Polymer Composites

P.E. 406 Polymer Composites

Contents
Conventional Engineering Materials Introduction to Polymer Composites Classification of Polymer Composites Characteristics of Polymer Composites Applications of Polymer Composites
2

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Conventional Engineering Materials
3

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Conventional Engineering Materials 
There are more than 60,000 materials available to engineers for the design and manufacturing of products for various applications.  Due to the wide choice of materials, today’s engineers are posed with a big challenge for the right selection of a material and the right selection of a manufacturing process for a particular application.

4

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Broad Classification of Materials

These materials, depending on their major characteristics (e.g., stiffness, strength, density, and melting temperature), can be broadly divided into four main categories:

1.Metals 2.Plastics 3.Ceramics 4.Composites
5

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Typical Properties of Some Engineering Materials

6

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Typical Properties of Some Engineering Materials

7

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Metals
Dominating materials for structural uses  Provide the largest design and processing history  The common metals are iron, aluminum, copper, magnesium, zinc, lead, nickel, and titanium.  Through the principle of alloying, thousands of new metals are created.

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Metals
Metals are, in general, heavy as compared to plastics and composites.  Metals have high stiffness, strength, thermal stability, and thermal & electrical conductivity.  Due to their higher temperature resistance than plastics, they can be used for applications with higher service temperature requirements.

9

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Plastics
Most common engineering materials over the past two decades.  In the past 5 years, the production of plastics on a volume basis has exceeded steel production.  Due to their light weight, easy processability, and corrosion resistance, plastics are widely used for automobile parts, aerospace components, and consumer goods.

10

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Plastics
With the help of a manufacturing process, plastics can be formed into near-net-shape or net-shape parts.  They can provide high surface finish and therefore eliminate several machining operations.  This feature provides the production of lowcost parts.

11

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Plastics
Not used for high-temperature applications because of their poor thermal stability.  The operating temperature for plastics is less than 100°C. (Some plastics can take service temperature in the range of 100 to 200°C without a significant decrease in the performance)  Plastics have lower melting temperatures than metals and therefore they are easy to process.

12

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Plastic Items

13

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Ceramics
Have strong covalent bonds and therefore provide great thermal stability and high hardness.  Technically they are inorganic non-metallic materials which are formed by the action of heat  Ceramics have the highest melting points of engineering materials  Most rigid of all materials  Possess almost no ductility, so fail in brittle fashion

14

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Ceramics
Generally used for high-temperature and highwear applications and are resistant to most forms of chemical attack.  Require high-temperature for fabrication.  Difficult to machine  Require expensive cutting tools, such as carbide and diamond tools.

15

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Ceramic Items
16

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Composites
Historically they are old but in 1960 composites start capturing the attention of industries with the introduction of polymeric-based composites.  Common applications include:
  automotive

components  sporting goods  aerospace parts  consumer goods  marine industries  oil industries
17

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Composites
Increased awareness regarding product performance and increased competition in the global market for lightweight components fueled their growth.  Among all materials, composite materials have the potential to replace widely used steel and aluminum, and many times with better performance.

18

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Composites

Polymer composite components can save:
 60

to 80% in component weight by replacing steel components  20 to 50% weight by replacing aluminum parts

Ø Ø Today, it appears that composites are the materials of choice for many engineering applications and Polymer-based Composites are important than all other types.

19

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

COMPOSITES’  ITEMS

20

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

COMPOSITES’  ITEMS

21

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Polymer Composites
22

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Composites - General Definition

A composite material is made by combining two or more materials to give a unique combination of improved properties, such that each component retains its physical identity.
 Composite

obey the “principle of combined action”, i.e; the mixture gives “averaged” properties.

The above definition is more general and can include metals alloys, plastic co-polymers, minerals, and wood.


23

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Polymer Composites
Fiber-reinforced polymer composite materials differ from the above materials in that the constituent materials are different at the molecular level and are mechanically separable.  In bulk form, the constituent materials work together but remain in their original forms.  The final properties of composite materials are better than constituent material properties.

24

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Composite Examples in Nature
Wood is a composite of cellulose fibers in a matrix of natural glue called lignin.  Husks or straws mixed with clay for house building  The shell of snails and oysters  Human nails

25

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Formation of Composite Materials
The main concept of a composite is that it contains reinforcing material in a matrix material.  Typically, polymer composite material is formed by reinforcing fibers in a matrix resin.

