“Seest thou not, God sends down rain from the sky? With it we then bring out produce of various

colors. And in mountains are traces white and red, of various shades of color and black intense in tinge. And so amongst men and crawling creatures and cattle are they of various colors.” . (Fatir 27-28) In outer nature we can, through co colors, understand and appreciate the finest shades and gradations but in spiritual world that variation or gradation is even more subtle and comprehensive. Who can truly understand it? Only those who are daring enough to question understand themselves; can come to know the answers.

Creativity flows from a sense of inquistiveness,imagination and critical thinking,all blended together. To create something you need to believe in your own imagination and will power. You imagination need to take a step towards your own dreams,your own ideas about life; one step back to your own true identities. One step back to yourself. Discovering the person in you and nourishing your own soul is the ultimate step to serve the purpose for which you have been created. Learn! Learn! Learn! And gather all the knowlege you can. Run! Run! Run! And achieve all you can. But just becuase you can do something dosesn’t mean you have to! Doesn’t mean you should! It will just turn you attic-brain into a lumber room brain filled with dusty and rusty memories which are of no use. STOP living you life like a movie being played in fast forward. Polish yourself. Put your knowledge to test by trying to do something new everyday. Try to apply the knowledge you have acquired and bridge the gap between your dreams and reality. For nowledge this we provide you the intitial platform i.e. an e e-zine THE REVERSE GEAR. The commencement of this magazine is a step towards finding the new ways to flourish our internal creative soul and the engineer inside us to excel in both the professional and social life. This is the POWER stroke. We have provided the initial push. All the energy is now stored in FLYWHEEL. The urge and momentum to bring about the change is UNVIELD Lets create a UNVIELD. legacy. Together we can overcome all the friction and power fluctuations. All we need to do is to keep this momentum and add our own power strokes to it. Presistence! Presistence! And to Presistence! That’s all we need. So, we urge all of you to collect your thoughts and mould them into expressive words that will motivate others to think, learn and remain alive.

Let there be a change.. and let it began w US! with BE THE DIFFERENCE..!!


Ali Safdar Cheema
Man has been called a social animal mainly because of his logical thinking & reasonable social traits. WHAT IF…this tamed, trained, social & logical animal fails to define logic…?? What if this animal does something that is beyond the comprehension of logic or reason..?? Can any cause be so worthwhile, so logical or so reasonable to demerit logic itself…?? What is it inside a man that causes a soldier to tie grenades to his chest& lie beneath a tank & explode himself..?? What is it inside a man to happily throw away the most precious gift of nature to him..?? HIS VERY EXISTANCE...!! Does any logic in this world define the extinction of the survival instinct in this social animal..??Even an animal is supposed to do anything & everything for its survival. What is that state, in which man seizes to be a HUMAN or an ANIMAL..?? What is it that forces a father to donate his own organs to his child..??What is it that state when Aurangzeb prays to GOD to take his life & spare Humayun’s..?? What is that the lap of a love one provides all the happiness in the world..??What is it that someone’s touch eliminates all pain, all fear..?? I always think of the saying that “Promises made in happiness & sorrows are usually the weakest ones” Have you ever thought of this saying as logical or reasonable..?? What is it about Happiness or Sorrow, Love or Hatred that steals away your identity from you..?? Is this really logical..??

illogical or perfectly

Is it just a sudden rush of adrenaline through your veins..?? Or for that matter, what causes this adrenaline to flow though you and every inch of your existence so powerfully that every part of your body just subordinates itself to this sudden rush..?? What is it with Love or Happiness that causes man to act so unexplainably illogical & unreasonable..?? Whether it’s the Love of your flesh or the Love of your child, the Love of your motherland or the Love of one Loved one..?? There is but one conclusion. “There is a point beyond which, every logic, every reason just vanishes…& from then on starts The Perfect Logic, The Perfect Reason of the creation of Mankind”

Quratulain Shakoor 8th Semester
Just-in-time manufacturing is a strategy used in the business manufacturing process to reduce costs by reducing the in-process inventory level. It is driven by a series of signals that tell the production line to make the next piece for the product as and when it is needed. The signals used are usually simple visual signals, such as the absence or presence of a piece needed in the manufacturing process. Just-in-time manufacturing can lead to huge improvements in quality and efficiency. It can also lead to higher profits and a larger return in investment. A reorder level is set and new stock is ordered when that level is reached. There is no overstocking of parts. This saves the warehouse.

Industrial Engineering, UET Peshawar
on space in There seems to be only one problem with JIT manufacturing, and that is that the whole process lies in historical demand. Manufacturers need to gauge the levels of materials and parts needed from their past or current sales figures. If there is a rise or fall in demand for the product, it could have serious effects on the inventory process. Manufacturers have to make sure they have a sales forecast or reference in place to allow for these fluctuations in sales. If they do not have these figures, it could cause a serious problem for the just-in-time manufacturing process.

JIT manufacturing was first used by Henry Ford of the Ford Motor Company. Ford only bought materials for his immediate needs in the manufacturing process. He bought only the amount of material needed to fit into his plan of production. He planned transportation of materials so the flow of his product would be smooth. This gave him a rapid turnover and decreased the amount of money tied up in raw materials. Ford's JIT process was adopted by many other car manufacturers. Toyota in Japan used the process with very satisfactory results.


