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Q
4.1cBSD(1982)
first release

4.2BSD(1983)
first widely available
release of TCP/IP

4.3BSD Tahoe(1988)
slow start,
congestion avoidance,
fast retransmit

BSD Networking Software


Release 1.0(1989): Net/1
4.3BSD Reno(1990)
fast recovery,
TCP header prediction,
SLIP header compression,
routing table changes
BSD Networking Software
Release 2.0(1991): Net/2

4.4BSD(1993)
multicasting
long fat pipe modifications

4.4BSD-Lite(1994)
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#5 "X2+EH03*-I+5:8{<+6;*-5 +gW*-I )d5:.74;*-GJ
I +K dK
10 Mbps 1600 Kbps 10 Mbps
Host 1 Switch 1 Switch 2 Host 2
50 ms

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delay

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 "!#$%&(')+*(,-!.)/-,1032,54)67#8*9*(:;!<.=&>,-?4 &('=#8&@&9')"*(A6!<B4&C4:=!EDFHGC?80I#J*>H6!<H4K&C,5*L&9')"MN/-?*(H*(&@,-4K&>H68BG
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*(,Q[H8\^]H_K`YaDK2K&(H*Hb

 º
segment number

100
snd_wnd +
snd_una

segments transmitted
80

60 duplicate ACK’s

snd_una
40

0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 1

ƒ…*HrJC+6;5+K º tiI`5#"903BY2+EH5}G3o0V8+574x03*=EH5:8{4@*-Bc57³S,@5:rJBc5?Il4_³´IlC+B[<z5?6Qr36x032+(time (secs)

segment number
1000

800

600

400

200

2 4 6

ƒa*-rJC+6/5+K atPIW5-"+0‰Bc2+E-5fGJo>0™4;*-Bc57³´,;5?rJBW57Il4@³´IlC+BD<>576rJ6x0‰2+(VopGJ603IY5?Il4@*-6/57³ `<lgl4/5Q4;6/03I1, ³


time (secs)

op5?6
L
´I¶0V.:G3I1r^5:,_4;*-GJI`RQ*=I18+GwR 4@6x0J.?5j,@C1./(‚03,A4@(15jGJI15}*-Inƒa*-rJC+6/5 +K 9\+4;(15 "`0 "X*H,f6;5?2+6;5:,@5?Il4/,
P
4;*=BW5f03I18Z4;(15QgZ0 "X*-,6/5?296/5:,@5?Il4/,4;(15A,_*H¸:5AGJo„4;(+5Q.:GJI1rJ5:,@4@*HGJIYRQ*-I+8+GwRj\ s^\ *-IV<lgl4/5:,?K')(15
% 

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cwnd (bytes)

60000

40000

20000

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)' (+*-,[,;5?.?4;*-GJI <+6@*H5 9gN89*-,;.7C1,;,@5:,V4;(15W5z5:.?4;,VGJoA8+57EF0g^5?8·03./UXI+GqRQE-5:8+r3BW57IX4:\e,@2z5:.?*=O1.0‰E-E-g‚*=I


4;(+5c5-"d2zGJI157Il4;*F0‰E*-I1.76/503,;5YGJo),_EHGwR,_4x036@4K P´Ib4@(+*H,}2+(s03,;5J\a03Ibt ¬GJo)*=I9³SG36/8+576j,;5:r3BW57IX4;,


4;6@*Hr^rJ5?6/,ABcGJ6/5j,;5?rJBc5?Il4/,u4;Gc<z5k,@5?Il4Ki')(15DIlC+BD<>576uGJo,;5:r3BW57IX4;,u4;6@*Hr^rJ5?6/5?8¹*-,i895?4/576;BY*-I15?8
<lgD4@(15fIlC+B[<z5?6eGJo„,;5?rJBc5?Il4/,4@(s034RT5?6/5  C+,@40J./UlI1GwRQEH5?8+r^5?8Y2+E=C1,GJI+5fBWGJ6;5f,;5?rJBc5?Il4 $ ,_*-I1.?5
4;(+5h.?GJI1r^5?,@4@*HGJI€RQ*-I+8+GwR *H,Q*=I1.?6;50J,@5:8€<Xg|GJI15j,;5?rJBW57Il4P2z5?6Pt  2&7K 

P´Iƒa*HrJC96/5 /dK 9\AR)5‚,_(1GwR¥4;(+5¶5 z5:.?4;,`G3ok895?EF0gJ5:80J./UlI1GwRQEH5:89rJBW57Il4`G3I 4;(15‚,;57I189*=I1r


2s034@4/576;IMK '…GN*-,;GJEH034/5{4@(+*H,c5 z5:.?4:\QR)5nE-5?oF4cGJC+4c4;(15  o 03.?4/G36W8+5?,;.76;*-<z5:8 *=I4@(15`2+6;5?vl*HG3C1,

,;5?.?4@*HGJI¹*-I€4;(+5h.?Gd895™opGJ6Q4;(15j,_*-B[C+EH034;*-GJI1,)*=I{4;(+*-,A,;5:.74;*-GJIMK
3
cwnd (bytes)

60000

50000

40000

30000

20000

10000

0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

aƒ *Hr3C+6/5/XK º t <+E-GwRQC+2¹GJo 4@(15}4/GJ2¹rJ6/032+(€*-I`ƒa*-rJC+6/52/XK^K time (secs)


L *-4@(1GJC+4h8+57EF0g^5?8Nt B ,?\ 57v^5?6@g’t 6/5?.:5?*=v^5?8 0J./UlI1GwRQEH5?8+r^5:, c,@5:rJBc5?Il4D03I18‚4;6@*Hr3³
 

r^576/,i4SRTG€0J8+8d*-4;*-GJIs03Ey,;5:r3BW57IX4;,u4/Gc<>5k,;5?Il4:K iGwRT5?vJ5?6\yRQ*=4;(n8+5?EH0wgJ5:8¶t V\„,;5:r3BW57IX4;,}036;5




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6/5?.:57*-v^5?8·4@6;*HrJr^5?6;,Z4@(+6/5?5`,@5:rJBc5?Il4;,Y4;G’<z5€,;5?Il4:Ktu,Y,;5?5?I·*-I4;(15{4/G32rJ6/032+(*-I.:G3IX4@6x0J,_4
4/G|4@(15V<>G34;4/G3B¥rJ6/032+(M\z4;(15Z#5 "X2zGJI157IX4@*F03E#5 "X2s03I1,_*HGJI’GJoe4@(15V.:GJI+r^5:,_4;*HG3I’RQ*=I18+GwR *H,™,_EHGwR)576
RQ(157I‚t  B ,}036;5k895?EF0gJ5:8yKu')(15D6/5:0J,;G3ImopGJ6P4;(15k89* z5?6;5?I1.?5D*H,A4;(s0‰4™5?vJ5?6@gnt  *-I18d*H.0‰4/5:,
 

4;(1034}0c210J./U^574}(s0J,u<z5:57I¶6/5:.?5?*=v^5:8¶<lg¹4;(15D6;5:.?5?*-vJ5?6:K™L (15?6;50J,™4@(+*H,P*H,i4@6;C15k*-o4@(15D6/5?.:57*-v^576
0J./UlI1GwRQEH5?8+r^5?,i57v^5?6@g{2s0J./UJ5?4\+*=I€4;(+*-,)*-BY2+EH57BW57Il4x034@*HGJIM\µRQ*=4;(¹8+5?EH0g^5:8¹t  B ,?\15?vJ5?6;g€t 
 

0J.74;Cs03E=E-gW0J./UlI1GwRQEH5?8+r^5:,P4SR)GZ2s0J./UJ5?4;,:K
vX*-8+5?Il4@E-g^\d0J./UlI1GwRQEH5?8+rJ*=I1rk57v^576;gZ2s0J./UJ5?4Q0‰E-EHGwRA,4@(15 2+*-2z5 }4/Gj<z5PO+E=EH5?8ZBcGJ6;5 µC+*-./UlE-g^K
 

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<z5:.0‰C1,;5j0J./UlI1GwRQE-5:8+rJ*=I1r[57v^5?6@g|2s0J./UJ5?4A-5 "d2103I18+,f4@(15™.:G3I1r^5:,_4;*-GJI|RQ*-I+8+GwR o 03,@4/576'K )XC+./(`-5 "l³
2s03I+,@*HG3IYE-50J89,e4;G}<+ C z5?6Gwv^5?6 1GwR 03I18V4;(lC1,e2s0J./UJ5?4EHG^,@,;5?,:Ktu,RT5PRQ*=E-E9,;5:5A*-I )d5?.?4@*HGJI /dK  &7\
4;(+5h,@5?I1895?6PB[C1,@4QR)03*=4QopGJ6Q6/574;6x0‰I1,@BY*-4f4@*-Bc5:GJC94/,:\d,@*=I1.:5}B[C+E=4;*=2+EH5PEHG^,@,;5:,Q*=I€GJI15}6/GJC9I18d³´4@6;*=2
4;*=BW5iB|0g|I1G34Q<>5}6/5?.:Gwv^576x03<9EH5}<lg{o 0J,@4Q6;5?4;6/03I1,_Bc*=4\
;
segment number

80

60

40

20

0
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
segment number time (secs)

80

60

40

20

0
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

ƒa*-rJC+6/05 /dK + >5?.?4/,iGJo895?EF0gJ5:8m03./UXI+GqRQE-5:8+r3BW57IX4;,u89C96;*-I+rY4@(15k,_EHGwRf³S,_4x036@4ABWGX8+54e4;(+5h4;GJ2


time (secs)

Jr 6/032+(¹,@(1GwRA,i,@EHGwR,@4/036;4ARQ*-4@(¹8+5?EH0wgJ5:8n0J./UlI1GwRQEH5:89rJBW57Il4/,:\„03I+8¹4@(15}<>GJ4@4/GJB rJ6x0‰2+(¹,@(1GwRA,

