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redesign of resource life cycles so that all products are reused. In industry, this process involves creating commodities out of traditional waste product, especially making old outputs and new inputs for similar or different industrial sectors. It can represent an economical alternative to waste systems, where new resources are continually required to replenish wasted row materials, (www.wikipedia.com). Recycling has become a national habit, a daily ritual practiced by over 100 million people every day. Yet recycling alone will not end our dependency on landfills and incinerators, nor reverse the rapid depletion of our natural resources. As world population and consumption continue to rise, it is clear that our one-way system of extracting virgin resources to make packaging and products that will later be buried or burned is not sustainable. Zero Waste is a new way of looking at our waste stream. Instead of seeing used materials as garbage in need of disposal, discards are seen as valuable resources. A pile of "trash" represents jobs, financial opportunity, and raw material for new products. Other countries around the world and some U.S. communities have begun to evaluate and redesign their current systems to encourage resource recovery and to create a more materials-efficient economy. American companies who do business overseas are already redesigning their products and manufacturing processes to meet the
2 Zero Waste standards adopted by other countries. If they can do it there, they can do it here, (http://www.ecocycle.org/ZeroWaste/index.cfm). Spectrum Blue Steel Corporation announced the launch of the Blueprint for Zero Waste Philippines. Under the Arroyo administration, the Philippines have seen soaring energy costs. The government has committed to moving to renewable energy under the Medium Term Development Plan for the Philippines. Spectrum Blue Steel has an exclusive license from the Global Environment Energy Corporation to use the biosphere process in the Philippines,
(www.matternetwork.com/2008/8/philippines-move-toward-zero-waste.cfm) In Tagum City, after three years of implementation of the Solid Waste Management Program, the City Government’s spending for garbage collection is now P3 million less than its P17 million annual budget. At least seven of nine urban barangays are now earning from recyclable waste materials. Under the R.A. 9003 or the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000, every barangay or cluster of barangays is mandated to put up its own material recovery facility (MRF). MRF is where waste segregation, recycling, composting of biodegradable waste and storing of recyclable materials are supposed to be made. In 2006, the City Council of Tagum passed Ordinance No.229”establishing the comprehensive Solid Waste Management of the City of Tagum”. Under the Ordinance, a Solid Waste Management board was created, composing the City Mayor, city councilors, nongovernment organization representative, barangay federation president,
manufacturing representative and recycling industry representative, (Pantaleon A., 2008).
3 We are motivated to conduct the study about the Student’s Perception of the Zero Waste Management to enable us to determine the students’ different reactions towards the implementation of such policy, and as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of Zero Waste Management among the student’s of the different departments from elementary to college.
Statement of the Problem This study aims to determine the relationship of Student’s Perception and Zero-Waste Management implementation in St. Mary’s College. Specifically, this answers the following questions: 1. What is the extent of Student’s Perception? 2. What is the extent of Zero-Waste Management implementation in St. Mary’s College in terms of: 2.1 Information Dissemination 2.2 Processing/ Implementation of the Project 2.3 Policy and Enforcement? 3. Is there a significant difference on the extent of Student’s Perception when analyzed according to department and gender? 4. Is there a significant difference on the extent of Zero-Waste Management implementation in St. Mary’s College when analyzed according to department and gender? 5. Is there a significant relationship between the extent of Zero Waste Management implementation and the extent of student’s perception.
Hypotheses 1. There is no significant difference on the extent of student’s perception when analyzed according to department and gender. 2. There is no significant difference on the extent of Zero-Waste Management implementation when analyzed according to department and gender. 3. There is no significant relationship between the extent of Zero Waste Management implementation and the extent of student’s perception.
