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3G and Evolution Towards 4G

3G and Evolution Towards 4G


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Published by Pawan Kumar
3G and Evolution Towards 4G
3G and Evolution Towards 4G

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Published by: Pawan Kumar on May 25, 2010
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International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000), better known as 3G or 3rd Generation, is a family of standards for mobile telecommunications defined by the International Telecommunication Union which includes GSM EDGE, UMTS, and CDMA2000 as well as DECT and WiMAX. Services include wide-area wireless voice telephone, video calls, and wireless data, all in a mobile environment. Compared to 2G and 2.5G services, 3G allows simultaneous use of speech and data services and higher data rates (up to 14.0 Mbit/s on the downlink and 5.8 Mbit/s ). Thus, 3G networks enable network operators to offer users a wider range of more advanced services while achieving greater network capacity through improved spectral efficiency.


3G refers to the third generation of mobile telephony (i.e, cellular) technology. The third generation, as the name suggests, follows earlier generations.

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Recognizable mobile phones with direct dialing have existed at least since the 1950s. The first fully automatic mobile phone system, called MTA (Mobile Telephone system A), was developed by Ericsson and commercially released in Sweden in 1956. This was the first system that did not require any kind of manual control in base stations, but had the disadvantage of a phone weight of 40 kg (90 lb). MTB, an upgraded version with transistors, , weighing 9 kg (20 lb), was introduced in 1965 and used DTMF signaling. It had 150 customers in the beginning and 600 when it shut down in 1983. In the 1954 movie Sabrina, eginning the businessman Linus Larrabee (played by Humphrey Bogart) makes a call from the phone ) in the back of his limousine.

The first person to have a mobile phone in the United Kingdom was reputedly Prince Philip, who had a system Philip fitted into the trunk of his Aston Martin in 1957. The Prince could make phone calls to the Queen while driving, which was thought to be quite amazing at the time. The Duke of Gloucester heard about the mobile phone and tried to obtain one, but the Post Office denied his request. They were prepared to indulge the husband of Her Majesty, but nobody else, as the system used an entire dedicated radio frequency. In 1958 the USSR also began to deploy the "Altay" national civil mobile phone service especially for motorists. The newly-developed mobile telephone system was based developed on Soviet MRT-1327 standard. The main developers of the 1327 Altay system were the Voronezh Science Research Institute Vorone of Communications (VNIIS) and the State Specialized Project Institute (GSPI). In 1963 this service started in Moscow, and in 1970 the Altay service already was deployed in 30 cities of the USSR. The last upgraded versions of the Altay system are still in use in some places he of Russia as a trunking system. In 1959 a private telephone company located in Brewster, Kansas, USA, the S&T Telephone Company, (still in Business today) with the use of Motorola Radio Telephone equipment a and a private tower facility, offered to the public mobile telephone services in that local area of NW Kansas. This system was a direct dial up service through their local switchboard, and was installed in many private vehicles including grain combines, trucks, and automobiles. For trucks, some as yet unknown reason, the system after being placed online and operated for a very brief time period was shut down. The management of the company was immediately changed, and the fully operable system and related equipment was immediately dismantled in was early 1960.

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In 1966, Bulgaria presented the pocket mobile automatic phone RAT-0,5 combined with a base station RATZ-10 (RATC-10) on Interorgtechnika-66 international exhibition. One base station, connected to one telephone wire line, could serve up to six customers. In December 1971, AT&T submitted a proposal for cellular service to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). After years of hearings, the FCC approved the proposal in 1982 for Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) and allocated frequencies in the 824–894 MHz band. Analog AMPS was superseded by Digital AMPS in 1990. One of the first successful public commercial mobile phone networks was the ARP network in Finland, launched in 1971. Posthumously, ARP is sometimes viewed as a zero generation (0G) cellular network, being slightly above previous proprietary and limited coverage networks.

ARP (Autoradiopuhelin, "car radio phone") was the first commercially operated public mobile phone network in Finland. The technology is zero-generation (0G), since although it had cells, moving between them was not seamless. The network was proposed in 1968 and building began in 1969. It was launched in 1971, and reached 100% geographic coverage in 1978 with 140 base stations. The ARP network was closed at the end of 2000 along with NMT-900.
ARP was a success and reached great popularity (10,800 users in the year 1977, with a peak of 35,560 in 1986), but the service eventually became too congested and was gradually replaced by the more modern NMT technology. However, ARP was the only mobile phone network with 100% percent coverage for some time thereafter, and it remained popular in many special user groups. ARP operated on 150 MHz frequency (80 channels on 147.9 - 154.875 MHz band). Transmission power ranged from 1 watt to 5 watts. It first used only half-duplex transmission, meaning that receiving and transmitting voice could not happen at the same time. Later, full-duplex car phones were introduced. Being analog, it had no encryption and calls could be listened to with scanners. It started as a manually switched service, but was fully automated in 1990; however, by that time the number of subscribers had dwindled down to 980 users. ARP did not support handover, so calls would disconnect when moving to a new cell area. The cell size was approximately 30 km. The first ARP mobile terminals were extremely large for the time and could only be fitted in cars' trunks, with a handset near the driver's seat. ARP was also expensive. In the 1990s, handhelds were introduced in ARP but they never became popular as more modern equipment was already available in other systems like NMT.