4;(+5jBcGJ6;5™o 03Bc*=E-*H0365#"X2>G3I15?Il4;*H03E ,@E-GwR ,@4/036;4QRQ*=4;(`5?vJ5?6;g{210J./U^574™0J./UlI1GwRQE-5:8+r^5?8yK



…' GZ.?GJBc21036/5P4;(15™2z5?6@opGJ6;BW03I1.?5J\dC+,@*-I+rV8+5?EH0wgJ5:8€t B ,?\+4;(15  `<lgX4;5}4;6x0‰I1,@op576Q4/GXGJU º


,;5?.:GJI+8+,[03I+8N5#"X2z5?6@*H5?I+.:5:8 €6;5?4;6/03I1,_Bc*=4}4;*-Bc5:G3C+4/,j03I+8A 3 2s0J./UJ5?4DE-G^,;,@5:,?K Ib4@(15cG34;(1576




(s03I+8y\e0J./UlI1GwRQEH5?8+rJ*-I+r¶5?v^576;g~210J./U^574W0‰E-EHGwRA,hBWGJ6;5W,_2>5?5:89g 5-"X2s03I1,_*HGJIGJoA4@(15|.:G3I1r^5:,_4;*-GJI
RQ*-I+8+GwR *-I¶4@(15V#5 "X2zGJI157IX4@*F03EeG3o),_EHGwR ,_4x036@4K PGwR)57v^5?6:\a4@(15V,/03Bc5[4;6/03I1,_op5?6}4/GXGJU  º K » ,@5:.3\
,@*=I1.:5T*-4a,@ C z5?6;5:8[oF6/G3B /A6/5?4@6x03I+,@BY*-4…4;*-Bc5:G3C+4/,a03I18 Li2s0J./UJ5?4E-G^,;,@5:,:KaLN5I1GJ4/5T4;(154;6x038+5:4G 
(1576/5JKtPE-4@(1GJC1rJ({0J./UlI1GwRQEH5:89rJ*-I1rD5?v^576;gc2s0J./U^574P03E-E-GwRA,4@(15™,;57I18+576f4/G[G32>57I|C+2{4;(+5™.:GJI+r^5:, ³
4;*-GJI’RQ*-I18+GwR o 0J,_4/576[03I+8b4;(lC1,k4/G`29C+Bc2N,;5?rJBW57Il4/,k*=Il4/G€4;(15YI15?4SRTGJ6;U’o 0J,_4/5?6:\a4@(15c,@5?I1895?6
03E-,;GVEHG^,@5:,fBcGJ6/5™210J./U^574/,™03,i0[6;5:,@C9E-4AGJoa4;(15h0Jr^r36/5:,@,@*=v^5?I+5:,;,?K
LN5YI1GJ4;5c4;(1034k4@(+*H,j6/5?,@C+E=4kBW0g¶<>5Y,;57I1,@*=4;*=v^5c4;G`4@(15c<++C >576[,@*-¸:5Y./(1G^,@5?IMK ()5:.:03C1,;5cGJo
4;*=BW5u.:GJI1,_4;6/03*-Il4\+RT5}EH5:0wvJ5h4@(+*H,f*-,;,_C15h0J,P0V21036;4AGJo…oFC+4@C+6/5}RTGJ6;U„K

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89*-,;.?C+,;,;5?8’*=I )d5:.74;*-GJI 9K º K +K P´I‚4;(+*-,},;5?.?4;*-GJIM\yRT5Z89*H,@.?C1,@,™4;(15VBc5:./(s03I9*H,@B <>57*-I1r|*=Ilv^GJUJ5:8
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o 0J,_4P6;5?4@6x03I1,_Bc*=4K )d5?rJBW57Il4 / 1 3 R)0J,AEHG^,_4Ktf4A4;*-Bc5™6;*-rJ(l4Q<>57opGJ6/05 /d(K ;Z,;5?.J\14;(15h.:G3I+I15:.74;*-GJI
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 º
segment number
1000

Single packet
loss recovered
800 by fast
retransmit

600

400

Multiple packet
losses leading False fast
200 to a timeout retransmit

2 4 6

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time (secs)


o 0J.74/GJ6 &f03I18€*-4/,f6;5?E-5?v303Il4A5?vJ5?Il4/,

;
JG oe,@5:rJBc5?Il40/ 1 3 *H,i*=Ilv^GJUJ5:8y\ 03I+8m4;(15[.?GJI1r^5?,@4@*HGJI¶RQ*=I18+GwR ,@*H¸?5D*H,P6/5?89C1.:5?8yK *-rJ(l4u<z5?opGJ6;5

4;(+5‚o 03,@4{6/574;6/03I1,@BY*H,@,@*-GJI Gd.?.?C+6@6/5?8y\u4;(+5’.?GJI+I15?.?4@*HGJI (s0J,¹0 .:G3I1r^5:,_4;*-GJI RQ*-I18+GwR¥GJoD,_*H¸?5
,/0g  s\™03I+8 4@(15?6;5?opGJ6;5J\ ,;5:r3BW57IX4;,n0‰6/5¶GJC+4;,@4/03I189*=I1r+K P´I 4;(15m<zGJ4@4/GJB
 8  8

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 % 

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03I18¹,;57I18nI157R ,;5?rJBc5?Il4/,?Kftf4A4;*-Bc5™6;*-rJ(l4A<>57opGJ6/05 /dK =Y,@5:.3\>03I`t  opGJ6i0VEF036;r^5™IlC+B[<z5?6PGJo


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6/574;6/03I1,@BY*H,@,@*-GJI[4;*=BW5?GJC+4:K…Lb5f,@(+GqRGJI15)21036;4@*H.?C9EF036a.0J,@5f*-IYƒa*-rJC+6; 5 /dK 1dK ti,,;5?5?IY*-I[4@(15fO1r3³
C+6;5J\d4@(15uEH036/r^5P.:G3I1r^5:,_4;*-GJI|RQ*-I+8+GwR 034)4@*-Bc5P6@*HrJ(l4<>57opGJ6/5 9K 1h,;5:.™03E-E-GqRA,T0k<+C96/,@4fGJoM.?E-G^,;57E-g
,@210J.:5?8W2s0J./UJ5?4/,*-Il4/Gj4;(+5PI1574SR)G36;U„Ketf4T4@(15P<zGJ4@4;EH57I15:./UZ,_RQ*-4;./(M\X4@(15A<+ C z5?6TGqvJ5?6 1GwRA,:\+,_*-I1.?5
4;(+5P,@5?I1895?6e2+C+BY21,4;(15Q2s03./U^5?4;,*=Il4/G™4;(+5AI+5?4SRTGJ6;UY0344SRQ*-.:5Q4;(+5Q,@2z5:5:8W034RQ(+*-./(c4@(15Q,@RQ*=4/./(
*H,u03<+E-5h4;G|896x0‰*-In4@(15k<9 C >576K vJ5?6;g`GJ4@(15?6™210J./U^574},;57IX4j8dC+6;*=I1rc4@(s034™572>GX./(¶Gwv^576 1GwRA,}4;(+5

<+ C z5?6i03I+8¹*-,fEHG^,_4K
L
segment number

660

640

620

600 Fast retransmit


after three duplicate ACK’s

580

560

5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6


cwnd (bytes) time (secs)
50000

40000

30000

20000

10000

5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6

ƒa*-rJC+6/5 d/ K / e')(15}.:GJI9I15:.74;*HG3I`6;5:.:GwvJ5?6/,AoF6/G3B¬0V,@*=I1rJE-5u2s0J./UJ5?4AEHG^,@,A03oF4/576P0Do 0J,@time


4Q6;5?4@(secs)
6x03I1,_Bc*=4K

/
segment number

800

700

600

5.5 6 6.5

aƒ *-rJC+6/5 /dK= }')(15 @rJ6;GJC+2+*=I1r {5z5:.74j89C+6@*-I1r{4;(+5[6/5:.?Gwv^5?6@g‚2+(s0J,@5c0‰oF4/5?6}0{o 03time


,@4}6/574;(secs)
6/03I1,@BY*-4
4;6@*Hr^rJ5?6/5?8{<Xg{0Y,_*-I1rJE-5u2s0J./UJ5?4PEHG^,@,
 

;=
segment number

100

80

Fast retransmit
60 after three duplicate ACK’s

40

0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6


cwnd (bytes) time (secs)

50000

40000

30000

20000

10000

0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6

aƒ *-rJC+6/5
/dK 1 uti,}0W6/5?,@C+E=4jGJoB[C+E=4;*-29EH5j2s0J./U^574jEHG^,@,;5:,?\yo 0J,@4u6/5?4@6x03I+,@BY*-4™8d*H8mI1GJtime
4uR)GJ(secs)
6@Un(1576/53K
')(15b,;5?I+8+5?6`(s0J,€4/GRf03*=4`opG36n0 6/574;6/03I1,@BY*-4€4@*-Bc5:GJC+4:K¬')(15‚<zGJ4;4;GJB rJ6x0‰2+( ,_(1GwRA,n4;(+5
.:G36;6/5?,@2zGJI189*=I1rZ.:GJI+r^5:,_4;*HG3I`RQ*=I18+GwR ,_*H¸:53K