5 Review of Related Literature This present furthers information that is relevant to the present study. These are facts taken from books, journals, internet, and different authorities that will strengthen the validity of results. Zero Waste Management. According to the study conducted by James Lactao (2008), unlike the garbage of long ago, our present rubbish includes synthetic materials that keep piling up unlike natural ones that degrade and eventually return to earth. Thus, disposal becomes a problem. Aside from this, garbage is also a health hazard- being a melting pot of all sorts of disease. As today’s throwaway society consumes more and more products, we also generate more and more waste. Much of this waste gets burned in incinerators or buried in landfills, causing a series of environmental problems including water pollution and loss of open space, Sheehan (2000), According to the latest concepts, waste is a visible face of inefficiency in terms of material utilization. Waste handling is a major concern, especially since improper waste treatment causes increased environmental deterioration. The last few decades have seen the emergence of new measures to handle waste effectively, but most of them are not flawless. “Zero waste”, an innovation of the 1990s in waste handling, emphasizes planning for the elimination of waste rather than managing waste. According to Carolyn Allen (2006), the Zero Waste International Alliance, means that zero waste is the designing and managing products and processes to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste and materials, conserve and recover all
6 resources, and not burn or bury them. The simple technology and methods required to achieve Zero Waste exist in every community around the world. Zero Waste Management Group (2008), Environmental sustainability and waste management are the most important issues of our time. An important step towards achieving environmental sustainability and responsible waste
management involves reducing our impact on the environment. It is through the successful implementation of our waste management and diversion programs that we commit ourselves to continually satisfy our client's needs. The main principals that are employed by Zero Waste Management Group involve resource preservation and waste reduction. These are the core fundamental components of the 'Zero Waste Philosophy'. This is done by means of recycling all potential waste and reusing those materials in different ways, creating a circular system of use and re-use. Implementing this philosophy, bring solutions to all segments of society. This is demonstrated by our commitment to work with and provide efficient solutions to individuals, groups and municipalities. Zero Waste is a critical stepping-stone to other necessary steps in the efforts to protect health, improve equity and reach sustainability. Zero Waste can be linked to sustainable agriculture, architecture, energy, industrial, economic and community development. Every single person in the world makes waste and as such is part of a non-sustainable society. However, with good political leadership, everyone could be engaged in the necessary shift towards a sustainable society. Good political leadership in this matter involves treating citizens as key allies to protect human health and the environment and in making the transition to a
7 sustainable future. Governments need to “govern” rather than attempt to “manage” this change to sustainable resource conservation practices. This includes a significant investment in public outreach and education so that citizens can help communities make the most informed choices.
(http://www.zwia.org/main/index.php? option=com_content&view=article&id=51&Itemid=58). Over the last few decades, the dumping and burning of garbage generated in cities, towns and villages in wetlands and waterbodies, have resulted in serious air, soil and water pollution. Zero Waste Management is a new system of managing solid waste, which strives for maximum waste recovery through recycling and reuse, aiming at ‘zero’ waste to be disposed onto dump yards and landfills. All over the world, Zero Waste Management has been accepted (and is being practiced) as the best solution to the problem of waste, for the following reasons. Waste is segregated and resources are recovered through composting of organic waste and recycling of inorganic waste. Compost generated through Zero Waste Management is used to promote organic farming, bringing down the use of chemicals in agriculture. Zero Waste Management helps reduce the rate of virgin raw material extraction and resource depletion. Zero Waste Management minimizes waste disposal at dumpsites and reduces pollution of air, ground water and soil that result from dumping. (http://www.exnoragreencross-
vellore.org/zero.html). Studies have shown that waste disposal directly contributes to climate change with the discharge of GHGs such as methane from dumps and landfills and
8 carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide from incinerators. Waste disposal also indirectly drives climate change by depriving the economy of reused, recycled and composted materials.“By adopting Zero Waste, we cut greenhouse gas emissions from waste disposal sites as well as from the energy-intensive extraction, processing and transportation of virgin materials to replace the buried or burned discards,” Manny Calonzo, Co-Coordinator of the Global Alliance for Incinerator Alternatives (GAIA), another member of the EcoWaste Coalition.
