, i

r-tlr.nroriallrlearl-'Anc1 he.toclk a cup. . . . tr1'tlre crir-nirral charge irrscrilreclasainst 'This is m1' blood ot'the correrrant, (" Jestrs N arzareth, r,r'hjch hi m of the King of t he is pourecl out for ntally,"' (74:23,24)ancl then later n'hen he pralrs, "Take tlris ctrp ilonr lne!" (la:36). T l ro trg h th e i nrag€r1z bapti sm for 1.,i " o v e r' \\'hel med being n,i th somethi ng" i s n o t a s p ro m i rrent u,i thi rr the C reek Ol d ' fc .s ta n re n t, i t i s present (LX X Isa 2l :-l ). Sh a d c so f th i s sL.l rse e L)resentn John' s al i "I arlrlolurcenrerrt: trafrtize)'clr-r rvith \\,atr-l; L-rtrt rvill baptize y,c-rtr he n'ith the Hol'',' Sp i ri t" (M ;rrk 1 :8).l rr V l ark l 0:38-39 Jesus speaks oi Lreingoverlt'helnrecln'ith sorConcl usion th e n i a n rre ro i h i s death.Jestrsnveststhe i Mark's Gospel is pr-rncttrated througlrinragcrv of tlre cuprancl of baptisn-rr,r'ith otrt n,i th i t' otr1, that i s botft r 'er bal apd rorn' arrcln.ith sr,rffer:ing he speaks ot as b), apd 11'r" Jetr,s"), rnocking passersl-ry, Lr1, cliief priests, tr-rmsout to be Jestrs'glorl', I'risenthronenlent.Tlref intencl instrlt,but their instrlts speak truths thel' rreitlrer intend nor u11de.rstancl. Thev trnrt'ittir-rgly ftrl l i l l Gotl ' s pLl rpose of ern t hr onir r gt he S on of C otl , for the Father'sappr oval"Yotl are ttt)/ Sou, rvftot1 I lorre; f itft \'cttr I arn rt'ell pleass6{1"-1uillbe Tesus', only if he clrinks fr"rlly"tl-recu1-r" appointed for hi nr (cf. 10:38anct14:35i ).


s i t u a t i o n a l .I r o n y i s p r e s e . t rrtt ' i t h i n t h e in inclttsict, tlie oi individtr;-rl perico;res tl-re cif incltrir-rterplay tlie trvo Pericoltes tl-re of

deprs;15 passage dalrktre'ss o1l1'lt,itI Jesrts' fronr tl'risliie, ripping the temple veil, an

a p o c a lt,pti csi grr of the ternpl e' sci estruc" thc: \r' a),of the itrterfacc's ti o n a nd the openi ng of sio, ancl in the \\,a)/the inclr.rsio rt,ith the rt'hcileof Mark's narrative. This crr.rcifixiolr. irony intensifies n'ith Je'strs' s1i1.'ott antl nrilitar'1r As religiorts,cit'ic, " Ki n p ; th e of i u Je rus alenlm oc k J e s u sa s Jen,s" the1,proclainr the tlr-rthand ironicalll' enthrone hinr as king Llponthe cross. Blirrded t-ryreligiotts zeal, apart frot-ttthe' Gentile executioncr,the1,fail to recognize the apocall'ptic signs ft'our heaverr tl-rat si g rra l God' s v is it at io n i n j trd g rn e n t a trd sa l va tion. Hunr ar t m o c k i n g a c c l a n ra ti o n a rrd d i v ine jt r c lgm en tc o n v e rg eu p o n th e baptism P.rrtrdoxicalllt, Son oi Goc1. Jestts' r,r'ithdarkness is his glory, l-riserrthronement. Jesus,rriro rcceives the exalted irtt'es"Solr" from his Heavenll, p311.'"t titure of f or a s h c is anoir r t ec - l h i s m i s s i o n a t h i s baptism ancl again at his transfiguration, b e rrd u re sanot her bap ti s m tl -ra t ri n g s h i s earthlv rlissiorr to its God-appointed goal. Crucified upon the cross he is overr,r'helmedu'ith anguish and suifering as life as a ransotl for nrany.The he gives l-ris is hearterrl)'r'oice silent.The cloud oI Cod's preselrce arrcl glori, that orrershaclon'ed i those on th c'm ou rrtai tr sig r-rfi e'dheavenll' as approlration. Norv the clotrclc-lescetrds the clarknessof Cocl to enshrotrd Jestts, a1d ide.heayell)' reprotraticl1 signiff ir-r5; ti ff i n g him r t ' it h t he rt' h o l e e a rth ttn d e r d i vi r-reu' r at h and jud g me ttt. J e s trsd o e s 'Abba, Fatlter," as itr the Carden not cry, (1,1:36), the end has conre. The clarkfor n e ss o f apoc all, pt icjt rd g me n t h a s fa l l e rr trncl upon him lt,ith divirre estrange'ttrent n ,ra th . I r r s t ead,he la n re n ts rv i th a l o u d "My Cocl! VI1,Q6c1!Wh1, ltave )'t'rtt voice, forsaken rlle?" I)assagcof titlt' doe.strot c l i s p r etl h i s a p o c a l y p t i c d a r k n e s s . T h i s L o rc l " f or C enti l es.