1
)d5:r3BW57IX4)IXC9B[<>576/
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4;(+5k4;*=BW5}6@*HrJ(l4P<>57opGJ6/5 9K » c,;5?. $ *=In4@(15D.7*-6/.7EH5?8`6/5?rJ*HG3I 7& \14;(+5D,;57I18+576™6/5?.:5?*=v^5?,}0W89C+29E-*H.:034/5
t%0J./UlI1GwRQE-5:8+rJ*=I1r’,;5:r3BW57IX4ZIlC+B[<z5?6
/ JKtf4Z4@(+*H,[2zGJ*-Il4:\e4@(15€,;57I18+5?6c*H,[I1G34Y03<+EH5|4;G
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rJ6;GJC+2ZGJos.7EHG^,@5?E-gh,_2s0J.:5?8c8dC+2+E-*-.034;5)t  B ,:\^4;6@*Hr^rJ5?6/5?8D<lgD4@(15)EF0‰6/r^5T,@C+6;r^5fGJo„,;5?rJBc5?Il4/,,@5?Il4


50‰6;E-*-5?6:\ *-,h6;5:.?5?*-vJ5:8yK IN4@(15Z4;(+*=6/8’89C+2+E=*H.0‰4/5Zt V\a,@5:rJBc5?Il4 /JY*-,ho 0J,_4j6/5?4@6x03I+,@BY*-4;4;5:8y\


 

03I18€4;(9*H,Q,;5?rJBc5?Il4A*H,A0J./UlI1GwRQEH5?8+r^5?8m034A4;*=BW5i6;*Hr3(X4)<>57opGJ6/5 j,;5?.JK
tu,{Bc5?Il4;*-GJI15:8 <z5?opG36/5J\i5?vJ5?6;g G34;(1576€,;5:r3BW57IX4{*-,WEHGJ,@4€,@4/036;4@*-I1r~RQ*=4;( ,@5:rJBc5?Il4€IlC+BY³
<z5?6 /J^K )XG+\A,;5:r3BW57IX4 / b*-,YE-G^,@4W0J,WRT5?E=E™03I+8I15:5?8+,|4/G’<>5¹6/574;6x0‰I1,@BY*-4@4/5:8>K I+E-g 4SRTG 

Bc5:./(s03I9*H,@Bc,A.03I`.0‰C1,;5k0[6/5?4@6x03I+,@BY*H,;,_*HGJI€4;GcGX.:.7C+6 $, &A0[o 0J,_4A6/5?4@6x03I+,@BY*H,;,_*HGJI`03I+8 $ º &f0


6/574;6/03I1,@BY*H,@,@*-GJIV4;*=BW5?GJC+4Ka]iG34/5f4;(+5Av303E=C15fGJo„4;(+5Q.:GJI1rJ5:,@4@*HGJIZRQ*=I18+GwR·6@*HrJ(l4<z5?opG36/5f4;(+5AEH0J,@4
o 0J,_4D6/574;6/03I1,@BY*H,@,@*-GJIN*-, /
 º L¹<lgl4/5?,:\RQ(+*H./(N*H,k4@(15cBW0 "X*-BDC+B RQ*-I189GqR,_*H¸:53Km')(15W,@C+6;r^5
GJo),;5:r3BW57IX4;,k4@(15c,@5?I1895?6D4@6x03I+,@BY*-4/,}<z5?opGJ6;5 9K » ¹,@5:.c4@6;*-r^r^5?6;,}4;(15Y89C+2+E=*H.:034/5Zt  B ,k,;5?5?I


<z5?4SRT5:5?IW4;*-Bc?5 9K » j,;5?.u03I+8 A,;5?.JKL (157IW4@(15Qo 0J,@4e6/574;6/03I1,@BY*H,@,@*-GJIYGd.?.?C+6;,:\l4;(15A.:G3I1r^5:,_4;*-GJI


RQ*-I+8+GwR *-,[6/5:8dC1.:5?84;Gb0‰2+2+6/G "X*-BW034;5?E-g‚(s0‰E-o K $ 5?.03E=E)oF6;GJB )d5?.?4@*HGJI 9K º (K +K &#L *-4;(5:0J./(

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0J,k,;5:57I *-INƒa*Hr3C+6/5 /dK 1dK iGwR)57v^576\,@*=I1.:5Y4;(15c,;57I18+5?6D*H,jI1GJ4D03E-E-GqRT5:8’4/G¹(s0v^5WBcGJ6/5Z4;(103I


BW0 "X*-B[C+B RQ*-I18+GwR#,_*H¸:5kGJoe81034/0cGJC94/,@4/03I189*=I1r+\s*-4P.0‰I+I1GJ4u,;5?I+8‚03Ilg¹BcGJ6;5k,@5:rJBc5?Il4/,iC+Il4;*-E
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/ 9KA')(+5DGJI+E=g{GJ4@(15?6iRf0g€opGJ6P6/5?4@6x03I+,@BY*H,;,_*HGJI¹4/GYGX.:.?C96u*H,Q4;GcR)03*-4PopGJ6A4;(15h6/574;6x0‰I1,@BY*H,@,@*HG3I
4;*=BW5?GJC+4:\dRQ(+*-./(`O+I103E-E=g|GX.:.?C96/,P034Q4;*=BW5 ^K /V,;5?.JK
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z\zRQ(9*H./(
E = =

03E=EHGwR)5?8·4@(15n,@5?I18+576|4/GN.?EHGX./UGJC+4W0bEF0‰6/r^5€,@C96/r^5mG3o™2s0J./UJ5?4/,|*=I -5 "d2zGJI157Il4;*F0‰Eu,_EHGwRf³S,_4x036@4
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6/574;6/03I1,@BY*H,@,@*-GJI~4;*=BW5?GJC+4:\ RQ(+*H./(8d6x0J,_4;*H.:03E-E=g¶6/5?89C1.:5?,V4;(15|2z5?6@opGJ6;BW03I1.?5JK‚')(15|O+6;,@4[*-,;,_C15
6/5?,@C+E=4/,?\d<z5:.0‰C1,;5™4@(15™036@<+*-4@6x036@gV*-I+*=4;*H03E1v303E-C15PGJo 
z\ = /4/  /d\µ*H,4/GXGk(+*-rJ(MK L *=4;(W,@C1./(
= =

0u(+*-rJ(D4@(+6/5?,@(1GJE-8y\^4;(+5f,;57I18+5?603r^rJ6/5?,;,_*-v^57E-gh*-I1.76/5:0J,;5?,*-4/,a,;57I189*-I+r™6x034;5f5?vJ5?IY4;(1GJC+rJ([*-4aB|0g
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B[C+E=4;*=2+EH5D210J./U^574DEHGJ,;,;5?,:K P´Ib4;(+*-,j.0J,@5J\a4@(15Z4SR)G¹BW5?./(s03I+*-,@Bc,h*=IX4;5?6@op5?6/5VRQ*=4;(N' CB ,[,@5?E-oH³
.?E-Gd./Ul*=I1r}2+6/GJ2z5?6@4Sgc0J,e89*H,@.?C1,@,;5:8c*-I )d5:.74;*HG3I 9K ^K º $K P´IY4;(15Ao 0J.?5iGJoz2>GJ,;,@*=<+EH5Q.?GJI1r^5?,@4@*HGJIM\l4;(+5
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oFC+6@4;(1576uI1574SR)GJ6@Un.?GJI1r^5?,@4@*HGJIMK PGqRT5?vJ5?6:\yC+Il4;*-E 4@(15kB[C9E-4;*=2+EH5™210J./U^574™EHG^,@,;5?,™036;5k6/5?.:Gwv^576/5?8y\
503./(I+5?R2s0J./UJ5?4Y,;57IX4ZG3I+E-g‚4;6@*Hr^rJ5?6/,k89C+2+E=*H.:034/5ct  B ,:K )dG+\G3I1.:5W4@(15|,@5?I18+576Z(s0J,[,@5?Il4


GJC+4T4;(15PoFC+E-EsRQ*=I18+GwR GJoM810‰4x09\l*-4T.:GJBc5:,4/GD0h(s03E=4TR)03*=4;*-I+rhopGJ6TI1GJI9³´89C+2+E=*H.:034/5At  B ,?K')(15




2+6;GJ<+EH57BªGd.?.?C+6;,DRQ(15?I4@(15|,;57I18+576Z,@4/G321,[,;57I189*=I1rmI15?R810‰4x09\e03I+8NI1GnI157R 8+034x0n.:03I <z5