Ø The reinforcements can be fibers, particulates, or whiskers Ø The matrix materials can be metals, plastics, or ceramics.

26

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Formation of Composite Materials

27

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Formation of Composite Materials
The reinforcements can be made from polymers, ceramics, and metals.  The fibers can be continuous, long, or short.  Composites made with a polymer matrix have become more common and are widely used in various industries.  They can be thermoset or thermoplastic resins.
 

28

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Polymer Composites
The reinforcing fiber or fabric provides strength and stiffness to the composite, whereas the matrix gives rigidity by transferring stress and environmental resistance.  Reinforcing fibers are found in different forms, from long continuous fibers to woven fabric to short chopped fibers and mat.
  Each

configuration results in different properties.

29

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Continuous & Short Fiber Composites
The properties strongly depend on the way the fibers are laid in the composite.  The important thing to remember about composites is that the fiber carries the load and its strength is greatest along the axis of the fiber.  Long continuous fibers in the direction of the load result in a composite with properties far exceeding the matrix resin itself. The same material chopped into short lengths yields lower properties than continuous fibers.

30

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Continuous & Short Fiber Composites

31

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Continuous & Short Fiber Composites
Depending on the type of application (structural or nonstructural) and manufacturing method, the fiber form is selected.  For structural applications, continuous fibers or long fibers are recommended; whereas for nonstructural applications, short fibers are recommended.

32

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Functions of Fibers and Matrix
Both reinforcements (fibers mostly) and matrix are complimentary to each other.  They use each other’s properties in such a manner that overall properties of the composites are improved.

33

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Functions of Fibers
To carry the load. In a structural composite, 70 to 90% of the load is carried by fibers.  To provide stiffness, strength, thermal stability, and other structural properties in the composites.  To provide electrical conductivity or insulation, depending on the type of fiber used.
 

34

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Functions of Matrix
The matrix material binds the fibers together and transfers the load to the fibers. It provides rigidity and shape to the structure.  The matrix isolates the fibers so that individual fibers can act separately. This stops or slows the propagation of a crack.  The matrix provides a good surface finish quality to the polymer composite.

35

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Functions of Matrix
The matrix provides protection to reinforcing fibers against chemical attack and mechanical damage (wear).  Depending on the matrix material selected, performance characteristics such as ductility, impact strength, etc. are also influenced. A ductile matrix will increase the toughness of the structure.  The failure mode is strongly affected by the type of matrix material used in the composite as well as its compatibility with the fiber.

36

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Interface

An interface is the surface formed by:
a

common boundary of reinforcing fiber and supporting matrix that is in contact with each constituent  maintains the bond in between for the transfer of loads

“An interface is the region of significantly changed chemical composition that constitutes the bond between the matrix and the reinforcement”.
37

Ø Ø It has physical and mechanical properties that are unique from those of the fiber or the P.E. 406 matrix. Polymer Composites

Interphase
“Geometrical surface of the classic fiber-matrix contact as well as the (transition) region of finite volume extending therefrom, wherein the chemical, physical and mechanical properties vary either continuously or in a stepwise manner between those of the bulk fiber and the matrix material.”  In other words, the interphase exists in some terminal point in the fiber, passes through the actual interface and enters the matrix, embracing all the volume altered during the consolidation or fabrication process from the original fiber and matrix materials.

Ø Ø Interface is specific to each fiber-matrix P.E. 406 system. Polymer Composites

38

Interface - Schematic Diagram

39

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Classification of Polymer Composites
40

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Matrix
      

41

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Reinforcement
      

42

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Reinforcement
 

43

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Reinforcement
 

44

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Reinforcement
  

45

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Reinforcement
          
46

defects, P.E. 406

"Whiskers" are very strong because they don't contain

i.e., notch sensitivity is eliminated because there Polymer Composites

Reinforcement

47

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Reinforcement
 

48

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Reinforcement

49

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Reinforcement
  

50

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Reinforcement

51

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Reinforcement

52

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Reinforcement
 

53

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Reinforcement

54

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Reinforcement

55

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Reinforcement

56

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Composite Benefits

57

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Summary
Ø Composites are classified according to:
 

--the matrix material (CMC, MMC, PMC) --the reinforcement geometry (particles, fibers, layers). --MMC: enhance σy, TS, creep performance --CMC: enhance Kc --PMC: enhance E, σy, TS, creep performance --Based on build-up of sandwiches in layered form.
58

Composites enhance matrix properties:
  

Structural:

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Summary

Particulate-reinforced:
 

--Elastic modulus can be estimated. --Properties are isotropic. --Elastic modulus and TS can be estimated along fiber direction. --Properties can be isotropic or anisotropic depending upon alignment.