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The first generation of wireless mobile communications was based on analog signalling. Analog systems, implemented in North America, were known as Analog Mobile Phone Systems (AMPS), while systems implemented in Europe and the rest of the world was typically identified as a variation of Total Access Communication Systems (TACS). ly

In 1983, the Motorola DynaTAC 8000X started the wireless communication revolution.

Analog systems were primarily based on circuit-switched switched technology and designed for voice, not data. ,

Earlier 2G networks were built mainly for voice services and slow data transmission. The second generation (2G) of the wireless mobile network was based on low-band digital data lowsignaling. The most popular 2G wireless technology is known as Global Systems for Mobile wireless Communications (GSM). GSM systems, first implemented in 1991, are now operating in about 140 countries and territories around the world. An estimated 248 million users now operate over GSM systems. GSM technology is a combination of Frequency Division technology Multiple Access (FDMA) and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). The first GSM systems used a 25MHz frequency spectrum in the 900MHz band. FDMA is used to divide the available 25MHz of bandwidth into 124 carrier frequencies of 200kHz each. Each frequency carrier is then divided using a TDMA scheme into eight timeslots. The use of separate timeslots for transmission and reception simplifies the electronics in the mobile units. Today, GSM systems operate in the 900MHz and 1.8 GHz bands throughout the world with the exception and

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of the Americas where they operate in the 1.9 GHz band. In addition to GSM, a similar technology, called Personal Digital Communications (PDC), using TDMA-based technology, emerged in Japan. Since then, several other TDMA-based systems have been deployed worldwide and serve an estimated 89 million people worldwide. While GSM technology was developed in Europe, Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology was developed in North America. CDMA uses spread spectrum technology to break up speech into small, digitized segments and encodes them to identify each call. CDMA systems have been implemented worldwide in about 30 countries and serve an estimated 44 million subscribers. While GSM and other TDMA-based systems have become the dominant 2G wireless technologies, CDMA technology is recognized as providing clearer voice quality with less background noise, fewer dropped calls, enhanced security, greater reliability and greater network capacity. The Second Generation (2G) wireless networks mentioned above are also mostly based on circuit-switched technology. 2G wireless networks are digital and expand the range of applications to more advanced voice services, such as Called Line Identification. 2G wireless technology can handle some data capabilities such as fax and short message service at the data rate of up to 9.6 kbps, but it is not suitable for web browsing and multimedia applications.

2.5G is a stepping stone between 2G and 3G cellular wireless technologies. The term "second and a half generation" is used to describe 2G-systems that have implemented a packet switched domain in addition to the circuit switched domain. It does not necessarily provide faster services because bundling of timeslots is used for circuit switched data services (HSCSD) as well. The first major step in the evolution of GSM networks to 3G occurred with the introduction of General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). CDMA2000 networks similarly evolved through the introduction of 1xRTT. So the cellular services combined with enhanced data transmission capabilities became known as '2.5G.' GPRS could provide data rates from 56 kbit/s up to 114 kbit/s. It can be used for services such as Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) access, Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), and for Internet communication services such as email and World Wide Web access. GPRS data transfer is typically charged per megabyte of traffic transferred, while data communication via traditional circuit switching is billed per minute of connection time, independent of whether the user actually is utilizing the capacity or is in an idle state.

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1xRTT supports bi-directional (up and downlink) peak data rates up to 153.6 kbps, delivering an average user data throughput of 80-100 kbps in commercial networks. It can also be used for WAP, SMS & MMS services, as well as Internet access.

The virtual explosion of Internet usage has had a tremendous impact on the demand for advanced wireless data communication services. However, the effective data rate of 2G circuit-switched wireless systems is relatively slow -- too slow for today's Internet. As a result, GSM, PDC and other TDMA-based mobile system providers and carriers have developed 2G+ technology that is packet-based and increases the data communication speeds to as high as 384kbps. These 2G+ systems are based on the following technologies: High Speed Circuit-Switched Data (HSCSD), General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) and Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) technologies.

HSCSD is one step towards 3G wideband mobile data networks. This circuit-switched technology improves the data rates up to 57.6kbps by introducing 14.4 kbps data coding and by aggregating 4 radio channels timeslots of 14.4 kbps. GPRS is an intermediate step that is designed to allow the GSM world to implement a full range of Internet services without waiting for the deployment of full-scale 3G wireless systems. GPRS technology is packetbased and designed to work in parallel with the 2G GSM, PDC and TDMA systems that are used for voice communications and for table look-up to obtain GPRS user profiles in the Location Register databases. GPRS uses a multiple of the 1 to 8 radio channel timeslots in the 200kHz-frequency band allocated for a carrier frequency to enable data speeds of up to 115kbps. The data is packetized and transported over Public Land Mobile Networks (PLMN) using an IP backbone so that mobile users can access services on the Internet, such as SMTP/POP-based e-mail, ftp and HTTP-based Web services. For more information on GPRS, please see Trillium's General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) White Paper at EDGE technology is a standard that has been specified to enhance the throughput per timeslot for both HSCSD and GPRS. The enhancement of HSCSD is called ECSD, whereas the enhancement of GPRS is called EGPRS. In ECSD, the maximum data rate will not increase from 64 kbps due to the restrictions in the A interface, but the data rate per timeslot will triple. Similarly, in EGPRS, the data rate per timeslot will triple and the peak throughput, including all eight timeslots in the radio interface, will exceed 384 kbps.