0J./UlI1GwRQEH5?8+r^5?8yK *uC+6@*-I1rQ4;(9*H, 896;gj,_2>57E-EXGJod*-4/,yoFC9I18103Bc5?Il4x0‰Ed.7EHGX./U},@*-rJIs03E $p4;(15eI1GJId³S89C+29E-*H.:034/5
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opGJ6Q4@(15jGJI+E-gWGJ4;(+5?6ARf0g{4;GZ6;5:.?GqvJ5?6@g^\s4;(15}4;*=BW5 ³S.?GJI1,@C9Bc*=I1rD6/574;6/03I1,@BY*H,@,@*-GJI{4;*=BW5?GJC+4K
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P ´I`,;GJBc5}.0J,@5:,?\so 0‰EH,;5io 0J,@4A6/574;6/03I1,@BY*-4;,f.0‰InGX.:.7C+6KLb5}GJ<1,;576;vJ5[0[2s036@4;*H.7C+EF0‰6f.03,;5h034Q4;*=BW5
^K 3 /b,@5:.!$p*-I4@(15m.7*-6/.7EH5?86/5?rJ*HGJI &V*=I ƒa*-rJC+6/5 /dK » K P´I 4@(+*H,YO1rJC+6;5J\Q4;(+5m,;57I18+5?6W*H,c*=I 4;(+5
5#"X2zGJI157IX4@*F03Ee,_EHGwRf³S,_4x036@4™BcGd8+53\y*-BYBW5?89*F0‰4/5?E=g¹03oF4/576h0|6/5?4@6x03I+,@BY*H,;,_*HGJI¶4@*-Bc5:GJC94u4/G{6;5:.:GwvJ5?6
oF6/G3B 0‰I 5?2+*-,;GX8+5|GJoQBDC+E-4@*-2+E-5[2s0J./U^574VEHG^,@,;5?,:K¶tu,k#5 "X2+EH03*-I15?8~*-Ib4;(15 )X5:.?4@*HGJI /dK dK º \a6;*Hr3(X4
<z5?opGJ6;5P4@(15i572>GX./({,_(1GwRQI|*-IY4;(15AO1rJC96/5J\X4;(15P,;57I18+576)2+C+BY21,)0h.?GJIl4;*-IlC1G3C1,),_C+6/r^5PGJoy210J./U^574/,
*-Il4;Gh4@(15PI+5?4SRTGJ6;U„\9GwvJ5?6 +GqRQ*=I1rk4@(15A<+ C z5?6)*=IZ4;(15P,@RQ*=4/./(MKti,)0j6/5:,_C+E-4:\l5?v^576;gcGJ4;(+5?6e2s0J./UJ5?4
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,;5?rJBc5?Il4/,?\…IlC+B[<z5?6;5:8 /
^\ / 9\ / /X\ / 1d\ / 3 \ 03I+8b,@G`GJI $ 5?v^576;g’GJ4@(15?6j2s0J./UJ5?4hC+2’4/G{2s0J./UJ5?4
3 3 &Z036;5`EHGJ,@4K L (157I 4;(15¹6/5:.?5?*=v^5?6W6/5:.?5?*=v^5:,{G3C+4WG3ojGJ6/8+576|,@5:rJBc5?Il4/, $ ,;5?rJBc5?Il4/, / º \ / +\
/ =9\M574/.3K & \ *=4},@4;GJ6/5?,}4;(157B%*-I¶4@(15[6/5:0J,;,@5?B[<+E=g µC15?C+5YC+Il4@*-E4@(15[Bc*-,;,_*-I1r|2s03./U^5?4;,k.?GJBc5[*-IMK
)X*=I1.:5Z4;(15Yo 0J,@4j6;5?4;6/03I1,_Bc*=4h*-,kG3I+E-g‚0‰<+EH5Z4/G€6/5?.:Gwv^576Z0`,_*-I1rJE-5Z,;5:r3BW57IX4:\ ,@5:rJBc5?Il4DIlC+BD<>576
/
^\9,@(1GwRQIn*=I`ƒa*HrJC96/5 /dK 1d\s0[6/574;6/03I1,@BY*H,@,@*-GJI{4;*=BW5?GJC+4AGX.:.?C96/,:K
'…GD#5 "X2+EF0‰*-I{ƒ…*HrJC+6;5 /XK » \XR)5i4x03<+C9EF034;5P4@(15i<z5:rJ*=I+I+*=I1rDGJo>4;(15P6/5:.?Gwv^5?6@g|2+6;Gd.?5:,;,ToF6/GJB4;(+5
,;57I18+576 B ,i2z5?6/,_2>5?.?4@*-v^5j*-I¹'…03<+E-05 /dK JK
3
segment number

120

100

80

60

1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9

ƒa*-rJC+6/5 d/ K » eƒ„0‰EH,;5™o 03,@4Q6/574;6/03I1,@BY*-4 time (secs)

')*-Bc5 $ ,@5:. & ,@5:rJBc5?Il4/, )d57IX4 t  B , 5:.:57*-vJ5:8



^K / )d5?rJBc5?Il4 / [*H,Q6/574;6x0‰I1,@BY*-4@4/5:8


)' (15b6;5?4@6x03I1,_Bc*-,;,_*HGJIGJoV,@5:rJBc5?Il4 / 
034n4@*-Bc5A^K /·,@5:.~EH5:0J8+,n4;G 03I#t
GJoQ4SRTG¶,;5:r3BW57IX4;,c,;5:r3BW57IX4;, / m0‰I18


^K
 = / +KA')(15k6/5:.?5?*=v^5?6™0J./UlI1GwRQEH5?8+r^5:,u,;5:r‰³
BW57Il4 /b03,ZRT5?E=E´\,@*=I1.:5€,;5?rJBc5?Il4 /
*H,Q0‰E-6/5:0J89gW.0J./(15?8¹*=I{4;(15}6;50J,@,;5?BD<+E-g
µC15?C153K
^K )d5?rJBc5?Il4/, /4/·03I18 / =
 = 036;5}6/5?4@6x03I+,@BY*-4;4;5:8 ')(15b6;5?4@6x03I1,_Bc*-,;,_*HGJIGJoV,@5:rJBc5?Il4 /4/
EH5:0J8+,k4;G¶03I t  GJof4SRTG¶,;5?rJBc5?Il4/, 
^K ,;5?rJBW57Il4/0, / /|03I18 / =9\>,@*-I+.:5Z,;5?rJBW57Il4

 1 
/ =c*-,™03E=6/50389g¹.0J./(15[*=Im4;(+5D6/5:0J,;,@5?BZ³
<+')E-(1g 5bµC16;5?5?4@C16x5303K I1,_Bc*-,;,_*HGJIGJoV,@5:rJBc5?Il4 / =
^K
 1 034 4@*-Bc5 ^K =  ,@5:. EH5:0J8+, 4;G 0
  8     ªGJo ,@5:rJBc5?Il4 / =9K
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P´Im4;(+5h<zGJ4;4;GJB rJ6/032+(M\1RT5[03E-,;GY,;5:5kBWGJ6;5j.:GJBY2+E-*-.034;5:8€,;57I189*=I1rW2s034@4/576;Im,_*-I1.?5D89C96;*-I+r
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4;(+5D6/5:0J,;,@5?B[<+E=g lC+5?C153Kj')(15DEF0‰6/r^5ht  0‰EH,;Gcr^5?I+5?6x0‰4/5:,™0cEF036;r^5h,@2+*=U^5[GJoe,@5:rJBc5?Il4;,u4;(s0‰4




036;5k,@5?Il4K )XC1./(¶.7EHG^,@5?E-g€,_2s0J.?5:8m4;6/03I1,_Bc*-,;,@*-GJI1,A.0‰ImEH5:0J8`4;GcEHGJ,@4P,;5?rJBW57Il4/,:\z8+5?2z5?I+89*-I1rWGJI
4;(+5[6/5?EH034;*=v^5[,_*H¸?5VGJo `03I18¶4;(15[<9 C >576KhLN5V89*-,;.7C1,;,}4;(9*H,™*H,@,@C15[<96;*H#5 +gn*=I T(s032+4;5?06 1dK
8

Lb5k0‰EH,;GZ,@5:5}4;(15}o 03E-,;5™o 0J,_4A6/5?4@6x03I+,@BY*H,;,_*HGJI¹03,P8d*H,;.7C1,;,@5:8n*=I )d5:.74;*-GJI /XK 9K 9K

/ º
segment number

80

60

40

20

0
0.2 0.4 0.6
segment number time (secs)

120

100

80

60

1.6 1.8 2 2.2

ƒa*-rJC+6/5 /dK 3 j')(15Y4;GJ2’rJ6x0‰2+(’,@(1GwRA,j4;(15Z5#"X2zGJI157IX4@*F03Ee,_EHGwRf³S,_4x036@4}BWGX8+5V0‰4h4@(15[<z5:rJ*=I+I+*-I+r


time (secs)

JG o™4@(15n.?GJI+I15?.?4@*HGJIMK ')(15¹<>G34;4/G3B rJ6x0329( ,@(+GqRA,c4;(15`8103BY2>5?8,@E-GwRf³S,@4/036;4YBcGd8+5¹03oF4;5?6W0


6/574;6/03I1,@BY*H,@,@*-GJI€4;*-Bc5:G3C+4
/ 
   

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tioF4;5?6e4;(+5P8d*H,;.7C1,;,_*HGJIcGJo„4;(15A,_*-B[C+EH034;*-GJI[6;5:,@C9E-4/,?\lGJI15Q*-BY2>G36;4x0‰IX4lC+5:,@4@*HGJIY*H,(+GqR,;57I1,@*=4;*-vJ5
036;5T4;(+5)6/5?,@C+E=4/, 4;Gu4;(15T2s036x0‰BW574/5?6;,03I+8[4/GJ2zGJEHGJrJg}C1,;5?8yK Lb5 µC15:,_4;*-GJIVRQ(15?4@(15?6 4;(15f,_2>5?.?*=O1.
,;574;C+2`R)5}C1,@5:8`.:GJIl4;6@*-<+C94/5:8€4/GV4@(15}2s036;4@*H.7C+EF036)EHG^,@,Q5?v^57Il4/,i*=I€4;(15j,@*=B[C+EH034;*-GJI1,:K
P´.
I )d5?.?4;*-GJI =dK ^\sRT5D89*-,;.?C+,;,u4@(15k6;5?EH57v303I1.:5kGJo 4@(15k<9 C >576™,_*H¸:5h*-I¹4;(15k,@RQ*=4/./(MKALN5hI1GJ4;5
4;(1034A4;(15h,/03Bc5}EHG^,@,A5?v^57Il4/,u,_4;*=E-EMGX.:.7C+6u57v^57ImRQ*-4@(n0VEF0‰6/r^576Q<+ C z5?6i,@*H¸?5JK iGwR)57v^576\zRT5k03EH,@G
GJ<1,@5?6@v^5j4;(s034Q4@(15j#5 "90J.74P4@*-BY*-I1r[03I18€89glIs03BY*H.?,QGJoa4@(15j.:GJI+r^5:,_4;*HG3I`.?GJIl4;6;GJE…03I18¹0v^GJ*-8103I1.?5
Bc5:./(s03I9*H,@Bc,Q036;5™,;57I1,@*=4;*=v^5}4/GV,_*-B[C+EH034;*-GJIY2s036x0‰BW574/5?6;,:KLb5™*-E=E-C1,_4;6x0‰4/5A4;(+*-,)*-I )d5?.?4@*HGJI =9K º
C1,_*-I1rV4;(+5j21036x03Bc5?4;5?6Q6;GJC+I18d³ 4;6@*-2¹8+5?EH0g€0J,A03I`#5 "903BY2+EH53K

