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Metric and Topological Spaces notes

# Metric and Topological Spaces notes

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12/30/2012

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The following result tells us that a continuous image of a compact set is compact. (This gives one easy

way to see that compactness must be a topological property.)

Theorem 5.23 Let X and Y be topological spaces, let f be a continuous function from X to Y and

let E be a compact subset of X. Then f(E) is a compact subset of Y .

An immediate corollary of this is another version of the boundedness theorem.

Corollary 5.24 (Boundedness Theorem for compact topological spaces) Let X be a non-empty,

compact topological space, and let f be a continuous function from X to R. Then f is bounded on X

and moreover f attains both a minimum and a maximum value on X.

We now show that closed subsets of compact spaces are compact.

Theorem 5.25 Let X be a compact topological space and let E be a closed subset of X. Then E is

compact.

This result has a converse if we assume that the topological space is Hausdorﬀ. In fact, every

compact subset of a Hausdorﬀ space is closed.

Theorem 5.26 Let X be a Hausdorﬀ topological space and let E be a compact subset of X. Then E

is closed in X. In particular, every compact subset of a metric space is closed.

These results lead to the following remarkable corollaries, which are extremely useful.

Corollary 5.27 Let X be a compact topological space and let Y be a Hausdorﬀ space. Suppose that

f is a bijection from X to Y , and that f is continuous. Then f−1

is also continuous, and so f is a

homeomorphism.

Exercise. Using this corollary, prove carefully the homeomorphism claims made in the section on

quotient spaces in Chapter 4.

Corollary 5.28 Let X be a set and let τ1 and τ2 be topologies on X, with τ2 τ1 (i.e., τ1 is stronger

than τ2). Suppose that (X,τ1) is compact and (X,τ2) is Hausdorﬀ. Then τ1 = τ2: the two topologies

coincide. In other words, no Hausdorﬀ topology can be strictly weaker than a compact topology.

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