(http://ecowastecoalition.blogspot.com/2009/06/green-groups-urge-shift-fromwaste.html) Zero waste is a philosophy of waste management that aims to reduce total amount of waste to zero by redesigning resource-use systems. Rather than maintaining a linear waste system – you throw something away, it ends up in a landfill – zero waste initiatives work toward extending current practices of recycling and reuse into a circular waste system. This strategy “maximizes recycling, minimizes waste, reduces consumption and ensures that products are made to be reused, repaired or recycled back into nature or the marketplace.”
(http://www.treehugger.com/files/2009/08/footprints-waste-management-takingsteps-toward-zero-waste.php). Information Dissemination. As education begins in the home, zero waste management groups will initiate programs that will raise awareness of recycling and environmental issues that families can implement together. One such method will be the distributions recycling guides with tips on recycling and composting to households, schools and business in local communities. These easy-to-guides will
9 increase awareness about the importance of being environmentally friendly highlight the importance of reducing, reusing, and recycling the resources without compromising daily routine, (http:/zerowastemg.com/communityinvolvement.ph/) Environmental education is an essential tool for achieving effective resource management and sustainable development. Environmental education in its broadcast sense encompasses awareness raising, acquiring new perspectives, values, knowledge and skills and both the formal and informal process that lead to changed behavior in support of sustainable environment,
(http//www.crra.com/zerowaste/links/education.htm). Environmental information has been described as central to the issues of solid waste management and disposal. This study investigated the availability and accessibility of environmental information to the solid waste policy formulators and implementors with regard to the media/channels used for disseminating environmental information to the public. A descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. A purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample and the method produced 205 respondents that consisted of 185 Policy Implementors and 20 Policy Formulators. A total of 147 cases were finally analyzed, which included 16 Policy Formulators (80% of total sample) and 131 Policy Implementors (71% of total sample). Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as percentages and frequency counts. Findings show that the Policy Implementors preferred the use of personal contact as the channel for disseminating environmental information, whereas the Policy Formulators relied on the use of posters, radio/TV talks, and professional meetings. Some barriers to
10 disseminating information to the public included: lack of access to information sources, lack of standards for acquisition of information, and lack of funds to publish information materials.(
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/routledg/ueec/2009/00000008/00000001/a rt00007). This individual achievement however would remain individual had it not been shared with the community. As soon as the use of fire was shared, the scope for its future use and development was widened. Throughout time, other members of the community would discover or come up with new practical application for it, like cooking and production of tools and items. These associate innovations reinforced the initial idea, contributed to its use and were at least as significant as the primary innovation. But the question remaining is what could have prompted all other communities to adopt the use of fire too? One can only speculate, but it may be that fire with all its derivative uses gave communities that used it a competitive advantage. Better fed, better equipped, as these communities prospered over time and migrated they simply either spread the knowledge of fire to others or triggered their extinction. Perhaps some neighboring villages even stole fire, in an attempt to even the odds.(
http://www.kazakhstudents.org/all/other_topics/effects_of_environment_informatio n_dissemination_and_competition_on_the_pace_of_innovation_and_progress/) Information collection and storage involve the day-to-day processes of gathering and storing data from organizational programs, partners, and stakeholders. More sensitive information being managed is usually personal
11 information subject to the various state and international privacy laws or information that is proprietary to a corporation or other organization. The various state and international privacy laws Information provisional impact levels are documented in the Personal Identity and Authentication information type. Such information will often be assigned a moderate confidentiality impact level. Where any of the information to be managed can be expected to have a high confidentiality, impact level, then the information management information must be assigned a high confidentiality impact level. When the data being managed belongs to one of the information types described in this guideline, the confidentiality impact assigned to the system is that of the highest impact information type processed by the system. Depending on the organization and the mission being supported, the sensitivity of the information can range from none (public information) to high.