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ut ,TBW57IX4@*HGJI+5:8W<z5?opGJ6;5J\d,@*-I+.:5u4@(+*H,4;(15?,@*H,T*H,T0D2s036;4)GJoM4;(+5i6/5?,@C+E=4/,fG3<+4x03*=I15:8coF6/GJB 034@4/5?BY2+4;,
4/GP6/572+6/GX89C1.?5Qƒa*Hr3C+6/5 =i*=I   \JR)5T./(1GXG^,;5)21036x03Bc5?4;5?6;,…4;G™.:GJI9opGJ6;B RQ*=4;([4@(1G^,;5*-Ik4;(152s032z5?6K
 I15uBW0g|036;rJC15u4@(s034f*=oMBWG36/5u,_C+*-4/03<+E-5i2s036/03Bc5?4/576)v303E=C15:,)RT5?6;5},;57EH5:.74/5?8y\+B[C+E=4;*-29EH5Q2s0J./UJ5?4
EHGJ,;,;5?,j89C+6;*=I1r€GJI15[6;GJC+I18d³ 4;6@*-2‚4;*=BW5DBW0gnI1G34}(s0v^5YGd.?.?C+6@6/5:8>\a0‰I18’I+GJI15ZGJo4;(15V572+*H,@Gd8+5?,
Bc5?Il4;*-GJI15:8mRTGJC+E-8¶Gd.?.?C+6h0‰IXglR)0g^K I15[*=Bc2zGJ6;4/03Il4i21036x03Bc5?4;5?6™RTGJC+E-8m<>5[4@(15[<+ C z5?6j,_*H¸?5


GJo…4;(15}<zGJ4;4@EH57I15:./U{,_RQ*-4;./(15:,?\„RQ(+*-./(`*-, [2s0J./UJ5?4/,AopGJ6i03E=E>2+6;5?vl*HGJC+,P,_*-B[C9EF034@*HGJI1,?K

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…' GW5#"X2+EHG36/5D(1GwR 4@(15D<+C z5?6u,@*-¸:5D.:03I’0%z5:.74u4;(+5D,@4/036;4_³´C+2m89glIs03BY*H.:,?\zRT5[5#"903BY*-I+5[03I9³
GJ4@(15?6u,;5?4™GJoe,@*=B[C+EF0‰4;*HG3I1,QC1,@*=I1r{0cBcGJ6/5h6/5:0J,;GJI103<+EH5hIlC+B[<z5?6™opGJ6P4;(+5D<+C z5?6},_*H¸?5J\ º 9KuLb5
./(1GXG^,;5Y4;(+*-,}IXC9B[<>576\a,@*-I+.:5Z*-4j*H,}4;(+5c<s03I+89RQ*H894@(9³S895?EF0gm296/GX89C1.?4:K€ƒa*Hr3C+6/5 =9K c,_(1GwRA,D4;(+5
,/0‰BW@5  `<lgl4/5™4;6/03I1,_op5?6fC1,_*-I1r[0D<+ C z5?6Q,_*H¸:5iGJo º k*=I|4;(+5™,@RQ*=4/./(15?,:KLN5uGJ<1,;576;vJ5™4;(15™,;03Bc5
4;*=BW5 ³S.76;*-4@*H.:03EX5?2+*-,;GX8+5J\µ*´K 5JK0j,_C+6/rJ5iGJoz,;5?rJBc5?Il4/,e<>57*-I1r},@5?Il4opGJE-E-GqRT5:8V<lgV4;(+5Ao 0‰*-E-C96/5fGJo„o 0J,_4
6/574;6/03I1,@BY*-4)4/GZ6/5:.?Gwv^5?6PoF6/G3B 4;(+5jBDC+E-4@*-2+E-5i2s0J./UJ5?4iEHG^,@,;5:,?K
segment number
1000

800

600

400

Multiple packet
losses leading to a timeout
200

0
2 4 6

ƒa*Hr3C+6/5 =9K  e')(15j4;6/03I1,_op5?6AC1,@*=I1rY0[EF036;r^5?6f<9C >576u,_*H¸?5J\ º d\+*-I{4;(+5j<zGJ4@4;EH57I15:./U€,_RQ*-4;./(MK


time (secs)

')(+*H,e6/5?,@C+E=4T*-,e5#"X2>5?.?4;5:8y\d,@*-I+.:5A4;(15i5?2+*-,;GX8+5Q6/50‰E-E-gD6/5:,_C+E-4;,oF6;GJB4@(15i,_C+6/rJ5uGJo>,;5:r3BW57IX4;,
<z5?*-I+rc,@5?Il4™.7EHG^,@5?E-g|,@2s0J.?5:8`,@C1./(m4@(s034P4;(15j2s0J./UJ5?4;,uGwv^576 1GwR#4;(15j<+ C z5?6P*-I€4@(15h<zGJ4@4;EH57I15:./U
,@RQ*=4/./(MKL (15?I·4;(15€.?GJI+I15?.?4;*-GJI·,@4x0‰6;4/,?\   $ 4@(15{4;(+6;5:,_(1GJEH8034VRQ(+*-./(4;(+5¹,@5?I1895?6
 = =

./(s03I+r^5:,}oF6/G3B%,@E-GwR ,_4x036@4}4/G{.?GJI1r^5?,@4;*-GJIb0v^GJ*-8103I1.?5 &i*H,™036;<+*=4;6/036;*=E-g€,;574k034™4;(+5[B|0 "X*=B[C+B


v303E-C+5J\3RQ(9*H./(V*H, = / /  /A<lgl4/5:,*=IVGJC+6 .0J,@5JK')(9*H, Bc503I+,a4;(1034 4@(15f.:G3I1r^5:,_4;*-GJIVRQ*-I189GqRG32>57I1,
C+2·#5 "X2zGJI15?Il4@*F03E=E-g’C+Il4;*-E)*-4V6/5:0J./(15?, = /4/  /`<lgl4/5:,?K')(9*H,[EF0‰6/r^5W*=I+*-4@*F03Ev303E-C+5{GJo 
 = =

03E=EHGwRA,D.?GJI1r^5?,@4;*-GJIRQ*-I189GqR4/G¶G32>57I C+2 lC9*H./UlE-gJ\e<9C+4Z,;G µC+*H./UlE=gb4@(s034Y0nEF0‰6/r^5c,@C+6;r^5{GJo


.?E-G^,;57E-gµ³S,_2s0J.?5:82s03./U^5?4;,{036;5n,;57Il4K tu,c4@(15 2+*-2z5 ‚*H,Z<>57*-I1r‚op5:8·<>57g^GJI18 *=4/,Z.0‰2s0J.?*=4;*-5:,:\
 

2s0J./UJ5?4;,i(s0v^5j4/GV<z5j896/GJ292>5?8yK
//
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0¶EF036;r^5?6Z<+ C z5?6c,@*-¸:5{*-I4;(+5`,_RQ*-4/./(y\)*-IB|0‰IXgG34;(1576Y6;5:,_2>5?.?4/,?\fR)5¹I1GJ4;5¹4@(s034Z4;(15¹#5 "90J.74
<z5?(s0vl*HGJ6AG3o' ?B ,u.:G3I1r^5:,_4;*-GJI€BW5?./(s03I+*-,@Bc,A*-,Q,;57I1,@*=4;*-vJ5}4/GV4;(15}2s0‰6x03Bc5?4;5?6/,QC1,@5:8yK
'…GV*=E-E-C+,@4;6/034/53\µ*-I¹ƒa*-rJC+6/5 =9K º \9RT5},@(1GwR 4@(+6/5?5™4;6/0J.:5?,QGJo 4;(15}.?GJI1r^5?,@4;*-GJI{RQ*-I+8+GwRopGJ6Q03I
?³ `<lgX4;5J\…GJI15 ³´R)0wgn4;6x0‰I1,@op576hC+,@*-I+rn0|E-*=I+U¹RQ*-4;(’4;(96/5:5Z,_E-*Hr3(X4@E-g`89* z5?6;5?Il4hGJI15 ³´R)0wgm8+5?EH0wgX,?K
tu,c,;5?5?I *=I·4@(15`O1r3C+6/53\)4;(15`,@E=*HrJ(l4Y./(s03I1rJ5`*-I4;(+5n8+57EF0g 4;6/03I1,@EH034/5?,Y*=Il4/G‚v^5?6@g8d* z5?6/57Il4
4;*=Bc*=I1r[GJo…4;(+5jv3036@*F034@*HGJI+,)*-I{4@(15j.:GJI1rJ5:,@4@*HGJI¹RQ*-I+8+GwRjK
ƒ+6/GJB!4;(+*-,i2z5?6;,@2z5:.?4@*-vJ5J\yRT5[O+I18¶6/572+6/GX89C1.7*-I1r|-5 "90J.?4@E-gmG34;(1576 B ,}'  6;5:,@C9E-4/,}8d* .?C+E=4\

,@*=I1.:54;(15T89* z5?6;5?I1.?5:, *=ID4@(15f' ¶*-BY2+EH57BW57Il4x034@*HGJI1,zC1,;5?8y\^4;(15BW574;(1GX8+GJE-G^rJ*-5:,:\w4@(15TBcGd895?EH,
03I18n0J,;,_C+BY2+4;*-GJI1,i03<>G3C+4i4@(15jI15?4SRTGJ6;U„\>03I18`4@(15D,@5?4@C+2m2s036/03Bc5?4/576/,P.03Im03E-E .?GJIl4;6@*-<+C+4;5h4;G
v3036;gl*=I1rV<>57(s0vX*-GJ6K

/ =
cwnd (bytes)

60000

40000

20000

2 4 6
cwnd (bytes) time (secs)

60000

40000

20000

2 4 6
cwnd (bytes) time (secs)

60000

40000

20000

2 4 6

ƒa*-rJC+6/5 =9K º ƒ+6/GJB4/G32{4/G[<zGJ4;4;GJBn\l4;(+5™rJ6x0‰2+(1,Q,@(+GqRA,f4@(15™4;6/0J.:5uGJo….:GJI1rJ5:,@4@*Htime


GJI{RQ*=(secs)
I18+GwR GJo
0  ¹<Xgl4;5h4@6x03I1,_op5?6AC1,_*-I1rY0[E-*=I+UWRQ*=4;(`0VGJI157³ Rf0g€8+57EF0g|G3o$ /DBc,:\ / [Bc,:\10‰I18 /4/‰BW,?K
/1
   

       ·   $%$% ¶   P %



#’     i¥
   !  