The New type of Hydel Power Generation
Syed Muhammad Haider Jafri
Pakistan has been suffering from an enormous energy crisis since 2007. This is partially because of the over population, rapid industrial expansion, lack of investments in energy sector, our excessive use of Air Conditioners, or anything else. In the need of hour, we at Jafri Research Facility have developed a unique, inexpensive, easy to set-up and cheap to maintain power plant that runs entirely on running water. The idea of this type of power plant came to my mind when I was in Azad Kashmir, enjoying my vacation there on the bank of River Neelum. This river is very fast flowing and I thought of utilizing that energy in the form of electricity. As the Neelum-Jehlum power project is underway, giving a total of 960 MW of electricity, I thought of making more versatile source of energy for conversion into electricity, i.e. the converting the canal water into raw power. The running water is 1000 times more energetic than the wind blowing with the same velocity, so the idea of Wind Power Plant seems ridiculous to me. As JRF conducted the survey of Lahore Canal water, I found out that the water velocity is about 0.8 m/s. Further research revealed the facts that at the depth of about 6 foot, and the width of 12 foot, if a rectangular pipe (preferably of a composite material e.g. Fiber Glass, as it has enormous ultimate tensile strength, and Carbon Fiber is much better option as it is almost invincible material when treated properly) having curved edges on the inside, to reduce the water energy losses as it travels through it, will make the running of the water more streamline, making it closer to the ideal fluid. Our goal is to make the flow of water as smooth as possible so that all the energy contained in it can easily be extracted. Another major goal is to increase the velocity of water, so that it will turn the turbine faster thus generating more power. The problem of torque is overcome by increasing the amount of water that enters the composite duct through one end and leaves the other end. To do this, we reduced the area of the second end of the duct that is directly connected to the intake of the turbine. We used Francis Turbine in developing the design of this power plant as power conversion of this type of water turbine is more that 75% of the energy of water, which is very high as compared to the other turbines of its class. The most important thing in the power conversion of the Francis Turbine is the design of the blades that extract the actual energy from 6 2009-Mechanical water. The angle of the blades is variable, and its actual value is still a classified fact and is not to be released publically for some time. The material of the blade selection is another major factor in increasing the efficiency of the turbine. The material should be as light as possible and it should not be tough as to absorb the impact load that the water delivers to it, rather it should transmit this energy to the rotor directly without any losses. For this application, we again preferred the use of Carbon Composite Materials, as their properties can be molded to the desired specific needs of its applications. The most important thing in the designing of this type of turbine was to increase the velocity of the water running through it. So instead of having only a turn of 360 degree, we altered the standard design of the turbine and gave it another twist of 360 degrees, increasing the velocity water. The number of turbine blades was also doubled and the final set of blades had to be made of certain special material, whose material is a classified secret. The generator is connected perpendicular to the flow of water, making the system as compact as possible.

According to our research, this single system is quite capable of delivering at least 600-800 KW of electricity, or if some alterations are made to the design, it can do well above 1.2MW of electricity. Combining a number of

such units would yield a total of…enormous amount of energy. Even if the same system is connected to a fast flowing river with some modifications, it would yield enormous amount of energy.

That was one of the first researches done by JRF and we have a number of researches in the field of alternate energy, and these would be coming in the next issues.

Biodiesel, a Renewable Source of Energy
Muhammad Zubair Amjad Biodiesel is a non-petroleum and environmentally-friendly alternative to petroleum-based diesel fuel. Made from vegetable oil, biodiesel is nontoxic and carbon-neutral, providing almost completely clean emissions. It is also good for engines, its composition providing a greater degree of natural lubricity than current ultra-low sulphur diesel fuels(ULSD), and has shown to help keep engines clean, preventing the buildup of deposits that can take place with traditional diesel fuel. As a result of being made directly from plants that can be regrown on the same land, biodiesel is considered a renewable source of energy. This is an obvious contrast to fossil fuels which can never be renewed. Biodiesel production is essentially quite a simple process, and although requiring a fairly high degree of precision requires only simple chemicals and equipment. Vegetable oils are made up of triglyceride esters- a combination of 3 fatty acid chains, held together with a glyceride molecule. To convert the vegetable oil into biodiesel, glycerin has to be detached and replaced with methanol, and the 3 fatty acid chains need to be separated into 3 separate methyl ester molecules. This is accomplished by the addition of methanol and a catalyst to the vegetable oil. The volume of methanol added should be 20% of the volume of vegetable oil, and the catalyst can be one of the 2 substances, both of which produce acceptable results: • Sodium Hydroxide • Potassium Hydroxide The amount of catalyst required is calculated beforehand based on the results of titration test that is performed on the vegetable oil. The required amount of sodium/potassium hydroxide is then added to methanol, which is pumped through the oil to thoroughly mix the 2 liquids and initiate the reaction. Once the reaction is complete, the triglyceride esters will be separated from the glycerine and will mix with the methanol to produce mono alkyl esters, or biodiesel. At this stage the glycerine being heavier, will have sunk to the bottom of the tank and can be drained off for disposal or future use. The process is 7 2008-Mechanical now almost complete. The resulting biodiesel after purifying is then ready for storage or use, and should be equal in volume to the original vegetable oil, with the methanol having directly replaced the glycerin by volume. Biodiesel’s benefits categories: fall into 3

Environmental Reduced Engine Wear Long-Term Cost Environmental Benefits of Biodiesel: The environmental benefits biodiesel are threefold: of

Biodiesel is carbon-neutral. This means that emissions of CO2 equal the CO2 that was absorbed by the plants the oil was made from. Thus biodiesel is said not to contribute any CO2 to the environment--- a good thing. This is in contrast to the consumption of fossil fuels, which release large amounts of CO2 into the environment that have been locked away for millions of years. Thus use of fossil fuels results in a

net contribution of CO2 to the environment.

Lower in particulate emissions Lower hydrocarbon emissions Completely free of sulphur oxide emissions—Biodiesel does not contain sulphur. Biodiesel does have very slightly higher emissions of nitrogen oxide (NOx) than petrodiesel, although these can be reduced by use of a catalytic converter. Reduced Engine Wear One of the side effects of the move to ultra ultra-low sulphur diesel has been that the lubricating properties of the fuel have been reduced. Biodiesel offers a solution to this – even in 2%-5% blends, it has been proven to replace the lubri lubricity and provide cleansing

solvent properties that will help to reduce wear and keep the fuel system, injectors and engine free of deposits. Biodiesel offers medium and long term opportunities for cost benefits to individuals and businesses that choose to run their vehicles and machinery on a biodiesel biodiesel-based fuel. Although at present, the most readily available 5% blends of biodiesel/petroleum-diesel are priced biodiesel/petroleum at approximately the same price as 100% petroleum diesel fuels, there is potential for the cost p liter of per biodiesel road fuels to fall in the future.

