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A NEWSLETTER FOR WATER FOR ASIAN CITIES PROGRAMME IN MADHYA PRADESH (INDIA)
Water for Asian Cities Programme in India: The Rationale
UN-HABITAT under the Water for Asian Cities Programme in India has planned to work in four cities of the state of Madhya Pradesh, viz. Bhopal, Gwalior, Indore and Jabalpur for which Asian Development Bank has approved a loan of US $ 200 million predominantly for the improvement and expansion of urban water supply, sewerage and sanitation, water drainage and solid waste management. Implementation of this ADB project shall benefit the population of these four cities including the poor outside the slum settlements, slum dwellers (Table below) will not have any direct benefit until additional investments are made to improve tertiary distribution within slum settlements. Similarly for the sanitation component, only a small percentage of poor households (4%) will benefit which will be able to connect to the sewerage network. As the sewerage network will only be in the
City Total Population (2001 Census) (in thousand) 1433.88 826.92 1597.44 951.47 Recognised Slums1 (No.) 487 149 406 331 Estimated Slum Population (As per MCs) (in thousand) 432 478 260 400 Slum Population to total Population Percentage 30.1 57.8 16.3 42.0 Illegal Colonies2 (No.)
densely built-up and developing areas of the city centers, the project will hardly give any benefit to the slum dwellers and the poor households living in thinly populated settlements. WAC Programme, therefore, proposes to address this challenge through interventions which shall encourage both pro-poor investments in these slums and squatter settlements as also through income generation for the urban poor through community based water and sanitation services.
• The Board of Directors of Asian Development Bank (ADB) Manila has approved a US$200 million loan on 12 December 2003 to help improve basic urban services in six of the largest cities in Madhya Pradesh, India. The State Cabinet has approved this loan and recommended to the Govt. of India for taking further steps to make the loan effective
Bhopal Gwalior Indore Jabalpur
131 265 349 47
Source: ADB PP/TA Report on IUD in M.P. Note 1: Recognised slums are notified by the municipal bodies, are generally scattered all over the city and lack basic infrastructure facilities. In addition to these slums there may be more slums that are not identified by the Municipal Corporations and have not notified and included in the list Note 2: Illegal Colonies are settlements not registered with city Municipal Corporations and have poor physical and social infrastructure facilities. A sizeable percentage of population lives in illegal colonies outside slum settlements.
INDIA – UN-HABITAT Partnership
The Government of India has been a long-term partner of both UN-HABITAT and ADB. UNHABITAT has implemented a number of projects and programmes with the Government of India such as the Sustainable Cities Programme, Urban Management Programme, Design of Refuse Collection Vehicles in Pune, Waste Recycling and Reuse in Kanpur and most recently on Integrated Urban Basic Services for Improved Health and Livelihoods in Lucknow, Rajkot and Vishakapatnam. The Government of India also hosted the Regional Consultation for Water for Asian Cities in New Delhi in April 2002. The Government of India attended the launch of the WAC Programme and also the first WAC Ministerial Forum in March 2003 at the World Water Forum in Osaka, Japan. As a first step to implement the Water for Asian Cities after its launch in March 2003, UN-HABITAT and ADB fielded a joint mission to the Ministry of Urban Development and Poverty Alleviation (MOUDPA) in India from 15 to 17 April 2003. The main aim of the mission was to brief the Government of India about the WAC Programme and requesting the selection of cities in India to join the WAC Programme. Subsequently an initial assessment mission was fielded to Madhya Pradesh from 27 April to 6 May 2003 exploring the feasibility of one or more cities for Water for Asian Cities
Inside this issue:
Sanitation Gap in MP WAC Interventions in Indore UNHABITAT and WSSCC PARTNERSHIP Sector Reform WSS Pilot Projects in Madhya MDGs on Water and Sanitation
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WATER FOR ASIAN CITIES PROGRAMME IN INDIA
Editorial: Covering the Sanitation Gap in Madhya Pradesh
One of the major impediment to achieve the Development Goal relating to sanitation is that sanitation and hygiene has much lesser consideration during the planning, budgeting and implementation phases. Water supply generally receives lion’s share of effort and resources compared to sanitation. All the MDGs relating to gender, education, slums and poverty reduction are unlikely to be met unless sanitation increases dramatically. Therefore, sanitation not only lies at the heart of poverty reduction but is also a Central plank of all the MDGs, not just those directly referring to water and sanitation. Sanitation inter alia covers: Safe collection, storage, treatment and disposal of human excreta; Management of solid waste; Drainage & disposal of sullage / grey water; Drainage of stormwater; Treatment and disposal of sewage effluents; Collection and management of industrial waste products; and Management of hazardous wastes. While the whole problem cannot be solved simultaneously, more important aspects of sanitation in a given situation need to be attended to. Each city has to work out what is important, sensible and cost effective approach for sanitation in the short and long-term. In the case of Madhya Pradesh, as a very high percentage of population defecates in the open, it remains the largest single challenge and no real progress can be made unless access starts to increase. However, health gains of universal access to basic sanitation shall accrue if people (a) use the available sanitary facilities, properly and (b) practice some key hygienic behaviours. Therefore, Hardware alone will not be sufficient. Hygiene promotion and social marketing are needed in tandem with hardware provision. Advocacy, awareness and education are needed must crucially to bring in behavioural change as also to reform institutions, organisations, systems of societal norms as well as rules and regulations under which they operate. Also sanitation has public good aspects (primarily environmental protection and public health). Therefore, local Governments have to link household service provision with Community level planning to balance local/household needs with wider societal ones.
