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THEN[tl!ODYl\lA[tlIOS
HIPOLITO B. STA. MARIA
COIVTENTS
Preface
vii
Chapter 1 Basic Principles, Concepts and Defrnitions
I
cific Weight, Pressule, Conservation of Mass.
Mass, Werght, Specilc Volume and Density; Spe
2
Conservation of
Energy
Zg
Potential E_1ergy, Kiletic Energy, Internal Energy, $eat, Work, Flow Work, Enthalpy, General EnergT Equation.
3 , The Ideal Gas 87
Constant, Specific Heats of an tddal Gas.
4 5 6
7
Processes of
Ideal Gas
5f
do""sr.
Process, Isentropic Process, polytropic Gas
Isometric Process, Isobaric process, Isothermal
Cycles 81
Camot Cycle, Threeprocess Cycle.
Internal Combustion Engines gg
Otto Cycle, Diesel Cycle, Dual Combustion Cycle.
Gas Compressors
ll5
SingleStage Con pression, Twestage Compression, ThreeStage Compression.
8
Brayton Cycle 16l
PREEACE
The purpose of this text is to present a simple yet rigorous approach to the fundamentals of thermodynamics. The author expects to help the engineering students in such a way that learning would be easy and effective, and praetical enough for workshop practice and understanding.
Chapters 1 and 2 present the development of the first la'ar of thermodynamics, and energy analysis of ope:r systems
Jhapters 3 and 4 give a presentatign of equation of state and involvingideal gases. The second law of thermodynamics andits applications to different thermodynamic cycles are discussed in Chapters 5 and 6. Chapter ? deals with gas compressors andits operation. Chapter 8 develops the Brayton eycle which can be omitted if sufficient time is not available.
;he process
The author is grateful for the comments and suggestions received from his colleagues at the University of Santo Tomas, Faculty of Engineering.
The Author
vll
1 I
Basic Ppq"iples, Concepts and Definitions
Thermodynamics is that branch of the physical sciences that treats of various phenomena of energJr and the related properties ofmatter, especially of the laws of transformation of heat into other forrns of energy and vice versa.
Systems of Units
body is directly proportional to the resultantforce acting on and inversely proportional to its mass.o
Newton's law states that 'the aceeleration of a particular
it
"
hE, F= D8, m k
k =+F
k is a proportionality constant
Systenns of units where k is unity but not dimensionless: cgs system: I dyne forcre accelerates 1 g mass at
1 cm,/s2
m./sz
mks system: 1 newton force accelerates
I
I
kg mass at
fps system: 1 lb force accelerates 1 slug mass at
l
Nsz
lt;]*ldyne I t * i*l newton [T,,'*l'r,0" /777r/7mrV /7furm,h n77v77v?rrvr 1 cm./s2 _+ 1m/s2 1&,/sz
t=r,4'cmcyne.s"
o=t#;p
k=rw
Systems of units where k is not unity:
47
If the same word is used for both mass and force in a given system, k is neither unity nor dimensionless. 1 Ib force acceierates a I lb mass at 32.L74 fVs2 1 g force accelerates a I g mass at 980.66 cm/s2 L kg force accelerates a 1 kg mass at 9.8066 m/s2
r=f,a
1 poundal = (1 lb_) (1 fVs2)
F is force in poundals
d7mzm'V /72zv7m77
k=
f.,.f*
,
,0, l t ,. l.
t
u
/7V7v77v77v7
[t u*.
f,
nr'
#
tr mass in pounds
in ftls2
a is acceleration
32.L74 fVsz+ 980.66 cm"/s2 > 9.8066 mlsz
'+
rz.tllthP
k = e80.66*F k = e.80668#
.U
l* /7V7V7mV ',0,
L fVs2 +
[T**
Relation between kilogram force (kgr) and Newton (N)
=r8. l(
= 1 lb"
m
k=1k#
Therefore, t
k = e.8066 Ets"
ks .m
1 pound = (1 slug) (1 fvsz); 1 slug
lrs2
k#
= e.8066
H#
F is force in pounds
S K
1kg"= 9.8066 N
Relation between pound psss (lb) and slug
is ass in slugs a is acceleration in
fl;/s2
Mass and lVeight
The mass of a body is the absolute quantity of matter in it. The weight o,f a body means the force of gravity F, on the lrody.
k=1#
Therefore,
L
k= 32.r74ffi
t*5& = 82.r74ffi
slug = 32.L74Lb
mFF" k =t=gwhere
Acceleration
A unit of force is one that produces unit acceleration in a
body of unit mass.
AL or
g a
= acceleration produced by force F* = acceleration produced by another force F
near the surface of the earth, k and g are numerically
,.r1rr:rl, so are m and
F
I
I I
poundal
I
fvs2
:.._l
)
E
1(
Problcms:
tion?
l.Whatistheweightofa66kgmanatstandardcondi
'l J S'= I,l lsP =l 0.4e tu.ll+se.o#l K s
Bo.b+
lb
.ft
Solution
'L
^"J
= 222.26
g,,,
m=66k9
I
= 9.8066 m/s2
F"ok Fto.lF' mo=?= Bosg_.
t*tfufl
F
"f*J
= 1435.49 g
?
2. The weight of an object is 50 lb. What is its mass at standard condition?
= (o
ro,r"er
fz.rt Unur
rtrJ
= 1459.41 g,"
Total
mass
Solution
F, = 5o lbr
= mr + m2 + na + m4 + m5 = 500 + 843.91 +222.26 + 1435.49 + 1459.41 = 446t.07 g^
g= 32.L74ftlsz
(b) Total mass = 446L.0J
g^
= g.EB lb
* =d=
FK
Fo
r rb! rf
lb.rrl
ft P
So lb_
453.6 9'83
ils
]!o'
= 0.306 slug
fztz+14s'j
(t') Total mass

32.L74
32.174;ifis
3.Fivemassesinaregionwheretheaceelerationdueto grr"itv i. 30. 5 fVs2 are as follo**t m, is 500 g of masq rq, y^eighs [oo eim, weighs 15 poundals; mo weightg.lli mu is 0'10 slug ;i *]',r. trnuf iu theiotal mass expressed (a) in grams, 16) in pounds, and (c) in slugs.
Solu,tion
g = (30.5 fVsz) (12
that the gravity acceleration at equatorial sea level rr s = 32.088 fpsz and that its variation is  0.003 fps2 per 1000 (a) l't, :rscent. Find the height in miles above this point for which llr:, gravity acceleration becomes 30.504 fps2, (b) the weight of ,r lsivcn man is decreased by \Vo. (c) What is the weight of a 180 I r,,, rn an atop the 29,131ft, Mt. Everest in Tibet, relative to this
4. Note
I
por
rr
L'?
in/ft)
(2.54 cm/in) = 929'64 cmls2
,\til
tr
tion
in acceleration = 30.504  32.088
=
(;r ) change
*
1.584 fps2
(a) mz =
4
F't [roo4frro.uuM
=
e2e.64
+
= 843.91
g;
p:; llcight, h =  I lP* fps' = 528,000 ft or 0.003  T0008
100 miles
+T
(b) F = 0.9b Fg
t
I
.a
Let Fg = weight of the man at sea level
Specifrc Volume, Density and Specifrc Weight
The density p of any substance is its mass (not weight) per unit volume.
h
I
FF= ag 0.95 F" F" a =g
____q
rl=D rv
The specific volume v is the volume of a unit mass.
lt 
a = 0.959 = (0.95) (32.088) = 30.484 fps2
L 'Fg
g = 32.088 fps2
t.,
mp
V1
"
(30.484
 32'088) fps'z= b34,6z0 ft or tOt.B miles o.oosTS;r _
Tmorr
F
a
The specificweightTof any substance is the force of gravity on unit volume. g=
(c)
,vF
8
29.1.31
ft
Since the specific weight is to the local acceleration of gravity as the density is to the standard acceleration,Tlg= pk, conversion is easily made;
r_.6 F8
Tk os P='g orY ='fr

g = 32.088 fps2 m = 1801ba = 32.088 fps'
fTdriil [0'003
rIto
1"1 {}l
1
At or near the surface of the earth, k and g are numerically cqual, so are p and y
fpsz] = 32'001 fpsz
Problems
r
o
=T=
ma
tlso lbl
pz.oor&l
#=179.03 32.174F"1T"
_^ ^^ lbr ,,
1.
tion?
What is the specific weight of,water at standard condi.
Stilution
g = 9.8066 m/sz
kg_ P = 1000 n5.
*_pg I E
[*,SE**d
e.8066ffi#
= looo mo
kgF
ry
densities (p, = 1500 kg/m3,Pzi^ 500 kg/m3) are poured together into a 100L tank, frlling it' If the resulting density of the mixture is 800 kg/mt, frnd the respective quantities of liquids used. Also, find the weight of the mixture; Iocal g = 9.675 mps2.
2. Two Iiquids of different
Pressure
The standard reference atmospheric pressure is 760 mm Hg or 29.92 in. Hg at 32"F, or 1"4.696 psia, or 1 atm.
Measuring Pressure
Solution
mass of mixture, mm = pmvm = (800 kg/m3) (0'100 m3) = 80
1.
kg
I
By using manometers (a) Absolute pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure.
po
mt+m2=mm
PrVt+PrV,=D1500 Vr + 500
q = 80 V, + V, = 0'100
Vt = 0'03
mg
(r)
Q)
I
p = D Po = 'lt p" = ' I p =
solving equations (1) and (2) simultaneously
absolute pressure atmospheric pressure gage pressure, the pressure due to the liquid column h
Po+Pg
(b) Absolute pressure is less than atmospheric pressure
Ve = 0'07 m3
m, = P,Vr = (1500 kg/m3) (0.03 m3) = 45kg
P=PoP,
The gage reading is called vacuum pressum or the vacuum.
mr= prY2= (500 kglm3) (0.07
weight of mixture,
m3) = 35
kg
re=x"=@
e.8066*#
=?8.esksr
I
ll"y using pressure gages
rilr,,1llr rt ng gage
A Jrrt:ssure gage is a device for pressure,
'l'lrin picture shows the
rrr,vr.rn(.1)t, in one type
!, I r r
ofpres
. l::ll{(',
p1i
k
nown as the single
I
rr
lrr.
r13..
lnlrr, llrrrrrrglr t,lrc thrcnded
,
'l'hc f'luid enters the
',,rur.r'lrorr. A$ t.hc prOssur:e
Fig. 1 Pressure Gage
I
ry_
increases, the tube with an elliptical section tends to straighten, the end that is nearest the linkage toward the right. The linkage causes the sector to rotate. The sector engages a small pinion gear. The index hand moves with the pinion gear. The whole mechanism is of course enclosed in a case, and a gpaduated dial, from which the pressure is read, and is placed under the index hand.
Solution
pr=*#= FuuS ', kg'4 ' N.sz
["*S
(30 m)
= b48,680 N/mz or b43.6g pps(gage)
(p=po+p")
+Pt
Atmospheric Pressure
,=O,P=Po)
A barometer is used to measure atmospheric pressure.
P,
V
Absolutet Pressure
(p=p"pr)
(p=0,Pr=P")
Gage Pressure
po
Tps
I
P=Po+Pg
_ F" 1V yAhPr=*A=:6l
P, = Tb,
P.=Y\
Where ho = the height of column of liquid supportedby atmospheric pressure {
=ry'=*
Problem
l)roblems
A 30m vertical column of fluid (density 1878 kg/ms) is
located where g = 9.65 mps2. Find the pressure at the base of the column.
1. A vertical column of water will be supported to what lrcight by standard atmospheric pressure.
IO
Absolute Pressure
Solution
At standard condition P=Th
\* = 62'4lblfts Po = 14'7 Psi ;l T ..rr lu.z *l lt++'#l , p,,  L:n!!_!t"! = 33.9 ft t'=
yh"* h = ho * hr, the  absolute pressure p. height of column of liquid supported by
If the liquid used in the barometer is mercury, the atmospheric pressure beconoes,
t;
62.4Y ' ft3
P"
= THshs = (sp S)H, (T*) (h")
Thespecificgravity(*pg')ofasubstanceistheratioofthe spccifrc weight of the substance to that of water'
trg.ol
Fz.+
H rL'" i',1
1728H
po = 0.491
h"
sps=T
is 9.5 kg/cm2. The}arometric pressure of the atmosphere is 768mm of Hg. Find the absolute p".*r,r"* in the boiler. (ME Board Problem  Oct' 1987)
^{
l4
2, The pressure of a boiler
where
ho = column of mercury in inches
= 0.491 n
then, ps
Solution
Pg
h
= 9'5
kg/cm3
ho = 768 mm
Hg
and,
l)roblems
p
=0.491 hP= ln."
At standard condition
T* = 1000
kdmt
po
=
(ynr) (h") = (sp gr) nr(T*) (h")
(13.6)
Fooo
S
to.?68 m)
l. A pressure gage regrsters 40 psig in a region where the l,irrometer is 14.5 psia. Find the absolute pressure in psia, and 'rr kPa.
_ 1.04
10.000 'm'
c!*
kg
cmE
Srilution
p = 14.5 + 40 = 54.5 psia
= po
* p, = 1.04 + 9.5 = 10.54#
/Tnvrnh
tt k+'r newton
a=
/vTTvvmmiV
[ , "[ft,
,0,
I
m./sz
a=1fUs2
l2
1Tlkgn
=
tE KgJ P.
Solution
= 0.06853 slug
(a)p =
Pr=
Po
* Ps = 14.7 + 80 = 94.7 Psia
ao
Ps]L
af,m
1+
= FS][tr'fl =8.28$
F,lbf
Psla r,. t7 :I':t. 
= S.A4atmospheres
h = 9.92 in. Hg abs
a = 3.28 Nsz
lrg = 2o
in.
P = 0.491
t = ff
h"= Z9.tilt".
= (0.06863 slug)
[.za {l=
o.zzas tb,
$..
ll 1fth'
J
h
p
=
(0.491) (9.92) = 4.87 psia
1
newton = 0.2248Ib"
1.1b"
= 4.4484 newtons
p8 = 4.7
psi vacuum
(1rb)
rl4 ln'
114=
=
F**H lrr.ut;]
lnP
ps = (4.7
esi)
r
o"_l
l:8e5;s!
= 10 psia
=32,407 Ps(gage)
osgs\ mo
(rl)
h =15in.
= 375,780 Pa or 375.78 kPa
h = 29.92 + 15 = 44.92 in. Hg abs
Given the barometric pressure of L4.7 psia (2g.g2 in. Hg abs), make these conversions: (a) 80 psig to psia and to atmosphere, (b) 20 in. Hg vacuum to in. Hg abg and to psia, (c) 10 psia to psi vacuum and to Pa, (d) 15 in. Hg gage to psia, to torrs, and to pa. (1 atmosphere = 760 torrs)
2.
P, = 0'491 h,
=[r"H F"!F*'H
= 50,780 Pa(gage)
15
t4
.lF
I'empcraturc
1. Derive th. r.l:rtion between degrees Fahrenheit and degrees Centigrndo. (FlE Board euestion)
100"c
It follows that,
1Fo=1Po
and
T212.F
*uu
1
212
tl
T
lc.1K"
2. Show that the specific heat ofa substance in Btu/(lb) (F") is numerically equal to caV(g)(C").
Solution
,r""

*r". I0".
lbb:
o
t.F 32 .= t"C0 _
n
toF =
I
o
r
t"C + 32
Btu
(lb) (r")
toC =
I
5( t.F

32)
 Btu =IG'(E IrIEXD  cal .
,tr ttr.ltltl.e.
'l'lr,r.
, Absolute temperature is the temperature measured from absolute zero. Absolute zero temperature is the temperature at which all molecular motion ceases. Absolute temperature will be denoted by T, thus
TK=t"C+z71,Kelvin
TbR =
Conservation of Mass
mass is inde
'l'lr. law of conservation of mass states rhat
t.F + 460, degtees Rankine
,'r\ r'n t)y fne lOfmUla
rluantity of fluid passing through a given section is
V=Au
III = i__
Degrees Fahrenheit ("F) and degrees Centigrade ("C) indicate temperature reading (t). Fahrenheit degrees iFJ) and Centigrade degress (C") indicate tempertu"" or differ"h"ogu ence (At). 180 Fb = 100 C"
: VAu =Aup
v v
Wltcrc V = volume flow rate
A = cross sectional area ofthe stream
1p"5g"
9
l) :, ilvcrage Speed
rir ,., m:rss llow rutc
1 C. =!1l,"
o
16
t7
F7Applying the law of consewation of mass'
\t   \ArDrpr =
I
=n;
=Erf,El 4=ff =' *T
a,E4zftz
I I
T
\rtrPz
2. A 10ft diameter by 15ft height vertical tank is receiving water (p = 62.1 lb/cu ft) at the rate of 300 gpm and is discharging through a 6in ID line with a constant speed of 5
I I I
Problems
Two gaseous stre?ms enter a combining tube and leave section: as a single mi*trrr". These data apply at the entrance fot 6rr" gur, A'r= 75 in,z, o, = 590 fps,vt] 10 ft3llb For the other gas, A, = 59^i1''.:T, = 16'67 }b/s P" = 0.12lb/ftg At exit, u.. j 350 fPs, v, = 7 ftaAb' Find (a) the speed u, at section 2, i 'd ft) the flow anii area at the exit section'
1.
:j:rlil"ffJrr;,'frh'iisfilTil;1lo' I
rs,
I
Solution
\
I l=::__*l l, I F'= :1J tiu'
e""" =f, (10)2 = 78.54 ftz
f___ _
_]=
t__
tu'",=il'i,=ffi
(b)
=4oorps
r\lirrur lr,,w
rate enreri", =
[ffi]
=
[rr
r
fi
= z4so.\
mr
.
= vr
Aru,
[.'9!d=2604+ r6Tt3=
r\t,r'* tuwrateleavins=Aup=
ib
rh, = rh, + rh,
18
? Bd'F.uo*J F +
ru* S*
= 26.04+ 16'6? = 42'?1+
Mass change = (3658

2490.6) (15) = 17,511 lb (decreased)
Review Problems
1. What is the mass in grams and the weight in dynes and in gramforce of 12 oz of salt? Local gis 9.65 m/s2 1 lb = 16 oz. Ans. 340.2 g;328,300 dynes; 334.8 g,
volume ch^nge
=
17'51l:!b
62.1#
=
282
ft'
Decrcased in height
=
ffi#