Emissions from vehicles using biodiesel fuel are much lower and more environmentally-friendly than from vehicles using mineral diesel. Biodiesel emissions are: Up to 60% lower in CO2 Lower in CO(Carbon Monoxide) emissions

Wind Turbines
Ehtisham Ahmad Bhutti Wind is a form of solar energy. Winds are caused by the uneven heating of the atmosphere by the sun, the irregularities of the earth's surface, and rotation of the earth. Wind flow patterns are modified by the earth's terrain, bodies of water, and vegetation. Humans use this wind flow, or motion energy, for many purposes: sailing, flying a kite, and even generating electricity. Wind energy or wind power describes the process by which the wind is used to generate mechanical power or electricity. Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical power. This mechanical power can be used for specific tasks (such as grinding grain or pumping water) or a generator can convert this mechanical power into electricity. The electricity is sent through transmission and distribution lines to homes, businesses, schools, and so on. So how do wind turbines make electricity? Simply stated, a wind 2008-Mechanical Instead of using electricity to make wind, like a fan, wind turbines use wind to make electricity. The win wind turns the blades, which spin a shaft, which connects to a generator and makes electricity. Take a look inside a wind turbine to see the various parts. Technically speaking, Horizontal axis wind turbines have a plane of rotation perpendicular to the direction of the incoming wind. tion When air flows past the blades of a turbine a force is exerted onto the blades and tail fin, pushing the turbine in the direction of the wind. Because of the special shape of the rotor blades, a lift force is also created forcing rotor to revolve

turbine works the opposite of a fan. 8

about the central axis in the familiar way. The rotor is connected to a shaft which drives a generator directly, producing the electrical output from the machine. Larger machines can make use of a gearbox to maintain a fixed generator speed for different wind conditions. Turbine design depends largely upon whether it is horizontal axis or vertical axis, with horizontal axis machines by far the most common. The axis is defined by the direction of the rotor shaft. They can also be either free standing on a pole or mast, or more recently, building

away from it in times of high wind speed to prevent damage damage. Pole mountings consist either of a steel or composite material (tubular tower), a lattice tower, or a guyed mast on top of which the turbine and generator a are located. Building mountings are designed for attaching the machine to a building, such as on the gable end of a house ranging in output from around 0.5kW – 2.5kW. Most large wind turbines are delivered with tubular steel towers, which are manufactured in sections of 20 20-30 meters with flanges at either end, and bolted together on the site. The towers are conical (i.e. with their diameter increasing towards the base) in order to increase their strength and to save materials at the same time. Tubular towers are the most used type because they are easy to construct, their simplicity, and low cost. These kinds of towers permit modify its height just adding new tubes trams and adding guy cables. Lattice towers are manufactured using welded stee profiles. The steel basic advantage of lattice towers is cost, since a lattice tower requires only half as much material as a freely standing tubular tower with a similar stiffness. The basic disadvantage of lattice towers is their visual appearance, (although that issue is clearly debatable). Be that as it may, for aesthetic reasons lattice

towers have almost disappeared from use for large, modern wind turbines. Many small wind turbines are built with narrow pole towers supported by guy wires called Guyed pole towers. The advantage is weight . savings, and thus cost. The disadvantages are difficult access around the towers which make them less suitable in farm areas. Finally, this type of tower is more prone to vandalism, thus compromising overall safety. Some towers are made in different combinations of the techniques mentioned above and are known as Hybrid Towers One example is the Towers. tower which you see in the photograph, which may be said to be a hybrid between a lattice tower and a tubular tower. The best site to install a windmill will ite be a place where it is exposed to the most constant and highest wind speed possible. The wind speed depends enormously on the landscape the air moves over. In almost all locations the wind speed increases, as you get higher o the off ground; vegetation, landscape, nearby buildings, etc. stop the wind and produce turbulences. The best place for a wind tower, is an obstructions free area, and the highest possible.

mounted. Vertical axis machines (VAWT) do not need to point in the direction of the wind and so may be more suitable for areas of turbulent wind conditions. One drawback with vertical axis machines is that they might not be capable of self-starting and are generally less efficient. Horizontal axis machines (HAWT) are by far the most commonly installed and typically have three or more rotor blades. They automatically orientate themselves with the direction of incoming wind, but turn


Hydraulic System of Brakes
M.S Being the most efficient braking system, Hydraulic systems of brakes are used nowadays instead of the mechanical brakes system. In this system, the brake pedal is connected to pistons in master cylinders and by steel tubing with flexible sections to individual cylinders at the wheels. Front and rear hydraulic circuits from As we know that when the brakes are applied on the vehicle, its center of gravity tends to move forward due to the inertia of the body. Thus causing the front wheels to become heavier than the rea wheel. rear Due to the engine presence on the front of the car, the load is larger thus friction is larger on the front than the rear assembly. So, rear wheels will lock lock-up earlier when brakes are applied. This will cause the rear tires to lose traction/ ski skid. Friction reduces and tire will have very less contact with the road. The braking force of the rear tires must be reduced as compared with the front wheels to prevent early lock up which can be very much dangerous. This is done by the help of proportioni valve. proportioning A proportioning valve is a valve that, following the laws of fluid pressure, dispenses input forces to one or more output lines. A proportioning valve can amplify or dwindle forces for each production, depending on the cross cross-sectional surface areas of those output lines. Proportioning valve is designed such as to bring actual pressure curves as close to the ideal as technically possible. This reduces the 08-Mechanical pressure to rear brakes. This should increase the pressure to main cylinder but the process of proportioning occurs very fast, thus the pressure on main cylinder not increases. It automatically reduces the hydraulic pressure for rear wheel cylinder. Hydraulic cylinder consists of any kind of fluid filled in pipe and two pistons. Brake pedals are connected to the main cylinder and further pistons attached will work to stop the car. Material for the cylinder r. is usually Al, steel, cast iron or bronze. Bypass valve is generally incorporated in valve body. When the front brake circuit has loss of brake pressure, it ensures maximum brake pressure to rear brakes. Spring in

the main cylinder are separated. The wheel cylinders are located between the mutable ends of the brake shoes, and each is en suite with two pistons that are forced outward. Ensuring the braking efficient especially of the rear wheels is very significant. For this purpose hydraulic control valves are used. To control the rear brake pressure is necessary due to inertia because when brakes are applied, the total weight of vehicle shifts toward front. Rear wheel can skid out of control because they have less weight during braking, they can lock up easily and cause the vehicle to lose traction.

proportioning valve holds it to the left because overall hydraulic effect on the valve is neutral as rear brake pushes rightward and front brake pushes leftward. If the hydraulic supply is cut off to the front wheel brake then the rear brake will move bypass valve to r right causing abrupt pressure to apply rear brakes.