Local Governments have to link household service provision with Community level planning to balance local/household needs with wider societal ones.
Water Conservation and Demand Management: WAC Interventions in Indore
The present water supply to Indore is falling far short of the demand. Water is reaching the customers for only a few hours per day at best. The main reasons being the limited amount of raw water pumped to the city and the condition of the distribution network, which is having estimated leakage losses and illegal connections of up to 50%. The present deficit in water supply is generally met by pumping of groundwater from numerous tube wells. With increasing population, their numbers have increased exponentially, resulting in over-exploitation of groundwater. The IMC has already initiated schemes to recharge groundwater through various methodologies of rooftop rainwater harvesting and guiding the water into the ground through sink wells. To meet the shortcoming in bulk water supply, the ADB project intends to double the amount transported from the Narmada River to Indore. Simultaneously, Water Demand Management interventions need to be initiated by WAC to provide adequate water resources management tools, i.e. assessment of safe Yields, drainage management, aquifer assessment and management strategy, management of land use and soil erosion, water quality management, communication and participatory development, institutional development and capacity building, and development of WC&DM Strategy. The second problem of leakage losses can at the moment only be approximated as few bulk supply lines and individual connections are metered. Intervention by WAC could include a comprehensive WDM programme on the supply side, focusing on technical issues, tariff structure, awareness creation, water education, demonstration projects of various aspects of WDM, capacity building and documentation of good practices. Thirdly, WAC programme would assist in initiating a comprehensive groundwater study to determine safe yields and provide management tools for the optimum utilization of groundwater. Ultimately, all these components can be brought together in a system of Integrated Water Resources Management, which allows the urban water supply management to make well-founded decisions on allocation of water and management resources. The role of Water Conservation and Demand Management measures for reduction of water losses and efficient water utilization in all spheres of water sector is becoming increasingly important. To address this issue a collaborative project (Managing Water for African Cities Programme) was initiated by the UN-HABITAT and UNEP in 1999. The objective of the programme is to improve Urban Water Resource Management practices in selected African Cities by enhancing awareness, promoting effective policies programmes and investments and by building capacity at a city level and in key national and regional institutions. This can also be affectively used for Indian cities. Through a joint initiative, the UN-HABITAT produced a Cookbook on Water Demand Management which aims at providing water suppliers with same guidance on how to manage their water losses. Lot of training programmes based on this are being organized at international level. Initiatives such as Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Campaign (WASH) - a partnership between WSSC Council and UN-HABITAT have gained momentum and received a high-level of political support and universal acceptability. UN-HABITAT will also develop E-learning Toolkit for Indore, Madhya Pradesh.
VOLUME 1, ISSUE 1
UNHABITAT and WSSCC PARTNERSHIP WATER, SANITATION and HYGIENE (WASH) CAMPAIGN
The Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for all campaign (WASH) is a concerted advocacy and communications campaign to mobilize political awareness, support and action to end the suffering of the 1.1 billion people without access to safe water, and the 2.4 billion without adequate sanitation. The most important contribution of WASH has been to bring sanitation and hygiene under the spotlight among the policy makers. Statistics indicate that some 36 per cent of water related sicknesses could be attributed to inadequate sanitation, some 35 per cent to water and its quality, while hand washing can reduce sicknesses by 35 per cent. Hygiene brings water and sanitation together and helps to get the most out of water and sanitation. Access to basic hygienic sanitation is a human right. UN-HABITAT’s partners in Brazil were launching the Water and Sanitation Hygiene (WASH) campaign in Habitat Debate, September 2003. The joint effort of UNHABITAT and the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) have led to bringing WASH now to Latin America and the Caribbean. Access to clean water and sanitation facilities is a key indicator of progress towards meeting the Millennium Development Goals, but all too often, investments in the sector have tended to by-pass the poor, who are in dire need. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for water and sanitation are really quite modest. In the 1980s, the world set the goal of water and sanitation for all by 1990. A few years before that, in Mar del Plata, Argentina, in 1977, access to safe water had been recognized as a universal human right - by definition a right of all people in all countries. In contrast, our goals today are only to halve the proportions without affordable access to safe water and adequate sanitation by 2015. In April 2001, UN-HABITAT and the Collaborative Council jointly launched the Urban Wash Campaign in Africa during the first Global Urban Forum held in Nairobi. This innovative initiative has helped a great deal to raise awareness of the importance of water, sanitation and hygiene among policy-makers, professionals and the media since it was first launched in Bonn during the Ministerial Water Conference. UN-HABITAT’s strategic vision touches human society in general. UNHABITAT has been innovative and effective in slum-upgrading strategies for the adaptation and expression of global norms related to urban governance, urban poverty, slums, shelter and basic services at the city level. The common