(http://www.unifiedcompliance.com/it_compliance/systems_info_class/information_ technology_managem/information_management.html) At Basingstoke and Deane we firmly believe in integrating environmental issues and action into the culture of our borough. One of the key factors in achieving this is education with schools and colleges and working with businesses and the community. Another essential element is the enforcement of environmental legislation. As part of our drive to make the borough of Basingstoke and Deane a cleaner and greener environment we intend to target offenders who commit environmental crime. We work closely with }cny external organizations on enforcement ranging from the Environment Agency and tle Police to local
12 landowners. Basingstoke and Deane also employs12two Dog Wárdens who are ppovifed by a contractor.
(http2//www.bas)ngstoke.gov.uk/environment/envawareness/envenforcement.htm) Whilst ráising awareness, promoting a more responsible approach to our environment and educating youngsters are all means of reducing instances of littering and dog fouling there will always be those who refuse to alter their behavior. The enforcement powers of the wardens enable them to prosecute individuals for littering and dog fouling. Fixed penalty notices can also be issued to offenders who are caught allowing their dogs to foul and not removing the waste or failing to dispose of their litter in a correct manner. The amounts of the fixed penalties are set by the Welsh Assembly.(
http://www.wrexham.gov.uk/english/env_services/community_services/amenity_wa rden.htm) Processing/ Implementation of the Project. It typically describes the act of taking something through an established and usually routine set of procedures to convert it from one form to another, as a manufacturing or administrative procedure (www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Process(science); Retrieved, 2010) The
barangay is responsible for the segregation of waste at source, collection of biodegradable and recyclable components and setting up of a materials recovery facility (MRF). There are about 976 MRFs nationwide. The municipality or city governments are responsible for the collection and disposal of residual nonbiodegradable and hazardous waste, except in Metro Manila where disposal is
13 within the mandate of the Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA). (http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php? title=National_Solid_Waste_Management_Commission) To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, The City has committed to the goal of closing the Albuquerque landfill by 2030 by diverting all material out of the waste stream or into a system to convert the waste to energy. In order to achieve the Zero Waste goal for Albuquerque, aggressive steps need to be taken now. Zero Waste can be achieved by recycling existing waste and reducing the need for recycling by reducing and reusing existing materials.(
http://www.cabq.gov/cap/strategies/recycling-and-zero-waste/recycling-and-zerowaste) There are multiple solutions that Zero Waste Management Group provides to achieve environmental sustainability and waste management. The main principals that are employed by Zero Waste Management Group involve resource preservation and waste reduction. These are the core fundamental components of the 'Zero Waste Philosophy'. Our team of experienced environmentalists understands and lives by the Zero Waste Philosophy. Through rigorous research and development we have created the "Zero Waste Solution". This is done by means of recycling all potential waste and reusing those materials in different ways, creating a circular system of use and re-use. Implementing this philosophy, we bring solutions to all segments of society. This is demonstrated by our commitment to work with and provide efficient solutions to individuals, groups and municipalities.( http://www.zerowastemg.com/about.php)
14 Policy and Enforcement. Enforcement as a motivating factor should not be overlooked. Behavior studies have shown that monetary incentives, both positive (rewards) and negative (fines) are effective motivators, especially if combined with other motivating factors, such as education (De Young, 1985-6). Furthermore, enforcement of requirements for adequate recycling collection and storage areas in multi-family buildings can actually eliminate barriers to participation. Indeed it is in the City’s interest to use all of the tools available to encourage and enable residents to recycle, reuse and compost properly. Only by doing so can we ensure the success of a zero waste program. However, we should not overlook the fact that enforcement fine can be a valuable revenue enhancement tool that can help to finance a zero waste program. (http://www.consumersunion.org/other/zerowaste/enforcement.html) Manchester is working hard to ensure that the city and it's wards are clean and safe. Like any city, Manchester suffers from it's own share of environmental crime, perpetrated by the irresponsible few. Environmental Crime blights our city, causing eyesores, and more often than not a health or safety hazard. Our Teams are working hard to prosecute these offenders that damage, spoil and pollute the community we live in. Manchester City Council takes a very strict enforcement approach against people who commit these crimes. Working together, the Environmental
Enforcement family are responsible for investigations to secure successful prosecutions relating to environmental crime.