All FWD use double proportioning valve, one for controlling the front brake and the other for rear brake. Tension on one spring controls the movement of both the valves. As previously described in the function of the bypass valve, if front wheel brake fails, all the hydraulic pressure is transmitted to the rear wheel cylinder causing it to be fully braked at exact timings i.e. rear wheel and front wheel will be fully braked at same timings. Greater the load, greater braking force is required for rear brakes. Thus load sensing proportioning valves can be used with bypass circuit, known as

load sensing proportioning bypass valve. Vehicle height senses the load which is transmitted to PV, by the help of leaf spring attached to the sensor .It gets compressed as the vehicle load increases and lessens the height of the body. But load sensing s (LSPV’s) have two drawbacks, one is that the mechanical linkage in LSPV mounted on the driver’s side frame rail and other side axle housing is not physically capable of the range of motion that our long travel suspension provides. Second is, if the ride height alters which is approximately 3" lift and load

distribution varies abruptly then LSPV does not provide its proper line pressure to the rear brakes. It will be more favorable to replace LSPV altogether with a racing type adjustable proportioning valve . Then input will be of driver’s choice that how much change in percentage of line pressure to the rear brakes is required. It should always be ensured that the brake system is fully functional and has been properly tested and adjusted for performance and safety. As, safety is not a gadget but a state of mind.

Climate Change and Green Development
Ahmed Hassan Tariq 2006-Mechanical
If the lifespan of the earth, from its birth to its end, is converted into a scale of a year i.e. 365 days, Homo sapiens came on its face on 31st December, 15 minutes to midnight. But this is not that daunts the environmentalist. The fight, economy versus environment, has proved deleterious for Mother Nature, reducing the precious 15 minutes. Oceans are dumped with garbage; rivers with overrun fertilizers, forests are stripped off, air is poisoned by chemicals. We face water shortage, squandered acres of land, depleted natural resources, global warming, even according to some, global cooling but more importantly, a drastic climatic change. Why we face all this? Now this is one perspective of it. This is all linked with the discovery of fossil fuels being converted into a more efficient energy source. Before the advent of fossil fuels being our primary source of energy, we relied on the sun, the universal source of energy and thus, the total population of the world had remained constant as with the sun being the only source of energy, a limited number of plants were grown which could feed a certain number of a population. Then, the discovery of fossil fuels, gave a more efficient power source which could be harnessed in many ways. And with industrial revolution, the life of a common man changed. More luxuries, more food could be grown, more water could be pumped out. Yes, it did have many benefits but using the fossil fuels irresponsibly has in time for us some great difficulties. The use of fossil fuels generated gases, such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides etc, which as in a phenomenon of a greenhouse, trap the heat and does not let it radiate out, raising the overall temperature of the earth. This is one common thing we all, I am sure, know. Approximately, 80% of the greenhouse gases released is from the industrial sector. Levels of several important greenhouse gases have increased by about 25% since large-scale industrialization which began 150 years back. In computer based models, rising concentrations


of greenhouse gases produce an increase in the average surface temperature of the Earth over time. Rising temperatures may, in turn, produce changes in precipitation patterns, storm severity, and sea level commonly referred to as ‘climate change’. Variance of several degrees of temperature could disrupt the whole ecosystem. This shows us the consequences of using fossil fuels without proper techniques. But if, let us imagine, this all continues and all the fossil fuels have deplete and none alternative sources of energy is found, mankind would go back to relying on the sun, the universal source of energy. What could this do to us? Firstly, energy

from the sun could only meet the demands for a certain number of people as said above. Meaning, it would not be capable enough to support a population of 10 billion, which would then decrease drastically to very small number! There is o only one solution for us. We need to find efficient alternative sources of energy and build a greener tomorrow, as most environmentalist say. But none of this could be possible unless governments of different countries join in. First of all, an internationa committee should be international made, similar to the United Nations, having ultimate power on environment related matters. A perfect example of this is the Kyoto

Protocol. The problem of deforestation should be met. Policies should be made and laws enforced on illegal and excessive cutting of trees al and to encourage reforestation. Waste disposal plants should be created, to ensure that no waste is dumped into fresh water. Industries should be imposed with a ‘carbon tax’ as proposed in the Kyoto Protocol. And a specifi organization should be specific made to invent and explore new ways to produce renewable efficiency using the natural resources such as sunlight, tidal waves, wind etc. But that is not the problem; the alternative sources of energy have to be equally efficient an economical. and

Learning with Protos
Syeda Zahra Shujah Kazmi Being an engineer, I have so many times played with efficiency curves, characteristic curves, stress-strain curves etc increasing the retention of my knowledge every time. A few seconds ago, I was just thinking why I don’t do something to let children provide an opportunity to shoot out their LEARNING CURVES!!! In this real battle of BRAINSTORM we can let our new generation learn technology and physical phenomenon through prototypes developed by little efforts of engineers that can provide opportunity for kids to understand scientific things and it might even be a golden chance for engineering students to learn more by developing prototypes for different phenomenon. 2008-Mechanical This prototype works on the simple concept of noise cancellation through superposition; so basically it’s a prototype circuit of a simple noise cancellation device. This device uses the phenomena of superposition of waves that when two or more sound waves from different sources are present and the sound waves are180° out of shift, the sum of the waveforms would be zero. They would cancel out each other and ultimately there would be no sound. Basically sound is a compression wave in air s the wave first so compresses to an amount greater

It would be my pleasure to share one of my prototypes for letting others to understand what I am trying to say. 12

than normal air pressure; hence adding the positive and negative pressure will ultimately give you the normal air pressure. You can develop prototype of such a simple active noise cancellation device. All you need to do is to follow the circuit shown. In this circuit we use a step down transformer to reduce 240V to 12V. Oscillator provides us with the puretone (simplest periodic sound) sound which is fed to the first speaker. Oscillator is further connected to

Audio-inverter like 741 operational amplifier, which inverts the sound and the shift of the sound, is decided by using adjuster attached with the inverter. This inverted sound is further amplified and fed to the second speaker. When we switch on the device and rotate adjuster to give a 180° shift then no sound would be heard but you can feel the vibrations by putting your finger on any of the speaker. To teach anyone anything let that person think and move him by CREATING CUROSITIES. If engineering

students unlock their minds and also work out on these miniature things then it can offer a chance for them to think and invent new things. Learning through developing prototypes would definitely provide an opportunity to young learners to understand things and intrigue them towards technology. References: • Noise and Vibration Control by Leo L. Beranek • www.faqs.org • www.school-for-champions.com • www.wikipedia.com