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The following is a brief description of each protocol layer in the GPRS network infrastructure:

Sub-Network Dependent Convergence Protocol (SNDCP): protocol that maps a networklevel protocol, such as IP or X.25, to the underlying logical link control. SNDCP also provides other functions such as compression, segmentation and multiplexing of networklayer messages to a single virtual connection. Logical Link Control (LLC): a data link layer protocol for GPRS which functions similar to Link Access Protocol – D (LAPD). This layer assures the reliable transfer of user data across a wireless network. Base Station System GPRS Protocol (BSSGP): processes routing and quality of service (QoS) information for the BSS. BSSGP uses the Frame Relay Q.922 core protocol as its transport mechanism. GPRS Tunnel Protocol (GTP): protocol that tunnels the protocol data units through the IP backbone by adding routing information. GTP operates on top of TCP/UDP over IP. GPRS Mobility Management (GMM/SM): protocol that operates in the signaling plane of GPRS, handles mobility issues such as roaming, authentication, selection of encryption algorithms and maintains PDP context. Network Service: protocol that manages the convergence sub-layer that operates between BSSGP and the Frame Relay Q.922 Core by mapping BSSGP's service requests to the appropriate Frame Relay services. BSSAP+: protocol that enables paging for voice connections from MSC via SGSN, thus optimizing paging for mobile subscribers. BSSAP+ is also responsible for location and routing updates as well as mobile station alerting. SCCP, MTP3, MTP2 are protocols used to support Mobile Application Part (MAP) and BSSAP+ in circuit switched PLMNs. Mobile Application Part (MAP): supports signaling between SGSN/GGSN and HLR/AuC/EIR.

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FROM 2.5G TO 2.75G (EDGE)
GPRS networks evolved to EDGE networks with the introduction of 8PSK encoding. Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS), or IMT Single Carrier (IMT-SC) is a backward-compatible digital mobile phone technology that allows improved data transmission rates, as an extension on top of standard GSM. EDGE was deployed on GSM networks beginning in 2003—initially by Cingular (now AT&T) in the United States. Some protocols, such as EDGE for GSM and 1x-RTT for CDMA2000, are defined as "3G" services (because they are defined in IMT-2000 specification documents), but are considered by the general public to be 2.5G services (or 2.75G which sounds even more sophisticated) because they are several times slower than present-day 3G services. EDGE is standardized by 3GPP as part of the GSM family, and it is an upgrade that provides a potential three-fold increase in capacity of GSM/GPRS networks. The specification achieves higher data-rates (up to 236.8 kbit/s) by switching to more sophisticated methods of coding (8PSK), within existing GSM timeslots.


3G wireless technology represents the convergence of various 2G wireless telecommunications systems into a single global system that includes both terrestrial and satellite components. One of the most important aspects of 3G wireless technologies is its ability to unify existing cellular standards, such as CDMA, GSM, and TDMA, under one umbrella. The following three air interface modes accomplish this result: wideband CDMA, CDMA2000 and the Universal Wireless Communication (UWC-136) interfaces. Wideband CDMA (W-CDMA) is compatible with the current 2G GSM networks prevalent in Europe and parts of Asia. W-CDMA will require bandwidth of between 5Mhz and 10 Mhz, making it a suitable platform for higher capacity applications. It can be overlaid onto existing GSM, TDMA (IS-36) and IS95 networks. Subscribers are likely to access 3G wireless services initially via dual band terminal devices. W-CDMA networks will be used for high-capacity applications and 2G digital wireless systems will be used for voice calls. The second radio interface is CDMA2000 which is backward compatible with the second generation CDMA IS-95 standard predominantly used in US. The third radio interface, Universal Wireless

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Communications – UWC-136, also called IS-136HS, was proposed by the TIA and designed to comply with ANSI-136, the North American TDMA standard. 3G wireless networks consist of a Radio Access Network (RAN) and a core network. The core network consists of a packet-switched domain, which includes 3G SGSNs and GGSNs, which provide the same functionality that they provide in a GPRS system, and a circuit-switched domain, which includes 3G MSC for switching of voice calls. Charging for services and access is done through the Charging Gateway Function (CGF), which is also part of the core network. RAN functionality is independent from the core network functionality. The access network provides a core network technology independent access for mobile terminals to different types of core networks and network services. Either core network domain can access any appropriate RAN service; e.g. it should be possible to access a “speech” radio access bearer from the packet-switched domain. 3G wireless technology introduces new Radio Access Network (RAN) consisting of Node B and RNC network elements. The 3G Core Network consists of the same entities as GSM and GPRS: 3G MSC/VLR, GMSC, HLR/AuC/EIR, 3G-SGSN, and GGSN. IP technology is used end-to-end for multimedia applications and ATM technology is used to provide reliable transport with QoS. 3G wireless solutions allow for the possibility of having an integrated network for circuit-switched and packet-switched services by utilizing ATM technology. The BSC may evolve into an RNC by using add-on cards or additional hardware that is co-located. The carrier frequency (5Mhz) and the bands (2.5 to 5Ghz) are different for 3G wireless technology compared to 2G/2G+ wireless technology. Evolution of BSC to RNC requires support for new protocols such as PDCP, RRC, RANAP, RNSAP and NBAP. Therefore, BTS' evolution into Node B may prove to be difficult and may represent significant capital expenditure on the part of network operators. MSC evolution depends on the selection of a fixed network to carry the requested services. If an ATM network is chosen, then ATM protocols will have to be supported in 3G MSC along with interworking between ATM and existing PSTN/ISDN networks. The evolution of SGSN and GGSN to 3G nodes is relatively easier. Enhancements to GTP protocol and support for new RANAP protocol are necessary to support 3G wireless systems. ATM protocols need to be incorporated to transport the services. The HLR databases evolve into 3G-HLR by adding 3G wireless user profiles. The VLR database must also be updated accordingly. The EIR database needs to change to accommodate new equipment that will be deployed for 3G wireless systems. Finally, global roaming requires compatibility to existing deployment and graceful fallback to an available level when requested services are not available in the region. Towards this end, the Operator Harmonization Group (OHG) is working closely with 3G Partnership Projects (3GPP and 3GPP2) to come up with global standards for 3G wireless protocols.