priority is to address the needs of the urban poor, particularly women and other vulnerable people living in poverty. The objectives of the UN-HABITAT’s Water for African Cities Programme and the Water for Asian Cities Programme are to reduce the urban water crisis in cities through efficient and effective water demand management, to build capacity to reduce the environmental impact of urbanisation on freshwater resources and to boost awareness and information exchange on water management and conservation. These programmes focus on the identification and promotion of such approaches in order to support the slum dweller target of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) and the relevant principles and commitments of the Habitat Agenda. The Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) is a leading international organisation that enhances collaboration in the water supply and sanitation sector to accelerate the achievement of sustainable water, sanitation and waste management services to all people, with special attention to the un-served poor, by enhancing collaboration among developing countries and external support agencies and through concerted action programmes. For the Urban WASH (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene) campaign, UNHABITAT and WSSCC are in close partnership, which will enable both to be pioneers in the creation of a coalition between the local bodies and governments on one hand, and civil society on the other. Unless people are really brought into the centre of all planning, action and implementation, the real goal will never be achieved and it will not be sustainable. Mrs. Anna Kajumulo Tibaijuka Executive Director, UN-HABITAT remarked at the launch of the WASH Campaign organised by UNHABITAT’s partners in Brazil that UN-HABITAT, like all other supporters of the hygiene, sanitation and water goals, needs to advocate for all the MDGs, and to put water and sanitation issues at the centre of all goals. No doubt, the task ahead is a daunting one. However, with the requisite political will and existing donor goodwill, it is achievable. Now is the time to get all hands on deck – communities, governments, and development partners will need to pull together to restore hope for the millions in the slums across the world for whom clean water, sanitation and hygiene facilities are a matter of life and death. This is our ultimate goal at UN-HABITAT.
From page 1: Programme. It has now been decided in principle to cover all the four ADB Project cities (Bhopal, Gwalior, Indore, Jabalpur) under the Water for Asian Cities Programme. A Stakeholders’ Consultation was organized by UN-HABITAT, jointly with ADB in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, in August 2004 with a view to assess capacity building needs and priorities within the framework of the ADB investment project. The Government of Madhya Pradesh expressed its appreciation for the effective outcome of the Stakeholders’ Consultation. An Implementation Strategy for WAC programme in India is now being developed by UN-HABITAT in consultation with its partners.
WATER FOR ASIAN CITIES PROGRAMME IN INDIA
Sector Reform WSS Pilot Projects in Madhya Pradesh
The ninth five-year plan for the country had estimated the required funds for full coverage to be approximately Rupees 40,000 crore, including the costs of Operation and Maintenance (O&M) and quality control.-On average as suggested by the Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission (RGNDWM), about 6 percent of the capital investment is required annually for appropriate repairs and maintenance of the system. It is clear that such resources cannot continue to be provided through 10 percent of Minimum Need Programme (MNP) /Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme (ARWSP) plan funds, and limited non-plan resources of the States. Given the economic and financial scenario, it is difficult to visualize public resources of such magnitude being available and hence the need for involvement of communities, institutions, and the private sector is urgent To promote community participation in Rural water supply and Sanitation project. Sector reform pilot projects were introduced in the State of Madhya Pradesh, India. A total of 3062 schemes were sanctioned under sector reform pilot project. Of these, 1843 schemes have already been completed and handed over to the communities for their running and maintenance. The implementation of the pilot project up to the point of creation of the hardware is remarkable, but once the installation of hardware is complete, the subsequent management activities do not come up to the true project expectations. Now the state has adopted this as a successful model and this model is to be initiated in all the districts of the state
MDGs on Water and Sanitation
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Declaration was adopted by the UN General Assembly (the Millennium Assembly) in September 2000. Most of the world’s governments and international agencies have committed themselves to the MDGs. The most relevant of these for water and sanitation is MDG of addressing the following targets: • Target 10: to halve by 2015 the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water. • Target 11: to achieve by 2020, a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers. The world summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 added another relevant target: • To halve by 2015 the proportion of people who do not have access to basic sanitation
Editorial Team Editorial Board Gopal Reddy, Secretary, UADD, Government Board Savitur Prasad, Director, Govt. of India UWSEIMP Project Director/ Deputy Project Director Debashish Bhattacharjee, ADB, India Resident Mission Professor H.M. Mishra, State Academy of Administration P.S. Mathur, CITI Foundation, India Kulwant Singh, CTA, WAC Programme
Guest Editor Managing Editor
Water for Asian Cities Programme Office
EP-16/17, Chandragupta Marg, Chanakyapuri New Delhi - 110021 (India) Tel: +91-11-24104970 - 73 Fax: +91-11-24104961 Email: Kulwant.Singh@unhabitat.org Website: www.unhabitat.org & www.unwac.org Page 4
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