= 3'59
ft
ft
Water level after 15 min. = 7.5
3'59 = 3'91
2. A mass of 0"10 slug in space is subjected to an external vertical force of4 lb. Ifthe local gravity acceleration is g = 30.5 fps2 andiffriction effects are neglected, determine the acceleration of the mass if the external vertical force is acting (a) upward and (b) downward Ans. (a) 9.5 fps2; (b) 70.5 fps'?
The mass of a given airplane at sea level (g = 32.1 fps2) is 10 tons. Find its mass in lb, slugs, and kg and its (gravital.ional) weight in lb when it is travelling at a 50,000ft elevation. 'l'he acceleration of gravity g decreases by 3.33 x 106 fpsz for r,rrch foot of elevation. Ans. 20,0001b; 627.62 slugs; 19,850lbr
3.
4. A lunar excursion module (LEM) weights 150[r kg, on r.rrrth where g = 9.75 mps2. What will be its weight on the rrrrrface of the moon where B. = 1.70 mpsz. On the surface of the ,noon, what will be the force in kg, and in newtons required to ',,'ttlerate the module at 10 mps2? Ans. 261.5 kg; 1538.5 kgr; 15,087 N
systenis 0.311 slug, its density is 30 g is 31.90 fpsz. Find (a) the specific volume, (b) the and (c) the total volume. "1,,'r'ific weight, and Ans. (a) 0.0333 ft3Ab; (b) 29.75 lb/ft3; (c) 0.3335 ft3
,lr. The mass of a fluid
ll,/l'1,:r
A cylindrical drum (2ft diameter, 3ft height) is filled *'rllr :r tluid whose density is 40lb/ft3. Determine (a) the total ,,,lrrrno of fluid, (b) its total mass in pounds and slugs, (c) its ,'1r'r'rlit: volume, and(d) its specific weight where g = 31.90 fps2. Ans. (a) 9.43 ft'; (b) 377.21b; 11.72 slugs; (c) 0.025 ft3l lb; (d) 39.661b/ft3. A wuathcrman carried an aneroid barometer from the ! "t, l llrxrr to tris ofl'icc atop the Sears Towcr in Chicago. On
r
{;.
'i
ir
20
2l
atmosphdric air density was 0.075 lb/ft3 and estimate the height of the building.
the ground level, the barometer read 30.150 in. F,Ig absolute; topside it read 28.607 in. Hg absolute. Assume that the average
Ans. 1455 ft
Consenration of Energy
A vacuum gauge mounted on a condenser reads 0.66 m Hg.What is the absolute pressure in the condenser in kPa when the atmospheric pressure is 101.3 kPa? Ans. 13.28 kPa
8.
Gravitational Potential Energy (P)
The gravitational potential energ:y of a body is its energy due to its position or elevation.
Convert the following readings of pressure to kPa absolute, assuming that the barometer reads 760 mm ltrg: (a) 90 cm Hg gage; (b) 40 cm Hgvacuum; (c) 100 psiS; (d) 8 in. Hg vpcuum, and (e) 76 in. Hg gage. Ans. (a) 221..24 kPa; (b) 48 kPa; (c) ?90.83 kPa; (d) 74.219 kPa; (e) 358.591 kPa
9.
p=Fsz=ry
AP =
A fluid moves in a steady flow manner between two sections in a flow line. At section 1:A, =10 fLz,Dr= 100 fpm, v, = 4 ft3/lb. At section 2: Ar 2ft2, pz = 0.201b/f13. Calculate (a) the mass flow'rate and (b) the speed at section 2. Ans. (a) 15,000lb/h; (b) 10.42 fps
10.
P,

P, =
ff@r zr)
AP = change in potential energy
Datum.plane
in lb/min, and (b) and total time required to fill a vertical
cylinder tank 10 ft, in diameter and 12 ft high. Ans. (a) 621.2lblmin, (b) 93.97 min
discharges 75 gpm of water whose specifrc weiglit is 61.5 lb/ft3 (g = 31.95 fpsz), frnd (a) the mass flow rate
11.
If a pump
Kinetic EnergT (K)
Hrls$ed
The energy or stored capacity for performing work pos' by a moving body, by virtue of its momentum is called kinetic energy.
K=#
nK=4K,=fttoiui)
AK = change in kinetic energy
22
23
qT
Internal EnergY (U' u)
Internal energy is energy stored within a body or substance by virtue of the r"ti.rity ancl configuration of its molecules and ol thu vibration of the atoms within the molecules'
u = speci{ic internal energy (unit
Flow lVork (Wr)
Flow work or flow energry is work done in pushing a fluid across a boundary, usually into or out of uy*L.
"
mass)
Au = tlz
 ul
Ur
13orr
nrll
lr'_
;1=Area of Sur.face
lVr=Fi=pAL
Wr=PV
fJ = mu = total internal energy (m mass) AU = Uz
Work (W)
work is the product of the displacement of the body and the component of the force in the direction of the displacement. w,r.k is energy in transition; that is, it exists only when a force is "moving through a distance."
l"ig. 3
FIow Worh"
AW,=Wr,Wrr=pr%FrV,
AW, = change in llow work
Ideat (e)
Work of a Nonflow SYstem
Cylinder
.
Final Position of Piston
The work done as the piston moves from e to f is dW=F,d*=(pA)dLpdv
lleal is energ'y in transit (on the move) from one booy or '::1"11.1'ry1 to another solely because of a temperature difference
I'r'l wr:err the bodies or
systems"
u{_.
,{,..
Piston At ea = .zl
'"**F
I
t) is poslfiue when heat is added to the body or system. (l is negatiue when heat is rejected by the body or system.
Classificati.on of Systems
rI
which is the area under the curve ef on the pV plane. Therefore, the total work done as the pistonmoves from
lto2is
t
r
A
r'lrr.se
'
w =Jlndv
nV
Fig. 2
woRK
'
l,or r ntlaries. .\ r  ( system
d' system is one in which mass does not cross its
is one in which mass crosses its bounda
'r,t'n
which is the area under the curve 1ef2.
Cnnservation of Energy
:. r.ti, I r r'rtlr.tl ttttt't/t,St,nlyeCli l,, f u:,1 l;rw ol'l.lrr:r'modynarnics states :::i:':. , !tttt \. ltt. (..,ttIt('t.l((1. i.n.l.O U.nOthCf.
ot
EXPANSIoN.
1,, l.riv ol r:orrservation of energy states Lhat energy
ls
The area und.er the curue of the prrcess on the pV plnne rcpresents the work d'one during a nonflow reuersible process. Work done by the system is positive (outflow of energy) Work dnne on the system is negatiue (inflow of energy)
24
that one fornt oI
SteadY Flow EnergY Equation
Problems
Characteristics of steady flow system' 
i. There is neither accumulation nor diminution of mass within the sYstem' 2. There is neitier accumulation nor diminution of energy within the sYstem 3. The state of"the working substance at any point'in the system remains constant'
t. During a steady flow process, the pressure of the working substance drops from 200 to 20 psia, the speed incneases from 200 to 1000 fps, the internal energy ofthe opeh system de. creases 25 Btu/lb, and the specific volume increases ftom I to 8 ftsnb. No heat is transferred. Sketch an energy diagram. Determine the work per lb. Is it done on or by the substance? Determine the work in hp for 10lb per *io. (t hp = 42.4Btu/ min).
Solution
Kl Fig. 4 Energy Diagram of a Steady Flow System
Energy Entering System = Energy Leaving System
W,,
peia p, = 20 psia o, = 200 fps rlr = 1000 fps vc=8 ffnb n vr=lfts/lb
pr = 200
2
II,
Energy Diagtam
,F, +
Au=25Btu/lb Q=0
P, + K, + Wr, + U, + Q = Pa*
d=l"P+ak+lwr+aU+W
tl
Wl"+ U" + W
K, + W' + U,
+
(SteadY Flow Energy Equation)
A,=Pr+
2
4
+ W* + U, + W
llrrnis
I lb
EnthalPY (H, h)
fluids Enthalpy is a composite property applicable to all
and is defined bY
lr"3 ]
fi,
W,,
= o.8o
ffL
h=u+pv and H=mh=U+PV
The steady flow energy equation becomes
,lf = Offiimi=le.e?r+b
l',v,
E*'ii,lEHl
(20) (r44) (8) = 778
+K'+H'+Ql;..?J*ril*
= sz,o2
Bfi
llr V.l *
2e.6rff
27
26
T'rKr+Wrr=Iq+W,r+Au+W
0.8 + 3?.02 = 19.9? + 29.61
(a) Basis
+W
f
lb'?n'
25
K,=S= ,Cffio,,
,q =*=
= 3,12 hp
(z',)
=3'20ff!
w = 13.24
t
ff,0t,
(32.174)
(1100)2 = Z+.t7 BJu (778) rb779
= 98.lC lb_
w:
L
lr s24ffi["*il
42.4(mi#)hp)
Wr, = PrVr =
(200) (144) (2.65)
' #E
wrz=
PzYz=A+#@=s+'z+ff
K, + Wr, + ur + Q IL + Wo + u, + W
2. Steam is supplied to afully loaded 100hp turbine bt 200 ftsAb and u'.=^19'0 fp*' priu *itft = 116'bT nl"/lb,"t, ::'1U ft3Ab and "r Exhaust is at r prl" *ilrt * J ozs Btunb, Y,=29! = turbin is L0
(a) the " enersy change and determine glJu. *o"t p"" tU steam and (b) the steam flnw rate in lb/h'
rioo
il;;ipor""tiur
fps.
tne heat loss from the steam in the
;t.20+ 98.10 + 1163.3 + (10) =24.L7 + 54.42 + 925 + W
w=
(roo
(b) Steam flow =
Fl{ 251ff
Solution
p, = 200 psia u, = L163.3 Btunb v, = 2'65 ftsnb u" = 925 Btunb
Erul hp) P544lrr)
trro)
r
r
251 Btu
p,
l
Psia
vr= 294
fts/l.b
:t.
rr
E;
= 1014
+
u, = 400 fPs
u, = 1100 fps
Q = 10 Btu/lb
W=t00hp
An air compressor (an open system ) receives 272kgper r r l of air at 99.29 kPa and a specific volume of 0.026 m3/kg. The nr r" llrws steady through the compressor and is discharged at frrllf lr kPa and 0.0051 mslkg"The initial internal enerry of the ,r r rrr  594 Jlkg; at discharge, the internal energy is 6241ilkg. 'l'lrr.<'rxrling water circulated around the cylindercanffis away .l:ul:t .f/kg of air. Thc change in kinetic energ"y is 896 J&g rr{ n.nso. Sketch an enerry diagram. Compute the work.
/r+Kr+
Wr, + Ur +
Q=/r+ Iq + Wo + U, + W
2B
29
Solution
r4
wo
u2
EnergY Diagrom
P, = 99.29 kPa v, = 0.026 m3/kg u, = L594 J/kg Q = 4383 Jlkg h = 272 kg/min Pz = 689.5 kPa vz = 0.0051 m3/hg uz= 6241J/kg AK = 896 J&g
Solution
fr =
dr
Pr
C
1
= = 82,740Pa p 1000 kg/mg q = 0.1016 m = 275,800 Pa Pz r
2270 k'elmin 0.1524 m
y'r*Kr+
W., + U, +
Q=/r+ 4
+ Wo + U, + W
Area at entrance, A, =
t
(0.1524F = 0.01824 mz
Basis 1kB
Area at exit, Ao =ftO.rOro)2, = 0.00810? mg
W,,
:p lvr =
I ,![I €9.29 I e 'm1.l F P
I 68e. t_ F 'o mz
).026
ol KS bl
'J
'll== 2.583 kJ&e ;
H1r,r,if
2270k9^
at entrance, Dr =
wn =p'zYz= Pzv
t

kl\i
lI
r 005 ,0il mil t0.00 ,Iam L
;1
= 3.51.6lnl/kg

U* = # Prl [oootrl
m
P'0t824
{
=2.074m1s
uz \ vflr +Q= w.t*1 1 +G AK+'wlzz* u2+ w f2
ilgxrcd at exit, D, =
q43.516 6.2, 3 2.582 + 1. 594 4. 383 =' 0.896i+3 ;16+ 6.24 1+W
llnHis 1
m
2270160 = 4.667 mls (1ooo) (o.oo81o7)
kg
\{ =  10.g6H
w
t j_ to.se6gJ Vzztry)
krl l _
ke_l
K, =;ik=
\[I = 
2954*
w
K =D? = (4.667Y = to.gg T.'" DE (zxit ks,, ., l)'vr
Fffi
Q.orni]'
=
2.151q;
N.m
i
E
A centifugal pump operating under steady flow condi' tions delive rs 2,270 t glmin of water from an initial pressure of 82,740Patoa final p"essore of 2?5,800 Pa. The diameter of the inlet pipe to the pump is .15.24 cm and the diameter of the ilischaree prpe is 10.16 cm. What is the work?
4.
l. =;;E=E
t21o*'
82.24+,.rts = oL''* kgm
I
II
IL
30
3l
Basis 1kg,
Pr=?= fs.eooof'(B
Kr+Wrr=Iq+\{Io+W
2.L5L + 82.74 = 10.89.+ 275.8 + W
m)
= 0.0294
4
.TT.F 'EE
ks
Kl=
m
.4_ L33.3g:l
fm_l
2
= 0.55a4 K s
P
[,'"ffiE*H
W=
q=;i =1#f
ao.zey
,hI
=
s.o00E
4b8.1ffn
kI
;F
=
{).6eo5H
5. Aturbine operates under steadyflow conditions, recei iag steqm at the following state: pnessure 1200 kPa, tue 188"C, enthalpy 2785kJ/kg, speed 33.3 m/s and elevati 3 m. The steam leaves the turbine at the following pressure 20 kPa, enthalpy 25L2 klkg, speed 100 m/s elevation 0 m. Heat is lost to the surioundings at the rate of 0. hVs. If, the rate of steam flow throughthe turbine is 0.42 what is the power output of the turbine in kW?
Solution
Pr+Kr+hr+Q=%+4+ L+W Pr+Kr+hr+Q=4+\+W
0,0!fg4 + 0.5544
+ 2785+ ({.690b) = b.000 + 2bt2 + W
W = ZG?.gg
*_
w=, l:^zz= 0m
zr=3m
h. = 2?85 '
roT.eEl 19.42fl
^
hrl I k;
E IKg
W = 112.52 kW
4=2512H
u, =
ur=33'3fl
Q = O.29 s
100*
'
l&I
fi = 0:4#
88
32
T
Review Problems
1.
fric' Assuming that there are no heat effects and no tionaleffects,nnatnekineticenerg]andspeedofaS220.lb ;;d**; iiiar, 778 ft,from rest. starr wfth the steady flow deleting energy terms which are inelevant'
In a steady flow apparatus, L3b lc.I of work is done by 6.. each kgof fluid. The specific volume of the fluid, p""*s.r"*, und speed at the inlet are 0.37 mslkg, G00 kpa, and 16 m/s. The inlet is 32 m above the floor, and the discharge pipe is at floor level.
a;;til,
Ans. 224
mir'rte of air whose density is 0.0?9 lb/cu *iiit au"sity of 0.304lUcu ft' At the suction' p, = LS.psia; at " ait"ftt"g", Pz = 80 psia' The increase in the specificinternal
' 2. A reciproc"ti"e di"pressor draws in 500 cubic feet per ft and discharges it ;
fPs l .  ? ,:"?l:..
The discharge conditions are 0.62 ms/kg,100 kpa, and 270 m/s. The total heat loss between the inlet and discharge ie g kJlkg of fluid. In flowing through this apparatus, does the specific internal energy increase or decrease, and by how
rnuch?
Ans. 20.01 kJ/kg
the air by enerm/ is gAS Btudb anrl the heat transferred from ri et"nU. Determine the work on lhe air in Btu/min u"a irittp. Neglect change in kinetic energy' Ans. 56.25 hP
;ft
7. Steam enters a turbine stage with an enthalpy of 862g k.l/hg at 70 m/s and leaves the same stage with an entharpy of :ltl46 kr&g and a velocity of L2a n/s. calculate the work done l,y the steam. Ans. 776.8 kJ&e (ME Board Problem  Oct. 1996)
Steem enters a turbine with an,enthalpy of 1292B,h,1b an enrhalpy of 1098 Btu/tb. The transferred hp for a heat is 13 Btu/lb. what is the work in Btrlmin and in flow of 2 lb/sec? Ans. 512.3 hP
*dl;;;;;h
3.
A thermodynamic steady flow system receives^4'56 n"ii where n1 1JBQ0 T?.Y'= 0'0ll8:]1 p"" Li" J", aod ,r, = 17.16 k nte' The fluid leaves the sys i.= ui u t"""aary wheie Pz = 551'6 kPa, v, = 0'193 m3/kg' o, = DurFs pasiage through tbe sv %. ="sz.eo uttfite inu nnid receives 3,000 J/s of heat. Determine the work' Ans. 486 kJ/min
4.
tii "i"
;;ffi
compressor, entering at 7 mls speed, 100 kPa pressure 0.95 m3/kg specific volume, and leaving at 5 m/s, 700 kPa, 0.1"9 m34rg. The internal energy of the air leaving is 90 greater t[an that of the air entering. Cooling water in io*p""rror jackets absorbs heat from the air at the rate of kW. Compute the work in kW. Ans. 122 kW
l
5. Air flows steadily at the rate of 0'5 kg/s through qn
it4
lflr
3
The rdeal Gas
An ideal,gas is ideal ronly in the sense that it conforns rc llrc simple perfect gas laws.
Boyle's Law
lf' the temperature of a given quantity of gas is held ,,rr'l,irnt, the volume of the gas varies inversely with the
rrl*rolute pressure during a change of state.
l or V* pp V=9
pV=C or prV, =prYz
Charles'Law
r I r lf' thc pressure on a particular quantity of gas is held ,,,*irt;rrrl., t,hon, with any change of state, the volume will vary rlirr.r tly :rrr lhc absolute temperature.
V,."1
or
V=CT
v ' 'r' (: or LIL q=q
tlrr.volurnc of a particular quantity of gas is held r r, wi th nny change of state, the pressure . will vary ,f i* e'  !r' 1ri lli,' lrllsll utC te mpe ratUfe.
, r,1 1e 
;1 1,
r,:r
ll
l
  rr.
,tt
7
PT
or
or fr=c
P=CT
(a) What proportion of the acetylene was used? (b) What
volume would the used acetylene occufiy at L4.7 psia and fl0'F? R for acetylene is 59.35 ft.lb/lb."R.
used, the pressure was 200 psia and the temperature was 85oF,
t=+,
of a
Equation of State or Characteristic Equation Perfect Gas
Combining Boyle's and Charles' Iawg,
Solution
(a) Let
frr
+=ry =c,aconstant
T
pV
Tr =90oF+460=550'R
= oz = Be = Pr =
initialiy in the drum ltrass of acetylene left in the drum
rlrBss of acetylene
rllass of acetylene used 250 Psia
Pz = 200 Psia Tz =85oF+460=5451R
volume of
=mR
pV = mRT pv =RT (unit mass)
where p
dr,r* =
ffiffi
= 0.6545 cu
(0.6545) (550)
ft
(25cD $44) ml= PrV, = (59.35)
RT,
= 0.7218Ib
V v
m
T
R
= absolute pressure = volume = specific volume = maSS = absolute temperature = specific gas constant or simply gas constant
mz = ms
ifq'=
oE= (200,)=911)!9.6j45)
(bgsb)
"'"" (54b) = 0.b828 lb
 ml
mz= 0.72L8  0.5828 = 0.1390Ib
Acetylene used =
#i = 3+#
= 0'1e26 or re'26vo
V English units SI units
T
lb_ kg
oR
R
tlr) p, = 14.7 psia
}F
ft3
m3
'f.=80oF+460=540oR
i
;t
N
K
Vr=
m
EltTr Pa
\roils$l (b=e.Bit t5+01 = 2.'0b fr3 ' (r4.7) (L44\
E
Problems
1. A drum 6 in. in diameter and 40 in. long acetylene at250 psia and 90"F. After some ofthe acetylene
I
t
'l'lrc volume of a 6 x 12ft tank is 339.3 cu ft. It contains psig and 85"F. How many lcu ft drums can bc fillcd l' rru 1rrr1.f :rnd 80'F if it is assumed that the air temperasturtt irr llrr' lrrrrh remains at 85"F? The drurns have been silting €*,iurrl rrr l.hu atmosphere which is at 14.7 psia anrl [t0"1"
:l
sir rrl
'.1(X)
3rl
;t 1)
r
Solution Solution
Dr = IIlBss of air initially in the tank Dz = rnoss of air lelt in the tank Ds = mas$ of air initially in the dmm ha = rnsss of air in the drum after filling
20,000 kg
Let
l
I
+ 14.7 = 214.7 psia p, = 14.? psia Tr = 85 + 460 = 545.R T, = 80 + aOO = b40R Pz = 50 + 14.7 = 64.7 psia Po = 50 + 14.7 = 64.7 psia Tr=8S+460=545oR Tn=80+460=540R
Pr = 200
EH.
I
I€t
of air displaced by the balloon EH" = mass of Helium v = volume of the balloon
= "mass
mr
For the tank
[l=
+
ms
P,Vr RT,
(2L4.7)(r44) (33J.3) = _*(SmtGaSI = 360.9Ib.
Itor the air
z=
IDo
R"S RT,
= 
(64;3),(l*t)=(?gie'3)
(53.34)
R
= 108.? lb
(545t
T,=21.t +273=294.iK
= 287.08 P, = 101,325 Pa
E__
=l'2oolvkg
J
mass of air that can be used = 860.9
 10g.? = 252.2Ib.
For the drums
pV 101.32bV 'nu=ili" = tffirl
f','t lltt'heliUm
&r" = 2,077.67
P11"
p.v. (t4.7) (r44) (1) m3 = 'ff = 'GBiJAIGadf = o'0735 lb
"'o= Sf =ttf#[]l*}$i
=o'3235rb
#R
= 101,325Pa
T""=21.1 +278=Zg4.lK
mass of air put in each drum = 0.323b