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Here is a simple introduction to some aspects of 3G radio transmission technologies (RTTs). You will find the subjects covered in this section useful if you later consider the more detailed discussions in the sections on 3G Standards and 3G Spectrum.

Simplex vs. Duplex When people use walkie-talkie radios to communicate, only one person can talk at a time (the talkie person doing the talking has to press a button). This is because wal walkie-talkie radios only use talkie one communication frequency - a form of communication known as simplex simplex:

Simplex: Using a walkie talkie you have to push a button to talk one-way. walkie-talkie one Of course, this is not how mobile phones work. Mobile phones allow simultaneous two-way transfer of data - a situation known as duplex (if more than two data streams can be transmitted, it is called multiplex multiplex):

Duplex: Allows simultaneous two-way data transfers.

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The communication channel from the base station to the mobile device is called the downlink, and the communication from the mobile device back to the base station is called the uplink. Duplex communication can be achieved by two possible methods which are: 1. TDD 2. FDD


Wireless duplexing has been traditionally implemented by dedicating two separate frequency bands: one band for the uplink and one band for the downlink (this arrangement of frequency bands is called paired spectrum). This technique is called Frequency Division Duplex, or FDD. The two bands are separated by a "guard band" which provides isolation of the two signals.

FDD uses paired spectrum – one frequency band for the uplink, one frequency band for the downlink.

Duplex communications can also be achieved in time rather than by frequency. In this approach, the uplink and the downlink operate on the same frequency, but they are switched very rapidly: one moment the channel is sending the uplink signal, the next moment the channel is sending the downlink signal. Because this switching is performed very rapidly, it does appear that one channel is acting as both an uplink and a downlink at the same time. This is called Time Division Duplex, or TDD. TDD requires a guard time instead of a guard band between transmit and receive streams.

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Data transmission is symmetric if the data in the downlink and the data in the uplink is transmitted at the same data rate. This will probably be the case for voice transmission - the same amount of data is sent both ways. However, for internet connections or broadcast data (e.g., streaming video), it is likely that more data will be sent from the server to the mobile device (the downlink).

FDD transmission is not so well suited for asymmetric applications as it uses equal frequency bands for the uplink and the downlink (a waste of valuable spectrum). On the other hand, TDD does not have this fixed structure, and its flexible bandwidth allocation is well-suited to asymmetric applications, e.g., the internet. For example, TDD can be configured to provide 384kbps for the downlink (the direction of the major data transfer), and 64kbps for the uplink (where the traffic largely comprises requests for information and acknowledgements).


FDMA: Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) is the most common analog system. It is a technique whereby spectrum is divided up into frequencies and then assigned to users. With FDMA, only one subscriber at any given time is assigned to a channel. The channel therefore is closed to other conversations until the initial call is finished, or until it is handedoff to a different channel. A “full-duplex” FDMA transmission requires two channels, one for transmitting and the other for receiving. FDMA has been used for first generation analog systems.

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TDMA: Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) improves spectrum capacity by splitting each frequency into time slots. It works by dividing a single radio frequency into many small time slots. Each caller is assigned a specific time slot for transmission. Again, because of the rapid switching, each caller has the impression of having exclusive use of the channel. TDMA allows each user to access the entire radio frequency channel for the short period of a call. Other users share this same frequency channel at different time slots. The base station continually switches from user to user on the channel. TDMA is the dominant technology for the second generation mobile cellular networks.

CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access is based on “spread” spectrum technology. Since it is suitable for encrypted transmissions, it has long been used for military purposes. CDMA increases spectrum capacity by allowing all users to occupy all channels at the same time. Transmissions are spread over the whole radio band, and each voice or data call are assigned a unique code to differentiate from the other calls carried over the same spectrum. CDMA allows for a “ soft hand-off” , which means that terminals can communicate with several base stations at the same time. The dominant radio interface for third-generation mobile, or IMT2000, will be a wideband version of CDMA with three modes (IMT-DS, IMT-MC and IMTTC). CDMA is Code Division Multiple Access. CDMA works by giving each user a unique code. The signals from all the users can then be spread over a wide frequency band. The transmitting frequency for any one user is not fixed but is allowed to vary within the limits of the band. The receiver has knowledge of the sender's unique code, and is therefore able to extract the correct signal no matter what the frequency. This technique of spreading a signal over a wide frequency band is known as spread spectrum. The advantage of spread spectrum is that it is resistant to interference - if a source of interference blocks one frequency, the signal can still get through on another frequency. Spread spectrum signals are therefore difficult to jam, and it is not surprising that this technology was developed for military uses.