Environmental Benefits of using Biogas
Sara Naeem The world community uses up in a minute what it took Earth a millennium to create. World will, at this pace, soon run out of its conventional energy sources. Pakistan is an agricultural country and being a developing country, it is facing a number of challenges in meeting its energy requirements through conventional sources. Some of the most common renewable energy resources that are available in Pakistan and have great feasibility according to country’s geographic location, geological conditions and climatological cycle are hydro energy, solar, tidal, wind, geothermal energy and biomass or solid wastes energy. It’s time for us to “Go Green”. Biogas is a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide and generating it from solid waste or animal dung can prove to be vital in solving energy and waste management crisis in Pakistan. Some of the major positive environmental impacts of using biogas are: Development of a benign and safe waste management system, 2008-Mechanical produced can migrate from landfill causing fires and killing vegetation. But by capturing it on site or processing it in digesters these environmental problems can be solved providing energy to society. Pollution and odor control of organic putrescible wastes the fermentation of manure in biogas production greatly reduces the pathogen content of the manure. It also greatly reduces the odour of the manure, as in the end, all the volatile gases have been removed. Reduction in the need for the use of artificial fertilizers Microbial action in the lagoon substantially reduces chemical and biological oxygen demands (COD and BOD, respectively), total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), nitrate nitrogen, and

Municipal waste is often not properly disposed off. It is compacted in sanitary landfills so natural anaerobic digestion occurs. The biogas thus 13

organic nitrogen in the waste stream. The liquid from digester is also used as a fertilizer. Control of pathogenic bacteria and viruses, Coliform acteria, other pathogens, insect eggs and internal parasites also are destroyed or reduced to acceptable levels by anaerobic treatment. Production of renewable energy, Conversion of animal waste to biogas through anaerobic digestion processes can provide added value to manure as an energy resource and reduce environmental problems associated with animal wastes. One approach to increasing the value of waste is to use it as an energy resource. Reduction in greenhouse gas emissions The conversion of biomass to biogas has a very positive impact on environment. Methane is released from the biomass as a result of natural decay which is many times stronger greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. Carbon neutral process, The sustainable application of biomass presents a scenario for reduction in global CO2 emissions which might be

achieved by the substitution. Biomass could offset much of man-made emissions of CO2 and play a significant role in stabilizing the global climate while allowing the increase in energy use which is essential if the people from developing countries are to have a good life. Help urban areas. Biogas plants will provide more opportunities to rural businesses there by reducing the urban mitigation that is taxing the abilities of cities to cope with their own environmental problems. Biogas is sustainable. It is not like other conventional sources of energy which are running out due to excessive use. The amount of waste produced varies with the type of animal, but generally ranges from 60 to 85 kg (wet basis) per 1, 000 kg live animal mass per day in intensive production systems. The energy potential of these wastes is given by the volatile solids (organic matter) content, which ranges from 10 to 18% of the total wet waste or 75 to 85% of the dry weight. These wastes are renewable source thus making production of gaseous fuels sustainable.

Usually rural areas do not have the electrification facilities because they are either too remote and/or too expensive to connect to national grids. The expansive electricity produced in Pakistan has a huge impact on industrial sector and is not economic at all. To sustain our industrial progress and agricultural development, we need to develop and use alternative energy sources on priority basis that would ensure ecofriendly sustainable development thus, solving the power crisis, providing energy security and saving our environment from pollution. This would provide good incentives for investors to invest in Pakistan bringing about industrial and agricultural reforms and economic stability. But it also needs a continuity of government policies, political stability, social peace and investment in research and development sector. Biogas energy has a great potential and feasibility in Pakistan. It can help to solve some of our basic power needs in rural areas where animal waste is easily available. But it has not been adequately explored, exploited or developed yet.

Water Engines
Running cars, fueled by water used to be just a figment of science fiction flicks...…well, not anymore. This article will unveil the nitty-gritty of the technology which was kept under wraps for years. My aim is to obtain hydrogen gas from water to produce power on economical basis and to highlight different methods employed to extract hydrogen from water. In addition to, the complications, I, faced during the working of the engine are being transformed into proficient solutions to synthesize a Faizan Arif 2008-Mechanical profitable engine. Research reveals that as compared to conventional engines water engine is the most economical and efficient engine and this analysis will mark the beginning of an automotive revolution.


Water, as seen by a common man is a source of quenching his thirst but when it comes to engineering, the approach drastically changes. Engineers are born with the talent to find something out of nothing, and continuing this maxim they have come up with a peculiar result, using water as a source of fuel. Seems anomalous, however that is the way it is. Water when decomposes generates hydrogen and oxygen which when recombined generates highly appreciated power without the emission of harmful gases. Well, had the phenomenon been that much trouble free then all the chief manufacturers of car would have installed it in their cars but the scenario is totally opposite. This is primarily because of the inappropriate methods employed to decompose water into its components and if they ever achieved the results of decomposition, the problem remained how to combine the components again so that we get something to cheer for. According to the invention a method of generating hydrogen comprises the steps of exposing a fresh metal surface to water and heating the interface between the metal surface and the water at least to the lowest temperature at which the metal reacts with water to form a metal oxide and hydrogen, the metal being chosen from metals which are higher in the electromotive series than hydrogen and having stable and safe

handling characteristics. Preferably the metal surface is exposed and the interface heated by pressing an electrode of the relevant metal against a second electrode under water and applying a high voltage between the electrodes while preferably moving the electrode surfaces relatively to one another. In other words in the preferred form of the invention hydrogen is formed by creating an underwater electrical discharge between two electrodes at least one of which is made of a metal

oxide layer on its exposed surfaces and reacts with water at a relatively low temperature. Aluminum wire fed against a rotating aluminum drum has been found to give excellent results to provide hydrogen for powering small internal combustion engines. A convenient way of securing the high voltage required is to employ the conventional distributor and coil arrangement which provides the sparking for an internal combustion engine. Two coils in parallel fed from a common distributor have been found to give excellent results. Other methods of generating high voltages from the battery or the drive shaft of an internal combustion engine may also be used. The method of the invention lends itself in an excellent manner to supply hydrogen on demand. In this case hydrogen is fed to a small buffer store and as the pressure in the store exceeds a predetermined level, the electrodes are separated so that hydrogen generation is interrupted. As the pressure drops to a certain level the electrodes are again fed towards one another. The story of this eccentric, mysterious, unfamiliar and relatively unknown engine still mystifies leading car manufacturing companies because they do not have faith and self-reliance in its efficient working. However, I am still buoyant that one day I will own a water fueled car.

