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• Ornithology is the study of birds Characteristics of Birds: • Forelimbs modified into wings • Feathers • Hollow, lightweight bones • Endothermic • Efficient respiration • Scaly feet (birds are related to reptiles) • furculum (wishbone)
Form and Function in Birds
Feathers • Types of feathers • Down feathers - provide insulation Contour feathers - cover head and body, provide coloration Flight feathers - on wings and tail, provide lift • Feathers are covered in oil to keep them water proof - "like water off a duck's back" - this oil is secreted froma preen gland • Preening is a behavior that replaces the oil on feathers, and repairs broken links on the vanes Bird Digestion • Birds digest food quickly, they can't afford the extra weight. They have no teeth, the breakdown of food occurs in the gizzard sometimes birds swallow rocks to assist this The crop stores food...mother birds regurgitate food stored in the crop to their babies Waste exits through the cloaca - and so do eggs
• Characteristics of Mammals • 1. Hair (some marine mammals have very little) 2. Specialized Teeth 3. Endothermic 4. Mammary Glands 5. Placenta (most) 6. Diaphragm - muscle that aids breathing
Specialized Teeth • Incisors - biting Canines - stabbing, holding molars - crushing, grinding • Different types of mammals have different types of teeth - depending on their diet • Predators have large canines Herbivores have large flat molars • Mammals have a four chambered heart and a double loop circulatory system • Mammary Glands - used to nurse young, produce milk
Types of Mammals
Order Monotremata • Egg laying mammals found only in Australia Have reptilian characteristics (cloaca & egg laying) Have mammalian features (hair, mammary gland) • Examples: Duck Billed Platypus and the Echidna (also called a Spiny Anteater) Order Marsupiala • Mammals bear their young in am immature state, babies develop in a pouch Majority are found on Australia, opossums are found on other continents Examples: Kangaroo, wallaby, tasmanian devil, koala Placental Mammals • Placental Mammals have a gestation period (length of time in uterus) Placenta- membrane that allows nutrients to pass thru from mom to baby • Domesticated animals have been kept and bred by people - cows, dogs, pigs, horses..etc • Rodents, Bats, Primates, etc