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To get from 2G to 3G, mobile operators had make "evolutionary" upgrades to existing networks while simultaneously planning their "revolutionary" new mobile broadband networks.

This lead to the establishment of two distinct 3G families: 3GPP and 3GPP2.

The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) was formed in 1998 to foster deployment of 3G networks that descended from GSM. 3GPP technologies evolved as follows. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) offered speeds up to 114 Kbps. Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) reached up to 384 Kbps. UMTS Wideband CDMA (WCDMA) offered downlink speeds up to 1.92 Mbps. High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) boosted the downlink to 14Mbps. LTE Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) is aiming for 100 Mbps.

The original scope of 3GPP was to produce Technical Specifications and Technical Reports for a 3G Mobile System based on evolved GSM core networks and the radio access technologies that they support (i.e., Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA) both Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and Time Division Duplex (TDD) modes).

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The scope was subsequently amended to include the maintenance and development of the Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) Technical Specifications and Technical Reports including evolved radio access technologies (e.g. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) and Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE)). 3GPP was created in December 1998 by the signing of the "The 3rd Generation Partnership Project Agreement". The latest 3GPP Scope and Objectives document has evolved from this original Agreement. The discussions that led to the signing of the 3GPP Agreement were recorded in a series of slides called the "Partnership Project Description" that describes the basic principles and ideas on which the project is based. The Partnership Project Description has not been maintained since its first creation but the principles of operation of the project still remain valid.

A second organization – the 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2) -- was formed to help North American and Asian operators using CDMA2000 transition to 3G. 3GPP2 technologies evolved as follows.

One Times Radio Transmission Technology (1xRTT) offered speeds up to 144 Kbps. Evolution – Data Optimized (EV-DO) increased downlink speeds up to 2.4 Mbps. EV-DO Rev. A boosted downlink peak speed to 3.1 Mbps and reduced latency. EV-DO Rev. B can use 2 to 15 channels, with each downlink peaking at 4.9 Mbps. Ultra Mobile Broadband (UMB) was slated to reach 288 Mbps on the downlink.

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The Third Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2) is:
• •

a collaborative third generation (3G) telecommunications specifications-setting project comprising North American and Asian interests developing global specifications for ANSI/TIA/EIA-41 Cellular Radiotelecommunication Intersystem Operations network evolution to 3G and global specifications for the radio transmission technologies (RTTs) supported by ANSI/TIA/EIA-41.

3GPP2 was born out of the International Telecommunication Union's (ITU) International Mobile Telecommunications "IMT-2000" initiative, covering high speed, broadband, and Internet Protocol (IP)-based mobile systems featuring network-to-network interconnection, feature/service transparency, global roaming and seamless services independent of location. IMT-2000 is intended to bring high-quality mobile multimedia telecommunications to a worldwide mass market by achieving the goals of increasing the speed and ease of wireless communications, responding to the problems faced by the increased demand to pass data via telecommunications, and providing "anytime, anywhere" services.


Back in 1998, when serious discussions about working on the IMT-2000 initiative began, it became evident that the goals of globalization and convergence could not be accomplished efficiently using traditional standards-setting processes, often characterized as "too slow" given the speed with which technology was forging ahead. Bodies such as the Global Standards Collaboration (GSC) and Radio Standardization (RAST) helped to forge understanding of issues and work plans among all Participating Standards Organizations (PSOs).

The concept of a "Partnership Project" was pioneered by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) early in 1998 with the proposal to create a Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) focusing on Global System for Mobile (GSM) technology. Although discussions did take place between ETSI and the ANSI-41 community with a view to consolidating collaboration efforts for all ITU "family members," in the end it was deemed appropriate that a parallel Partnership Project be established - "3GPP2," which, like its sister

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project 3GPP, embodies the benefits of a collaborative effort (timely delivery of output, speedy working methods), while at the same time benefiting from recognition as a specifications-developing body, providing easier access of the outputs into the ITU after transposition of the specifications in a Standards Development Organization (SDO) into a standard and submittal via the national process, as applicable, into the ITU.


3GPP2 is a collaborative effort between five officially recognized SDOs. They are:


- Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (Japan) - China Communications Standards Association (China) - Telecommunications Industry Association (North America) - Telecommunications Technology Association (Korea) - Telecommunications Technology Committee (Japan)

These SDOs are known as the Project's Organizational Partners (OPs). 3GPP2 requires that a participating individual member company be affiliated with at least one of the Organizational Partners.

In addition, the Project has welcomed Market Representation Partners (MRPs) who offer market advice to 3GPP2 and bring a consensus view of market requirements (e.g., services, features and functionality) falling within the 3GPP2 scope. They are: The CDMA Development Group (CDG) IPv6 Forum MobileIgnite Femto Forum

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The work of producing 3GPP2's specifications resides in the Project's four Technical Specification Groups (TSGs) comprised of representatives from the Project's Individual Member companies.