as defined above. The electrical discharge and the relative movement between the electrode surfaces ensure that fresh metal surfaces are exposed to the water while at the same time the discharge heats the interface between the electrodes and the water to the required temperature at which the metal reacts with water to form its oxide and to liberate hydrogen. Also in the preferred form of the invention the metal is aluminum which has the advantage that it is in relatively abundant supply, relatively cheap, is formed with a protective


Renewable energy resources in Pakistan
Zainab Nadeem
Pakistan, despite the enormous potential of its energy resources, remains energy deficient and has to rely heavily on imports to satisfy hardly its needs. Moreover a very large part of the rural areas does not have the electrification facilities because they are either too remote and/or too expensive to connect to the national grid. Pakistan obtains its energy requirements from a variety of traditional and commercial sources. Share of various primary energy sources in energy supply mix remained during last few years as oil: 43.5%, gas: 41.5%, LPG: 0.3%, coal: 4.5%, hydroelectricity: 9.2%, and nuclear electricity: 1.1%. The electric power generation included 71.9% thermal, 25.2% hydel and 2.9% nuclear. While there is no prospect for Pakistan to reach self-sufficiency in hydrocarbons, the good option is the exploitation and utilization of the huge coal reserves of Thar and the other renewable energy sources. Pakistan has wide spectrum of high potential renewable energy sources, conventional and as well nonconventional, which have not been adequately explored, exploited and developed. When it comes to Pakistan, an entire gambut of renewable energy sources can be considered plausible. Solar (PV and concentrator PV/thermal) and (onshore (onshore-off-shore) wind appear to make most sense primarily given o sense, the geography and climatic conditions as well as the maturity of the technology worldwide, but biofuels, coal coal-to-gas and coal-to-liquid fuels, fischer fischer-tropsch synthesis of fuels from converting biomass and biowaste to syn syn-gas, tidal power, small hydro, and thermoelectrics are all valid technologies to be researched and looked into.


co-generation, city and other solid generation, wastes, utilization of low low-head canal levels, sea wave & tide and geothermal energies etc. Technologically, all these renewable energy sources are viable and consequently suit to efforts for poverty alleviation and cleaner environment in Pakis Pakistan. The country can be benefited by harnessing these options of energy generation as substitute energy in areas where sources exist. As Pakistan is the agricultural country and major part of population lives in the rural areas, the electricity generated b renewable by sources will also improve rural life, thereby reducing the urban migration that is taxing the ability of cities to cope with their own environmental problems. There is no reason why we cannot derive as much or more energy from solar concentrato tidal waves, and concentrators, wind farms than we already do from natural gas power plants and large hydro-electric dams. electric The government, having managed energy in the country for so long via a centralized organization (WAPDA), must understand that energy production is a long-term play and any changes to the energy policy can have major ramifications for the investors who may put up their money (and time) into building out an infrastructure.

Thus, the primary energy supplies today are not enough to meet even the present demand. So, Pakistan, like other developing countries of the region, is facing a serious challenge of energy deficit. The development of the renewable energy sources can play an important role in meeting this challenge. Present observations based on reviewing the geological setup, geographical position, climatologic climatological cycles and the agricultural/industrial/urbanization activities reveal that there are bright prospects for the exploitation of various renewable energy sources, which include mega & macro/micro macro/microhydel, biomass, biogas, wind, solar, 16

As the availability of adequate supplies of energy is a pre-requisite to generate economic activities, the energy sector plays a vital role in ensuring all-round development and growth of economy of a nation. Energy is considered as one of the four major drivers of growth in strategic planning of Pakistan Government (FD, 2001). The other three drivers are agriculture, small & medium enterprises, and information technology. Since the inception of Pakistan, the primary power supplies from the conventional energy sources were (and are still today) not enough to meet the country’s demand. Pakistan, despite the enormous potential of its indigenous energy resources, remains energy deficient and has to rely heavily on the imports of the petroleum products to satisfy its present day need. Efforts have also been made to exploit the existing conventional energy resources to build a strong indigenous exploration and production base. In spite of all these efforts, the achieved results so far are not cost effective, helpful in reduction of import dependence, promotion of self-reliance through accelerated exploitation of

conventional energy resources with minimum environmental degradation. Though the thermal power generating capacity has increased rapidly during last few years due to foreign investment in Independent Power Producers (IPPs), but at the same time, it has caused increased air pollution and GHG emissions with the result of degradation of health and eco ecosystems.

Conclusion: The conventional energy sources, i.e. fossil fuels (such as coal and petroleum and biofuels like wood), mega mega-hydel, and nuclear plants have remained the energy sources of choice of the world for centuries. Now, there has been a growing recognition, for mor than one more reason, of the dangers inherent in continuing with the model of economic development based on these sources, particularly the

excessive consumption of fossil fuels. One reason is that the reserves of fossil fuels are not unlimited and at the present rate of consumption they sent would not last very long. The world community today uses up in one minute what it took the earth a millennium to create. It is prophesized that at this rate, well before the end of the new millennium, the world will run out of conventional energy sources. Moreover, it has been conclusively proved that climate change, which has been resulting in global warming, is mainly caused by greenhouse gas emissions from energy generating systems based on fossil fuels. Yet another aspect t that has come into sharp focus is that the developing countries can ill afford to depend excessively upon petroleum imports marked as they are by volatile price fluctuations. Moreover, indiscriminate use of fuel wood leads to deforestation with consequent environmental hazards and inefficient nvironmental burning of fuel wood leads to an increase in indoor air pollution and consequent health hazards especially for women and children. Similarly, the other conventional sources of energy generation have their adverse impacts on environment. s