P ´I T(s032+4;5?6 /d\iRT5¶B|038+5¶,;GJBc5¶GJ<1,@5?6@vJ0‰4;*HG3I1,{GJI 4;(15‚,_4x036@4@³´C928dgXI103Bc*-.:,€GJok'aKP' G


*-BY2+6;GqvJ5}'?B ,A2z5?6;opG36;BW03I1.:5u89C+6;*=I1r[4;(+5}5?2zGd./(M\+*=4)*-,)C1,;57oFC+EM4/GV6;5?vl*H57R4@(15}GJ<1,@5?6;v3034@*HGJI+,
03I18·I1GJ4/5¹4;(15`5?2+*-,;GX8+5:,cGJoj5?vJ5?Il4/,|4@(s034YRf03,W4;*=BW5 ³S.?6@*-4@*H.0‰E´K ƒ…*HrJC+6;5 1dK `*-E-E=C1,@4@6x034;5:,VRT5?E-E
4;(+5h.76;*=4;*H.:03E>21034;(MKe')(+5jO+rJC+6/5}*-,A0V4@*-Bc57³´,;5:r3BW57IX4_³´IlC+B[<z5?6frJ6x0329(`G3o03I ?³ `<lgl4/5j4;6x0‰I1,@op576
C1,_*-I1rh4;(15PGJ6;*-rJ*-I103E1]P5?-4 , º '  .:GX8+5ARQ*-4;(+GJC+4)03IlgZ./(s03I1r^5?,:K P´4T8+Gd5?,@I B 4T,@(1GwR 03IlgY8+5?4/03*-E-,:\
<+C+4P.7EH50‰6;E-gWR)5h.03I`,;5?5k4@(15}4;*-Bc57³´.:GJI+,@C+BY*-I1rV572+*H,@Gd895:,PGJo0Z,@C96/r^5hGJo 210J./U^574/,i<z5?*=I1rY,;5?Il4:\
EH5:0J89*=I1ri4;G™B[C+E-4@*-2+E-52s0J./U^574EHG^,@,;5?,e03I18Z03I[C9I1,@C1.?.:5?,;,@oFC9E>0‰4;4/57Bc294 4/G™6;5:.?GqvJ5?64@(1G^,;5f210J./U^574/,
C1,_*-I1rjo 0J,@4e6;5?4;6/03I1,_Bc*-,;,@*-GJIMK…L *-4;(Y5:0J./({GJo„4;(1GJ,;5P5?2+*-,;GX8+5:,?\X4@(15A5?I18Y6/5:,_C+E-4e*-,e4@(15AEHGJI1r™R)03*=4
opGJ6[4@(15|6/574;6/03I1,@BY*-4D4;*-Bc5:G3C+4\ RQ(9*H./(*H,[,_(1GwRQI·*=I 4;(15|O+rJC+6/5€03,[4;(15 s0‰4[2>G36;4;*-GJI GJoP4;(+5
rJ6/032+(¹89C+6@*-I1rVRQ(+*-./(`4@(15j,;5?I+8+5?6P*H,QI1GJ4P0‰<+EH5™4;GY,@5?I18n03Ilg{,;5?rJBc5?Il4/,?K
'…Gj8+5:03E+RQ*=4;(V4;(+5:,;5A572+*H,@Gd8+5?,:\^4@(15?6;5A036/5f4SRTGj,@*-BY2+E-5f032+296/Gµ0J./(+5:, $, & .7C+6;4/03*-EX4;(+5Q,@C+6;r^5
GJo12s03./U^5?4;,4;(s0‰4 EH5:0J8D4;GuB[C+E=4;*-29EH52s0J./UJ5?4EHGJ,;,;5?,03I+8 $ º & ./(s03I1r^5T4;(15)o 03,@4 6;5?4@6x03I1,_Bc*=4aBc5:./(d³
03I+*-,@B ,@GY4@(s034P*-4AB|0g|(+5?E-2`4;(15h.:G3I+I15:.74;*-GJIn6;5:.:GwvJ5?6uoF6;GJBB[C+E=4;*=2+EH5u210J./U^574uEHGJ,;,;5?,u89C96;*-I+r
GJI15Y6/GJC9I18d³´4@6;*=2N4;*=BW5Y03I+8N4;(lC1,D6;5:89C+.:5W4@(15WI15?5:8~4/G¹Rf0‰*-4hopGJ6D4@(15c6;5?4;6/03I1,_Bc*=4k4@*-Bc5:GJC+4;,:K
')(15VO+6;,@4k032+2+6;Gµ0J./(’.0‰Ib<z5[*-BY2+EH57BW57Il4/5:8m<lgmO9I189*-I+r`0{r^GXGX8m*-I+*=4;*F0‰E…v303E=C15VGJo 
>\
 = =

03I18€4;(+5h,@5:.?GJI18`6;5 µC+*=6/5:,P0[BcGJ6/5j0JrJrJ6/5?,;,@*=v^5h034@4/5?BY2+4Q4;GY6;5:.:GwvJ5?6PEHG^,_4A,;5:r3BW57IX4;,:K
LN5k89*H,@.?C1,@,u4;(+5:,;5[032+2+6;Gµ0J./(15?,u<>57EHGwRj\z03I18nRT5D,_(1GwR ,@GJBc5k*-I9*-4;*H03EM,_*-B[C+EH034;*-GJI{6/5?,@C+E=4/,?K
Lb5|03E-,;GnBc5?Il4;*-GJIN<96;*H#5 +gb0`R)0wg’4/Gn8+503ERQ*-4@(~4;(+5cEF0‰6/r^5Y,@2+*=U^5W*=IN4@(15|.?*=6/.7EH5:8’6/5?rJ*HGJINGJo
/ »
segment number

1000

800

600

400

200

2 4 6 8 10 12

aƒ *-rJC+6/5 1dK4tPI ?³ `<lgl4/5j4;6/03I1,_op5?6AC1,@*=I1rV4;(15jGJ6@*HrJ*=Is03E>]i574-, º '  :. GX8+5JK time (sec)

ƒa*-rJC+6/5 /XK » KW')(15:,@5|03292+6/Gµ03./(15:,krJ*-vJ5YC1,k0{<s0J,@*-,}opGJ6joFC+4;C+6;5YRTGJ6@U‚GJI '  z2 5?6@opGJ6;BW03I1.?5


89C+6@*-I1rV4@(15j,@4x0‰6;4@³ C+2¹5?2zGd./(yK

‡‰ˆ   •`•   ’ Ž7”TŽ:“Y‘ “Y‘w¶Œ • 


 
 

+ƒ 6/GJB!4;(+5[2+6/57vX*-GJC1,},@5:.?4@*HGJIy\yR)5Z,;5?5[4;(s0‰4}4;(15[*=I+*-4@*F03EMv303E=C15[GJo 
n*-,™.?6@*-4;*-.03E K I+5
 = = 

R)0wg€4;G|0v^GJ*-8`4@(15kEH036/r^5j,_C+6/r^5kGJo 210J./U^574™4;(s0‰4iE-50J8+,A4/GYB[C+E=4;*-29EH5™2s0J./UJ5?4iEHG^,@,;5:,P*H,A4/GY2+*H./U
0NEHGwRT5?6 
zK t¥E-GqRT5?6 
R)G3C+EH8 0‰E-EHGwR4@(15m.:G3I1r^5:,_4;*-GJI RQ*-I189GqR 4;G GJ2>57I
= = ; =

#5 "X2zGJI157IX4@*F03E=E-gJ\µ0Jr^rJ6;5:,@,@*-vJ5?E=g[C+2Z4/G  Y03I18V4@(15?IcGJ2z5?Ic0J8+89*=4;*=v^5?E=g $ GJI15Q,;5?rJBc5?Il4e2>576


= =

RQ*-I+8+GwR &7\ 2+6;GJ<+*=I1rn4;(+5W.0‰2s0J.?*=4SgNG3of4;(15 _2+*-2z5 ¹*-I1,_4/5:0J8~GJoAGwv^576;op5?5:89*=I1rm*-4:K PGqRT5?vJ5?6:\e*=o


 

4;(+5D*-I+*=4;*H03E 
`*H,u,;5?4u4/GXG|EHGwRj\z4@(15[2>576;opGJ6@B|0‰I1.:5k,@ C z5?6;,:K[')(+5V.:GJI1rJ5:,@4@*HGJI¶RQ*=I18+GwR
J ; =

2+6;5?BW034;C+6;5?E=gV,@RQ*=4/./(15?,)4/Gj4;(15u0J8+89*=4;*=v^5Q*-I1.76/5:0J,;5ABWGX8+53Ktu,T0h6;5:,@C9E-4\X03E=4;(1G3C1rJ(Y4;(1576/5i*-,I1G
2s0J./UJ5?4eEHGJ,;,:\^4@(15Q,;57I18+576T*-,,;57I189*-I+rh,@Gj,@EHGwRQE=gk4@(s0344;(+5f4;6x0‰I1,@op5764x03UJ5:,e,@*-rJI+*-O+.03Il4;E=gkE-GJI1r^576K
)dG+\lR)5PI15:5?8c4;GkO+I18W0hrJGdGX8c5?,@4@*-BW034/5AGJoz4;(15A4;(+6;5:,_(1GJEH8W034RQ(+*H./(c4;(15P,;57I18+5?6T*H,e.?E-G^,;57E-g