The TSGs are: TSG-A (Access Network Interfaces) TSG-C (cdma2000®) TSG-S (Services and Systems Aspects) TSG-X (Core Networks)

Each TSG meets, on average, ten times a year to produce technical specifications and reports. Since 3GPP2 has no legal status, ownership and copyright of these output documents is shared between the Organizational Partners. The documents cover all areas of the Project's charter, including cdma2000® and its enhancements.

All TSGs report to the Project's Steering Committee, which is tasked with managing the overall work process and adopting the technical specifications forwarded by each of the TSGs.


UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) is a so-called "third-generation (3G)," broadband, packet-based transmission of text, digitized voice, video, and multimedia at data rates up to and possibly higher than 2 megabits per second (Mbps), offering a consistent set of services to mobile computer and phone users no matter where they are located in the world. Based on the GSM communication standard, UMTS, endorsed by major standards bodies and manufacturers, is the planned standard for mobile users around the world by 2002. Once UMTS is fully implemented, computer and phone users can be constantly attached to the Internet as they travel and, as they roaming service, have the same

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set of capabilities no matter where they travel to. Users will have access through a combination of terrestrial wireless and satellite transmissions. Until UMTS is fully implemented, users can have multi mode devices that switch to the currently available ers multi-mode technology (such as Gprs and Edge ) where UMTS is not yet available. With UMTS, one can directly dive straight into the mobile multimedia wave. mobi .

Today's cellular telephone systems are mainly circuit switched, with connections always circuit-switched, dependent on circuit availability. packet switched connection, using the Internet Protocol packet-switched (Internet Protocol), means that a virtual connection is always available to any other end point in the network. It will also make it possible to provide new services, such as alternative billing methods (pay-per-bit, pay bit, pay-per-session, flat rate, asymmetric bandwidth, and others). session, The higher bandwidth of UMTS also promises new services, such as video conferencing. UMTS promises to realize the Virtual Home Environment in which a roaming user can have the same services to which the user is accustomed when at home or in the office, through a combination of transparent terrestrial and satellite connections. mbination

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UMTS is a network consisting of two main elements connected over a standard interface. These two elements are:

U-TRAN (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network). This is composed of Node B which is equivalent to the GSM BTS and the Radio Network Controller (RNC) which is equivalent to the GSM BSC. A novelty with the U-TRAN concept is the existence of a new modulation scheme: the Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and W-CDMA. This mode offers the highest efficiency within a single system whatever the conditions—wide area, urban, indoor coverage from outdoor, indoor, and so on. One carrier use 5 Mhz.

The Core Network. This is the equivalent of the GSM NSS. There are two options for the implementation of 3G and the evolution of the GSM Core Network:

o ATM based architecture: this R'99 architecture may reuses in some cases the
two-domain architecture of GSM/GPRS, with: Iu-PS (Packet Switched) interface instead of Gb on the packet domain. lu-CS (Circuit Switched) interface instead of A on the circuit domain.


Transport Independent and multimedia architecture: this R'00 architecture is in line with the Next Generation Networks architecture and introduces separation of control and user planes. It also integrates multimedia capabilities.


ITU-T is an international standards organization related to the United Nations that develops standards for telecommunications. Two popular standards developed by ITU-T are the V series and the X series.

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It is in the mid-1980s that the concept for IMT-2000, “International Mobile Telecommunications”, was born at the ITU as the third generation system for mobile communications. After over ten years of hard work under the leadership of the ITU, a historic decision was taken in the year 2000 : unanimous approval of the technical specifications for third generation systems under the brand IMT-2000. The spectrum between 400 MHz and 3 GHz is technically suitable for the third generation. The entire telecommunication industry, including both industry and national and regional standards-setting bodies gave a concerted effort to avoiding the fragmentation that had thus far characterized the mobile market. This approval meant that for the first time, full interoperability and interworking of mobile systems could be achieved. IMT-2000 is the result of collaboration of many entities, inside the ITU (ITU-R and ITU-T), and outside the ITU (3GPP, 3GPP2, UWCC and so on).

IMT-2000 offers the capability of providing value-added services and applications on the basis of a single standard. The system envisages a platform for distributing converged fixed, mobile, voice, data, Internet and multimedia services. One of its key visions is to provide seamless global roaming, enabling users to move across borders while using the same number and handset. IMT-2000 also aims to provide seamless delivery of services, over a number of media (satellite, fixed, etc…). It is expected that IMT-2000 will provide higher transmission rates: a minimum speed of 2Mbit/s for stationary or walking users, and 348 kbit/s in a moving vehicle. Second-generation systems only provide speeds ranging from 9.6 kbit/s to 28.8 kbit/s.

The 3G standard was created by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and is called IMT-2000. The aim of IMT-2000 is to harmonize worldwide 3G systems to provide global roaming. However, as was explained in the introduction to this section, harmonizing so many different standards proved extremely difficult. As a result, what we have been left with is five different standards grouped together under the IMT-2000 label:

• • • • •


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At this point, the definition of what is and what isn't "3G" becomes somewhat murky. Of these five standards, only three allow full network coverage over macro cells, micro cells and pico cells and can thus be considered as full 3G solutions: W-CDMA, CDMA2000, and TDSCDMA. Of the remainder, DECT is used for those cordless phones you have in the house, and could be used for 3G short-range "hot-spots" (hence, it could be considered as being "part of a 3G network"), but it does not allow full network coverage. And UWC-136 is another name for EDGE which is generally considered to be a 2.5G solution.