Tooba Aziz Today, technology is starting to advance even more than ever before. It is not just getting bigger day by day, but also getting slimmer and portable. With these technology advancements come many great things, such as the watch cell phones. Do you have a tendency to lose your mobile phone? The display screen is colorful in nature due to its ability to display up to 256,000 colors, which is unheard of within a watch. Short for thin film transistor, TFT is a type of LCD touchscreen in which each pixel is controlled by one to four transistors. TFT-based displays have a transistor for each pixel on the screen. This allows the electrical current that illuminates the display to be turned on and off at a faster rate, which makes the display brighter and shows motion smoother. The TFT technology provides the best resolution of all the flat-panel techniques, but it is also the most expensive. TFT screens are sometimes called active-matrix LCDs. The circuit layout of a TFT-LCD is very similar to that of a DRAM memory (Dynamic Random Access Memory). However, rather than fabricating the transistors from silicon formed into a crystalline wafer, they are made from a thin film of silicon deposited on a glass panel. Transistors take up only a small fraction of the area of each pixel; the rest of the silicon film is etched away to allow light to pass through. This technology is used in all watch phones these days. FINGERNAIL AS STYLUS Pointed nail for easier typing is shown in the figure The concept is to use a fingernail trimmed to form a point, to be specifically used as a stylus for a watch phone for communication. Rather than pressing with the soft skin of an outstretched fingertip, the finger is curled over, so that the top of the forward edge of a fingernail can be used instead. The thumb is optionally used to provide support for the finger or for a long fingernail, from underneath. The human fingernail consists of keratin which has a hardness and smoothness similar to the tip of a stylus (and so will not typically scratch a touchscreen). Alternately, very short stylus tips are available, which slip right onto the end of a finger; this increases visibility of the contact point with the screen. FEATURES OF THE WATCH PHONE In addition to making calls with this watch, there are a couple of other applications found in the menu. For example, an MP3 player and a voice recording function. Especially the latter is very useful, for instance to record an important conversation, or to record a voice memo. In addition to these features, you can also insert text memos and keep your agenda up-to-date. The dialer was tiny, but 08-Computer Science

Do you find it hard to carry that bulky phone around? If so, then this wrist cell phone watch is something you should look into. One of the watch phone owners said: "It is the most innovative gadget of the world" Scientists have managed to pack an amazing amount of technology into a watch, which speaks volumes for their technical capabilities. The phone, or watch, whichever way you perceive it, comes with touch screen capabilities as well as internet access, in addition to speech recognition. As with all watches, the front face is the central element of the unit, only in this case it happens to be a TFT touch screen which is 1.43 inches in size. Utilizing Flash user interface technology, navigation around its integrated functionality is seamless.


not too small to dial a phone number accurately. Watch phone will even get voice recognition, so you can skip the dialer altogether. The phone has a speaker onboard so you can talk directly to your wrist, or you can use Bluetooth for a wireless headphone setup. Something you usually hardly ever do, is make video-calls, however, the Watch Phone did tempt you to do so more often. It is the icing on the

cake for this gadget. A small VGA camera ensures that you can see each other during the call. You can also use the VGA camera to take pictures, although the quality simply does not suffice, and moreover; the lens is placed on the same side as the viewfinder. So, watch phones provide complete facilities of wrist watch, calendar,

camera, calculator and cell phone. It is designed to appear like any top end quality timepiece. Watch Phone is stylish, sophisticated and the height of technology, but it’s also undeniably fun. Watch Phone demonstrates our technological leadership, proving that computer scientists can bring all the components in today’s most advanced mobile phones down to a very small scale.

Self-Righting Buildings
Numair Farooq (08-Civil)
A new earthquake-resistant structural system for buildings, just successfully tested in Japan, will not only help a multistory building hold itself together during a violent earthquake, but also return it to standing up straight on its foundation afterward, true and plumb, with damage confined to a few easily replaceable parts. The team that designed the system was led by researchers at Stanford University and the University of Illinois. During testing on a massive shake table, the system survived simulated earthquakes in excess of magnitude 7 on Richter scale of earthquake measurement. faster after a major earthquake than they can now. The system dissipates energy through the movement of steel frames that are situated around the building's core or along exterior walls. The frames can be part of a building's initial design or could be incorporated into an existing building undergoing seismic retrofitting. They are economically feasible to build, as all the materials employed are commonly used in construction today and all the parts can be made using existing fabrication methods. The unique thing about these frames is that, unlike conventional systems, they actually rock off their foundation under large earthquakes. The rocking frames are steel bracedframes, the columns of which are free to rock up and down within steel ‘shoes’ secured at their base. To control the rocking and return the frame to vertical when the shaking stops, steel tendons run down the center of the frame from top to bottom. These tendons are made of high-strength steel cable strands twisted together and designed to remain elastic during shaking. When shaking is over, they rebound to their normal length, pulling the building back into proper alignment. At the bottom of the frame sit steel ‘fuses’ designed keep the rest of the building from sustaining damage. The idea of this structural system is that we concentrate the damage in replaceable fuses. The fuses are built to flex and dissipate the shaking energy induced by the earthquake, thereby confining the damage. Like electrical fuses, the steel fuses are easily replaced when they ‘blow out’. The team conducted shake-testing of the new system in the last few months at the Hyogo Earthquake Engineering Research Center in Miki City, Japan. Using different types of fuses and various shaking parameters, they conducted four major tests, the last on Aug. 24 2009. They had previously developed and tested the individual components of the system and performed computational analyses to simulate the system's performance at

This new structural system has the potential to make buildings far more damage resistant and easier to repair, so people could reoccupy buildings a lot


laboratories at Stanford University of Illinois.



the rocking frame is a reliable and effective system. Buildings that survive earthquakes often have to be torn down because they are too deformed or damaged during the shaking for it to be economical or even physically possible, to repair them. So the building sacrifices to save the occupants. In this design the damage is minimized and limited to the steel fuses. The elastic behavior of the steel tendons, each of which consists of seven steel wires similar to the wire used in modern suspension bridges, is particularly critical to preventing residual deformation of the building by pulling it back into plumb when the shaking stops.

Other economic advantages sustainability benefits


This was the first time the whole system was tested to check how it responded dynamically in a building, the test was performed under extreme earthquake shaking. How the tests were done The tests of the new system were conducted using a three-quarters size model of a standard modern three-story office building with a footprint 120 by 180 feet. The 26-foot tall model sat on a massive vibrating shake table – the largest in the world, measuring over 3,000 square feet in size – that is designed to reproduce the shaking from different earthquakes. Each of the three stories weighed 100 metric tons. System survived even extreme shaking The rocking frame was undamaged after the test but the steel fuses were yielded and deformed because they absorbed all the energy. This test demonstrated that

In addition to saving lives and minimizing repair costs, widespread use of the new techniques could offer other benefits. If more buildings are habitable right after an earthquake, you will have less disruption to society. That could greatly reduce how long economic downturns and social disruptions linger after a major earthquake. And there are potential environmental benefits. If you think of the sustainability issues, imagine if you have a city where you have to end up tearing down large numbers of buildings. In terms of the environmental issues, there are tremendous costs for disposing of construction materials in landfills, coupled with the impacts of manufacturing the materials used for rebuilding. By prolonging the longevity of buildings, you have a really positive sustainability impact.


