THEORIES AND MODELS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP

INTRODUCTION
Entrepreneurship is an evolved thing. With the advancement of science and technology it has undergone metamorphosis change and emerged as a critical input for socio-economic development. Various writers have developed various theories on entrepreneurship and popularized the concept among the common people. Sociological theories Economic theories Cultural theories Entrepreneurship Innovation theory Psychological theories Theory of Achievement Motivation Motivation theory by McClelland (Acquired Needs theory)

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SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES
• Entrepreneurship is likely to get a boost in a particular social culture Society’s values, religious beliefs, customs, taboos influence the behavior of individuals in a society. • The following theories explain how sociological factors accelerate the growth of entrepreneurs: • Theory of religious beliefs • Theory of social change

THEORY OF RELIGIOUS BELIEFS
 Max Weber has propounded the theory of religious belief.  entrepreneurism is a function of religious beliefs and impact of religion shapes the entrepreneurial culture.  entrepreneurial energies are exogenous supplied by means of religious beliefs.

ELEMENTS OF WEBER’S THEORY
Spirit of Capitalism-In the Webrian theory, spirit of capitalism is highlighted. We all know that capitalism is an economic system in which economic freedom and private enterprise are glorified, so also the entrepreneurial culture. Adventurous spirit -Weber also made a distinction between spirit of capitalism and adventurous spirit. According to him, the former is influenced by the strict discipline whereas the latter is affected by free force of impulse. Entrepreneurship culture is influenced by both these factors. • Protestant ethic-The spirit of capitalism can be grown only when the mental attitude in the society is favorable to capitalism.

Inducement of profit - The spirit of capitalism intertwined with the motive of profit resulted in creation of greater number of business enterprises. In fact, this theory suited the British rulers, who desired to encourage European entrepreneurship in India. This theory was vehemently criticized by many researchers because of the unrealistic assumptions.

THEORY OF SOCIAL CHANGE
Everett E. Hagen, in his theory of social change propounded how a traditional society becomes one in which continuing technical progress takes place. • Presentation of general model of the society- The theory reveals a general model of the society which considers interrelationship among physical environment, social structure, personality and culture. • Economic Growth • Rejection of followers syndrome -Hagen rejected the idea that the solution to economic development lies in imitating western technology. So the follower’s syndrome on the part of the entrepreneur is discouraged. •

Historic shift as a factor of initiating change-Hagen in his book, How Economic Growth Begins, depicts historic shift as the crucial force which has brought about social change technological progress thereby leading to the emergence of entrepreneurial class from different castes and communities. Withdrawal of status respects as the mechanism for rigorous entrepreneurial activity-Closely consistent with the historic shift it is the social group that plunges into rigorous entrepreneurism which experiences the status withdrawal or withdrawal of status respects.

ECONOMIC THEORY
• Entrepreneurship and economic development are interdependent. Economic development takes place when a country' real rational income increases overall period of time wherein the role of entrepreneurs is an integral part. • Entrepreneurship and economic growth take place when the economic conditions are favorable. • Economic incentives are the main motivators for entrepreneurial activities. • Economic incentives include taxation policy, industrial policy, sources of finance and raw material, infrastructure availability, investment and marketing opportunities, access to information about market conditions, technology etc.

PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY
• Entrepreneurship gets a boost when society has sufficient supply of individuals with necessary psychological characteristics. • The psychological characteristics include need for high achievement, a vision or foresight, ability to face opposition.

THEORY OF HIGH ACHIEVEMENT/ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION
• McClelland identified 2 characteristics of entrepreneurship – Doing things in a new and better way – Decision making under uncertainty • He stressed that people with high achievement orientation (need to succeed) were more likely to become entrepreneurs. • Such people are not influenced by money or external incentives. • They consider profit to be a measure of success and competency.

MOTIVATION THEORY (ACQUIRED NEEDS THEORY)
• According to McClelland, a person has three types of needs at any given time, which are: – Need for achievement (get success with one’s own efforts). – Need for power (to dominate, influence others) – Need for affiliation (maintain friendly relations with others). • The need for achievement is the highest for entrepreneurs.

CULTURAL THEORIES
• Entrepreneurship is the product of culture. Entrepreneurial talents come from cultural values and cultural system embedded into the cultural environment. Hoselitz’s Theory The supply of entrepreneurship is governed by cultural factors, and culturally minority groups are the spark-plugs of entrepreneurial and economic development. In many countries, entrepreneurs have emerged from a particular socio-economic class.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP INNOVATION THEORY
• • • Theory by Joseph Schumpeter believes that entrepreneur helps the process of development in an economy. He says that an entrepreneur is the one who is innovative, creative and has a foresight. According to him, innovation occurs when the entrepreneur– Introduces a new product. – Introduces a new production method. – Opens up a new market. – Finds out a new source of raw material supply. – Introduces new organization in any industry The theory emphasises on innovation, ignoring the risk taking and organising abilities of an entrepreneur.

MODELS OF ENTREPRENEU RSHIP

CONSULTANT MODEL
• • This model is common among academicians and those with who gained expertise in the industry. Many corporate executives, after retiring from their regular jobs also take the consulting route, either directly or by taking on director roles at different companies. Many IT professionals, especially those with niche skills and/or certifications also tend to move on to consulting roles.

MOONLIGHTING MODEL
• This model is common among those want to experience entrepreneurship “part-time” without taking the risks associated with full-time entrepreneurial activities. This model is not really new. Opportunities with industries that use their expertise to implement the research ideas finetuned in academia. Some professionals take the public speaking or column writing route where they try to publish their ideas outside the confines of their organisations.

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BRILLIANT IDEA MODEL

Model applied to professionals and others working in the corporate world or for regular employers. • They realise that they have a “million dollar idea” that they can capitalise on. • Employees take their new/innovative idea to the employer with a suggestion to implement it on the job. • When the ideas are not taken up by the management, they contemplate the entrepreneurial route if they feel strongly about it.

BUSINESS/FRANCHISE MODEL
• • • Individuals who do not want to continue in the corporate world decide to start their own venture. Entrepreneur approaches a corporation. Takes on the responsibility of running his business using the brand and marketing support from the enterprise.

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