The 3G standard that has been agreed for Europe and Japan (very important markets) is known as UMTS. UMTS is an upgrade from GSM via GPRS or EDGE. UMTS is the European vision of 3G, and has been sold as the successor to the ultra-successful GSM. The terrestrial part of UMTS (i.e., non-satellite) is known as UTRA (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access - don't you just love acronyms made from other acronyms!). The FDD component of UTRA is based on the W-CDMA standard (a.k.a. UTRA FDD). This offers very high (theoretical!) data rates up to 2Mbit/sec (the rumour is that the achievable rate is far lower: W-CDMA systems have been plagued with technical difficulties). The TDD component of UTRA is called TD-CDMA (or UTRA TDD).

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The standardization work for UMTS is being carried-out under the supervision of the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). W-CDMA has recently been renamed 3GSM (to avoid confusion with CDMA2000).


In the USA, Cingular has launched a UMTS service called Cingular Video. Cingular Video is the only service to offer Fox News clips in addition to news broadcasts from CNN and NBC. Cingular Video will initially be available in the markets of Atlanta, Austin, Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Las Vegas, New York, Phoenix, Portland, Salt Lake City, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, Seattle, Tacoma and Washington, D.C. with additional areas expanding rapidly. For more details, see the Cingular 3G demonstration here.


NTT DoCoMo has gone live with 3G in Tokyo. Its service is called FOMA. This is the world's first IMT-2000 W-CDMA service (there are small but significant differences between the Japanese and European versions of W-CDMA - nothing is ever simple in 3G). Since the launch of the service, coverage has been extended to almost 100% of the Japanese population, and the release of new terminals with higher level functionality continues to attract ever more subscribers - now exceeding 20 million users.

C D M A 2000

The chief competitor to Europe's UMTS standard is San Diego-based Qualcomm's CDMA2000 (Qualcomm have done quite well out of CDMA - see here). The standardisation work for CDMA2000 is being carried-out under the supervision of the Third Generation Partnership Project 2, (3GPP2). The CDMA Development Group offers advice to 3GPP2. Even though "W-CDMA" and "CDMA2000" both have "CDMA" in their names, they are completely different systems using different technologies. However, it is hoped that mobile devices using the two systems will be able to talk to each other. CDMA2000 has two phases: phase one is 1XRTT (144 Kbps) (also known as 1X). The next evolutionary step is to the two CDMA2000 1X EV ("EV" = "Evolution") standards. CDMA2000 1X EV-DO ("Data Only") will use separate frequencies for data and voice. The

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following step is to CDMA2000 1X EV-DV ("Data and Voice") which will integrate voice and data on the same frequency band. South Korea's SK Telecom launched the world's first 3G system in October 2000. Their system is based on CDMA2000 1X. They were followed by LG Telecom and KT Freetel (both Korean). Operational 3G systems based on CDMA2000 1X are now appearing around the world. In the USA, Sprint has launched its nationwide CDMA2000 1X service called Sprint Power Vision. With Sprint PCS Vision Multimedia Services, customers get streaming audio and video content from familiar sources, including ABC News Now, NFL Network, Fox Sports, ESPN, NBC Discovery Channel, and many more. Sprint offer a range of multimedia phones including the Fusic.


The UMTS standard also contains another radio transmission standard which is rarely mentioned: TD-CDMA (a.k.a. TDD UTRA because it is the TDD component of UTRA). TDCDMA was developed by Siemens. While W-CDMA is an FDD technology (requiring paired spectrum), TD-CDMA is a TDD technology and thus can use unpaired spectrum (see the section on 3G Technology for an explanation of TDD and FDD). TDD is well-suited to the transmission of internet data China has more mobile phone users than any other country in the world, so anything China does in 3G cannot be ignored. The Chinese national 3G standard is a TDD standard similar to TD-CDMA: TD-SCDMA. TD-SCDMA was developed by the China Academy of Telecommunications Technology (CATT) in collaboration with Siemens. TD-SCDMA eliminates the uplink/downlink interference which affects other TDD methods by applying "terminal synchonisation" techniques (the "S" in TD-SCDMA stands for "synchronisation"). Because of this, TD-SCDMA allows full network coverage over macro cells, micro cells, and pico cells. Hence, TD-SCDMA stands alongside W-CDMA and CDMA2000 as a fully-fledged 3G standard. The 3GPP have extended the TD-CDMA standard to include TD-SCDMA as an official IMT-2000 standard. Unfortunately, TD-SCDMA has performed poorly in trials, and Chinese network operators may prefer W-CDMA over TD-SCDMA.

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In addition, IMT-2000 has the following key characteristics: 1. Flexibility With the large number of mergers and consolidations occurring in the mobile industry, and the move into foreign markets, operators wanted to avoid having to support a wide range of different interfaces and technologies. This would surely have hindered the growth of 3G worldwide. The IMT-2000 standard addresses this problem, by providing a highly flexible system, capable of supporting a wide range of services and applications. The IMT-2000 standard accommodates five possible radio interfaces based on three different access technologies (FDMA, TDMA and CDMA).

2. Affordability There was agreement among industry that 3G systems had to be affordable, in order to encourage their adoption by consumers and operators.