Tech Magazine review
Reading good technical literature, having an update on technology market and knowing about latest gadgets is what every technology enthusiast wants. But finding all of this in a single package can prove to be an annoyingly difficult task. So, for all of those who speak IT & Computers, I recommend a wonderful companion “SPIDER”- a magazine for those who live their life on web. Rightfully claimed as Pakistan’s ultimate digital resource, SPIDER is a monthly magazine started in 1998 as a joint venture of Dawn Newspaper and Xiber.com. It carries cover stories and feature articles on the development of the Internet and how it affects Pakistanis. Every issue of Spider explores new technologies and provides an insight into latest trends in the tech world. Cover stories on Internet and IT expand the digital horizons of the readers. News bytes related to tech world help us keep updated. P Personally I wait a whole month for Spider to go through its Inspect a gadget and buyer’s guide section. Best features and reasonable prices of the recommended gadgets and hardware have always helped me choose what suits me and my budget. If you want a gami gaming console, a professional PC or a simple computer or whatever you want, every issue of Spider provides an excellent insight on how to upgrade your computer within a specific budget. Another amazing part of SPIDER is the monthly review of latest PC and play station games describing their plot, features, ratings and system requirements. Tech tips, answers to queries from readers, website reviews,

Sara Naeem 08-MECHANCAL
book reviews, internet security tips, a lot of advertisements related to technology….. All in all a complete offline link to our online world. With continuing emphasis on wireless developments, SPIDER has started a regular column to keep readers up up-todate on mobile computing. It also regularly regularl includes an updated list of local ISP’s and Wi-Fi hotspots. Fi Spider can be subscribed to for 1 year for just 375 Rs or can be bought monthly from nearest book stores for Rs 50. Visit www.spider.tm for further information. .

Tech Book Review
Do you need help with thermo lab? Want to understand Car ENGINE? Feeling perplexed on reading confusing theory? Or have to prepare a thermo lab report and viva? Then take no tension, be relaxed, take three deep breaths because here is your problem solved. All you need is AUTOMOTIVE MECHANICS. Written by William A. Crouse and Donald L. Anglin and published by McGraw Hill International, this book is undoubtedly the most useful book I have come across while preparing for my Thermodynamics lab reports and viva. It’s easy to understand language with pictorial aid, helps you learn complex engine technol technologies and theories in no time. 10th Edition of this book covers the latest developments in automobile design, construction, operation, diagnosis and service. This book contains engines, classifications, engine systems like fuel injection, lubrication, elec electrical and electronic equipment, ignition systems, performance and drivability, chassis, drive trains, suspension system…. You name it. In short, a complete and comprehensive

Sara Naeem 08-MECHANICAL
book on automotive car engines that comes in handy for both thermo lab 1 and thermo lab 2. mo For anyone who is interested in automotives & wants to improve his/her knowledge on this subject without neither getting a headache by reading confusing & ridiculously difficult literature available online nor getting his/her hands dirty by tryi to trying search through dusty old edition library books. This book is A MUST HAVE. Automotive Mechanics is available in market in both pirated & original form &
can be found in UET library with serial no. of 629.2872 C88A.


Founded in 1880, ASME INTERNATIONAL is regarded, by distinguished mechanical engineers as a leading society in the field. Primarily, ASME owes its success to its lucid and effective “Mission Statement” which goes as “To promote the arts and
science of Mechanical Engineering and the allied sciences “

Faizan Arif


and to encourage and send participants to represent UET in different National and International Engg. Contests. ASME UET, since 2004 has been privileged to host Humanitarian Professional Development Conference (HSSDC) and Student Professional Development Conference (SPDC) in 2006 and 2008 respectively. Moreover, ASME UET was honored to conduct Student Leadership Seminar (SLS) in 2010. In addition to this, ASME UET has many awards and gratifying achievements under its belt. Starting from 2005, student members achieved 2nd position in Aero modeling competition in GIKI, pulled off 1st and 3rd positions in Technical Webpage design contest and technical presentation contest in SPDC, Singapore in 2007, attained 1st and 2nd positions in Technical webpage contest and technical presentation contest in SPDC, India. This society acquired 1st and 3rd Positions in Technical Quiz Contest, Technical Paper and project competition respectively, in 2nd AMEC, held in 2009 and fetched 1st and 2nd position in Quiz and Project Competitions respectively in 3rd AMEC, held in 2010. Besides that ASME UET conducts Presentation contests, Technical poster contests, Industrial tours, Seminars and webinars and provides

Internships and job resources to its treasured members. Diversity Action Program (DAP) has been assigned to ASME UET to be executed this year (2010) which reflects the glory and grandeur of the society. Now coming towards the administration, the pecking order of the society is as follows- President ASME UET, General Secretary, Coordinator, President Technical Sections, Assistant Vice president Technical sections and Volunteers. The current number of enrolled members is more than 350 and the members are increasing day by day. The membership fee for student members is 50 Rs only in particular months. You have to fill a form, placed at Khalid photo copy in SSC, and pay the amount to the member recruitment head. All things considered, the society is well managed and the zenith of the reputation is due to its exalted status backed up by several achievements in its bag. For sure, the certificates of ASME UET add up to the personal zeal and make your CV prominent among the rest. Be a part of ASME family and learn to set a standard for your new horizons.

ASME INTERNATIONAL is distributed into 10 districts, ranging from A to J. Our motherland, Pakistan falls under district G and shares this group with Australia, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan. When we shift from district to country level, ASME PAKISTAN constitutes numerous ASME student sections, where ASME-UET STUDENTS SECTION is prominent among the rest. My job actually starts from here; where I have to burnish the reputation of ASME UET on behalf of its achievements. ASME UET, three times best student section, is a complete technical package for science oriented people which aims to provide group level benefits to ASME student members, to increase industrial and corporate interaction, to manage research projects and inculcate them in industries, to enhance personal development, to provide internships to its members



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