/3
30 2+296/Gµ0J./(9*-I1r~4@(15¶oFC+E-EPI15?4SRTGJ6@U .032s03.?*-4Sg 03I18 4;(lC1,€,_(1GJC+E-8 ,@EHGwR 8+GwRQI 0‰I18 2+6/GJ<z5m4;(+5
6/57B|0‰*-I+*=I1rN.:032s0J.7*-4Sg^K tiI 5#"903BY2+EH5nGJoD,_C1./(5:,@4@*-BW034/5`R)GJC9EH8 <>5m4@(15m<s03I+89RQ*H894@(9³S895?EF0g
2+6;Gd89C+.?4KaLN5QI1GwR(10wvJ5P4@(15Q2+6/G3<+EH57B GJo„(1GwR4/Gj5?,@4;*=B|0‰4/5f4;(+5A<103I189RQ*-894;(W03I18V4;(+5A6;GJC+I18X³
4;6@*-2V895?EF0gJK ()57EHGwRj\JRT5f89*H,@.?C1,@,GJI15f,_*-BY2+E-*=O15:8jR)0wgk4/G™5?,@4@*-BW034/54;(+*-,av303E-C+5JKaLb5),_(1GwR,@GJBc5
2+6;5?E-*=Bc*=Is036@gY6;5:,_C+E-4;,:\s03I18€RT5j29EF03I€4/GV*=Bc2+6;Gwv^5jGJI€4;(15}Bc5?4@(1Gd8{4;GYG3<+4x03*=I€4;(+*-,Q5:,@4@*-BW034/53K
tu,fBc5?Il4;*-GJI15?8|*-I )d5?.?4@*HGJI 9K ^K º \98+034x0k210J./U^574/,:\1RQ(+*-./(¹036/5},@5?Il4A.?E-G^,;57E-gY,@210J.:5?8y\s036;6@*-vJ5
034P4;(15j6/5?.:57*-v^576j034A4;(+5k6x0‰4/5hGJo4;(+5h<zGJ4;4@EH57I15:./U€E-*=I+U|<s0‰I189RQ*H8d4;(M?K P´o4@(15k6;5:.?5?*-vJ5?6 B ,™t  B ,


036@6;*-vJ5D0‰4P4@(15D,@5?I1895?6uRQ*=4;(m032+2+6;G "X*=B|034;5?E=gW4;(+5k,;03BW5h,@210J.?*=I1r+\1C1,@*=I1rc4@(15ht  B ,™0‰I18n4;(+5




4;*=BW5i034RQ(+*H./({4@(15?gW036@6;*-vJ5J\lR)5u.03I€.:03EH.7C+EF034;5P03I€032+296/G "X*-BW034;*-GJIWG3oM4;(15P<s03I189RQ*-894;(yKe')(15
6/G3C+I18d³ 4;6;*=2Y8+5?EH0wg[.03Ic<>5P032+296/G "X*-BW034/5?8Z<lgV4@*-BY*-I1r}GJI+5P,@5:rJBc5?Il4:\X6;50J89*=I1r}4;(15A4;*=BW5?,@4/03Bc2
C+2zGJI~,@5?I18d*-I1r¹4;(15c,;5:r3BW57IX4D03I18b6/50389*-I1r€4;(+5Y4@*-Bc5:,@4/03BY2~0Jr^03*-I’GJI1.?5c4@(15ct  ¬opGJ6h4;(+5 

,;5?rJBc5?Il4)*-,6;5:.:57*-vJ5:8yKLb5u.0‰I|4;(157I{.0‰EH.?C9EF034;5A4@(15i<103I189RQ*-894;(9³´8+5?EH0gY296/GX89C1.?4:K Lb5u,;574f4;(+5
= =  {4/GV4@(15}<Xgl4;57³S5 µC+*-v303E-5?Il4PGJoa4@(+*H,f296/GX89C1.?4:K
P´I#ƒa*-rJC+6/5 1dK º \™RT5N,@(+GqR4@(15N,_*-B[C+EH034;*-GJI 6/5?,@C+E=4/,¹oF6/GJB *=I+*-4@*F03E=*H¸?*=I1r 
 RQ*-4@(
= =

<s03I+89RQ*H894@(9³S895?EF0g 2+6;Gd8dC1.?4:K ƒa*-6;,@4:\TRT5`4;*=BW5?84@(15   ,;5?rJBc5?Il4\f4@(15¹O96/,@4c,;5?rJBc5?Il4


4;6/03I1,_Bc*=4;4/5?8¹<lgn0c,@5?I18+576uopGJ6i,@glI1./(96/GJI+*-¸034@*HGJI`<>574SR)5?5?I‚4;(+5k6/5?.:57*-v^576}03I+8`4;(+5D,;57I18+576\z4;G
r^574)0‰I|03292+6/G "X*-BW034;*-GJIZGJoz4;(15A6/GJC9I18d³´4@6;*=2c895?EF0gJK I1.:5A4;(15A.?GJI+I15?.?4;*-GJIW*-,5:,_4x03<+E=*H,_(15:8y\l4;(+5


<s03I+89RQ*H894@(W*-,T.:03EH.7C+EF034;5:8Z<lgYC+,@*-I+rk4;(+5PE-50J,_4@³S, µCs036/5?,)5?,@4;*=B|0‰4;*HG3IcG3IW4;(96/5:5P.?E-G^,;57E-gµ³S,_2s0J.?5:8
 t  B ,k6/5:.?5?*=v^5:80‰4k4@(15W,@5?I18+576Y03I18’4;(157*-6D6;5:,_2>5?.?4;*=v^5W4@*-Bc5ZGJof6/5?.:57*-2+4:K $ ')(+*H,h*H,h,@*-BY*-EH036
4/G{4@(15  0J./UJ5?4@³  03*=6k03EHr^G36;*-4@(+B!*-I  /  K & ')(15V6/5?,@C+E=4;*=I1r€5:,@4@*-BW034/53\ º {GJ6 º   » W<lgX4;5:,?\…*-,
#5 "X2z5:.74/5:8dE-g`0J.:.7C+6x0‰4/5JK)tu,i0Z6;5:,@C9E-4\1RT5D,@5:5[0Vv^576;g¹,@BcGXGJ4;(¹4;6/03I1,@op576/,ARQ*-4@(1GJC+4A6/574;6/03I1,@BY*-4
4;*=BW5?GJC+4;,:\X,@*-I+.:5u4@(15ur^GXGX8WrJC15?,;,QGJoM4@(15i*=I+*-4@*F03E 
Yv303E-C+5i2+6;5?v^57Il4/5:8€4;(+5™5?2+*-,;GX8+5:,TGJo
 = =

4;(+5D,@C96/r^5kGJo2s0J./UJ5?4;,™4;(s034PEH5?8n4/GYB[C+E=4;*-29EH5™2s0J./UJ5?4™E-G^,;,@5:,?Ku')(15DGd.?.0J,_*HGJIs0‰Ea,_*-I1r3EH5}2s0J./UJ5?4
EHGJ,;,f*H,Q#5 >5?.?4@*-v^57E-g{6;5:.:GwvJ5?6/5?8n<lg|4;(+5jo 03,@4A6/574;6x0‰I1,@BY*-4fBc5:./(103I+*H,_BnK
')(15Z5:,_4;*-BW034@*HGJImBc5?4@(1GX8mR)GJ6@UX,jRT5?E=EopGJ6jGJC96™4;6/03I1,@op576\ ,@*=I1.:5VG3C+6}4/GJ2zGJE-G^rJg€*H,™,_*-BY2+EH5
03I18b*-Ilv^GJE=v^5?,DGJI+E=g‚GJI15ZC+I+*=EF034;5?6x0‰E4;6x0‰I1,@op576K P´IN6/5:03E-*=4Sg^\…R)5YB|0g¶I1GJ4h<z5|03<+E-5Y4;GnGJ<94x03*=I
03I‚5?,@4;*=B|0‰4/5V0J,}rJGdGX8mGJ6j03, lC9*H./UlE-gJKktPEH,;G9\>R)5[I+5:5:8‚4/G|4/03U^5[*=Il4/G€0J.?.:GJC+Il4}BcGJ6/5D,/03BY2+EH5
2zGJ*-Il4/,?\+03I+8WC1,;5i4;(15™,_4x034@*H,_4;*H.:03Ez0v^5?6/0Jr^5™*=I1,@4;50J8  C+,@4fC1,_*-I1rk4;(15uv303E=C15PGJo…0D,@*=I1rJE-5u,/0‰Bc2+E-5JK
t 2s036@4AGJo G3C+6AoFC+4;C+6;5™R)G36;U{*-IlvJGJE-vJ5:,A8+5?vJ5?E-GJ2+*-I+rY4@(15j5:,@4@*-BW034;*-GJI|oFC+6@4;(1576K
=L
segment number
1000

800

600

400

200

0
1 2 3 4 5

aƒ *-rJC+6/5 1dK º }tiI ?³ `<lgl4/5V4@6x03I1,_op5?6j*-I9*-4;*H03E-*-¸?*=I1rV4;(15  = ¶RQ*-4@(‚4;(15V<lgl4/57³i5lC9*-v303EH57Il4


time (secs)