0.0?gb = 0.25Ib
_ rrrrl,,=
,,,
Numberof drums filled
"p=
2#
Pn.v = _101,325 V ffiT"" qOngZffim
fr,=DH,+20,000
=0.1658Vkg
= 1009
3. It is planned to lift and move logs from almost inaccessible forest qery by means of balloons. Helium at atmospheric pressure (101.325 kPa) and temperature 21.1oC is to be used in the balloons. What 6inims6 balloon diameter (assumo spherical shape) will be required for a gross lifting force of 20 metric tons?
40
1.200f
1
V =0.1658V +,20,000 V = l9,BB7 mJ .l rf = 19,337 .l
r = 16.6b m
d

2(16.65) = 3B.B m
4l
G{
TVo vessels A and B of different sizes are connected by with a valve. Vessel A contains L42L of air at2,767.92 kPa, 93.33oC. Vessel B, of unknown volume, contains air at 68.95 kPa,4.44"C. The valve is opened and, when the prcperties have been determined, it is found that p = 1378.96 kPa, t = 43.33'C. What is the volume of vessel B?
a pipe
4.
solving equations
L and 2 simultaneously
Vs = 110.4 liters
Specifrc Heat
specific heat of a substance is defined as the quantity _ _The of heat required to change the temperature of unit mase
Solution
For vessel A
through one degree. In dimensional form,
Po= 2,767.92 kPa Yn= L4?liters
TA = 93'33
c__*
In differential quantities,
+ 273= 366'33 K
nrr<l
c^ e= ;ffif
or dQ=mcdT
For vessel B
Ps = 68'95 kPa
TB
for a particular masg m,
=4.44+273=277.44K
a=* !'.ar I
(The specific heat equation)
For the mixture
ll llrr: mean or instantaneous value of specific heat is used, K
Q=
P = 1378.96 kPa
mc
T
= 43.33 + 273 = 316.33 III,,,=IIIO*IIIU
!'u, l
= mc (T,
 T,)
(constant specific heat)
pv* RT_ (13?8.e6)V ^
4.36
p^V^
I'orrnltnt Volume Specifrc Heat (c,)
* RTn
bY!
RTu
(2767.s2)
(yLD , 68.e5 VB
(1) (2)
^uI Volume
(
I
Q"=aU
I
V = 1072.9
+ 0.25 Vu
lorrstant
Qu = mcu (T2
I
 Tr)
V=142+Vn
42
a,
, l
4:l
y'r
Constant Pressure Specifrc Heat (co)
Qn Qn
Qn
Relation Between
cn
and c,
mco (T,
Tr)
al \ pdv l
Fromh =u+pvandpv=RT dh = d11+ RdT
codT = c"dT+RdT
AU+W=AU+
g
Ratio of Specific lleats
c k=d:>r
= AU+p(%Vr) = Urur+pz%prV, Q, = I{H'=AH
lfroblems
co
c,+R
c"
=Eh
^ B 'p kl
1. For a certain ideal gas R = 2b.8 {t.lb b..R and k  f.09 (r) What are the values of co and c,? (b) What mass of this gag worrld occupy a volume of l5 cu ft dt ZS psia and gO"F? (c) lfgO lll.rr are transferred to this gas at constant volume in (b), what nrr. the resulting temperatur,e and pressure?
Htilution
Internal Energy of an Ideal Gas
Joule's law states that "the change of internal energy of an ideal gas is a function of only the temperature change." There. fore, AU is given by the formula,
AIJ = rtrc" (T2 _ Tr)
whether the volume remains constant or not.
""',,
=
*
=
#ig
=
=
su.4z**" oro.aotffi
Enthalpy of an Ideal Gas
The change of enthalpy of an ideal gas is given by formula,
AH = ECo (Tz
., t Eiil
a
,. % = T3#
ll,r
0.868#"
V lScuft, p=75psia T=80+460=b40o3
pV _ 6ffi = ffi= (75) (1114) (rb)
=11'631b

T1)
r
whether the pressure remains constant or not.
r
I tf
n,c" (T, _ Tr)
I
'ilr
t.63 (0.3685) (T, _ 540)
4{t
t It
44
E
T
Tz = 547"R
Pz
where:dQ = heat transferred at the temperature T AS = total change ofentropy
= Pr (Tuftr) = 75 (5471540) = ?6 Psia
and k. (b) If 5 kg of this gas u4dergo a reversible non flow oonstant pressure process from V, = 1.133 m3 and Pr = 690 kPa to a etate where tc = 555"C, find AU and AH.
(a) Find
co
2. For a certain gas R =320 Jll<g. K and c, = 0.84 kJlkg. K"
asfu
as =
lftl
;
mc hr _&
T1
Solutlon
(a)
cp
(constant specific heat)
= c" + R = 0.84 + 0.32 = 1.16
IFF
kI
'l'emperatureEntropy Coordinates
dQ = TdS
Q
k= &+1=
cY
f#

+
t ='t.3st
= jTds
I
a2
(b)r
'r
(6901909[!.133) = 488.6 K = (5) (320) =  mR T1) = 5 (0.84) (828
pr[.
AU = rnc, (T,

488.6)
'The area under the curve ofthe process on the TS plane
represents the quantity of heat transfered during the
process."
= 1425.51r.I
AH = trrcn (Ts

T1) = 5(1.16) (828

488.6)
I lt
= 1968.5 k I
lrr.r Enerry Relations
12
Entnopy (S, s)
Entropy is that property of a substance which constant if no heat enters or leaves the substance, while it work or alters its volume, but which increases or dimini should a small amount of heat enter or leave.
The change of entropy of a substance receiving (or deli ing) heatis defined by
)VdP=W+AK
I
(Reversiblesteadyflow,AP= 0)
"The area behind the
curve ofthe process on the pV
dS=
46
F
or As
=JF
I
2
planes represents the work ofa steady flow process when AK * 0, or it represents AK when W' = 0."
47
{
Any process that can be made to go in the reverse direction by aninfinitesimal change in the conditions is called a nrersible process. Any process that is not reversible is irreversible.
Review Problems
60"F. Alter being driven the temperature rise to zb"F. Determine the final gage pressure assuming the volume remaina constant. Ans. 84.29 psig (EE Board problem)
1. An automobile tire is inflated to g2 psig pressurs at
2. If 100 fts ofatJnospheric air at zero Fahrenheit tenperacompressed lrlrj""what will to a volume of 1 fts at a temperaiuoe or ?00oF, be the pressure of the air in psi?
Ans. 2109 psia (EE Board problem)
3. A 10ft3 tank contains gas at a pressure of b00 psia, l.rnperature of 8b"F and a weight of 2b pounds. A part oithe gas w^s discharged and the temperature ind p""**" .t to 70"F and 300 psia, respectively. Heat was applied "og"d and the I.rnperature was back to 8b"F. Find the nnd weight. volume, nrrrl pressure of the gas. Ans. 1b.48 lb; 10 fts;808.b psia (EE Board problem) 4. Four hundred cubic centimeters of a gas at ?40 mm Hg alr"lut'e and 18oc undergoes a proc€ss uotit ttre pr?ssune lp.rmes 760 mm Hg absolute andihe temperature 0"c. what tr l,hc final volume of the gas?
Ans. 36b cc (EE Board problem)
with a relieftlpe ::]u,: that_the pressure inside the tire never will exceed 240 ll'^ (sage). He starts 1tlp wilh a pressru€ of 200 kpa (gage) e.rrrl rr uemperature of 2B"c in the tires. During the long drive, lf*r l.mperature of the air in the tires reachesg8"c. nich tire xrrrlrrins 0.11 kg of air. Determine (a) the mass of air escaping eer lr l.ire, (b) lhe pressure of the tire when tfre tempe""t"""
uo
fi.
A motorist equips his automobile tires
relrrr.rrH to 28"C.
ArrH (a) 0.006,1kS;
ft)
192.48 kpa (gage)
urrrn. I)etermine (a) mass of helium remaining in the tank; kf rrrrrHs of helium pumped out, (c) tfre tempei*ui" of tfr" l€*r'rrrr^g helium falls to 10"C. What is the pi*u*rr"" in kpa?
f
F,nr rrl,mospheric pressure to a pressure of 240evacuated mm Hg te,
{i
A 6m3 tank contains helium at 400 K and is
48 49
Ans. (a) 0.01925 ke;
7
ft)
0.7L23 ks; (c) 1.886 kPa
An automobile tire contains 3730 cu in. of air at 32 psig and 80"F. (a) What mass of air is in the tire? ft) In operation, the air temperature increases to 145''c .If the tire is inflexible, what is the resulting percentage increase in gage pressure? (c) What mass of the 145"F air must be bled off to reduce the pressure back to its original value? Ans. (a) 0.5041 Ib; (b) 17'53Vo; (c) 0'0542lb
.
4
Processes of Ideal Gases

A spherical balloon is 40 f,t in diameter and surrou by zrir at 60"F and29.92in Hg abs. (a) If the balloon is filled hydrogen at a temperature of 70"F and atmospheric pressure' what iotal load can it lift? (b) If it contains helium instead of hydrogen, other conditions remaining the same, what load can itlift? (c) Helium is nearly twice as heavy as hydrogen. Does it have half the lifting force? R for hydrogen is 766.54 and for helium is 386.04 ft.lb/lb."R. Ans. (a) 2381 lb; (b) 2209 lb
8.
Constant Volume process
An isometric process is a reversible constant volume proc.gs A constant volume process may be reversible or irreiersrlrle.
2T I
A reservoir contains 2.83 cu m of carbon monoxide 6895 kPa and 23.6"C. An evacuated tank is filled from I reservoir to a pressure of 3497 kPa and a temperature Lz.4}C,while tfe pressure in the reservoir decreases to 62 kPa and the temperature to 18.3"C. What is the volume of tank? R for CO is 296'.92 J/kg.K".
9.
T_
Pz
I
I
I
'l
Ans. 0.451 m3
initially at 15 psia and 2 cu ft undergoes a to 90 psia and 0.60 cu ft, during which the enthalpy in by 15.5 Btu; c" =2.44Btunb. R". Determine (a) AU, (b) cn,
10. A gas
F_sz
Fig. 5. Isometric Process
Hl
(c) R. Ans. (a) 11.06 Btu; (b) 3.42 Btunb.R'; (c) 762.4ft.lVlb.
11. For a certain gas, R = 0.277 kJ/kg.Kandk= (a) What are the value of co and c,? ft) What mass of gas would occupy a volurire 6t O.+ZS cu m at517.l'l kPa 26.7'C? (c) If 31.65 kJ are transferred to this gas at volume in (b), what are the resulting temperature and 1'
(;r) Relation between p and T.
;fr =It
Tt
Pz
Pr
(b) Nonflow work.
sure?
Ans. (a) A.7214 and 0.994 kJ/kg.R"; (b> 2'M7
W.=JpdV=0
5l
,'2
(c) 43.27"C, 545.75 kPa
50
(c) The change of internal energy'
6{J = rtr'c" (T2

Tr)
For reversible nonflow, Wn = 0' For irreversible nonflow, Wo + 0' W = nonflow work !d = steadY flow work
(d) The heat transfened'
(Tz  Tr) Q = Itrc'
l': oblemg
(e) The change of enthalPY'
l.TencuftofairatS00psiaand400.Fiscooledtol40"F (b) the *t <.onstant rroto*". Wnat are (a) the( final pressure, heat'
d) the' tralsferred rh, (c) the change of internal energy' ana (0 ihe change of entropy? i,,, ,.r," .frurrg" of
wo
6tl = mco (T2 
T1)
"oittatpy,
(0
The change of entroPY'
Hululion
ll
lS = mc"h
ft
I
I
volume' (g) Reversible steady flow constant
ta)
(
=16+AK+AWr+W"+AP
2
W"=(AWr+AK+AP) W"=AWr=V(PrPr)
v
V
Ag#q
mC"(TrTr)
420 Btu
mc" (T,
V
Pr
i0 cu ft 300 psia
400+ 460= 860'R 140+460=600"R
Tr
T2
(AP=0'AK0)
t z +=
llr) Ir
I
= 2oe psia
&) llVdP=W"+lK
V(PzPr)=W"+AK
/2
W=0
"' = S'=
l##li6?#)

=g'4?tb
v(PrPr)=W"+AK
v(PrP')=w"
166 = 0) volume process' (h) Ireversible nonflow constant
,\lI= .
r,tr
(s.4L7) (0.1?14) (600
860)
(,f

Tr) = 420 Btu
53
Q=AU+W"
(e) AH =
mcn
(T,

Tr)
Tr=60+273=
333K = 999 K
= =
(0
(9.417) (0.24) (600

860)
(a) ,p _ T,p, gPS652 = DOI.O '2 Pr
588 Btu
os = ...1o ' lr
$
t"
333
(b)"  R 377 =1b0gJ== vv = 7.251 kg.K" kl
AU=
mc, (T,

Tr)
=
(e.4tz) (0.1?14)
= 0.581H
2. There are 1.36 kg of gas, for which R= 377 J/kg'k a k = 1.25, that undergo a nonflow constant volume process pr = 551.6 kPa and t, = 6OC to p, = 1655 kPa. During the proc tlie gas is internally stirred and there are also added 105'5 of heat. Determine (a) tr, (b) the workinput and (c) the
ofentropy. (")
= = =
ls
(1.36) (1.508) (999 1366 kJ

333)
W"=QAU=105.51366
1260.5 kJ
= mculn Tr = (1.36) (1.508)
l"
l" i=g
q99
=2.2ffiY
A group of 50 persons attended a secret meeting irr rr ,,u,rrr which is 12 meters wide by 10 meters long and a ce ilirrll ill ,l rneters. The room is completely sealed off and insulrtl'r'rl l,lirr.lr Jrerson gives off 150 kcal per hour of heat and occultit'r, rr
vnl11111o
Solution
:t.
2
// /
k = R=
m=
1.25
377 Jlke.k
1.36 kg
of 0.2 cubiC meter. The room has an initial presstrrc ol' lo t tt hPa and temperature of 16"c. calculate the roortt lcrrr ll)f't4 ) 1u r ;rlrrre after l0 minutes. (ME Board Problem  April
lit,l
rr
lion
Q = 105.5 kJ Pr = 551.6 kPa
Pz
= L655 kPa
z rl ll/Pr ll/
Vg
z
= 101"3 kPa
ll/r,l',' I L
= 16 + 27:f
.
',tt{lf l(
lrlr
tr4
c, = 0.1?14
#.
= 0.1714# = 0.r7r4ffi
W= (1 hp) (h) =r(lhp) (0.74G kWhp) (h) (8600 n/lr
r
=
2685.6 k I
Q = (50 persons) (150 kcaVperson.hour) = 7500 kcal/h
a = AU+W
AU = Q  W = 850 AU = mc" (AT)
AT =
volume of room = (L2) (10) (3) = 360 m3 volume of air, V = 360
mass of air, m