Fiber-reinforced:

59

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Characteristics of Polymer Composites
60

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Advantages of Composites
Provide capabilities for part integration  Provide in-service monitoring or online process monitoring  They have a high specific stiffness (stiffnessto-density ratio). Composites offer the stiffness of steel at one fifth the weight and equal the stiffness of aluminum at one half the weight.

61

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Advantages of Composites
The specific strength (strength-to-density ratio) of a composite material is very high. Due to this, airplanes and automobiles move faster and with better fuel efficiency.  The fatigue strength (endurance limit) is much higher for composite materials. Steel and aluminum alloys exhibit good fatigue strength up to about 50% of their static strength. Unidirectional carbon/epoxy composites have good fatigue strength up to almost 90% of their static strength.

62

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Advantages of Composites
They offer high corrosion resistance.  Composite materials offer increased amounts of design flexibility. For example, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of composite structures can be made zero by selecting suitable materials and lay-up sequence. Because the CTE for composites is much lower than for metals, composite structures provide good dimensional stability.  Net-shape or near-net-shape parts & complex shapes can be produced

63

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Advantages of Composites
Composites offer good impact properties  Noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) characteristics are better than metals.  Tailoring material properties to meet performance specifications can be achieved thus avoiding the over-design of products.  The cost of tooling required for composites processing is much lower

64

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Drawbacks of Composites
The materials cost for composite materials is very high compared to that of steel and aluminum. It is almost 5 to 20 times more than aluminum and steel on a weight basis.  The lack of high-volume production methods limits the widespread use of composite materials.  Lack of a database & design literature

65

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Drawbacks of Composites
The temperature resistance of composite parts depends on the temperature resistance of the matrix materials. Because a large proportion of composites uses polymer-based matrices, temperature resistance is limited by the plastics’ properties.  Composites absorb moisture, which affects the properties and dimensional stability of the composites.

66

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Summary - Advantages/Disadvantages

67

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Applications of Polymer Composites
68

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Composites Markets
The products fabricated by composites are stronger and lighter.  Broadly speaking, the composites market can be divided into the following industry categories: aerospace, automotive, construction, marine, corrosion resistant equipment, consumer products, appliance/business equipment, and others.

69

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

COMPOSITES MARKETS

70

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

The Aerospace Industry
Among the first industry to realize the benefits of composites  Airplanes, rockets, and missiles all fly higher, faster, and farther with the help of composites  The aerospace industry primarily uses carbon fiber composites because of their highperformance characteristics.

71

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

The Aerospace Industry

The hand lay-up technique is a common manufacturing method for the fabrication of aerospace parts; RTM and filament winding are also being used. Military aircrafts, such as the F-11, F-14, F-15, and F16, use composite materials to lower the weight of the structure. Typical mass reductions achieved for the above components are in the range of 20 to 35%. The mass saving in fighter planes increases the payload capacity as well as the missile range.

72

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Composite Components in Aircraft Applications

73

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

COMPOSITE COMPONENTS IN  AIRCRAFT APPLICATIONS

74

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

COMPOSITE COMPONENTS IN  AIRCRAFT APPLICATIONS

75

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

COMPOSITE COMPONENTS IN AIRCRAFT APPLICATIONS

76

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

COMPOSITE COMPONENTS IN  AIRCRAFT APPLICATIONS

77

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

The Aerospace Industry
The major reasons for the use of composite materials in spacecraft applications include weight savings as well as dimensional stability.  In low Earth orbit (LEO), where temperature variation is from –100 to +100°C, it is important to maintain dimensional stability in support structures.  Carbon epoxy composite laminates can be designed to give a zero coefficient of thermal expansion.  Passenger aircrafts such as the Boeing 747 and 767 use composite parts to lower the weight, 78 increase the payload, and increase the fuel P.E. 406 efficiency. Polymer Composites

The Automotive Industry
Composites are the “material of choice” in some applications of the automotive industry by delivering high-quality surface finish, styling details, and processing options.  Manufacturers are able to meet automotive requirements of cost, appearance, and performance utilizing composites.