1E. Tr,-,cm The Formntion of tlte GosTtel 6, to nccordirtg Mntk, trans.Patlela Car-rgharr (I-o n don: I' C K / P hi l adel phi a: estnr ui W S s t e r ,1 9 7 5 ) , 7 2 . z D a v i rlR hoadsand D orral cl chi e, Mnrk Mi to ns Story: Atr ltrtrodtrctit'ttt the Nnrrntiue (l'hiladelphia: Fortress,7c)82). o.f GosTtel n C f. D avi d R hoads, JoanrraD ertey, and A D o rra l d Mi chi e, Mnrk ns S torry: tr l tttro2"" n to drrctitur tlrc Nnrrnfitteo.f GosTtel, ed. (lvtinrreapolis:Fortress,1999). 3Rlroacls, Der,r,e1r, Miclte, 47-62. arrd rScl'rolars name this valiousll, 3s irrterc a l a t i orr, frami ng, sandrvi chi ng, cven c l o v etai l i ng. S ce Mark 3:20-27,22-30, 31-35; 4:7-9, 70-72, 73-20; 5:21-24,25-34, 15-79, 35-43; 6:7-13,14-29,30-44; 71:12-74, 20-25; 14:7-2,3-9, 10-11,17-2I, 22-26,2742-46; 3 1 , 5 3-54, 55-65,6(t-72;15:40-41, " Markan 1 5 :4 7 -76:8. f.J. R . E dn' ards, C Sandwiches: The Significance of' Interpolations in Markan Narrati\'€s," I'Joz,utt 193-216; atrclTom Te rnn stnmetrf 3I (1989): NrrrSlorie-s; Slreplrerd Mnrknn Snndruich , rntiott, De.finit nnd Frmcfion (Andle\\/s iorr, Urriversity l)octoral Dissertation Serie's Utri18; Llerrien Springs, Ml: Anc-lrervs Press,1993). \/c.rsit)/ slihoads, Der'r'e1,, Michie, 52-53.The & e p ri sodestake the fol l orvi ng arrarl gen-le11t:

A I{ealing of the parallrtic (2:7-72) 13 Eati ng rvi th tax col l ecttxsatrclsi uners (2:-13-77) C Ij ati rrg on a day of fasti ng (2:1822) 8 1E ati ng by pl trcki ng grai tr orr


the Sabbath (2:23-28) A 1 Healing o f th e n ra n rt' i th th e n, it her ecl a n d (3 :1 -6 ). h 6lr or ex ar - np l es e e l v l . Ph i l i p Sc o tt, , " Chias t ic S tru c tu re .;A K e 1 ' to th e

e 1 [i c' l . l"lL'ric1. tn'o T'he portions read sr/rizo(l:10); furkntnmenoustt'tus t''ttrrorrs (15:38). pt:tnsnra tot.nttto escltisth€. u l rIL ' ,i d.

Finally both storiestell hor,r' rren,life spri ngs r-rpn thesep lacesoi cleat h, i i n the fi rst through the bapt isni, ir r the'seconcl through the resurrection fronr the dead" (27). 1sSee, r.g., up;ustirreStock, f/rc e A lvlethodmrd lvlessweof NInl, (\Vilmington: Michael Glazier, 19Bt)); and Wallis, 20ff. I harre strege.ste'd elsert,here tlrat lv{ark l:l shor-rld not be treateclas a ti tl e, cliscor r nect ecl

int er : pr et at i o no f l v { a ' s C o s p re l ," l2seeSiephen lvlotyer; "The Rencling rk B ilt lic nlT lr c o l o g 7 u l l e ti n 1 5 (1 9 8 5 ): of the Veil: A lviarkan Pentecost?," B 17- 26,Ci. [ Ja s c o n rW a l l i s , N Iq rk ' s lvlenrorry tlrcL"utrtre: Studtl itr fhe of t\ (Richland llills, l'X: Art of Theology BIBAL,1995), 70, 279, ior a chiastic arrallgeltrent of thc' n'hole' Gospel arrd 36 for identificatiorr of t he c hias t ica rra n S;e mc rrtf tn ro o f o . J es us ' pr ov e rl -rs F o r e x a mp l e , s e e Matk 2:27: A The Sabbath B u'as made ior hrrmankincl, 8 1 a n dn o t h t r n r a n k i n c l A r f or t he S a b tra th . Tltor a restrainecl exarlple, see Bas van iersel, Randitrg N'Inrk, trans. W. I-1. Bisscheroux(Eclintrtrrgh: & T. T. Clar k / Colleg e y il l e , MN : L i tu rg i c a l Press,1988),20-21.Van lersel strmnr ar iz es t he s tru c tr-rre f l V{ a rk a s o follon's: Title(t:1) (A 1) In tlrcdesert(1:2-13) ( ) ' 1 ) fi rs t h i n g e (1 :1 a -1 5 ) ( B 1) I n Ga l i l e e :1 6 -8 :2 1 ) (1 (z 1) blinclnLrss sight (B:22-26) (C 1) Ott therttny(8:271 0 :4 5 ) (z 2 ) b l i n d n e s s(1 0 :4 6 -5 2 ) ( B 2) I n l e ru s n l e t (1 1 :1 -1 5 :3 9 ) n ( 1 ' 2 )s e c o n dh i r r g e( 1 5 : 4 0 sight l J c z r 'T - c s fn t ( : t l tS t u d i e s3 3 ( 1 9 8 7 ) : n 155-757;atrd Darricl Ularrsel,, " fl-re' H eavenl )'V ei ITorn: Mark' s C osmi c

i rrcltrsio," Jort' rtnl of Biltl i cnl Lit et' t ttre n i rom the fl ort' of the t ext becat r sc o[ 1 1 0( 1 9 9 1 ) : 1 2 3 - 1 2 5 . "lvlark's trwilliarrr L. Lane, 'llrc See Cosuelncct'trtl- kcrthas. A. B. Caneclal,, irrg tttMnrk (Nert, Interuatiorral C o mmetrtarl r otr tl re N L.\,\' Testanrent; Crand Rapids: Eerdllitns, 7 9 74),576. Though dated, Lane' s n ' ork encl uresas a cl assi c. laVanIersel states, "The rvorcls 'clese r t' arrd' tornb'refer to pl acesn' hi ch i n the experi enceof thc.reacl erare i n r n a n y \ / a y s i n t e l r e l a t e c l :t h e v

P r o v o c a t i v e U s e o f S c r : i p t u r ei n Narration: 'I-{e Was lvith the \,Viki Anirnals arrclAngels Vlinisterec'l to Hinr,"' Bulletin o.fBiltlicnlRasenrt:h 9 (1999): S ee al so A. I J. Car r eclal', 21. "He Wrote in Parablesarrc-l l{iclclles: Mark's Ciospelas a Literarlr (etr'c)dtrction of Jesus' Teach ing N,[ethocl,"

Didnsknlisl0 (i999): 40-47. l6vvallis, 27-22. do not forrn part of tlie inhal-rited 1 7 \ , V a l l ia r g u e s , " B o t h s r,r ,orl d, oi the garpeopl t' do not settl e.n them, i and they are therefore preenrifor denrons. metrts are eschatol o gical 'm bols. st nerrtlv stritable as dr,r'ellir-re-places J o h n ' s c a n r e l h a i r r e c a l l s E l i j a h , and at the tontb, the arrgcl'sr,r,l-rite . But not only are apparel echoesthe epiphanies in H ebl er,r,S cri pttrres a nd in int cr t estamentall i terature. I n t lr e t r ansfi gurati ol t scene,Jesus' gar nr ent s becotne 'cTazzling n,hite, snch as l1oone on earth cotrlclL-rleach thenr' (9:3)" (22), Wallis, as others, rloes not regard Mat:k' sruent ionoiJesus' gl a\/e cl othes (15:46) havir r g ar r y as si gni fi carrce. 18Jtrel, 116. leIbi.l. tOCf. espc'ciallf Motlrsl:, 155f Lr-rke .

the places reierred to b1' the.r,vords 'desert' arrd 'tomb' related to each other; both parts of the story taking place there show nrore remarkable sirlilarities. In both a tnesserlger al)pears, John ancl a youllg rnar1, n ' hose dress i s rnenti oned i n each c a se(n' hi ch i s excepti onali n Mark), anclLrotl-r speark local nrorrernents of of Jestrs, coming after the Baptist his and his going on before the disc i pl es, respe-cti vel y. both parts In a l s o the ' \r/av' of Jesusi s an i mpor-


6 2) At tlrc tonilt (15:42-76:8) tarrttheme, referred to irr the forrtrer sDonald H. of Juel,A Mttster Stn'ptrise: throrrgh tl-re quotations in 1:2-3and A4nrk rp rctcrl(Mirrneapolis: ForInte in the la-rttcr ihrotrgh Jesusgoing on tress, 7994),34. b e forehi s cl i sci pl es Gal i l ee(16:1). to

23:45 trses ckprueo= r,r'ith the urrderstanding that it signifies Jesus' voluntary l,ielding of his spirit r , r ' i t hJ e s u s ' q u o t a t i o n o f P s a l m


3 l ' 5 - " F a t h e r , i r r t o 1 ' o t u 'h a n d s I com m it m y s pir i t." 2lSee & Rhoads,Den'e1,, Michie,50-67. Verbal iron1, occLlrstr'hen att actot: tv i n a r r ar lat iv ept r r :p o s e l y ' u s e so rd s rtreanil-re olre thing Lrtrt thal c.xpress For o1-rposite. exarlple, tl-resoldiers

621-629. merttStudies (1991): 37 2 3 Ba s e .d l argel y uporl the text-cl i ti cal rvork oi P. M. I-lead tt'lto contends di th a t th e ori gi nal text prol " rabl y cl (see tltt't-ttr ibid.), Ilarl rrot have hrtitts S.Johnson, ar{lres that the Rornan Jr. centurior-r's iession i s altogc'tl-rer con

A s Israel , the prrototype of Jesus' tenrptati on, er tdu r ecl r' rri l cl c.rness testing to urtcotrc'rtvltat rtras Goc-l's 'in (Dc'r-rt 8:2), so Jesus 1'e1r1'heart' tempted fort1, dalrs tclprove his r'r'as character, iaithiul to his Father."Sr.e "Mark's ProrrocativeUse Caneday,

s p e a k t h e t r t r t h L u r i r - r t e r r t i o n a l l t , to o a m bi guoLl sto l end an\zsl l ppnt' 1 of S cri pture i n N arrati on: ' 3I . "Hail, to the clainr that Mark's Christc-ilogY 2 6 O n t l i e s i g n i i i c a n c e o f t h e r ' r ' i l c 1 s a s t hey m oc k J e s tts , a 1 ,i rrg , ( of i arri mal sarrd thc-presenc e angels K i n g o f t h c ' J e r ' r ' s ! " l v l a r k 1 5 : 1 8 ) . r e ' a c h e st s c l i m a r i n l 5 : 3 9 ( " M a r k I - i k e r r . i s e ,t h e i n s c r i b e c i c h a r g e C 1 5 :3 !) and the S o-C al l ecl onfessi orr 8] a g a i n s t J e s t r ss a r c a s t i c a l l l ,1 e ' 3 ! - l s , o f tl re li onrarrC entrrri orl ,"B i bl i cn "K ing 406-413). ontrastP . D ar,i es, C of t he J c \\ts ,"b trt i s i rr fa c t [2 0 0 0 1: "Mark's Chr:istological araclox," P t h e t r u t h . S i t t r a t i o n a lo r d r a m a t i c i ro n1,oc c ur s it he tr th e re i s c o n fl i c t rvhat an actor in the ri ratna l-retrveerl e x pec t s t o happe tr a n c l tv h a t a c ttta l h' t ak es plac e . F o r e x a tn p l e , th e chief priests and scribesriclicule "F{e Sa t' e d o tl ' re rs ; Jes t t s ,s af ir r g, h e c ar r nots av eh i n rs e l f." L i ttl e d i d th the1. nor t ' t he t r u tl -r e l ' s p o k e , fo r k \\/ere he to save hinrself, l-recotrld J o u rtrn l .i ot' tht: S t trdrl o.f tl tc l Jczc : T e s t n m t ' t 3t5 ( 1 9 8 9 ) 3 - 1 8 .S e e a l s o t Eclrvarc-ls , Mnrk,480-483.For a tertc ri ti c a l dei enseof tl -rcreadi ng hui tts th e o rr rr 1:.l ,see D ani el B . W al l acc, i 'Cod's "Does Mark 1:l Call Jestrs S o n ' ? -A B ri ef Text-C ri ti calN ote," n .p . [i i0 S eptember i 999] Or.rl i rre: http :/ / r,vn'rt'. ocs/ soap/d see ibid., IL)-36. Ct. Jeffrey B. Ciib"Jeslrs' Iclerness Teml-rta tion sor1, Wi accordi ng to JV l ark," Jrnt r t t nlf or t he . Tcsfn rrrcrrt (1994): Sttrdry tln:lJerrr of 53 "Jesus 3-34;and Richard Bauckham, ar-rd ' re\V i l ci A ni mal s (Mar k l: 13) : tl A Christological frnage for an l]cr-rlogical Ag"," ir-r/esrrsof Nnznretlt: Lord ntulClrrist. Essnys the Ilistoricnt cnl Jesrss N eruTestnnt ctClu'ist olnrrd tt ogv, ecl s.J. C reen and M. Tur t r er (Crar-rrl rl Ii.ap-rid Eerdrn an s/ Car i sle: s: I ) a t e r n o s t e r ,1 L ) c ) 43 , 2 1 . S e e e s p . )Edrr.ardsn,ho takes the n.ild beasts as al r al l usi ve referenceto Chlist 's beirrg thron'n to the u,ilcl llon'ran bc'asts(Mnrk,47). 27Mark'sdescription oi "all the ald Jtrdean cottutrl zsi dedrt' eller : s al l the Jerusal en-l i tes" ing bapbe seemsto ha ve a dual ti zed Lr1' Jol i n f r - r n c t i o ni n t h e n a r r a t i v e . F i r s t , fronr among al l r,r' hocam e t o be baptized by John, one starrds ottt. I-le does not confesssins; his Father him as his Son irr rt,honr acclair-ns Messiahdoc's he i s pl eased. econd, S or not come from Jerusaler-n Juciea btrt from Gal i l ee,a l i kel y a llt r sior t cr r

b o x /n r ark1-1 .htm. .,t S it y et t t her s . 2 rC o n rp are E drvards, Mnrk, 34-35, 22Tl're is cortfc'ssiorr irorric cerrttrriorr's "alclrrg n,ith other ironic staternetrts rv l ro ci tes T. Leui 18:6-8,shon' i rrg at the foot of the cross" (EarlS.John"ls Mark 15:39 tl-reKey to son, Jr., Clrristology?" lournnlfor the N4ark's nrent31 [1987]: Sttdy of tlrcA/erlTc-sfn 16). Concerning the cetttttriott's dispute its sol-I-le ironic cclnfessiolt, authentic rlaturL'.For example,Juel "in re gar c lst he c onf e s s i o ua ta tu n t a c c or c -u' it h t he re s t o i th e ta u n ts l tr:i i n t he ac c ount o i J e s r-rs ' a l a n c l cleath" (74,note 7). CorrtrastJanes to Gospelnccordittg R. Edrvards, T-he Mnrk (I'illar Ne\t' Testament ComEerdmans/ mentary; Grand Rapicls: that Jelvish tradition expanded Lrponlsai ah's prophecies,reflecting a n e x f rectati onful fi l l ed i n Mark' s e p i s o c - l o f J e s u s 'b a p t i s m . C f . ' t . e On Isai ah 63 (LX X ) as Iu rl . 2 1:7-3. the background for Mark's account o f J c s us'bapti srn,see al so R i kki E . NezpErodus ht Mnrk Watts, lsninh'-s ' 1997; (T ti b i n gen: Mohr [S i ebeck] , Grarrd Rapicls: Baker, 2000), 702if. Watts ef fectively shorvsthat Mark's trs e o f schi zl i nstead of the LX X ' s nttoiygO seems rnore accurateto ren-

Isaial-r9 :1-2(cf. lvlatt 4:72-76). d e r I s a i a l : . 'q t ' ' . s 2 5 Me n ti on of " forty days" si grri fi es 28l i kc.l ),, the bystanders "r t . illf ulll' Leicester:Apollos, 2002),483; and " repl i catesIsrael ' sexpe'A Text-Cr:iticalStudl' rni si nterpretL.d"Jesus' cr y ( I - ane, th a t J e sus P. N4.Head, ' T he Be g i n n i n g o f tl re 573). Van lersel hypothe-sizesthat ri e n c e s i n the rt' i l derness,but he o f Nlar k 1. 1. "The bystanders r,r'ho apparer-rtlv does so as Cod's'n,ell-pleasing'Son. TestnCltrist,"' lrla:ro oi Gosl-rel Je'sus


] r av e no A r a ma i c m i s ta k e

' E l o i' fo r

his large chiasm that constitutes h i s Gospel (" C hi asti c S trtrcture:A Key 1ethe Irrterpretati orr Mark' s of -fiulletin Cospel," BiblicnlTheology 15 f1e85l: 17-26). 3 a B e nW i t h e r i n g t o n I i I s t r g g e s t sa s i m i l ar nnderstandi ng of the rel a(Ti ti onshi p of thc-three passages re

). E lijah.. . " ( 1f 1 9S tra n g e l l ,, . B o m a rr T suggests that Jesuscried, ")rc',u are ('eli 'ntnlt,Ps 22:77), nrv God" but the t at r nt ing by s ta rrc l e rs e a rd " E l i j a h h conre!" ('eliynfnh)("Das letzte Wort JesLr,"Studin tlrcologica17 [1963]: 103-119). "Lu1, Mark's accourrtsin 7:31-37 ancl 8:22-26 sicleby side. Be arn,ed the by c or r elat ing f e a tu re s o f J e s trs 'trv o s igns . 81' his l i te ra rv a rra n g e rn e n t Mark shon,sthat fesus designed these tr.vo sigrrs for the. Tr,r'elve, to er x pos e heir i n rp a i rru e n t o f h e a rt

enters Jcrusalem Cf l. P. I{, 'A N ote on' E l i j ah n' i th Mosc's'inM ar k 9:4," BiltlicnB0 (7999):115. 37As l{eb 9:3 indicatc.s, there r\/ere tl vclctrl tai ns hangi ng ir r t he t em ple i n J e r u s a l r . mT h e s e c o n d c u r t a i n . is more familiar. It divicled thc I{ol1' Place fronr t6e Most HolY

G ospelof Mnrk: A S oci o-R l tetori c' nl Place (Exod 26:31-37; Josephus' ci. Conrnrcrtt [Cratid Ilapricls: ttry Eerclclescr:iption Wnr 5.279). in l.he first rn ans, 2001], 398). H e rei ers to C . l v l yers, B i r.rdi trg S trottcMort: A the Politicnl RenLling Mnrk's Story of o.f lcstts (lvlarvknoll, NY: Orbis, 1988), ctrrtain, less farniliar, segregatcd (a the C or-rrt l srae.l lso called t he of I-{olv Place) fronr the otrtel courts. descri best his ct r r t ain as Josephtrs an embroi dereclB ab1r l6112lr t apestry th;it depicted the earth, the sea, and the lrearrensas it ,,t1,piiiec1 tlic urri rrerse" (W nr 5.21 0- 1. {) . Though Mark's r,r'orcl(to kntnpetnstnn) the is ( sarneas usecli n H ebr er , ys( t : 1, 9; 9: 3; i0:20) and in the LXX (Exorl 26:3137) fctrthe second ctrrtain. A cliffererrt r,r'ord(to knlltunn)is used of the first veil (Exoc1 27:16;Lev 76:2, 12). N evertl -rel ess, i s l i kely t hat M ar k it refe'rs the first ancl rrot the second to curtairr,for he links tl-re tearing r,r.ith the cerrturir-x'l's confessicxr. OnIv the outer ctrrtain cor-rlc1 seerrLry' Lre the C e n t i l e c e r r t t r r i o n .S e e E d n , a r d s , M n r k , 4 7 7 - 4 7 9 .C f . a l s o U l a n s e v ,