15 (http://www.manchester.gov.uk/info/500012/environmental_enforcement/912/envir onmental_crimes_and_enforcement/1 A local environmental enforcement program is a program that your local county or city government can initiate to combat illegal dumping in your community. The Missouri Department of Natural Resources encourages local communities to start their own enforcement program to combat illegal dumping. The department retained the services of a consultant to produce a manual entitled How to Establish and Operate an Environmental Enforcement Program. This is an in depth manual that is designed to help local governments start an enforcement program or improve an existing enforcement program to combat illegal dumping. From 2000 through 2002, twelve workshops held throughout the state explained how to start and implement the program outlined in the manual.
(http://www.dnr.mo.gov/env/swmp/pubs-reports/litter.htm) Our Environmental Health Officers (EHOs) are local authority inspectors, who want you to meet all of the necessary requirements. If your organization is higher risk (a factory, a building site, a mine, an offshore chemical plant and/or nuclear installation), then the Health and Safety Executive will be responsible for monitoring you.( http://www.eea.europa.eu/pressroom/speeches/information-
16 Theoretical and Conceptual Framework This study is anchored on the theory of Florence Nightingale Environmental Theory on which she linked health with five environmental factors: pure or fresh air, pure water, efficient drainage, cleanliness and light specially direct sunlight, (Kozier and Erb’s, 2008)
Zero Waste Implementation • Student’s Perception • • Information Dissemination Processing/ Implementation of the Project Policy and Enforcement
Figure 1. Conceptual Paradigm of the study
Significance of the Study This study aims to determine the effectiveness of implementation of Zero Waste Management to the student nurses at St. Mary’s College. Moreover the result of this study will inspire the following:
Students. The data of this study will provide students’ awareness of their responsibility to the said project which is zero waste management. Teachers. The outcome will help the school teachers to promote the zero waste management implementation towards the students, specifically the student nurses. School Administrators. The result of the study can provide information and feedback to the administrators for them to know if the zero waste management is effective or been improved.
Definition of Terms For easy understanding, the major term used in this study is defined conceptually and operationally.
Zero Waste Management. Is literally the process of managing waste materials (normally those produced as a result of human activities). It involves the collection, transport, processing and/or disposal of waste materials
(www.wordiq.com/waste_management; Retreived,2010). In this study it refers to the schools imperative method in the use of strategies to creating a garbage-free
19 campus, with the participation of every individual in the school who’s responsible for generating their own wastes. This includes proper segregation/disposal of garbage and enforcing disciplinary actions against those who violates. Information Dissemination. This is the process of distribution or spreading of information to the people or to the public to educate them about a specific issues, events, or facts (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information; retrieved, 2010 ). In this study, it refers to the massive and continuous information and education to all department and offices, and all waste generators in which they are encouraged to practice reduction, reuse, and recycling of waster generated at source as an effective minimization technique. In the conduct of information education campaign, waste generators will be educated on the proper method of composting as an environment friendly way of disposing waste. Processing/Implementation of the project. This is the realization of an application, or execution of a plan, idea, model, design, specification, standard, algorithm, or policy.( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Implementation). In this study this refers to the establishment of MRF for recycling and composting of garbage materials. This also refers on establishing marketing linkages with potential buyers for recyclables. MRF consists of; Botanical and Ecological Garden, where in organic vegetables garden shall be planted with high value crops, it shall be established in vacant space after Marian Hotel; Warehouse, the existing carpentry shop can be constructed into a MRF with roof out of existing recyclable construction materials; shedder (for garden and kitchen wastes), the shedder can
20 produce humus or fertilizer which can be sold by sack or use in botanical and ecological garden as fertilizer. Policy and Enforcement. A policy is typically described as a deliberate plan of action to guide decisions and achieve rational outcome(s). The term is not normally used to denote what is actually done, this is normally referred to as either procedure or protocol. Where as a policy will contain the 'what and the why' procedures or protocols contain the 'what' the 'how' the 'where' and the 'when'. Enforcement is a term that refers to the process by which legislation, or part of legislation, and treaties comes to have legal force and effect. The term is closely related to the date of this transition (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Policy; retrieved; 2010). In this study it refers to the policies and implementation of disciplinary actions or sanctions to facilitate obedience of all waste generators. in this study, The DSA and Discipline Coordinators with the help of the SCEB, SEC, GAB officers including administrators, teaching and non-teaching personnel have the moral duty to help by listing down names of the violators, ID’s can also be confiscated if necessary.