(2685.6) = 1835.6
kI

(0.2) (50) = 350 m3
4 ,(191,31(l5ol . = RT,=(0.28708) (289)
= 427.34kg
AU. = DC"
(22.7 kS) @.t87 kJ/kg.C") = 19.3 C"
rffi5.6 kJ
a = L h llliO hl = rzsok.ul lruooealtl9 I
a =
T, =
tz =
mc,T2Tr)
1250 = (427.34> (0.1714) (T,
5. A closed
lrrrddle work. The system.coStains o*yg"r, at B44kpa, 2?g K, rr.d occupies 0.0G cu m. Find the t eat (gain or loss) #e nnat
constantvorum,e system receives r0.5 lr.I of

289)
k.mperature is 400 K.
Gn
Board problem _ April
lg,
f
l"ggg)
306'1 K
33.1"C
Solution
2T
I
I
is applied to a tank contai 22.7 kg of water. The stirring action is applied for I hour the tank loses 850 kJ/h of heat. Calculate the rise in ture of the tank after I hour, assuming that the process at constant volume and that c" for water is 4.187 kJ/(kg) (
4. A lhp stirring motor
t
I
1
,/
p, = _344 kPa V0.06ms
lt
:1 = 0.6SgS kJ(kc) (K) = 2b9.90 J(ks) (K)
Tr = 278 K Tz=400X
vs q
,\lr
Solution
p,v
_ =
(344)
l 'l
I
c.
id:t500n?s)
Tr)
(0.06) = 0'2857 ke
_
mc" (T,
I Vs
l
/
Q.2857) (0.6595) (400 22.99 kJ

278)
AU+W
22.99 + (*r0.5)
Irreversible Constant Volume Process
a=
56
(850 kJ/h) (1 h) = €50 kJ
t2.49 kJ
fr7
Isobaric Process
An isobaric process is an internally reversible prccess of substance during which the pressure remains constant.
(g) Steady flow isobaric.
(a)Q=AP+AK+AH+W' W =(AK+Ap)
W" =

aK
N\ \s\:i\
Fig.6. Isohric Process
(AP = 3;
(b)

.2 JVdp = W + aK I
0=W"+AK
W" =
aK
l'roblems
(a)
Relation between V and T.
Tz
Vz
Tr=vi
(b) Nonflow work.
W"
t2
to 15 cu ft while the at lb.b psia. Compute (a) T", (b) AH, (r') AU and (d) AS. (e) For an internally reversible'nonflow f r'ocess, what is the work?
trrcsgutre remains constant
A certain Btu/lb.R" and R = 96.2 ft.lV . l. expands gas, with c, = 0.b29g0"F lh."R,
from b cu
ft and
{,ndV
= F(V2

Vr)
energ:y.
Solution
T
2
(c) The change of internal
AIJ = rDC" (T2

Tr)
/
(d) The heat transferred.
Q = mcn (T, (e) The change
l
__>_2
/ ,/
Tr)
p= V, = %= T, =
=r620R
15.5 psia
5cuft
l5cuft
80+460=540"R
ofenthalpy.
vc
,^)'r',
AH = rlc, (T,

Tr)
.
(f) The change ofentropy.
aS =
=1:,=
=
g+lP
mcohfr
'r'\,,
ffi i##ffif)
=o.2r48rb
58
51)
= = =
(n\
mce(Tz
_ Tr)
(0.2148) (0.529) (1620_ 540) 122.7
r.2G.
Btu
c''r.rlrrrrl ,fiTre):f: jli.i?Ttlmrnlm{:m1t,'i,i,t?,,,,,
2. A perfect eas a If 120 kJ *" \1s value of R = 319 .2 Jlkg.lfurrrtt lt
iaggJfi;ik;
of this gas ar
(c' c" coR= = 0.b29W=0.40ss#S
AU=
mc, (T2 _ Tr)
Solution
= (0.214s) (0.40$;(1620 _ b4o) = 94 Btu
(d)
os
=
mcorn
ftI
= = = a = Tr =
k
m R (a) co =
1.26
2.27 kg 319.2 J&g.K
f20 kW
32.2 + ZZg

BO5.Z
K
= (0.2148) (0.52e) h
=
(e)
0.1249 oR
ffi
*
(1.2gxo.a1e2)= t.b46e
f{_
Btu
a = mco (T,  T,)
r20 = (2.27) (r.b469) (T, _ g05.2)
kg.Ku
\=
p(%
 v,) 5)
Ta
(b)
=
=
s39.4
K
l20
(r5.5) (144) (15 778
=
aH=
mco (T2 _ Tr) =
kI
28.7 Btu
(c) cv
h=ffit$
=r.22??#h
AU mc, (T,  Tr)
=
(2.27) (r.2277)(33e.4 _ 305.2) 95.3 kJ
(d)
W = p(% V,) =
^LP, tri] ' plg,_ ITl =mR(Tr*T,)
= =
(2.22) (0.8192) (Js9.4 _ g0s.z)
Z4.Zg kJ
Fr
Isothermal process
isothermal process is an internally reversible constant temperature process of a substance.
G) Steady flow isothermal.
(a)Q = Ap+AK+AH+W
w"=eApAK
W"=Q
(AP0,4K=0)
'i!:{t
Fo'{
Fig. Z. Isothermal process
ft)

.2
JVdp = W + aK
_
From pV = C, pdV + Vdp
0, dp = 
v/2
pdv
,!'uoo=l;,i I
P'\1n
#l
=
j oou
I
(a) Retation between p and V.
PrVr = Pz%
w
W"=W"
(AK = 6;
ft) Nonflow work.
w" = Jpav=l$Y=
f2
)2
r
(c) The change of internal energy. AU=9 (d) The heat transfenred.
Q= N + W" = p,Vrln (e) The change of enthalpy.
Y
Cln5= n,v,rr * vr ' v, {v
f
'r'olrlcms
l)uring an isothermal process ggoF, at the pressurc orr drops fr.om g0 p.i" tol gsic. For *r,,r.11;i[lls process, _d:,tennile fal lfru ipaV and the work of a i,,,i1ll1v1y process, (b) the_ JVdp;ndllie *o"k of a steady llow rluring which AK 0, ("i f 'r , !, '.,,:, = e, iai aU oS.
rr tt,
I
.t''ir
"rilJ"lr",,
il;fi,;liii
*= nrrn& r
Pz
AH=9 (f) The change of entropy.
Tl r t pV,=[ ,'ul
I
\l
1*__r.__2
T
m pl
Pr
n
\\.2
I
88+460=54fi,,lt 8tb
r.t
^s=+mRrn$j
62
L V
80 psia + 14.7 = 1.9.? 1lsi1
(a)
lndv = p,V,tnV' = mRT r" * Pz Vr
Q = Prvrlo
= 42L.2Btu
q
=
v2
= tltt#ftQ
(b)
t"
f#
In vl = "r
V,
Uft
m#oO =r.80
= 0.1653
W,= jOaV=42l.2Btu'
(c) a = ryt *W"= 421.28tu
= p,V,ln
jvap
.f,
= 42L.2Btu
% 1.80 q=€
v,
= (0.1653) (0.30r) = 0.0498 m3/s
(d)
AU=0 AH=0
 P,t,  (b86) (0. To:oa#l) =3542kPa
(b) Since AP = 6 and AK 0, W" lV" = = = e = B1Z kJ/s
(e) m=
3=W=0.2686#
(t)ns= +=
AH=0
#
=1.ob8kJ/r(.s
2. During a reversible process there are abstracted 317
kJ/s from 1.134 kg/s of a certain gas while the temperature remains constant at 26.7'C. For this gas, cD = 2.232 and c" 1.713 kJ/kg.K. The initial pressure is 586 kPa. For nonflow and steady flow (AP = 0, AK = 0) process, determine ( Vr,% and pr, (b) the work and Q, (c) AS and AH.
Solution
Air flows steadily through an engine at constant tem_ K.Find the workperkilogram ifthe exitpressure i,',, r' l.hird the inlet pressure and the inlet pressure is zoz kpa. Arrarrrro that the kinetic and potential energy variation is 111'plrplible. (EE Board Problem  April lggS)
u'r rrl,'re,4_09
r
r
:l
tlnlttlitttt
a=. fi=
Pr= ,n
317 kJ/s
1.134 ks/s 586 kPa 26.7 +273=299.7
tT \ l)V=C \
T
R
Pr
Pr
vs
(a)
'\2
V R't'I
_.(9,?87_q8)
= = =
400K
282.08 kJ(ke) (K)
2O7
kPa
p, =$
R  cp
\i.
64
c, = 2.232  1.713 = 0.5L9 kl/kg.K (1.134) (0:5_U)) (299.7) = 0.301 m3/s = _*xTl= pr 586
l),
gog)
207
= 0.5547 m,t/kg
(;5
W = prvrl" t=nrvr1nfl
(c) Relation between T and p.
= =
(20?) (0.5547) 126.1 kJ
ln
3
q
2.
W"
12
=
[p,l rLP'l
k1
Nonflow work.
IsentroPic Process
Adiabatic simply *"t"t"theat' of constant entroPY'
Fromp\A=C,pC1rr
An isentropic process is a
reversible adiabatic process' A reversible adiabatic is one
= lpdv=J CV+dV= C { VndV t'Itl
,2
rz
,2
Integrating and simplifing,
wn
lk
lk
pvn=9 .pv=Q tJl
\
I
'fhe change of internal energy.
AIJ = ncu (T2  Tr) 'l'he heat transferred.
Q=0
'l'hc change of enthalpy.
Fig. 8. IsentroPic Process
1.
AI{ = mcp (Tz * Tl)
'l'lrr: change of entropy.
Relation among P, V, and T' (a) Relation between P and V'
ns=0
I iI
P'VI=PrVb=C
(b) Relation between T and V' From p,VT = pr$u,td
r.rrrly flow isentropic.
,,,r(c,.AP+AK+AH+W"
we have
q =+'
wo,,_AP_AK_AH
T,
(i(;
T,= lvt
k'l
I
W. AH
r
LqJ
\l'
O,
Al( = 0)
67
T
E
(b) lVdp=W"+AK t'
LetC=pIVorV=Cpk
'.2.1
.2
1L
(lr) _ p,V, (800) (t44)(100) m=
ftfr=6f6ffi

=l5'eelb
AII
= ms,
 t'lVap =!C pk dp
Integrating and simPlifYing,
(f, * Tr) = (1b.99) (1.241) (211.8 _70{)= _9698 tstu
Tr) = (15.99) (0.74b) (211.S
AL.I =
mc, (T,
 200) = _5822 Btu
= b822 Btu
tt')6av
 t'fiao '
Problems
k (P'v'
 P'v') r. = f'nav lk
=
&!;f,J'
=ffi
i
rrlt *!Vdp = kjpdV = (1.606) (b822)= 9698 Btu
1. From a state defined by 300 psia, 100 cu ft and 240" helium undergoes andisentropic process to 0.3 psig. Find (a)V and tr, (b) AU and AH, (c)JpdV, (d) 5vdp, (e) Q and AS. Wha is the work (f) if the process is nonflow, (g) if the process i steady flow with AK = 10 Btu?
Solution
300 Psia 0.3 +'l'4.7 = 15 psia Pz= V, = 100 cu ft.
lr,)a=0 As 0 rlr a = AU+W" W"= AU= 15822) =b822 Btu
Irir
JVdp = W" + AK
1Xj9g=W"+10
W" = 9636 31rt
Pr
=
T, = 240+46A=700'R
s
..'11lr1lible.
initial kinetlc energy i" For an isentropic expansion, compute the spcr:if i. .r,lrnnr), temperature and speed at the exit section.
h
"rrr ll28 kPa and ?1oc to 1Bg kpa. The
'.', An adiabatic expansion of air occurs through a nor,zlt,
titi rr lion
I
(a)
\
= v,
1'666
I
H$t= 1oo[,!9f
k1 'lkI
= 608.4 rtg
1.6661
\
pVk= 6
\
T T^'Lpil 2 lr2
l?r
=
7001__{q_l
Lsool
r._T r.666
\z
=
828 kPa 7L + 273 = i44 l( 138 kPa
211.8'R
t"=
68
248'7"F
(il)
kr
r.4_l
T"=T, 
ll2l 'Lpil
tnl
k
=
344lHgl
18281
.1.4
= 206 K
tz= 67oC
;,,\
it>\ I 't.h^
75yty:; 'iivr2i
Fig. 9. Polytropic Process
",
=
#,
_ (0.287q8X344) = 0.1193 m'/ks
lI
22Q..,
'Zzt
., // i,
ve = vr 

[g'l. 0.1198 lHgl'n = 0.429m'/ks LprJ= 11381
(T,
Ah =
cp
* Tr) = 1.0062 (20G 
344) = 188.9 kJ/kg
A =&*aK+Ah+/"
AKAh=136,900J/kg
Itelation among p, V, and T (a) Relation between p and V.
AK=4^r=*
D2r=
P,vi = Prvi
(2k)(AK) = zf r
ffil
1rg,966S ) = 277,800 m
(b) Relation between T and V.
1Jz
= 527.1m/s
t,
T
t
Polytropic Process
To
=1q1.
/vJ "t
li.elation between T and p.
L
*.1
rI I
A polytropic procebs is an internaliy reversible during which
pV" = C and prVl = prVl = p,I"
where n is any constant.
I
Ra 'r',
I
rn Le
lp.
rlP. l:€
t_^ tl
I
Nonflow work
It,
(paV " ,' = PrY,  P,V, ln
mR (T,

T,)
'l'hc change of internal energy
AIJ = mcu (T,

T1)
70
4.
The heat transferred
(b)mR(T,
a=
=
AU+Wmc" (T2
Juao=W"rAK I
,2 . JPdv
 T,) +
1n

Tr)
 ,fvao = {&t:!& = T_n n
I'rohlems
Ic nc = *Lffj +Rl (r2r,)
= = a=
 lffl
mc. (T,
cu
[c 
nTl
(r'?rr)
,n." f! "j (T, _ T,) Lr  I}_l
polytropic process, t0Ib of an ideal gas, whose l.^ ft.lbnb.R 40 3X"^1u: and co o.zs _vwrv.r!, luau6,cs suate Irom zu p = __:_ lrlr;r and 40'F to 120 psla and 340"F. Determine (a) ra n, (f;4g urr4 dY, (? (g) rf the pi"*,, ,iuuav ;ll,l !ilil,(11'9:l"ljf 0, whaf l,'rv <luring which AK= is w"i]wuut i. axirw" s \Vlr;rI is the work fo, u
It
f
etju.&1;;;;;;il l#;; il{t i
J;it1
"o"n*p."i"rrZ
m = 10lb

Tr)
, the polytropic specific heat
Se
ilution
ilO psia 120
,10
cn =
;l lfrl
l't
l', ffn l" l'"
D.
The change of enthalpy AH = mcp (T2
psia
R=40**
cp

Tr)
+ 460 = 500"R
= o.2b
The c.hange of entropy
it4o + 460 = g00"R
n_l
#
AS=mc
7. Steady
ln It "T,
l),
l),
=T' Tr
nl
flow polytropic
liio
:ro
(a)Q=AP+AK+AH+\
w"=Q_AP_AK_AH
I
J_ _ 
g00 b00
tr
tl
I
ln6=ln1.6
rr
w = Q_AH
(AP=0,aK=g;
l 0.4700 rr =1.7918
n = l.Bbo
72
'/3',
(b) c,
 cp
R = 0.25

#=

0.1986
m
(h) W" = JpdV = 433.3 Btu
AIJ = DCu (T2

Tr)
5oo)
(800 = (10) (0.1986)
= 595.8 Btu
AH
\, 500)
=
mcp (T2
 T1)
= =
(c)
(10) (0.25) (800
750 Btu
k = 5= 0.1e86 =r.25s q ^9'^4
?= = c" lt d, (10) (0'0541) r"ffi=
0'2543+#
2. Compress 4 kg/s of COrgas polytropically (pVr.z = C) {ro3 pr = 103.4 !lu,t, = 60oC totr zzT.C.Assumingideal gas tction, frld pr, ry, e;lS (a)g.as ionflow, (b) as a stleady flow l)rocesg where AP = 0, AK =
Solution
Pr = 103.4 kPa
AS
Tr = 60 +273 = 333
trr
K
fi=4\g s
T, =227 +Z7B = b00K
(d)Q
= =
mc"(TrTr)
(10) (0'0541) (800
L62.3 Btu
) Nonflow

500)
*#,
o, =
o,
[+.. L rl
=
(10s.4)F$$]
Lgo'l
= r184.e kpa
(e)Jnav
eE+*L)ffi
=
433.3 Btu
w = ,hR %u =
KJ
__,4),0,1T16):900
 33o
631.13
;s
(0 JVap = nJRdV = (1'356) (433'3) = 587'6 Btu
(g) W" = fVdP = 58?.6 Btu
AK
c =c lld " "Llul
=ro.osorffi;]
[]*
IT,
=
JVap = 587"6 Btu
=
0.2887
74
TIIF'
=,
96
:he change
ofentropy and the heat for (a) nonflow process and a steady flow process_with or = lb m/s and u, .b) ='60 Js. Ans. (a) tBZ0 kJ/min, _b. gbo kJK.min;iU)_f 386.9kJ min
7. If 10 kg/min of air are compressedisothermally from p, kPa *{Vr.= 7.G5 ms/min to p, = 620 kpa, find tie worh,
5
Gas Cycles
8.
pf9c9s9^fr9m gb.B psig and a volume of 0.6 {tr to a final volume of 3.6 ft3. If c^ = 0.1,^2{3nd c,  0.098 Btunb.R, what '' '!asw a.eia) *rv \ (b) pr, (c) AH'and (d) W.
One pound of an ideal gas undergoes an isentropic
t'
Ans. (a) 2€.r"F; (b) 10.09 psia; (c) _21.96
(d) 16.48 Btu
HAg.X expands isentropically from lbt? kFa, ie8"t t" gO kPa. For454 glsof this gas determine, (a)W", fljV'i.iAU (s) AH. Ans. (a) 21.9 kJ/s;(b) 0.0649b m'/s; (d) 80.18 kJ/s
9. A certain ideal gas whose R = 22g.6 J/kg.K and c = 1.01