391. 3scf. Edrn'arcls, ing, of speakirrg,arrd of seeirrg, Mm k, 267. 3 6 l r 4ark' Leversehi stori cal orcl ers s om et hing th a t b e c o m e s m a n i fe s t ' " E l i j ah ir-rinrediatell' after Peter's acctrrate appearedr,r,i th Moses" (el i ns b r - r ti n a d e q u a t e c o n f e s s i o n ( 8 : 2 7 30) . 30Mark feattrres the cruciiixion narrative orrerthe resurrection episode bf its length (15:21-47 ave 371 h ivords; 1(r:1-B have'169 worcls).The inclusion portion alone (15:33-a1) '149 contains r'r'ords,onll, 2tl fer,r,er t han t he r es u rrc c ti o nn a rra ti v e . 3t ou t he lit er a ry n a ttrre o f tl i e e rrd ing of Mark's Gospel sec j. D. H. " Dra ma ti c A nr ador , In c o n c l u s i o n : Irorrv and the Narrative Rhetoric of tlre Errding of Mark," lournal for t lr e S t udr l of th e N e z rr c s n n re rtt5 7 T f ( 1 9 9 5 ) :6 1 - 8 6 .F o r a c l i s c t r s s i o n f ' o t ex t t r al ev ide n c e fo r th e e n d i n g o i N'iark'sCospel see Edn.ards, Mnrk, 4c)7-504. 32By"patronizing" I reic.r to Peter's (cf. reversalof roles.irr-ritating Jr-sus Mark 7:33; B:23),Ireter took Je.sus ( as ic le 8: 32) o i n s trtrc t l ri m . t 33O f er es tis th e s tu d 1 , 1 ' M. P l i i l i p int b Scottu'ho iclentifies the transfigtrrat ion nar r at iv e a s Ma rk ' s c e n te r c l f s urt ntdusci 9:4), though pl acec-ln , i proper sequenceby' 1'","r, (9:5)-is u ' ortl -ryof note. It -l i kel v suggests that Moses, n,hose L)reseltce niight L -re expectcd,i s tl i e pri tnary vi si tor and that Elijah accompanies im. h Sonre take lvlar"k's orcler to signify "that M o s e si s p l a y i n g a s t r b s i d i a r y role" (e.g.,Morna Hooker, Tlrc Gosptel nccordirrg St.Mttrlc[Black'sNerv to T e stamerrt onrmenl ari es;London: C A. & C. Illack/Peabocly,IvlA: I lendrickson, 19911,216). R. T. France, Cf.

Tlte GosTtt:l Mnrk: A Corrtrrtcrinrr,l 123-125. of o rttl teGreek Terf (N en, Internati onal : s B M a r k1 1 : 1 5 - 3 3c o n s i s t s c l I t l r r e - e C r e e k T e s t a n r e n tC o m n r e n t a r y ; C rand R api cl E erdmans/C arl i sl c, s: Patc.rrr er, 2002),351. lvlark's n1el1ost tion of Elijah first likely fits the orcler o f h i s narrati ' u' w i th E l i j ah fi guri ng e p r: onri nerrtl yn the fi rst hal f of hi s i C o speli rr corrnecti on th John (1:4rvi porti rrns-t I :l 5-19; 20- 26; 27- 33forrr-ri nga fr:anrecl isode. Jest r s' ep p u r g i n g o f t h e t e n ' r p l e( v v . 1 5 - 1 9 ) and di sputi ng rvi th the. chiei pr iest s, the scribesanc-l elclers(vr'.27-33) the

frame ]esus' cursi ng of t he f ig t r ee fuv.20-26\. B; 6:74-29; B:28)anc-lMoses having 3"Jest,s' responseto Janres anclJohn's g reater promi l l cnce i n the seconcl initial rr.qrrest-"Whalt do }'ou \,\'ar1t h a lf i n corrnecti onr,r' i ththe tenrpl e me to do fcl l vol r?" (10: 36) - f or ea n cli nsti tuti ons of the l -arv as Jesus shacl on' sthe sante qtr est ionaskecl


u o f blind B ar t ir nae tts ' h o re s p o n d s as the tr,r'oclisciples should hat'e, " R a l r l - r it h a t I m i g h t s e e a g a i n ! " , (10:51).


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