21 Chapter 2 METHODS
Presented in this chapter are the research design, the subject and respondents, the instrument, the data gathering procedure, and the statistical treatment of the data.
Research design A Descriptive-study Method of research will be employed in this study. It is a method that tries to reveal patterns associated with specific phenomena without an emphasis or pre-specified hypothesis. Sometimes these studies are called hypothesis generating studies (to contrast them with hypothesis testing study), (www.children.mercy.org./stats/definition/descriptive.htm: retrieved, 2010) This design is adopted since the main problem of the study is to determine the extent of student’s perception and zero waste management implementation in St. Mary’s College.
Research Subject The respondents of this study will be the students in the different department of St. Mary’s College enrolled in the school year 2010-2011. They will be chosen on the basis of stratified random sampling. This sampling technique will be used in order to get the exact representation of respondents of this study.
22 Using the Slovin’s Formula, a sample of 223 student-respondents were taken. The sample size of the population and the distribution of respondents by gender and section using stratified random sampling. Stratified random sampling will be used in this study as samples are gathered from the different department to the used sampling technique and Slovin’s Formula.
Table 1 Distribution of Student-Respondents
Gender TOTAL Male Female 47 69
Gender TOTAL Male 10 Female 20 30
24 The instrument used in this study was the researcher made a questionnaire using a Likert scale. The questionnaire was used to assess the effectiveness of the implementation of Zero-waste management among the nursing students in St. Mary’s College. The statements of sentences were made simple, brief, and concrete to provide the respondent’s basic understanding about the purpose of the study. The five scale scoring has the following qualitative description:
Descriptive Equivalent Very extensive
Description This means that the Zero Waste Management implemented in St. Mary’s College was very much evident or always observed.
This means that the Zero Waste Management implemented in St. Mary’s College observed. was most often evident or
This means that the zero waste Management implemented in St. Mary’s College was very much relatively evident in most cases.
This means that the Zero Waste
25 Management implemented in St. Mary’s College was acknowledged to be present but only slightly felt. 1 Not extensive This means that the Zero Waste Management implemented in St. Mary’s College was almost non-evident.
Data Gathering Procedure
26 The following steps will be observed in the gathering of data: Seek Permission to conduct the Study. The researcher will send a letter to the present school administrator, asking permission to allow the researchers to conduct the study at St. Mary’s College, Tagum City. Administration and Retrieval of Questionnaire. The researcher will personally distribute and administer the questionnaire. They will be instructed no to leave any item unanswered. The students will also be given enough time to answer all the items. And after answering the researcher will retrieve the questionnaire immediately. Checking, Collating and Processing of Data. The researcher will gathered all the questionnaires were checked thoroughly if all items were answered and collated of score followed. It was checked, collated and processed appropriate statistical tools. Statistical Treatment To answer the questions proposed in this study, the data were subjected to statistical treatment. The following statistical operations were used: Average Weighted Mean. It is a method used by multiplying each of the scores by the corresponding frequency. This was used to determine the extent of the implementation of Zero Waste Management among Nursing Student in St. Mary’s College. This answered question 1.
27 Mean. It is the average of the set of data used to determine the extent of the implementation of Zero Waste Management among Nursing Students in St. Mary’s College. This answered question 1. Z- test. It is a statistical tool used in comparing the difference between two means. This was used to test the significant difference on the extent of the implementation of Zero Waste Management implementation in St. Mary’s College. This answered questions 2 and 3.
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