10. A polytropic process ofair from lbO psia, 800.F, and 1 occurs to p, = 20 psia in accordance with pVt.g  C. Determir ft) lU, AH and AS, (c) JpaV and JVap. 1 9) t, %,Compute the heat from the polytropic splcific heat and cl by the equation Q = AU + fpdV. (e) Fina tne nonflow work (f) the steady flow work for AK 0. = Ans. (a) 17.4"F, 4.71t ft3; (b) 2b.8f Btu, 86.14 0.0141Btu/"R; (c) 34.4f Btu,44.78 Btu; (d) g Btu; (e) 34.41Btu; (0 44.?B Btu
""a that operates in cyclls. Illements of a thermodinemic heat engine with a fluid as I lrr. working substance: a . I andworking substance, matter that receives heat, rejects lu,rrl, does work; 2. a source of heat (also called a hot body, a heat reservoir, ,r'.;ust source), from which the working zubstancei*.*iuuc
.r'osses its boundaries) that exchanges only heai
Fleat engine or thermal engine is a closed system (no mass
rts surrounding and
"rr. *itr,
*d

3. a heat sink (also called a receiver, a cold body, just or rrrrk), to which the working substance can reject rr""i; *a 4 ' an engine, wherein the working substa'nce *""r. lr. lurve work done on it. "rr"h"
A thermodynamic cycle occurs when the working fluid of a rv'l.t'm experiencer, u.ly.*,ber of processes that Jventuaily nrlrrrn the fluid to its initial state.
lrlrr [;
11. The work required to compress a gas reversibly accon ing to p[r'ao = C is 67,790 J, if there is no flow. Detennine A 3"d Q if the gas is (a) air, (b) methane.For methane, k = 1 R = 518.45 J/kg.K, c, = 1.6lg7, co= Z.lB77 kJ/kg.K'Ans.(aiso.gi KI, ro.esokl;ruiog.bo kJ, 4.zgkJ 
Cycle lVork and Thermal Effrciency
(1.
QA
= =
heat added heat rejected net work
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Available energy is that part of the heat that was converted into mechanical work. Unavailable energy is the remainder of the heat that had be rejected into the receiver (sink).
Operation of the Carnot Engine
A cylinder C contains m mass of a substance. The cylindor head, the only place where heat may enter or leave the subgtance (system) is placed in contact with the sounoe of heat or hot body which has a constant temperature Tr. Heat flows from the hot body into the substance in the cylinCler isothermally, l)rocess l2, and the piston moves from tr' to 2'. Next, the t:ylinder is removed from thehot body and the insulator I ie placed over the head of the cylinder, so that no heat may be l,ransfemed in or out. As a result, any further process is ndiabatic. The isentrppic change 23 now occurs and the piston moves from 2' to 3'. When the piston reaches the end of the sl.roke 3', the insulator I is removed and the cylinder head is placed in contact with the receiver or sink, which remains at a ronstant temperature T". Heat then flows from the substance t,rr the sink, and the isothermal compression B4 occrut while tlrc piston moves from 3'to 4'. Finally, the insulator I is again lllnced over the head and the isentropic cor.npression 41 ret,urns the substance toits initial condition, as the piston moves ftom 4'to 1'.
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
AII energy receiued as heat by a heatengine cycle cannot conuerted into mechanical work.
Work of a Cycle
(a)W=IQ
W=Qo+(Qn)
(Algebraic sum)
W=Qo
Q*
(Arithmetic difference)
(b) The net work of a cycle is the algebraic sum ofthe done by the individual processes.
W= LW
W=Wrr+Wr"r+W'n+..
The Carnot Cycle The Carnot cycle is the most efficient cycle concei There are otherideal cycles as effrcient as the Carnot cycle; but none more so, such a perfect cycle forms a standard ofcomparison for actual engines and actual cycles and also for other less effisient ideal cycles, permitting as to judge how much room there might be for improvement.
H'
m
Vm
Fig. 12 Canrot Cycle
Anulysis of the Carnot Cycle
Fig. 11. The Carnot Cycle
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T,
Vp = displacement volume, the volume swept by the piston rr one stroke. Mean effective pressure is the average constant pressure l,ir:rt, acting through one stroke, will do on the piston the net work of a single cycle.
 kr therefore,l V"  =
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&
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Isothermal exPansion "atio =
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t
Point 2:
,: VL exPansion ratro = 1;
vr = E
naRT. (2) (53.34) (960)
=
I4OOXI4;JI= = L.778 ft,3
Overall exPansion 'utio = h
Compression ratio =
% = of
+=ti$ffit#,=8.b61
[:t:^ L.aJ= 11ee.7''bd
*
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na
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#
v
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= 24.57 psia
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V
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Point 4:
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(2) (53.34) (530) =(24,s7) ( lll*4) = 15.72
f13
ratio ratio rn is the compression The isentropic compression most commonlY used'
v4=
(a) (b)
v,
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2.84e rtg
Problems
ri*i,
1.
;bd n* l'ffi:S J'";n#J'#*ff;;il;ilu^* ?qif 
# "ttffi
on 2 lb A Carnot power cvcle operates
'ffi Ho"n b;:. n""q;l"^:l {l*j::?*ii? :f :l: *,".':t'H
11:, : 11 :'' vorume at
\
= 7.849 ftg =
lX"lff ?xpallsrv[ rD rvu ]'"'b'  ' process, .";^ rlt nS durine , an isothermal proce isothermal compression, G) lP $"t"q:  ^r ^aanoinn rlrrrine
ffilT.f#H;
i;1'":ff31 the end
^s,,
t=
Q.%19
h*ffi = o"oeoz{fi
iil'6::?.i' 6Ji";fi:ie :, g*: :** $""#"ffi:T ffil,3 h[fi; ft;;rr iutio or"*pansion, and (h)
(c) Qo = Tr (AS) = (960) (0.0952) = 91.43 Btu
(d) QR
lll,?*,$*;1il*
Solution
the mean effective Pressure'
 T,
(AS) =
{530) (0.0952) =  50.46 Btu
(e) W = Qn  Qn = 91.4g 50.46 = 40.97 Btu
m= 2lb
Pr= Tr=
Pz=
400 psia
(o
960'R
199.7 Psia
" l[=4s = o'4481 ot a^ fl'43=
44'8Lvo
Tr=
530'R
(8)I*oth""al
expansion ratio =
* =ffi =,
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939'9)
cp =
c, + R = 0.7442+ 0.2969 = 1.0411 KI EAIF
r c_ 1.0411 o={=yiffi,=1'3ee
Point
1:
en=
n = '!{ =
mRr.rn{=,Wt"*h
27.82FJttt
Qo
v. '' =
Point 2:
IT,  (2.5) (q396e) (e50) = 0.8522 m3 827.4 &
Tr)

Q* = 37.63 27.82 = 9'81 Btu
o A sz As.ir:fl=bao
_o.osrdlg =
= B.lb psi
Qn = mco (T,
132.2 = (2.5) (1.0411) (T,
Tz = 899'2
(9.8!X179)w p=ql172= ffiv'LvEe'
 9b0)
X
=
2. T\vo and a half kg of an ideal gas with R ='t2963 Jfte) kPa (K) and c" =6i++i r'"lltr'?Xrc11i aryJt:y"" 9fat constant and a 127 pres' kJ of heat temperatrfe b6Fc *J*t 132.2 point C to a
%=
Point 3:
u,F,]
(0.8b22)ffi21 = 0.8066 mg
to nJis = "f sure. The e""1;it"""d;a*a "tto"ails back to its wil bringtle where a constant volume p"ot"tt poier in kW for 100 Hz' original ttateS;t"rttil; er;q' *d the
e:
r, = r,
H]"''
=
rsro.rlffi"u'
= 880.e K
Solution
Qo = mco (T,

Tr) + mcv (Tr

T3)
Qn = (2.5X{.4435X886.9
v
Pr= rF
11 827.41,Pa 677 +273= 950K  132.2 kJ

S99.2) + (2.5>(a.7442)(950 886.9)
Qn
=
131 IGI
'![
= QoQ*=131 L32.2=L.2kJ
Q*=
w
 if r#iFosgfl
=12okw
1)

Qe
= =
(m) (c") (T3  Tr) = (0'1382) (0'6808) (540
37.63 Btu

939'9)
cp =
c, + R = 0.7442+ 0.2969 = 1.0411 KI EAIF
r c_ 1.0411 o={=yiffi,=1'3ee
Point
1:
en=
n = '!{ =
mRr.rn{=,Wt"*h
27.82FJttt
Qo
v. '' =
Point 2:
IT,  (2.5) (q396e) (e50) = 0.8522 m3 827.4 &
Tr)

Q* = 37.63 27.82 = 9'81 Btu
o A sz As.ir:fl=bao
_o.osrdlg =
= B.lb psi
Qn = mco (T,
132.2 = (2.5) (1.0411) (T,
Tz = 899'2
(9.8!X179)w p=ql172= ffiv'LvEe'
 9b0)
X
=
2. T\vo and a half kg of an ideal gas with R ='t2963 Jfte) kPa (K) and c" =6i++i r'"lltr'?Xrc11i aryJt:y"" 9fat constant and a 127 pres' kJ of heat temperatrfe b6Fc *J*t 132.2 point C to a
%=
Point 3:
u,F,]
(0.8b22)ffi21 = 0.8066 mg
to nJis = "f sure. The e""1;it"""d;a*a "tto"ails back to its wil bringtle where a constant volume p"ot"tt poier in kW for 100 Hz' original ttateS;t"rttil; er;q' *d the
e:
r, = r,
H]"''
=
rsro.rlffi"u'
= 880.e K
Solution
Qo = mco (T,

Tr) + mcv (Tr

T3)
Qn = (2.5X{.4435X886.9
v
Pr= rF
11 827.41,Pa 677 +273= 950K  132.2 kJ

S99.2) + (2.5>(a.7442)(950 886.9)
Qn
=
131 IGI
'![
= QoQ*=131 L32.2=L.2kJ
Q*=
w
 if r#iFosgfl
=12okw
1)

Otto Cycle
The Otto
engines.
cYcle
wnere
,V
the isentrcpic compression ratio "* =vr.,
is the ideal prototype'of sparkignition
Derivation of the form ,la for e
Process l"2:
5_ trll Tr
LVol
T, = Tr"oot
Process B4:
'
(2)
FiS. 14. Airstandard Otto CYcle
Air.standardcyglemeansthatairaloneistheworking
medium.
12: isentroPic comPression 2'3: constant volume addition of heat 34: isentmPic exPansion 41: constant volume rejection of heat
& Iv;l*'' F = T=
Lr*J
tI
Ll (3) T, = Tn"* Substituting equations (2 ) and (3) in equation
(t)
a  ,
'E4rffi
TnT,
Analysis of the Otto CYcle
e = 1_n+ t
IVorh from the pVplane
Tr)
W=
= Qn = \{ =
Qe
mc" (T,
e=fr=ffi
r#+F
rl
(1)
 Tr) mc, (T,  Tn) = mc" (Tn Tr) (T4 Qn  Q* ' BC" (Ts  Tr)  BC'
IW = Pr%' 9rV, * O,?  %
O,
Clearance volume, per cent'clearance
e = 'rr  rz e = 1+
94
"*=f=q;r=Hg6
*c ". _l+c
Review Problems
feginning of isothermal expansion is.9 cu ft *a tn" pressure is 360 psia. The ratio of expansion during the is uaaiuo" of heat is 2 and the temperature of the cold body (g) P,, (h) the (0 ;0"F, Fi;J (a) Qe, o) QR, (c) vr, (d) pr, (e) vn, pn, process' and (i) the ratio of u*purrsion duffng the isenlropic overall ratio of comPression. Ans. @) gia.a, Btu; (b) 209.1 Btu; (c) 63.57 99.ft; (d) (h) 3"53; 25.(/p*iu; t"> ef.Zg cu ft; (f) 51.28 psia; (g) 13'59 psia;
The volume at the
l.ThbworkingsubstanceforaCarnotcycleis8lbofair.
6
fnternal Combustion Engines
(8) 7.06
in Gaseous nitrogen actuates a Carnot power cycle whict the respective iolumes at the four corners of the cycle, Vri rt"*frtg ;tlnetUegittning of the isothermal expansion' arg cvcle 3L zza.r+!, *1 Yr r57'7 ib. iit i; v, = 1 4.bI L, v Jhc "Z it"it. Determine (a) the work and (b) the receives zi.r t<.1 of mean effective Pressure. Ans. (a) 14.05 kJ; (b) &'91kPa
2.
Internal combustionengine'is a heat engine deriving its power from the energy liberated by the exploJion oi" *l*trr" of some hydrocarbon, in gur*o.r, or vaporized form, with atmospheric air.
:
Spark.Ignition (SI) or Gasoline Engine
Erh06l
cycle in 3. show that the thermal efficiency of the carnctis glven of compression ratio rk the isentropic terms
bvg=l .
4.
1.
Ll
rk Two and one'halfpounds of air actuate a cyclecomposed urith n = of the following pro"u*t"*t polytropic compressiol Y' The known 31' 1.5; constant pressure 23; constant volume Btu' Determine (a) au1,a *", p, = i0 p.iu, t, = 160'F, Q* = 1682 plane' in Btu; i^ iul th;;;;k'of the cvcle'using the pV (e) (J) ""a (ai tne thermal efficiency, and . : . '' Q^,' Arrr. (a) itzo'R,4485'R; (b) 384'4'Btu; (c) 2067 Btu;
Infoh ttrcb
Comprarrlcn Strol.
Ittr.u!t lkol.
Fig. lB. Fourstroke Cycle Gasoline Engine
A cycla beginr wilh the intoke slroke or fhe pirlon move3 down the cylinder ond drows in o fuet.oir mixlure' Next, the pisron compresse3 rhe mitture whire rnoving up ri,. iyiiJ"r.iiri.'i"o or n. comprersion ttroke. fhe spork prug ignites rhe mixrure. Br:rning gq!es puth ,he pirton down for fho piston rhen,o"1, ,p the cytindegJ", prrhrg rhe'burneJ ori!"rins
t

p'
i".ilTrili?ii;lte
for",
*,o
(d) 18.60%; (e) 106.8 Psi
5. Athreeprocess cycle of anideal gas'.forwhi*.htr= 1'0et an *aI." = 0.804 lr,yl*e.K', tltTlt"FibyIiPa.isentropic compresA cbnstant volume
t
sion 12 from rog.a"kpa, 27 "C 1060g. 1 3:l 11ll n= L'Zcomplete the cvcle' p"".*t ZS and a (a) Qa, ft) W' Circulation ir rtiuiv raL of o.go5 kg/s, compute " (c) e, and (d) p. Ans. (a) 41.4 k'ys; &)  10 kJ/s; @\ 24'157o; (d) 19'81 kPa 92
The fourstmkg cycre is one wherein four strokes of the piston, two revolutions, are required to complet" u.y.l".'
*ftti*t
9:i
lrr
where
= p€r cent clearance % = clearance volume Vn = dsplacement volume
s
(a) Point
t:
(0.1x€.94)l_5eo)
= 1.oar
v,
=
s"fV
$
Ideal standard of comparison
Coldair standard, k = 1.4 Hotair standard, k < 1.4
The thermal elficiency of the theoretical Otto cycle is
Point 2:
p, = prLfrJ = P, (r*)h = (13) (5.5;r.e = 119.2 psia
*rt
1. 2. 3.
Increased by increase in r* Increased by increase in k Independent of the heat added
Tr=Tt
l.l
el
=
\
(r*)hr
= (590) (b.b;r.sr = ggB.9.R
tz = 523.9,F
The average family car has a compression ratio of about 9:1.
The economical life of the average car is 8 years or 80,000 miles of motoring.
v = = l'6=81 = o.Bob6 &i zt 5.8
s
li
Point B:
Problems
1. An Otto cycle operates on 0.1 lb/s of air from 13 psia and 13trF at the beginning of compression. The temperasture at the end of combustion is 5000oR; compression ratio is 5.5; hotair standard, k = 1..3. (a) Find V' p2, t s, ps, V3, tn, and pr. (b) Compute Qn, Qj,'W, e, and the corresponding hp.
Solution
%=%=0.3056t s
Point 4:
m=
^k k=
Tr=
Ts=
Pr=
0.1 lb/s o.o 1.3 13 psia 130 + 460 = 5000"R
lti : r'r r. = 4LiJ =(boo)m"'
tr = 2538"tr' o, =
= 2998"R
t
[+J=
(2ee8)H=
66.r psia
96
53.34 =0.22t Btu (h)c= R =  (zzgfitm = v'o'c'o l6.R" \u'f cv = L11
Qo = rhc"
c'=
983.9)
E*=m
=o'8444*k
(T,
s
Tr) = (0.1) (0.2285) (5000

=*+ =ffi=o'o43e6lce
"*
Qn =
sr.zz ntrt
Qp = rhcu (T, Qn =
s
Tn) = (0.1) (0.2285) (590

2998)
=f= tdi%to =,,
= o'003455 m3
55'03 Btu
(a) Point 2:
W = Qo

Q*
=
91.77

55.03
;
36.75
ry
v, '"' =T= 0.0! # '
o =W =3!'75=0.4005
(36.?5
ot4A.O1Vo
T, = Tr"*t't = (805)
Pz =
{ll;t'tt
(tt;
= 6g9 K
= 2blg lipa
W'=
'smrn
BtuX60+)
=52hp
Pr{
tl
= (101.8)
t'e
n'*t#ftnr
Point 3:
Q^ = mc" (T,

