EXTRA OPPORTUNITY FOR CH. 41 AND 42 EXAM YOU MAY CHOOSE TO ANSWER UP TO 3 ESSAY QUESTIONS FROM THE FOLLOWING.

IF THEY ARE ANSWERED IN YOUR OWN WORDS, ARE A MINIMUM OF 2 PARAGRAPHS EACH AND ARE ANSWERED ACCORDING TO AP STANDARDS, YOU WILL RECEIVE UP TO 4 POINTS FOR EACH QUESTION ANSWERED. IF YOU CHOOSE TO ANSWER ALL 3, YOU MUST CHOOSE AT LEAST ONE THAT ADDRESS EACH TOPIC COVERED ON THE EXAM: DIGESTION, RESPIRATION, AND CIRCULATION. AN EXAMPLE MIGHT BE THAT YOU ANSWER QUESTIONS FROM, 1976 (RESPIRATION), 1986 (DIGESTION), AND 1993 (CIRCULATION). ESSAYS ARE DUE BY FRIDAY AT 4pm. IF YOU CANNOT WRITE LEGIBLY, TYPE YOUR RESPONSES!!!!!!!! 1973: The action of organs and organ systems must be coordinated. Discuss the interaction of factors involved in controlling heart rate and breathing rate in mammals during periods of relaxation and periods of stress. 1976: Discuss the intake, transport, exchange, and release of gases in mammals. 1980: In humans, discuss the transport of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) by the blood and exchange of these gases between the blood and cells of the body. Include in your discussion the cellular and fluid composition of the blood. 1983: Describe the structure of a mammalian respiratory system. Include in your discussion the mechanisms of inspiration and expiration. 1986: Describe the processes of fat and protein digestion and product absorption as they occur in the human stomach and small intestine. Include a discussion of the enzymatic reactions involved. 1987: Discuss the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide that occur at the alveoli and muscle cells of mammals. Include in your answer a description of the transport of these gases in the blood. 1993: Many physiological changes occur during exercise. (a) Design a controlled experiment to test the hypothesis that an exercise session causes short-term increases in heart rate and breathing rate in humans.

(b) Explain how at least three organ systems are affected by this increased physical activity and discuss interactions among these systems. YOU CAN FIND THE AP GRADING RUBRIC FOR THE LAST 4 ESSAYS AT THE FOLLOWING WEB SITE: http://apbio.biosci.uga.edu/exam/Essays/html/questions/human_systems.html

AP essays Edmund Fung 1983: The mammalian respiratory consists on many structures. Well we start with the nose which is the nasal passage. This area is very important. It heats up the air, and has mucus to trap bacteria or unwanted material. Next the air moves into the wind pipe. The wind pipe is right next and behind the esophagus. During the travel down the wind pipe, we would go through the vocal box or the larynx. Next we get into the most famous structure of the respiratory system of all. It is the lungs. The air is transferred from the wind pipe to the bronchial tree in the lungs. The bronchial tree in the lungs is like a large tree like structure that allows the air to be spread out to different parts of the lungs to the alveoli. The alveoli are grape like structures with capillaries running around them. The main purpose for these structures is the actual transfer of gases. The thin one layer thick alveoli and capillary walls allows the transfer of oxygen. Inspiration and expiration is the intake and exhale of air. Both of these are mainly controlled by one main organ. They are controlled by the diaphragm. In inspiration, the diaphragm contracts and in expiration, the diaphragm relaxes. We also must remember that the breathing is involuntary. This meaning we don’t have to think about it. The rib cage also rises when we take breathes to allow the diaphragm to get bigger. 1986: The digestion of fats and protein starts in the stomach and advances to the small intestines. Although it starts in the stomach, there is no absorption there. The main thing that happens in the stomach, is mechanically digestion. To help with the mechanical breakdown, the stomach produces a acid called HCL. HCL stands for hydrochloric acid. Parietal cells produces the acid, while on the other hand, the chief cells produces the pepsin. Gastrin is the hormone which is suppose to be in charge of the release of these chemicals. The stomach is very acidic, but in the small intestine it goes more basic. Lots of absorption happens in the small intestines. The absorption is done by the microvilli on the villi in the small intestines. The purpose of these villis are to increase the

surface area of the small intestines. In the microvillis, there are the capillaries, which absorbs the amino acids in the food. Glycerol is also absorbed by the capillaries. Fatty acids are absorbed into the lymphatic system. To absorb protein, there must be enzymes to break them down. Here are some of the enzymes the does this. Trypsin, chymotrypsin, and tripeptidase, endopeptidase, exopeptidase which are for breaking peptide bonds. Fats are emulsified by the bile. Emulsified means to destroy or break apart. 1973: The heart rate, breathing rate, stress and relaxation are very closely tied. During the period of relaxation, the mammal is most likely sleeping or sitting. A heart rate is the frequency of a cardiac cycle. When your relaxing, your heart will naturally go down because there is no hormone which are secreted to make your heart rate faster. Also, when your body is still, none of the cells use or needs any energy. Therefore no signal is given for more oxygen thus the breathing would slow down. Since the body works at the most efficient way possible, the heart will in turn slow down with the less need for oxygen. On the other hand, stress increases the heart beat tremendously. When you get suddenly scared or stress, the adrenaline gland secretes two types of hormones. These two hormones which brings up the heart rate and in turns needs more air so the diaphragm and lungs would begin to work harder. The two types of hormones are cortisol and adrenaline. In adrenaline, the hormone is secreted because of sudden and fight or flight situations. Adrenaline increases the oxygen and glucose supply to the brain and muscle. In this case, the heart would need to pump more to get the circulation going. Cortisol is for long term stress. Overall, it increases blood pressure and blood pressure. With increased blood pressure, it means that the heart has increased its heart rate and that the breathing have also increased.

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