GJo…<s03I18dRQ*H894@(9³S8+57EF0g|2+6;Gd8dC1.?4
=

=
iGwRT5?v^576\z5?v^57Im*-o…4;(+5j6;5:,_C+E-4@*-I1rY5:,_4;*-BW034;5™*H,Q(+*Hr3(15?6Q4@(s03In4@(15 _6;*-rJ(l4 Vv303E-C+5J\+*-4QRTGJC+E-8
 

<z5<z5?4@4/5?6…4;(103I[4;(+5)036@<+*-4@6x036@g™BW0 "X*-B[C+Bv303E-C15GJo = / /  /X\‰RQ(+*-./(V03E=EHGwRA,M4;(15T,;57I18+5?6a4/GiGJ2>57I


4;(+5i.?GJI1r^5?,@4;*-GJIYRQ*-I18+GwR 4;GdGk0Jr^r36/5:,@,@*=v^5?E=gZ03I18YEH5:0J8+,4/GjB|0‰IXgV210J./U^574)EHGJ,;,;5?,:Kti89BY*-4;4;5:89E=g^\
GJI 4;(+5’G34;(1576{(s03I18y\P*-oj4;(+5’5?,@4@*-BW034/5n*-,|4/GXG~EHGwRj\i4@(15¶,;57I18+576`BW0g 5?I+8 C+2 <z5?*=I1r 4/GXG
.:G3I1,;576;v3034;*=v^53\d0‰I18[4;(15T6/5:,_C+E-4@*-I1ri2>576;opGJ6@B|03I+.:5f.:03IV<>5fRTGJ6;,;5f4;(103IV(s0vl*-I1r™4;G™EHG^,@5TB[C+E=4;*=2+EH5
2s0J./UJ5?4;,}03I18€Rf0‰*-4;*=I1rVopGJ6i0Z6;5?4@6x03I1,_Bc*=4Q4;*=BW5?GJC+4Q4/GZ6/5?.:Gwv^576KA')(+*-,P*-,P03I`*-,;,_C15hRT5k(10wvJ5h4;G
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GJC+4GJo>5?I1G3C1rJ(c89C+2+E=*H.0‰4/5Qt B ,4/Gh0J.74;*-v3034;5P0}o 03,@4e6/574;6x0‰I1,@BY*-4$p6/5:.:03E-E14@(s034e*-44/03U^5?,4@(+6/5?5


89C+29E-*H.:034/5t  B ,a4;Gi03.?4;*=v3034/5*-4 &zopGJ6…50J./(DGJoX4;(15e2s0J./UJ5?4 E-G^,;,@5:,?\J03I+8kC+E=4;*-BW034;5?E-gA(s03,…4;GAR)03*=4




opGJ6j0W6;5?4@6x03I1,_Bc*=4u4@*-Bc5:GJC+4:Kj'…G|6;5:.?GqvJ5?6joF6/G3B B[C9E-4;*=2+EH5j2s0J./UJ5?4jEHGJ,;,;5?,:\ 0WBcGJ6/5D0Jr^rJ6;5:,@,@*-vJ5


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Bc5:./(s03I9*H,@B¬,;GZ4;(s034Q*=4QB|0gc6/5:.?Gwv^5?6PoF6/G3B B[C+E=4;*=2+EH5u210J./U^574iE-G^,;,@5:,QBWG36/5}5 z5:.74;*=v^5?E=g^K
')(15?6;5¹036/5|4SRTG’21036;4;,[4/Gm4;(+5¹./(103I1r^5€GJI1.?5|4;(15|o 03,@4V6/574;6/03I1,@BY*-4DBW5?./(s03I+*-,@B *-,V0J.74;*=³
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 t  B ,kR)5Y6/5:.?5?*=v^5J\aR)5WopG36/.:5YGJC+4D0¹I+5?R,;5?rJBc5?Il4DRQ*=4;(~,@5 µC157I1.:5|IlC+B[<z5?6    


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tu,@,@C+BY*-I1r}4@(s034e4;(15A,@5:rJBc5?Il4eo 0J,@46;5?4@6x03I1,_Bc*=4;4;5:8V*H,4@(15AGJI+E-gD,;5?rJBW57Il4E-G^,@4:\^4;(15Q,@5?I1895?6
#5 "X2z5:.74/,k4@(15Zt  ¬GJo4;(s034h,@5:rJBc5?Il4j6/574;6x0‰I1,@BY*-4@4/5:8¶4;Gn0J./UlI1GwRQE-5:8+r^5c03E=E,;5?rJBW57Il4/,jC+2b4;G


=     XK[')(+5?6/57opGJ6/53\y*-oe4;(+5V,;5?I+8+5?6h,;5?5Z03I’t  opGJ6™,;5 µC157I1.:5ZIlC+B[<z5?


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=     X\34@(15),@5?I1895?6 (10J,0Av^5?6@ghr^GdGX8j*-I189*-.034@*HGJIj4@(s034…4;(15,;5?rJBW57Il4 RQ*-4@(D4@(15T,@5 µC157I1.:5

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= º
|0 o 0J,@4j6;5?4;6/03I1,_Bc*=4\yRT5Z6;5?4@6x03I1,_Bc*=4}4;(15Z,@5:rJBc5?Il4h,@4/036;4@*-I1r{RQ*-4@(‚4;(15Z,;5µC15?I1.?5WIlC+B[<z5?6 
*-BYBc5:89*H034/57E-g^KMti, EHG3I1r}0J, RT5Q036;5)*-ID4;(15       ^\µRT5f6/572>5:0344;(9*H,0‰EHr^GJ6@*-4@(+B
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 =

4;(1034€2>GJ*=Il4\uRT5b(s0vJ5’6;5:.:GwvJ5?6/5?8 oF6/GJB 4;(15‚B[C+E=4;*-29EH5n2s03./U^5?4`EHG^,@,;5?,`89C96;*-I+r4@(15’6;GJC+I18X³


4;6@*-2b4;*-Bc5JK¹LN5W8+5?BcGJI1,_4;6x0‰4/5c4@(15WI157R Bc5:./(103I+*H,_B*-I~4@(15|,@*=B[C+EH034;*-GJI‚6/5:,_C+E-4;,[,@(+GqRQI*=I
ƒa*-rJC+6/25 1XK  7K
^

segment number

100

80

60

40
0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3

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time (secs)

BY*-4eBW5?./(s03I+*-,@B 03I18|,@5?4@4;*-I+r 


c*=I+*-4@*F03E=E-gh4/Gh4;(15™5?,@4@*-BW034/5PGJoM4;(+5i<s03I+89RQ*H894@(9³S895?EF0g


2+6;Gd89C+.?4K
= =

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#5 "X2z5:.74/5:8’4/G€<>5V,_B|0‰E-E´@ K P´I~038+89*-4@*HGJIy\>*-I‚4;(+5Z4@*-Bc5D*-4}4/03U^5?,h4;G{Rf03*=4}opGJ6h0|6/574;6x0‰I1,@BY*H,@,@*HG3I
4;*=BW5?GJC+4 $ 0‰<>GJC94 c,;5:. &j*=IN4;(+5Y2+6;5?vl*HG3C1,D,_*-B[C+EH034;*-GJI1,?\ 4@(15cI+5?R Bc5:./(s03I9*H,@Bª.:03IN6;5:.:GwvJ5?6
C+2¶4;EG cE-G^,@4P2s0J./UJ5?4}RQ*=4;(1GJC94uR)03*-4@*-I1rYopGJ6™0Y4;*-Bc5:G3C+4\„,@*=I1.:5h6/GJC+I+8d³´4@6;*-2d³S8+57EF0g{*H@, L3Bc,:K
')(lC1,:\4@(15cI+5?RBW5?./(s03I+*-,@B4G z5?6;,[0`2z5?6@opGJ6;BW03I1.?5Y*=Bc296/Gwv^57BW57IX4:K¹')(15WBc5:./(s03I9*H,@Bª.:03I
  ?&>&('=#8&L&9')!<BM'=#84),5*9! MH#84RDF ! ?KG>#%66G(H*9*>,-V8\A, b bL:=.IU=#%&( 
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W = =

0J,VBc5?Il4;*-GJI15:8 *=I4@(15{2+6/57vl*HGJC1,Z,@5:.?4@*HGJIyK )X5?4;4@*-I1r 


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= =

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4;(+5™O+6/,_4A,@C+6;r^5}GJo 2s0J./UJ5?4/,P,;57Il4\s03I18{4@(XC+,:\94@(15™I15?RBW5?./(s03I+*-,@B R)GJC9EH8|(s0v^5}E-5:,;,f210J./U^574/,
4/GV6;5:.:GwvJ5?6K
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iGwRT5?vJ5?6\ ,@5?EH5?.?4@*-v^5[0J./UlI1GwRQEH5:89rJBW57Il4}6/5?E=*H5?,uGJIm4@(15[6/5?.:57*-v^576\>RQ(9*-EH5h4;(15kI15?R BW5?./(s03I+*-,@B
8+5?,;.?6@*-<z5:803<zGwv^5|4G z5?6;,V0nR)0wgb4/G¶8+5:03E)RQ*=4;(~BDC+E-4@*-2+E-5Z210J./U^574YE-G^,;,@5:,DoF6;GJB 0`C+I+*=EF034;5?6x0‰E´\
,;57I18+576 B ,€2z5?6;,@2z5:.74;*-vJ5JK P´I 038+89*-4@*HGJIy\fRQ(15?6;50J,{4;(+5nI15?R BW5?./(s03I+*-,@B *H,|.?GJI1,_*H,@4;5?Il4{RQ*-4@(
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EH5:0J8+,4;G™B[C+E-4@*-2+E-5T2s03./U^5?4eE-G^,;,@5:,e,;5?5?IY*-IV4;(+5P,_*-B[C9EF034@*HGJI1,?K…')(15A,;5:.?GJI18Z2+6/G32>G^,@5:,0},@E=*HrJ(l4;E=g
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