3. Compatibility with existing systems IMT-2000 services have to be compatible with existing systems. 2G systems, such as the GSM standard (prevalent in Europe and parts of Asia and Africa) will continue to exist for some time and compatibility with these systems must be assured through effective and seamless migration paths.

4. Modular Design The vision for IMT-2000 systems is that they must be easily expandable in order to allow for growth in users, coverage areas, and new services, with minimum initial investment.

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It's well known how IP has changed the way people communicate. After data communication the buzz was VoIP. Now VoIP has become an integral part of our lives and people are hooked on to VoIP without even realizing. Now the latest buzz is Video over IP as well as on mobiles. In this story we look at some of the hot communication trends taking place over IP is and some of latest developments which will pave the way to what we like to call 'Everything over IP’ Modern cellphones enable you to do everything a regular desktop PC does, with the added advantage of mobility. Lately the buzz has been around technologies that allow video conferencing between two cellphones, and between a cellphone and a PC. The latter happens over the Internet. Now many of the latest camera camera-equipped cellphones are ready for video nes conferencing as they are designed with a rotating camera. Some also ship with a compact stand which houses a camera lens. You can mount a cellphone and initiate a conference call. You will be able to see the participant and yourself on the cellphone screen. Your images will be transmitted to the viewer on the other side via the camera on the stand.

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4G refers to the fourth generation of cellular wireless standards. It is a successor to 3G and 2G standards. The nomenclature of the generations generally refers to a change in the fundamental nature of the service. The first was the move from analogue to di digital (2G), which was followed by multi-media support (3G) and now 4G, which refers to all IP packet multi media switched networks and increases in data speeds. A 4G system is expected to provide a comprehensive and secure all IP based solution where all-IP facilities such as IP telephony, ultra broadband Internet access, gaming services and streamed ultra-broadband multimedia may be provided to users. Both 3GPP and 3GPP2 are currently working on further extensions to 3G standards, named Long Term Evolution and Ultra Mobile Broadband respectively. Being based on an all respectively. all-IP network infrastructure and using advanced wireless technologies such as MIMO, these specifications already display features characteristic for IMT-Advanced (4G), the successor IMT Advanced of 3G. However, falling short of the bandwidth requirements for 4G (which is 1 Gbit/s for bandwidth stationary and 100 Mbit/s for mobile operation), these standards are classified as 3.9G or Pre Pre4G.

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On 14 December 2009, Telia Sonera announced in an official press release that "We are very proud to be the first operator in the world to offer our customers 4G services." With the launch of their LTE network, initially they are offering pre-4G (or beyond 3G) services in Stockholm, Sweden and Oslo, Norway.

By using 3G, users can access three main families of applications and services: services Always-on—for example, e mail, e-mail, personal organizer, traffic management,

automation, sales, and so on. Information—for example, Web surfing, corporate Intranet, net games, music, news for services, location, events and transportation services. Purchasing—for example, on for on-line shopping, banking, gambling, ticketing.

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The bandwidth and location information available to 3G devices gives rise to applications not previously available to mobile phone users. Some of the applications are:

Mobile TV - a provider redirects a TV channel directly to the subscriber's phone where it can be watched. Video on demand - a provider sends a movie to the subscriber's phone. Video conferencing - subscribers can see as well as talk to each other. Tele-medicine - a medical provider monitors or provides advice to the potentially isolated subscriber. Location-based services - a provider sends localized weather or traffic conditions to the phone, or the phone allows the subscriber to find nearby businesses or friends.

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The explosive growth of mobile wireless usage and the ever-increasing need for high-speed data services, have accelerated the need for the deployment of 3G technologies. 3G systems will offer a plethora of telecommunications services characterized by mobility and advanced multimedia capabilities including voice, low and high-bit-rate data, full-motion video, Internet access and video conferencing. This paper has discussed the key technological aspects of 3G, starting with a brief overview of first generation, second generation, and 2-1/2 G wireless technologies. Mainly, the three main 3G proposals that address IMT-2000 requirements have been discussed in as much detail as possible. This paper also provides information on other topics which are considered relevant to the field of third generation (3G) wireless technologies, and addresses key marketing issues from the point of view of service providers and equipment vendors.

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i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi.

http://www.three-g.net/3g_technology.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3G http://www.wikinvest.com/concept/3G http://www.mobilein.com/3G.htm http://searchtelecom.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid103_gci214486,00.html http://www.esnips.com/doc/f8522780-3193-40ff-83748aacc2ddedb/3G_Wireless_technologies

vii. viii.

http://www.esnips.com/doc/2d8a96ef-f458-4fe5-82da-bffb243d1d09/3G-ARNOLD http://www.esnips.com/doc/cb1ff7d9-7c89-4abc-82eb-afe140700e84/ebook---IP-for3G

ix. x. xi. xii. xiii. xiv. xv. xvi.

http://www.envoynetworks.com/ http://www.sasken.com/ http://www.itu.int/home/index.html http://www.telecombulletin.com/index1.htm http://www.telecomnames.com/3g_info.htm http://www.3g.co.uk/3GHomeStore.htm://www.3g-generation.com/what_is.htm http://www.telecomspace.com/3g.html http://www.wiziq.com/tutorial/9219-3G-Brief-Introduction

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