Tr)
Otto engine operating on hotair standard with k ='1.34, are 101.3 kPa,0.038 m3 and lz'C.The clearanceisL0%oand 12.6hI are added per cycle. Determine (a) V' T*P* T3, Ps, Tn atd p.' (b) W, (c) e, and (d) p.
2. The conditions at the beginning of compression in an
12.6 = (0.04396) (O.UU)(TB
Tg

689)
= 1028 X
Ps =
r,ltJ=
(2518)
Solution
Point 4:
t8rfl
= BZbzkpa
t =t{W"'=r&l'],r*r{*J
P, = 101.3 kPa V, = 0'038 mg Ti=32"C +273 =306
1.t4.1
=455K
n,
=n,ffi:r,91]ruzuaftl'
= 16l kPa
(0'8444) (305 (b) Qn = mc" (T1 T1) = (0'04396) Q* = 5'57 kJ

455)
W = Qn
*
Qn
kJ = L2'65'5? = ?'03
,\ (c)
(d)
 We=q= 7.99= 0.558 or 55.87o 12Sp.
12.6
=#" = #T,= o55s 
oso3455
= 364.7 kPa
(")
(b)
Fig. 16. Airstandard Diesel CYcle
12: isentropic comPression
or Diesel Engine CompressionIgnition
23: constantpressure addition of heat 34: isentropic expansion 41: constantvolume rejection of heat
Analysis of the Diesel CYcle
Qn = mcn (Ts

T2) Tn)
Q*
Crh!urt Sitol'
I ."
(T,

DC, Tn  Tr) (T,
W = Qe 
ln!l.
Sl.ok.
ComF.trlon ComF'trlon
Sftok'
?ow'r Stlol'
Diesel Engine Fig. 15. Fourstroke Cycle
"=frW
e=
QR = mcn
T,
)
DC"
(T1

Tr)
j*:t:::f".1fit:11 downanddraws"ilffi iil;t;*:: down and draws'"t1'::ini'".""ussion stroke' the tem'' o' is ll: 1l Htr :H3:j!rye?tio"' when and air n*J,ffi"; *iift ttt" hot it ffi;"tfit"oo
piston moves intake stroke when the cycle begins with the A
. T.T 1
Fd:fJ
(4)
i*"t iniected into the 'U'" "tU"a"1 rra$tru Prvuuvv " burnsexplosivelv'e;'";;;;'"'*:Jg1*;ifthe exhaust burns explosrvery' During do*o ror the Power strt,k". the burned gases forces *t*k", the piston #"; ;;Jt; ""d out of the cYlinder'
€=1where
::f,1f'l
"*
""
=F
=
the comPression ratio the cutoffratio
+,
l0l
Point 3 is called the cutoffPoint.
Derivation of the fornula for
Process 12: ' *kl T"=Lv^,l lv, q kl T, = Tr"*
I
e
efficiency ofthe Diesel cycle differs from that of.th* ( )r,r.r, The cycle by the bracketed factor".o'1 . This factor i*iit*,,vu
greater than 1, because r" is always greater than l. Thus, lirr rr particularcompression ratio rn, the otto cycle is more efficiont. However, since the Diesel eigirr" compresses air only, thr, compression ratio is higher than in an otto engine. An actual Diesel engine with a compression ratio of lb is mo"e efficierrt than an actual otto engine with a compression ratio of 9.
(5)
trFT
Relation among rLr r.r and r" (expansion ratio)
te
Process 23:
L L % %
ft={;
Process 34:
=f" (6)
rk' \=f"f"
Ts = Trrrk'tr.
t =[+][q
Problems
A Diesel cycie operates with a compression ratio of l3.b with a outoffoccuring at 6vo of the stroke. state 1 is defined !f ta psia and 14OF. Foithe hotair standard with t< = f .ga ana for an initial I cu ft, compute (a) tz, p2,,.Uz,tsn %, po, ,rrltn, {b) Q*, (c) w, (d) g uttd p. (e) For aratlof"ciic,riauon irrooo.r, compute the horsepower.
" and
t=F;'=m'=*'
Tn=Trrnkl
Tr = Trr"k
1'
H
(7)
Solution
Substituting equations (5), (6), and (7) in equation (4)'
T.t"ni.e=1m\f'rffii)
'.,'4^
= 1.84 p, = 14 Psia Tr=140+460=600'R
L
rn = 13.5
y, =lcuft
. 1 ft"*rl e=r,rrlq:11l
r02
Io;l
i
..
c,
=FIf
kc" =
R
53.34 = (078) (1.34 1) (1
=OrOtUffi
0'2702
(b) QA =
DCo (T3

Tr) = (0.063) (0.2702) (2545
 iaga)
Qe = 18.57
Btu
cn =
.34) (0'2016)
=
ffi"
Qn = mc" (T, Qn = 8.52

T.) = (0.063) (0.2016) (600 72i:l1r)
* = alf
(a) Point 2:
p,V,
_ (14)
= (b&lr+,1 (buu) = o.68o rb
(144]jp
Btu
(c) W= QA Qn = 18.57 8.52= 10.05 Btu (d) e = W = f0.05 = 0.54L2 or
V,
=# =1fS x
v,
1
= 0'0741 ft3
(13.5)1 31t = 1454oR
a^ 18.57 P = (10.05) (778) = 58.64 psi
(l
.0:,0741) (144)
54.L2Eo
T, = Tr#1 = (600)
tz = 994oF
(e)
pz = prrr.k = (14) (13.5I'34 = 457.9 psia
w_
[""ir*flltu fo* 42.4
min.hp
ninl'= 287
ft''l
hp
Point 3: (Vl V2) % = V, + 0:06VD = % + 0.06
ftc (1 % = 0.0741 + (0.06)  0.0?41) = 0.1'297
0.L297  r\il r, = Trl_C = G454) i,^g?A
There are supplied 317 kJ/cycle to an ideal Diesel engine operating on227 g air: p, = 9?.91 kPa, t, = 48.9oC. At the end ofcompression, pz = 3930 kPa. Deteruineia) ro, (b) c, (c) r",
(d) W, (e) e, and (f)
2.
p.
= 2545"R
Solution
t, = 2085'F
Point 4:
\( \\
4
m = 0.227 kg. P, = 97.91 kPa Tr = 48.9 + 273 = 321.g K Pz = 3930 kPa Qo= gf7 kJ/cycle
\
I
rn =
r, l_sf'' LvrI
n,lt'J
rvr
= (2545)
lli2gfl
L1J
'''n' = 12?1"R l)oint
1:
tr = 811oF
r
o. =
oo., IgJZgZl'''n = 29.7 psia = (45't.e)
[T.]
v r 'l
mRT.
ll .:l
* (0.227) (0.28708) (32r.e) = 0.2143 mg 97.9r
10s
ryPoint 2:
1
(d) QB  &c, (T,
1.1

Tr) = (0.227)(0.2186) (B zt.g
tt6t
)
u, =
urffl
IJil
Qn = 136.9
kI
fg6.g = lg0.l kJ
= (02143)
ffi
0.0153 m3
W = Qo
 QR = 317 
(e) e =
Tr=T, lo;l+'=(821.e)
Point 3:
Qn = mco (Ts  T2)
Hfl1f
= sz4lK
P= lao.t = 0.b6g1 or 56.glvo QA 317
1fl P =g=
l0o.l _= vD =.w =ozr+s:00rog vr_%
9ob kpa
DuaI Combustion Engine
3r7 = Q.227) (1.0062) (T3
 924.4)
o.oB8B mg
v,
T, = 2312I( Im
=
vr,if
L2)
(( i= ).olb3)
lW1=
P24A
combustion can be conside*dt";il;ach a constantvorume process, and the late burning, u *;riluntpressure process.
In modern compression ignition engines constant during the.combristio" p"o"ess the pressure is not manners illustrated in the ng"*.ili;*J but varies in the
il ffi* ol" *
Point 4:
,,=*b{'=(rrrr) B*?H"
(a)
= 1161k
" =vr=0.2143_14 '* Vo.oi^re
1+c
Fig. tZ. Air_Standard Dual Cycle
'
(b) f,=*c
1r 1+c I4t
=
l2: isentropic compression
34: constantpressure addition of heat 4b: isentroplc expansion 51: constantvolume rejection of heat
2B: constant_volume addition of heat
c
c
(c)
= 0.0769 or 7.69Vo
f = v^=:::=  t c !iL 0.0383 2.50
v,
Analysis of Dual Combustion Cycle
Qo = mc, (T,
0.0153

Tr) + mcp (T. _
fr)
106
Q* = me, (T1 W = Qe

T6) =
mc" (Tr

Tr)
Procesg B4:
 Qn = mc" (\  Tr) + mco (T1  Ts)  DC" (T6  Tr)
mc" (T,
il= f,=""
^g t
g
tn 4a
\/ t v
g='W=
\QA
 Tr) + mc, (T,  Tr)  mc, ('t'o mc, (T,  Tr) + mco (Ta  T, )
(8).

T,)
Tn =
Trrr
t'lr;{"
, (lt)
e=l
Tu =
Trr*'tl ror.
where
=S,' the pressure ratio during the consant volume poii"" of coU"stio" v the rr ratio
o "" P,
Tu=
Tpor"r
(r2)
=titr, ,2
compression
too"otuting equatirins (9), (10), (11), and (12) in equation or.
r.'
Th'b
=#, Y3
\r
the cutoffratio
€=lo=lProblems
lT
*L
thernal,efficiency of this cycle lies between that of the ideal Otto qnd the ideal Diesel.
Derivation of the formula for e
Proccss 12:
q=LrJ /
T" = Trr*I'r
Process 23:
T"
 k1 lv,l
*tllpg . L. At the the bustion cvcle,
The compre*io.l
w.orki"ng
99:F.. constant volume addrtion or n*ullrito added 100 Btu th;,;il;;ilpor*,ro expansion. Find (a) ro, (b) r", (c) the percentage cfearence, (d) e, and 1e) p_.
n"iair i ru "irri"iiijT#" tlre :.ilI i il" p"*rru* at the end of ""a
d:opp."*rsion in an ideal dual com
uA*
;;i""#;;#;
"*
t=#="
T, = Trrrkt
rn
(10)
r0g
*'
Solution
Point 5:
m = llbair p., = 14.1 psia T, = 80+460=540oR pa = 470 psia rk= 9
Qrn
t,
=
t l+ln.'= (rnru) L_'IJ E&1"
= 1082"R
(a) r^ P (b)
= 100 Btu
=g=305.6 = L.54 Pz +!y
!g!tg = L.Zr 1.576
r" =t= v,
Point
1:
(c)r.1+c *c
9=1+c
c
14.186 = 0.125 or ]'Z.EVo
u,=3l'=%#ffi#=la186rt3
Point 2:
%=t=t=
rir'l Tr= T,
kl
v.
1.576ft3
(d) QA =
Q, + Qr.n = (m)
(e") (T,

Tr) + 1oo
= (1) (0.1?14) (1999
Qn = (mXc"XT,
l+ I L'rJ
lv,l*
= (540) (9) ''n' = 1300R
 lB00) + 100 = 219.8 Btu
92.9 Btu

Tu) = (1X0.1714X840 1082) =
l, = n,l_if
Point 3:
= (14.1) (9)
1'4
= 305.6 psia
^ W 219.8e2q " =Q;= fts=:: = o'5773 0r 57 '73Vo
w P*=V,%
LF;J
Tr=T, [pJ
Point 4:
= ffi (126.e) (778\
=54.3?psi
(T. Qrn = (m) (co)

Tr)
('lea.rance, (b) p, (d) s, an6 (e) p.
2. An ideal dual c'ombustion cycre operates on 4b4 g of air. At the beginning ofcomp_ression, the airis at g6.b3 p",?g.g"c. t Itet ro  1.5,,r..= 1.!0, an{ r* 11. Determine (a) the percentage =
V, and T at each corner of the cycle, tc) en,
m = 0.454kgof air
P, = 96.53 kPa T, = 43.3 + 273 = 816.3 K rp = l'5 r" = 1'60 rr = ll
100 = (1) (0.24) (T4
Tn = 24J.6"R

1999)
Solution
I'
'f\.
t,\:
v.
= v,R] = o.b?o)
f+f
= 1.905 ftg
,/i
'/ "" ,2'
A'
4
il0
ill
(a) 1+c rkc
W = Qr

Q* = 474L95.7 = 278'3 kJ
11
=;
1+c
or
IUVo
"=6o=
(0.28?08) (316'3)
w
278.3
474
= 0.5871
or 58.7lVo
g = 0'10
w (e,p_=Vr5,=
= e.427r ms
278.3 = 716.8 kPa o.427L  0.03883
mRT, (0.454) (b)Vr=p;=re
o.42t]*,  vt 11 vr =T;=
= o.oB88B m3
,, = t,FJ*'=
p, = n,
lvlr'r
8254K T, ("n) *'= (316'3) (11)'n' =
IvlF
ft'1
(96.b3) (11) ''n =2770'81.Pa = pr(roy =
ps = (Pz) ("n) = (2??0'8)
(t'5) = 4156'2 kPa
,, = r,fog
Vn = (Vr)
= (82b.4)
ffi
=
K
'288.1
(r.) = (0'03883) (t'60) = 0'06213 m3'
lril K rn = t'L+l= (1238'1) (1"6) = Le81
r.LirJ ,, =  Ivln',
pu =
= (1e81)
Bm''n'
= e16.2
K
lml p,l+l= (e6.53) e1g.? =27s .6 kpa 'L'
d
316'3
(c) Qe  (m) (c") (T,
=

Tr)
* (m) (cn) (T4 825'4)
+
T3)
(0.454X0.?186X1238'1

(0'454X1'0062X19811238'
l)
= 474kJ
(d) QR = (m)(c"XT,
Tu)
= (0'454X0'?186X316'3
 916'2) = 195'?
I t:l
l
Review Problems
the hot'air standard An ideal Otto engine, operating on 5' At the beginning of ratiJof with k = 1.34, h^t psia and 6 cu ft' the pressure is 13'?5 uor""is constant'volume heatthe temperature i. fOO"f' Ouring the (u) (b) T" (c) p" (d) e' c' cvcle' ritta
1.
;;;;t;;;irt" uaJJp"t t"g, il;'Bl" ^t"
and (e) p. Ans,
;;;;;;tfi
7 ""s Compressors
Operation of Compressor
Discharge
(a) 257o; (b) 5209"R; (c) 639'4 psia; (d) 42'14Vo;
(e) 161.2 Psi 2. An ideal Otto cycle engine 'lrrtlnll%o clearance operates i"Lx" !tut". is 100'58 kPa' 37'7oC' The on 0.227 kg/s of is 110 kJ/s' For hotair energy released d;l;;;*bustion (a) p' V' and T at each corner' standard with k = isi,"opute (b) W, (c) e, and (d) P' t"1t':f: *'r., o kPa; ;6. + x, zazo.t r<P a, 5s2,1K 19 1'71 kPa (b) 52'7 kJis; (c) 47 '9LVo;(d) 301'1
"ii
Valve
Di5charge
a";.*Ai;.idig
i.pili
029?qm'hl:9:*
Intake
Valye
is from 14'7 psia' In an ideal Diesel engine compression Btu/cvcle are added as heat' 80"F, 1.43 cu ft to 5d0;tt* i"hi" tu and find (a) T" V2' T3' Make computatio,', f* coldair standard w;i;;""Jp' and (d) the hp for 300 cvcles/
3.
Compressbn
v3, Ta, and pn, ft) mrn. 2113:l' 0'1&6 ft3' 890'I Ans. (a) t4?9"R,0'1152 ft3'(e) 60'637o' 39'9 psi; (d) 68' zi.ipui^;(Ujg'Z gt";
l rtruenlionol Diogrom without Clearance. Conuenttonal Diagram witn
v
Clearance.
Fig.
18.
hp overall value of k = For an ideal Diesel eycle with the gi'g kPa' find P2 and p,"' 1.33.' r, = 15, r. =2.l,Pr= ^Anr. 3589 kPa, 602 kPa
Fig. t9
4.
is pJ = 1 atm State 1 for a dual combustion engine t, Joo.g;Cfrn = 18; a! th9 i' zogr kPa'r" = 1'5' tsase on l kg/ standard with k = 131,.deiermine 1")!l^P:1 ;;;;i;;.""ce, (b) p, v, andr at each corner point on the (c) W, (d) e, and (e) P' ilJ.*a);.EEq";&) 0.e443 m, Q'!szjo^3i *9q ;;4.; n, i ilio.zK, 0.0?869 Ti' ?^19e;3.* (e) 900 f.p"pZO.g K; (c) 803.5 kJ; (d) 57'a3%;
5.
;t;J,"o;;J;ilp*til" "i*{*::"Y?L::t:*",?fr
;ilil;i;r
Figure 18 shows a conventional indicator card for a compressor without clearance. As the piston starts the stroke 4r, the inlet valve opens and gas is drawn into the cylinder arong [he line 4.'1. At point 1, th; piston starts ttr" ui"nr.", u,l va ves being closed, and the gas is compressed "e1,r* the curve along t2. Atz,the discharge valve opens und th";;pGfigas is <lclivered to the receiver.
The events of the d"iagr"m with clearance are the same as with no clearance, except that since trre piston J* ,rot lirrce.all the gas from the cylirrdu" at the pr"rrrrr"o., tfr* rcmsifilg gas must reexpand to the intake p"urr".*, irL*r, it 4, before intake starts again. without clearance, th* ioi ro
l'lrose
114
Il5
Preferred Compression Curves
"'=f;4=
r^, p,V,,
(ozmtGoo
(lob) (6)
= 5.722 kg/min
The work necessary to drive the compresor decreases as the value of n decreases. Polytropic compression and values of n less than k are brought about by circulating cooling water.
Comparison of work for Isothermal and for Isentropic
Compression.
(a) Isentropic compression
w E#
=
f
rr
"'t
I rp,tLlp;j
l
I
T
t.67I
(1.67) (105) (6) 11.67
T_
'630y1 rsz
105, ffi
=
 1652 kJ/min
Another solution:
Heat Rejected
The heat rejected during compression 12 is,
Qr, = mrcr, (T, I'J
I
T2 ,r l&l*  ^t lP,
kl
= (300)
= 615.6
K

Tr)
w
= AH = =
fi'c e (T2 
Tr)
Problems
A rotary compressor receives 6 m3/min. of a gas (R = 410 J/kg.K,c = 1.03 kJ/kg.K, k = 1.67) at 105 kPa, 27"C and delivers it at 630 LPa. Find the work if compression is (a) isentropic' (b) polytropic with pvt'r = C, and isothermal
1.

(5.122) (1.03) (615.6

300) =

1665 kJ/min
(b) Polytropic compression
Solution
w
=+Fffi.,1*
=
(1.a) (rOs) (0) 11.4
I
f1.4l
l1f3gl
" 11
_ l.,ll
_.1
=

1474
kJ/min
vf=
Tr= Pr=
Pz=
6 m3/min. 27 +273 = 300 K 105 kPa 630 kPa
Another solution
Tr=T,
lp] #
LEJ
= 300
iogol'n
F'ql
= 500.5 K
118
il9
cv
c l'oq = ry =f = L.6z0.6168 kg.k"
=
rh' =
off
=
!#}.rffi = 2*.o'rb/min
_r.32_r
cn c [t rrl= 0.6168 I r.oz  r.el = 4.41G8 kI = "Lr*l [T:T.a J [sF
I
r,=r,
co
n r*
L*J'=(E4o)
I
\if =
=
afr* 6=th'co(TrTr)+ fi'co(TzTr)
(5.L22) (1.03) (600.5
L#t=
=64r.eeR

3oo)
s c" UqJ =(o.lzr4) fILl v kl '
=
= (22.05) (0.24)(641.9
Lltful =o.oaze ffi
+ (5.L22)(0.4163) (500.6

S00)
AH = drbp (Tz Tr) 
=1486kl/min
(c) Isothermal compression

540) = bB9.B Btu/min
a nqTrT,)
= (22.05) ( 0.0429)
w = p,tf r"[*l
LP?i
(er.g
_ 540) * 96.4 Btu/min =
=(105)(6)rn
=
tffi
o*
=
m'*
u'J

1129 kJ/min
A centrifugal comprcssor handles 300 crr ft per ninute of air at t4.7 psia and 80"F. The air is compressed to 80psia. The initial speed is 35 fps and the final speed is 1?0 fps. If the compressionis polytropic with n = 1.32, what is the work?
2.
6 =#*ar(+ali+W
w = QaKaH
=
ffi

 96.4 _ tZ.Z_ bBg.B
fl47.gBtu/min or _ lb.2g hp
Solution
=
f;=
300
ctu
Volunetric Effidiency
Conventional volumetric effciency =
Pr = 14.7 Psia
Pz = 30 Psia
ffi
Tr=80+460=540R
u, = 35 fps u, = 170 Ss
n,=$=kX "VDVD
l,he
Displacement volume Vo is the volume swept by the face of piston in one etroke.
l4r
The clearance ratio or per cent cleararrce, c =
1
Free
t,
Air
n
then,D"=1+cc
[+]t LP'J
Free air is air at normal atmospheric conditions irr particular geographical location.
Problens
a crear= ance of ,vo handles 20 ms/min. of nitiogen from roo i.i", az"c Uo ggrypression.ana urp""Jio" .r" p"fyt""pil !Z! n = 1.30. Find (a) the work, (b) the hialre5ected, and (c) the bore
If the compression process is isentropic, let n = k. vo
where:
r' j
twincylinder, doubleacting compressor with
={ortN D L N N = = = =
diameter of piston length of stroke number of cycle completed per minute (n) (1) (number of cylinders), for single'acting compressors (n) (2) (number of cylinders), for doubleacting compressors compressor speed, revolution per min., rpm
^H*.
.itf,
and stroke for I"b0 rpm and UD f = .gO.
Solution
N= n =
revolution.
PVt's

V;
"
Pr
P2
Tr
= = = =
37+273=Bl0K
20 m3/min. 100 kPa 725 Wa
A singleacting compressor makes one complete cycle in one
e=\Vo n = lbO rpm IID = 1.39
A doubleacting compressor makes two complete cycles in one revolution.
(a) W
=T#[A*
_l
Fie. 20. Singleacting Compressor
,
Pision rinRs
Connecting rod nk pin
7l ,''"on.
J/
, Crank ! Crankshaft
Crosshead
= 5023 mrn
Y
Wrist pin'
Crosshead guard
(b)n, =1+c*c lpJ l!,J
F
t
L
Fig. 21. Doubleacting Compressor
722
l2:l
I
= 1 + o.ob = 0.9205

(o.ob) lzzql
fi
"'Llo0l
tt,,, compression and expansion processes are pVr.s _ ""a C. Dutor,r,,,,u (a) Freg air capacity in mtZs. iU) power of the **pr"rro" i" f, W (ME Board hoblem Oct. 19S6) 
pT 3ld 381 mm, respectivery with a percentage cre'r'rrr.o 5?o, rf su'oundins air ar* it r00 kFa zi.c *hJio
'f
vo=n'.,=o8Do5= = z+.ss
n.'
20
4
4
Solutian
P, = 100 kPa
t,
Vo (1 + c) = Vo * V, = Vo + cVu = 25'60 = (24.38) (1 + 0'05) =
T =293K
T
C=
f%o
*,=*=#Hffi=27.''*t
rn ,,
+.
It
48s.7
n=150rpm
P=$SSmm L = 381mm
Tr=300K
Pr = 97.9 kPa
 t, =
r ICl+ : (s'o) Fz{lst = \!,rvl [ool
l_n,

K
o, =
."ffi
=
$.7442)Fffi#:l
Tr)
=
4'4b'#
(a) n" = 1 +
c.
[#J*
=
I + 0.0b(0.0b)
6r, = rhrc" (T,

m]*=0.e0e4
= (27.83) (0.2456) (489.7

310)
vD =tDpLN
=f, {o.essft0.Bsl) (r50) = s.osz
'
Y = {ZZsmrn
(c) vo
V;= (n,) (Vo) = (0.9094) (b.6bz) = 5.r+a
612.6
#
={nrlN =tD',(1.3 D) (r50) (2) (2)
O'#
o.
=
vr
F,]hl
= (b r44)
t+rtffi
=
4.els#or 0.082$
24.38= 612.6 D3
D = 0.3414 m or 34.14 cm
(b)w
;
=T#'tre,J*:,]
=
(1.3) (97.9) (b. 1 1.3
L = (1.30) (34.14) = 44.38 cm 2:. A single.acting air compressor operates at 150 rpm with initial condilion of air at 97.9 kPa and 27"c and discharges the air at 3?9 kPa to a cylindrical tank. The bore and stroke are 355
t
ri
ll
;
t26
I
=

800.3
KJ or 13.34 kW mrn
W= "
IFto,/
_1J
=
A singleacting air compressor with a clearance of 6Vo in air at atmospheric pressure and a temperature of 85oF, takes and discharges it at a pressure of 85 psia. The air handled is 0.25 cu ft per cycle measured at discharge pressure. If the compression is isentropic, frnd (a) piston displacement per cycle, and (b) air hp of compressor if rpm is 750. (ME Board Problem  March 1978)
3.
=
'?i#iffifiea [ia,z/
'l
96hp
Solution
find (a) piston (b) mean effective pressure in kpa. (ME Board p"otrem
effici'rt,y 500ipm. Il trk"r in air at 100 kpa nrrrl l[CA! esc\argel jr ar 600 kpa. ai, mrn measured at discharge condition. rraodted is o .i * p,,. If the comii#io' i, isentropic,
of 87vo and operates at
4' A singleacting compressor has a volumetic
iil
d;;pi;;;;;t
per stroke in cu m, and
:ep"riliilal
= = %= T, =
Pr
,Pz
Solution
14.7 Psia 85 Psia 0.25 ft,3lcYcle
85+460=545oR
Pr
fz
V2
Tr
= = = =
100 kPa 600kPa
6 ms/min
3O+273=B0BK
(a)r,=r,H*
' = #,, =
=(545)
[q*
= 900"R
(%###
= o.o68z4 ib/cycte
ra)
vi
=o,Fno
_J (6) looo =
l'''
Lrooj
= 21.58 m3/min
ni RT. (0.06374X53.34X545) v,=ff=ffi
=o'87i4ftvcYcle
v^ =&=?rs
" q,
24.8 o.87 = mrn
It
D"=L+cc
v"
[r;tt
LP'J
1+0.06(0.06) lar
h47l
lfi
= 0.8499
T' _ 24.8mrn
UOO
0.M9G stlgkes = stroke
mln
,L
+
=3f;3#
= 1'o3o n3lcYcre (h)
tbl V; = (0.8754) (750) = 656'6 ft3lmin
126
w= ++lZ+r+ rk l\p,/
I
t",,7
_@ffi@Kml*_!
Y = sosa.g mln
n =_li{_= bob3.g = 208.8 kpa rn vD 24.9
tn the state at the handle 500 cfin of air at beginning of compression stroke. The compression is isentropic
(b) Barosetric pressure at 6000 ft = 1r.?g psia or 23.gg in rlg
New intake pressure, pr* =
ll.Zg psia
New discharge pressur€, pz* g0.B + ll.Zg = = 102.0g psia New volumetric
DvN
efliciency,
r
= 1 + o.o6 (0.06)
6. A compressor is to be designed ntith 64o clearane
L4.7 pcia and 70pF,
ffiff"o
=
o.77e
New capacity, Vi* = @.7795)(6tB)
to 90.3 peig. (a) What displaoement in cfu is neessary? iU) tU" co*presso"is used at an altitude of 6000 ft and if the initial temperature and dischargp pressure remain the same as given in (a), by what percentage is the capacity of the @mpressor reduced? (c) WUat snouldbe the displacement ofacumpressor at the altitude of 6000 ft to handle the sae mass of air as in (a)?
fr: = 472.8mln
f
Percentage decreased in cqpacity 5010:j[r?.8 = = 4.44Vo
(c) pr = 14.7 psia Vi = 500 cfu
Tr = 530'R
R, at 6000
ft = 11.78 psia
T, at 6000 ft = 530"R
Solution
Pr
q
Tr
14.7 psia 90.3 + L4.7 = 105 psia 500 ft3/min
V, at 6000 ft = capacity to handle the same mass of air as in (a) vD at 6000 ft = displacement volume to handle the same mass of air as in (a)
70+460=530"R
,=#,=
Vl at 6000 ft = q+{H00) = ozs.g
4*
1+c"[fl*
*', lr0ilfr =I+0.60(0.0_.1;14.fl
= 0.8156
Vo at 6000
ft =
ffi=
800.4
g
y=Yt==5=ry== 
'o o"
0.91b6
=orgqmin.
l2{,
Compressor EfficiencY
ideal work In general, effrciencY = actual work
Adiabatic overall efficiency is
^{. Mechnnical EffrciencY
The mechanical elficiency of a compressor is
adiabAtic ideal work ,,oc% .. =
n* indica@
tion engine, the meehanical efficiency ofthe compressor system is
Isothermal overdll efficiency is
If the compressor is driven by a steam or internal combus'
o^,
 isotherlpel ideal *"* or%
"'
indicated work of compressor indicated work of driving engine
Polyhbpic overall efficiency is
no, =
B. Compression. EfEciencY
Adiabatic compression effieiency is
S
ideal worli (n) (n") = Sltpolvtmpic
c

adiabatic ideal work indicated work of compressor
Isothermal compression efficiency is isothermal   indicated work ideal work 't of compressor Polytropic compression effrciency is oolvtropic ideal work = indicated work of compressor "p
Indicated workjs the work done in the cylinder. Brake work or sh"n *o"r.lr tn" delivered at the shaft. Adiabatic compressio" r, ,t compression effrciencycommonryused.c;p;;i;;;ffi
i"*
mean adiabatic compressi;
"E"i"i.r
"ffi";;;
"tr;;y;h";;;*,wo.,td
J
"
Problems
c. Overall Effrciency
Overall elficiency is
no = (mechanical efficiency) (compression efficiency)
1. A twocylinl":f:gl:__actils air compressor is direcily coupled to an electric motor *rrrririg at 1000 rpm. Other data are as follows: Size of each cylinder, lbO mm x 200 mm Clearance f OZ.of Jirpfacement
"?\9, Exponent (n) for both comp.e5ri""
process, 1.6
Airconstant,k= t.{ Air molecular mass, 29
""J
*expansion
130
Calculate: (a) The volume rate of air delivery in terms of standard air for a delivery pressure of 8 times ambient pressure under ambient conditions of 300 K and 1 bar. (b) Shaft power required if the mechanical efficiency is 81%. (ME Board Problem  April 1984)
Solution
2. A 12 x 14_in., dollleacting air compresor with 6.6*" clearance operates at lS0 ,p*, ari*ing air at l'.'pnin en' dischargin g.it at 62' p; i;thu .91 9,u^ _":"d n"".rion an d ex pH I r, sron processes are polytropic with n = l.Bi. Determini i"l tfru volume of free air irirnarea if atmospheric condi. tions are 82'F and r+.2 psia, ,r,, indicated work of the.op."rror iitit" compression efficiency is 87Vo, and (d) the ideal *ort .
pJ;i;;e,
?tiil t";;fiffi;i"l
Solution
pr = lbar=100kPa
Pz=
Pr
g
o
Tr=85oF+460=b4b.R
P" = T = Pr =
14.7 psia
82"F+460=542"R
14.5 psia
(a) vo
=tryLN
={to.rso)'?(0.200x2x1000) = ?.06e
I
#
(a)n"=1+cc lP,L I'
r
tr, =
I * . .pf
Lru
= 1 + 0.10

(0.10X8)t = 0.?332
l&i
= r.ob5
 o.obb
m]*
= 0.8e2,4
Vl=
rr"Vo = (0.?332X7.069) =
5.183#ot
0.0864
m3
S
vD =4'D'?LN =
t H' frq (1b0x2) = 274.e crm
(b)w=T#R)*
l
[t,*t]
= 27.ZlkW
Vf = (o,) (V;) = (0.8924) (214.g)= 248.8 cfm
(P,) (r") 9  In"Jnt = 84!€I(14.s ) (542) = 240'6 cfm '"  liz:7t6
(v/
(1.6) (100) (0.0864) 11.6
(b) \ir = Vn
* % = Vo + cVo = Vo(l
+ c)
27.2L Shaft power = = 33.59 kW
ffi
= (274.9) (1 + 0.0bb) = 290.02 cfm
. P,V, = Q!.5) O44) (2s0.02) lP m, = = 2o.ss (53.34) (545) 1i1; mln
r, = r,
[t]"
= 545EH
= (o.tz14)
\51
= ?88"R
co = c"
F=;
ftfrfl=
545)

o'3025ffi
3. There are compressed g.4g kg/min of oxygen by a g!,0€ x E5. 5 6cm, double actin g, motor d"irre' cop"essor oporetlnf at L00 rpm: These data apply: Fr = 101.9b kpa, t, Z$.ZA inE = p,'310.27kPa. compression and expansion polyt"opic wt& n = 1.31. Determine (a) the conuentional volumetricefliclency, "t" 9ltlt. heat rejected, (c) the work; and (d)the XW inpui by tfd driving motor for an overall adiabatic elficiency of ittir.Solution
(788 = (20.83) (0.03025) =  IDO.I ::::' mtn
.,o'' Btu
OYt'a
*
C
k4{&fiq*  rl (c) iV,"",, = rK
.br
L\pr/
J
4)F_V:' 'vo
fr'=
Pr=
D'=
Tr=
Pz=
L = 0.3556 m 8.48 kg/min 101.35 kPa 310.27 kPa
26.7
+
273
=
2gg.7
K
(1.4) (14.5) (144) =@lrr+.rt (245.3) t7g) * r )
=
 1185
BtP
mln
o" 27.97 hP
(a)
v, =fD,tN =t0.Bbb6), (0.sbr6i (100) (z) = 2.068
adiabatic ,n.i@
ideal wor!
vf=+=W=6.bu#
32:15 hP
#
Indicated work
=H#=
o"
vo 2.068 "=* W^ = 0.9227 or gl.z7vo Lrrl
L101.351 = (0.6beb)
(d)w
=ryreil{']
=@l\r+si
(1.34)
 *:!. (b) 12 = r,l+4= eee.7)

t!lq€fl+#=
Beg.b
K kJ(ks) (K)
(14.5) ]44)(245.3) lTszt'*g
 il
."
=.,p3J
]
H$H
= 0.1808
Blu =  1157 mln or  27 29 hP
D"=l+cc F;r+
lF;l
135
0.9227=1+ccl
Igro.2?l#
work input by the driving motor = 20.41 hW
Ll0L5ilrrt3
Multistage Compression
Multistagingis simply the compression of more cylinders in place of a singffitinaer the gas in two or como"Jrro". l, iu usedin reciprocatingcompressors in order to(l) save power, (2) limit the gas discharge temperaru"q differential per cylinder. 4 r 
c = 0.0573 or 5.737o
V, = Vo (1 + c) = (?.063) (1 + 0.0573) = 7.468 * mrn
r
'l',=ffi=idffiffi=e.717
Q,, = rhrcn (T, =
, p,v,
(101.35\ tn
aRR\
;ff
kg
;;?JiilililJ;;:r"""
rvater
in

Tr) = (9.717) (0.1808) (390.5 ZggJ)
water out
_159.5 Ir ^1
mln
(c) W= nth'RT,
T.n
l(tl rl
srO.ZztttJil .'l :l
+
IIP cyUnder
= (131) (8.48) (0.25ee) (zss.7> [7
Tl\lolsb/
=
Y 846.1 mln o" 14.1 kW
(d)w,"*=qPR)*!
[121s.2711fH =(1.3eb) (8.48) (0.25ee) (2ss'7) l!0135i
IiS ?2. Conventional Cards, 'rwoStage, No pressure Drop
v
_Fig.,23. Conventional Cards,. TwoStage, with pressure Diop
'
'^oc
= ..309.b mrn or 14.49
g
kw
The figures aboveshow the bvents ofthe conventional cards of a twostage machin", *itl ifr* nigh pressure (Hp; srpe.posed on the low pressure (Lp). suition il th; ilp.ji"a*" begins at A and pry"Vai; in. Compression t2 occurs and the gas is The discharged gas passes through the $yharc.ei interc*te" cooled by circulating water

adiabatic ideal work brake work
G
Ii"*r
DraKe wofK
'=
14'49
20.41 kW 0J1 =
through the
interc*t." ".rd"is Co"uu"tio'Jfi,"it i, i"U"r.
t:f7
"*ir".
gas leaving the intercool:l assumed that the
el rrpcvrindeTiu.ir,?,ug*g;;^iil:;tt*mi*""1i$
;
c each cylinder because pe (LP
entering the
Pr = P'
tllrtll  l'rtrHFllrlr
Heat Tlansferred in Intercoolor
The heat rejected in the intercooler is'
Hft *u*kil*t=P**T'*'**frreexpand FE fromtheGuuv^' otr Iearance and must '*
iirp tvu'ii"'i"*a
cvlinder)'
Qt" = m'cn (T,
 T')
!\f =
W of the loLPlessure Pressure cYhnoer
high cylinder + W of the
the intercoolor where m' is the mass of gas passing through byifrgif .ili"der and delivered bv tho i Jro tfr" mass clrawnin HP cylinder). Problems
are 8Vo' L03.42kPa to 821.36 kPa' All clearance power and piston displacement (a) Find the isentropic required for a single stage cornpresslon' =ft)u*ing work for the,", a""t , nnd the minimum ideal air to the the t*ori"gr.oilpr"rrion when the intercooler cools
=
l#,Kkl*1.#[ft]*tr
;d
of multistage adjust ll:.o*tution are donejn the Itis common practice to works compressor, *o ti":*imum work tbr comcvlinders, p"u"""Jiil"t oru "^"'otf " pressine . gi*'u" of P, = Pr =.P*' weltave #T = il;,,h toitrat of the HP stage' or
l.Therearecompressedl'1'33m3/minofairfrom26'7"C'
tr'uiipii#;;*y:f q;"iG *: :liiiT:H:ftff#Til:
initial temPerature. 6 Fi"h trr" displacement of each cylinder for the condi
#trf,*{=+[tlt'i
p,=
yTF*'
tions of part (b). : ial liow much heat is exchanged in the intercooler? what *p'"ttiin efficiency of 78Vo' (e) For * ""*"ffis required? driving motor outPut
I
i,
i
I
for minimum work intermediate pressure where: P, = sane' tlre t?la\work the work of eachcvlila"iillh" each cvlinder' or since #;;;tJtwice the workin for the twostage
Solution
vf=
Pr=
rl 
1\ 2nm'Rr,f1P,$ ;1 ='+Pfel* r  1n l9'/ w= "iffiLft,? _J
in A pressure drop
"ide oi this ideal value'
Pressure droP
Pz= rT
11.33 m3/min 103.42 kPa 827.36 kPa 26.7 + 273 = 299.7 K
be spread on each the intercooler could
Pr=P,*T
139
r =IilFR)*
_(1.4) (108.42)
l
J Nmtztil
(1.a)11s3.a2) (11.33) 11.4 L\
ftzgz.szttft;l 1o&42l 
11.4
(i,l.BBi lTga.BqtY/
 1416 # mln
Tqtal work
o" 28.6 kW

(2) (23.6) = 47.2 kW l&1
=
 3327# ot 55.45 kw
(c)n"=L+cc
+
tr"=1+cc
' lezz'361.r =1+0.08(0.08)h1ffi1
LP'l
=1+0.08(0.08)
= 0.9119
vnrp=#=## =12.42#
*' = n#, =,+ffiffi$?,
,l= ,BT€ '3  Pa
= 18.62
tr. vo=#=
(b) p
mffi
11.33
_r^*o *t '"'"Y
#
=
min
(13.62) (0.2q2q81j299.7)
292.52
4.006 T3
mln
V; r/ vnur
=;jf
=
ffig
rn3 4006 4.393;fr =
Pr
Pa
103.42 kPa 827,36 kPa
(d) Qrc = th'cn (Ts Tr) (13.62) (1.0062) (299.7403.4) _ 1427 l&I=
min
(e) Outpur of driving motor =!7:? = 60.5 kW :
0.79
p,=y'[];=@
292.52kPa
**=+#F)*
I
lb/min of air from l4.B psia and gb,r to a final pressurer tf I gn psia'. $e lormal barometer is 29. g in. Hg and the tempern t rr ro is 80"F. The pressure drop in the intercooler is B paiand th, temperature of the air at the exit of the intercooler is g0,,1., tho speed is 210 rpm and pVt.er = C during compregeion und expansion. The clearance is E% for both cylinders. Ths temperature of the cooling water increase by iA F". Find (a) the volume offree air, (b) tlie discharge pressure ofthe low pr*rruro
t4l
cylinder for minimum work, (c) the tempprature at discharge from both low pressure and high pressure cylinders, (d) the mass of cooling water to be circulated about each cylinder and through the.intercooler, (e) the work, and (f) if, for the low pressure cylinder, IJD = 0.68 and if both cylinders have the sam: stroke, what should be the cylinder dimentions?
(d) c, =
*ffi = (0.1?r4)Htf = {.0302
I
dhi
Low pressure cylinder
D"
Solution
m
po
=
+
r* cclfil = I + 0.0b{0.0b) Fzslt = 0.9178
[a
s]
90lb/min
(29.8) (0.491) = 14.63 Psia
vn
ru 0.9173 ' =*= ;€g
= rB98 cfm
To
Pr
80+460=540oR
L4.3 psia
V, = VD (1 + c) = (1393) (1 + 0.0b) = L46Z cfm
Tr
Pr
90+460=550oR
185 psia
;,
=
=$1f= tra,'f*ggxpzr

= 1oB rb/min
l"
Pr
Vi*:l
Q"z = frrc" (T,
Tr) = (10S) (0.0302 ) (767

b50)
675 Btu/min
Heat to water = Heat from air
(rh*) (c,") (At*) = er.z
(bB.B4) (bb0) (a) Vr= 6'RTr _ (90) = 1Zg2 cfm , (143t(144) '
v" =
ffi$)
=
tfffi#ffi#P
= 12Bo crm
(b) p = ilFm, =J043) (185t= 51.4 psia
rh*=414l f Btu\ (18F") \6F/
High pressure cylinder
678 Btu
=37.5 lb mrn
pz= 5!.4+&= 52.9 psia (c) ,n t,
ps
a*
.ll"
= BZ.E
= 51.4 9= +g.gpsia

#
 Tr)
Intercooler
767 oR
=
(550) [Bzd ''"" t,b:l+  ,,trR^\ Lffi] #' = ,
,rr lp,
=
Q," = rir,co (\
r, = r,
r42
[*{*
= (bbo)
t#.f
'#'
=
7G7'u,
= (90) (0.24) (bbo
 767) =+osz Blt mln
l4lj
mass ofcooling wate" =
{y
lb
4L2.3 D2 = 400.5
= 260.4 min
D = 0.986 ft or 11.88 in.
(e) Low pressure cylinder
L = 15.01 in.
ThreeStage Compression
\i/. = nrh'RT, l7gt+ _ il "LP  ln
L\prl ]
(1.34) (e0) (53.34) =@l\ra.si (550) 1t52.effijl =
'1

b2G5
mrn = L24.2hp
= (2) (124.2) = *248.4 hp
B!t'
LP cylinder
IP cylinder
Fig. 24. ThreeStage Compression
Total work,
fr
(0
Low pressure cylinder
pV=C pV"=C
y^ =3.D2LN =!pe (0.68 D) (210) (2) = 224.3 D3 cfm D44
224.3 D3 = 1398
py
PV"=C
Condltlone
2P,
PV" =
nlnlnum rork 1) wr,p = wrp %p
for
D = 1.84 ft or 22.08 in.
I
C
e)TS =T3 =Tl
L = (1.84) (0.68) = L.25 ft or 15.01 in.
High pressure cylinde
Fig. 25. conventiorrut cu"arlThreestage, No pressure Dr'p
,,1'T,r,
v
":
(eg) (?50) _ fi'Rr3 _ !5giq1) = 36?.4 cfm (49.9) (144) p,
= 400'5 cfm
nm'Rro Zluf+If+l+ il =,,p'or. f&\.'l = 1*L\&i ln l\Pr/ l=In[\d/ l
11
\r i;  gal 'D n, Ufr*
Pr P"
P,
=F, = P,
Pn
V^ =ID2LN =3D2 (t.zb) (210) (z) = 4Lz.g D2 cfm u44
P, = (PrPr) P, = (P,Po)
2
I
(1) (2)
I
2
Solving equations (1) and (2) simultaneously,
ft)T3Tr=BgbK
p,=\/ir'p,
and p,
=t6trJ
3nm'Rr,
T = T /&\  =,ruc /3ss'olff/ = 411 K 'z rrgf/ "no (ib3;)
nl
1n [gf#il l\P'r l
Heat rejected in the first intercooler,
Problem
Air is compressed from 103.4 kPa and 32"C to 4136 kPa by a threestage compresor with value of n = 1.32. Determine (a) the work per kg of air and (b) the heat rejected in the intercoolers.
Qrc=
m'co
(\  Tr)
 4rr) = 106.2 kI
=
(1) (1.0062) (305
Total heat rejectred = (Z) (_t06.7) _218.4 kJ =
Solution
p
m
Pr
Po
lke
103.4 kPa 4136 kPa 32"C + 273 = 305 K
Tr
(a) p, = (p,,pu)*= fioa.aX (4136j#= 353.6 kPa
,., _ 3nm'RT, vY
ln 7&.* l\P,)"1.J
1
=
(3) (1.32) (1) (0.28708) (305) 11.31
l]103.4/
L.IZJ l/353.6\ r'3211
It r
I
_1

376.2 kJ
t47
IT
il
Review Problems
,t
handles 1000 cfm of air 14 psia and t, = 80"F. The measured at intake where P, = discharge pressure is 84 psia. Cdlculate the workifthe process * of compression is (a) isothermal, (b) polytropic with n L.25, and (c) isentropic. Ans. (a) 109.5 hp; (b) 131.7 hp; (c)  143 hp
1. A reciprocating compressor
i
'
by a engine, the following data and resurts out"i,r.,a, capacity, 800 cfm; suction it t+.2 psia; disch;d;;; iio pri,,; indicated work of compressor,'i5S frp; indicated work ol. lhe steam engine, IZ2 hp^aCal..rlute (u) tt u.";p;;i""im.i"n.y and (b) the overall efficiency. Ans. (a) 90,06Vo; (b) Bt.t6qo
rt"uq
5. From a testjf an.air compressor driven direcily
**
in oxygen at 450 kPa, 17"C and discharges it at 1800 kPa. The mass flow rate is 20 kg/min, compression and expansion are polytropic with a = 1.25. Find (a) the work, (b) the heat transferred, and (c) the bore and stroke for 100 rpm and llD = 1.20. Ans. (a) 40.23 kW;(b) 829 kJ/min/ (c) 2L.71x25'76
ance of \Vo draws
2.
A twincylinder, doubleacting, compressor with a clear
;
I
I
An air compressor with a clearance of 4Vo compresses airfrom gz kpa, z7ic to 462r<pa.If the overail adiabatic efficiency is 6rvo, d"t"ri.r" the indicated horsepower of the directly connected driving steam engine. Ans. 91.89 hp
14.73 ms/min of
6.
t
I'
f
cm A doubleacting compressor with c = 7Vo draws 40 lb per minute of air atl4.7 psia and 80"F and discharges it at 90 psia. Compression and expansion are polytropic with n = 1.28. Find (a) the work, (b) the heat rejected, and (c) the bore and stroke for 90 rpm and UID = L.25. Ans. (a) 77.68 hp;(b) 1057 Btu/min; (c) 18.96 x23.70
3.
7. Methane is compressed in a twostage, double_acting compressor which is electricaily driven at rbb rpm. The row pressure cylinder (3_0. E x Bb, b cm) receive, O. S6 pe rmirrute of air at 96.b3 kpa,4B.B"C, *Jtfr" "" x !20..3 35.5 cm) discharges til" "th* e at 7t7.06 kpa. The isothermal overall efficiencyi szq,%.inanu and the kwoutput of the raotor.
; hish;;;iJ.r]ioa""
" Ans. 8O.02Vo,90.g6Vo
+
i,
i'i
in'
4. A 14 x L2in., single'cylinder, doubleacting air compressor wit}'5.5Vo clearance operates atL25 rpm. The suction pressure and temperature arc14 psia and t00oF, respectively. The discharge pressure is 42 psia. Compression and expansion processes are polytropic, with n  1.30. Determine (a) the volumetric effrciency, (b) the mass and volume at suction conditions handled each minute, (c) the work, (d) the heat rejected, (e) the indicated air. hp developed if the polytropic compression efficiency is 75Vo, and (f) the compression effrciency.
A twostage compressor with a clearance of *Voreceives 14 psia and 8E"F and dcrivers ii pri". The comp,ressions _ 1.g0, and the inter_ "i1io cooler cools the air Tdpolyt*pi;;th " Uact to ar"i.. ri"Jfrl the worL, (bj li" rruut transferred in the various processes, i.ith" ;;;il,f#;^.irer"_ gtage m achine, (d) the correspondiog percentage s avin g for the twostage_machine, and (f) tle water to be circulated through the intercooler if its t"*p"i"l.rre rise Ans. (a)17_1.0 hp; (b) Soz.S Bru/min;is 15 F". stu/ l.l _igie min; (d) _196 hp; (e) t2.4EVo; (ft igo lb/mi;
^^ ,9: 80lumin of air at
asiif
Ans.
(a)92.7Vo;(b) 247.8 cfm,L6.72lblmin; (c) 18.93 hp; (d) 175.7 Btu/min; (e) 25.24 hp; (f) 77.42Vo
l4 f]
8
The Brayton Cycle
Operation of a Simple Gas T\rrbine power plant
Combustor
To
Generator
'*'/
lr?:
Compressor
Turbine fi:r:i::::i::a 1.,:".:':::Sinki.,' .:l r...: r:: i : :r't..i: ...
Open Cycle
F
J
Q*
Closed Cycle
Fig. 26 Diagrammatic Layout of Gas Turbine Units
Air continuously enters the compressor 1. After compression, it enters the combustors, som'e of it going u"o,rrra tfru outside of the comhrrstion chamber proper and the remainder fulnish]1* oxygen for burning the fieljwhich ir.orrti*orrrfv injected into the combustionihaber. Because of their temryTlure rise, the gases expand and enter the turbine in state 3' After expansion through the turbine, the exhaust t. ilrt: atmosphere is in some condition 4. In an ordinary powor'r:r.t. arrangement, the work of the turbine W, is g"*i ,,,r,,,,gt, t,., drive the compressor W delive. U.ut ,, *,rrL W,, i,,',t,.iu,,, _and say, a generator or proptlllrlr; W, __ W,, I W,. Arr ,,*..il,,,,l H()r(.(, of power is needed to si lrrt :r liirH l.rrr.l'r'rrrr. rrrril..
Derivation of the formula for e
Process 12:
T =H"=FJT
T2 =
Fig.27. ,Airstandard Brayton (Joule) cycle
Tr"an.t
(2)
(3)
rokt = ro Y
.
23: constantpressure addition of heat 34: isentroPicexPansion 4tr; constantpressure rejectionofheat
L2
isentroPic conPression
Analysis of the BraYton CYcle
Qo = mco (Tr
 TJ  T4) = *nrco (T4 Tr)
mco (Tn
t=Fl*=
Ta = Tn"*tt
Ll
lp LF
(4).
k
Q*

DCo
(Tr
S
= Q^  Q* = mco'(Ts  TJ
 T,)
Substituttuig equations (2) and (4)
in
(1).
q@ e= +,+
1_ rg t2 
e = W = mc.(TrTr)mco(TnTr)
(1)
€ =11 .:= rr
r
f
1#I "J
AH
W.= mco(T,
11 e1  =1trL
where rk
Total compressor work, W"=&
"o* Total turbine work,
=
+,
v
the comPression ratio
W,
={AH
W,  mc, (T. 
\)
rppr P, I ttre pressure ratio =
W, = mco (T,  T,)
W_
.,].
Net work, W or W" = W,

W"
Point 3:
Vg
= v2
tt.]
L
= e.7z)
Problems:
an airstandard BrayThe intake of the compressor of and 90oF' The compression ton cycle is 40,000;;;it;sia turbine inletis 1440"F' ratio, rr = 5 andth;;;;;'i""3t11" is 15 psia Dgterminl The exit pressure oiiftJi""tine pressure' efficiencv and the mean effective
f+#fl =
4.s4 rtsnb
1.
Point 4:
;;;;,;#;al
ll: ""'
v=v t* l&l .4 ,.LpJ
r.= r,
\^rvrlLlbI =@.94)ll+Z8lt"= z4.Tfttnb
= (leoo)
r

I
i+lL'rJ
f,, lt l
l#l'o'= 124:Ll
^
eesoR
v1
Pr T1
T3
p4
r.K
= 40,000 cfm = L5 Psia = 550'R = 1900'R = 15 psia = S =5 v2
Compressor work,
W = {o (Tz  Tr)
=  (0.24) (L047  550) = 119.8
Btu/lb
Turbine work, W,
=
co
(T,

T.)
(0.24)(1900
2L6.5

99S)
= 216.b Btu/lb
Net work, WB
=
W,
 W" =

119.8 = g7.2 Btu/lb
n
Point
1: v1
=*,t = T5rilx550t
(15x144X40,000) _
2945lb/min
= W_Q945) 42.4
=
6751 hp
f
Heat added,
Q
= =
c, (T, 
Tr)
v, = IiI
(0.24) (1900
4o.ooo 2945
1047)
=
2A4.7 Btu/lb
=
13.58 fta^b
= + = V2 = Qo 204.7
p.
0.4748
or
47.48?o
Point 2:
v2
vl 13.58 = = = = = rkD
= Prf**t =
= Trr*kr =
2.72fbs/,b
= =
g = =lu = (97.2) (778) vD v,  % 6+7 _ zlz) tt,t,n
_
23.89 psi
Pz
(15X5)"
=
142'8 Psia 1047"R
T2
(550X5)1:a 1=
2' There are required 2288 kwnet from r,rrr'rrrr* rrrrrl lirr'prrmpi.g of crude oil from thc Nrrth Arrrrrkrrrr ,.rr,1*, .i* '11:rs ''irt'(!r'$ thc compressor scction at gg"n?lr kPr, ltzH ti, rrr* lr*ee
IFE
I
ll4
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