79

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

The Automotive Industry
Today, composite body panels have a successful track record in all categories — from exotic sports cars to passenger cars to small, medium, and heavy truck applications.  In 2000, the automotive industry used 318 million pounds of composites.  Because the automotive market is very costsensitive, carbon fiber composites are not yet accepted due to their higher material costs. Automotive composites utilize glass fibers as main reinforcements.

80

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Average Use of Composites in Automobiles

81

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

The Sporting Goods Industry
Sports and recreation equipment suppliers are becoming major users of composite materials.  The growth in usage has been greatest in highperformance sporting goods (golf shafts, tennis rackets, snow skis, fishing rods, etc.)and racing boats.  These products are light in weight and provide higher performance, which helps the user in easy handling and increased comfort.

82

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Marine Applications
The market for recreational transport include bicycles, motorcycles, pleasure boats, snowmobiles, and water scooters.  Composite materials are used in a variety of marine applications such as passenger ferries, power boats, buoys, etc. because of their corrosion resistance and light weight, which gets translated into fuel efficiency, higher cruising speed, and portability.

83

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Marine Applications
The majority of components are made of glassreinforced plastics (GRP) with foam and honeycomb as core materials.  About 70% of all recreational boats are made of composite materials  Composites are also used in offshore pipelines for oil and gas extractions.

84

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Composite Components in Marine Applications

85

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Marine Applications
The motivation for the use of GRP materials for Oil and Gas applications includes reduced handling and installation costs as well as better corrosion resistance and mechanical performance.  Another benefit comes from the use of adhesive bonding, which minimizes the need for a hot work permit if welding is employed.
 

86

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Consumer Goods
Composite materials are used for a wide variety of consumer good applications, such as sewing machines, doors, bathtubs, tables, chairs, computers, printers, etc.  The majority of these components are short fiber composites made by molding technology such as compression molding, injection molding, and RTM.

87

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Construction and Civil Structures
The construction and civil structure industries are the second major users of composite materials.  The driving force for the use of glass- and carbon-reinforced plastics for bridge applications is reduced installation, handling, repair, and life-cycle costs as well as improved corrosion and durability.

88

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Construction and Civil Structures
It also saves a significant amount of time for repair and installation and thus minimizes the blockage of traffic.  Composite usage in earthquake and seismic retrofit activities is also booming. The columns wrapped by glass/epoxy, carbon/epoxy, and aramid/epoxy show good potential for these applications.
 

89

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

CONSTRUCTION AND CIVIL  STRUCTURES

90

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Industrial Applications
The use of composite materials in various industrial applications is growing.  Composites are being used in making industrial rollers and shafts for the printing industry and industrial drive shafts for cooling-tower applications.
 

91

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Industrial Applications
Filament winding shows good potential for the above applications. Injection molded, short fiber composites are used in bushings, pump and roller bearings, and pistons.  Composites are also used for making robot arms and provide improved stiffness, damping, and response time.
 

92

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Barriers in Composite Markets
The primary barrier to the use of composite materials is their high initial costs in some cases, as compared to traditional materials.  Regardless of how effective the material will be over its life cycle, industry considers high upfront costs, particularly when the life-cycle cost is relatively uncertain. This cost barrier inhibits research into new materials.  In general, the cost of processing composites is high, especially in the hand lay-up process. Here, raw material costs represent a small fraction of the total cost of a P.E. 406 finished product. Polymer Composites

93

Barriers in Composite Markets
There is already evidence of work moving to Asia, Mexico, and Korea for the cases where labor costs are a significant portion of the total product costs.  The recycling of composite materials presents a problem when penetrating a high-volume market such as the automotive industry, where volume production is in the millions of parts per year.  With the new government regulations and environmental awareness, the use of composites has become a concern and poses a big 94 challenge for recycling.

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Reference

Chapter # 1

Handbook of polymer composites for engineers

by Leonard Hollaway  Chapter # 2

Composites Manufacturing

by Sanjay K. Mazumdar

95

P.E. 406

Polymer Composites

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful