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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

A. Background

English is an international language has a great influence toward

development all over the world, especially for Indonesia as a developing country.

It is as promotion, transportation, tourism, studying abroad, International business,

entertainment, scientific, and technical research, and word peace. We should

master English because it is quite necessary and urgent for Indonesian people,

particularly for students.

English has multi functions for all fields of education which has an

important role in absolving and developing science, technology, culture. Teacher

of English needs it for communication and establishing relationship with other.

Realizing how important the English language, our government includes

English in the second curriculum as a compulsory subject for student in our

country. It is tough from elementary school to university level as an optional

subject.

There are four components skill in learning English, namely: reading,

writing, speaking, and listening. the researcher just want to focus in writing skill

because writing as productive skill is quite important in developing student’s

competence and performance of language. English as a foreign language in

writing class provides language exposure for the students in using use the

language.

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It is important to emphasize writing, because it rarely a separate activity in

integral language classroom. (Pappas, 1990:152)

In other word, writing can be a way of expressing idea through written

form or is a process of building larger units from smaller ones that it the write

uses words to make a composition.

By writing, we can compare our opinion with the people who read our

writing. Good writer doesn’t know everything about the subject, but listen well

enough to enter into conversation with others about it. Writing can be as media in

expressing feeling and self expression and it can be enjoyed not just for the writer

itself but also for the reader. That is why people want to write to express their

feeling, idea, or thought and to read by other. Communication is occurred between

writer and reader even though reader agrees or not with the writer.

Sentence is a group of words that has a least on subject and one predicate

and that express a complete thought to be a sentence. In teaching writing there are

many techniques usually used by teacher, one of them is to make a sentence or

using game. (Miffin, 1984:45)

Game can stimulate student’s interest and also increase the student’s

ability in writing especially in making sentence. A properly introduce game can be

one of the highest motivation and techniques. Right now there are many games in

learning English, and it has been publish many books talking about how to make

sentence. Teaching the student writing through game have to be related to the

context of teaching at the time, because there are many games right now related

how to arrange sentence. (Callum and George, 1950:40)

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In English learning, arrange sentence is one of problem that faced by the

students. Sometimes they are difficult to do that. One of method that is believed

can increase the students’ ability in making sentence is chain card game. It can

help the students to arrange or make sentence, the chain card game can be arrange

sentence and also it can build the student’s vocabulary.

Based on the explanation above, here the writer is interested in conducting

a research entitles “Increasing the Student’s Ability to Make English Sentence

through Chain Card Game’’

B. Problem Statement

Based on the background above the researcher formulates a research

question as follows:

1. How is the increase students’ ability to use simple sentence through chain

card game?

2. How is the increase students’ ability to use compound sentence through

chain card game?

3. How is the increase students’ ability to use complex sentence through

chain card game?

A. Objective of the Study

The objective this research as follows:

1. To explain whether or not chain card game can increase the students’

ability to use simple sentence.

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2. To explain whether or not chain card game can increase the students’

ability to use compound sentence.

3. To explain whether or not chain card game can increase the students’

ability to use complex sentence.

A. Significance of research

In accordance with the problem statement above this research is expected

to be beneficial for personal or institute as follows:

a. For student

1. Student can be active in learning process, because in learning process

students should make cooperation with their group.

2. Students will not be doubt to answer the question from their teacher.

3. Students have tutor that can help them if they find the difficulties to

arrange the sentence.

4. Can increase the motivation of students because they can play while study.

5. To build up consciousness of the importance of grammar to support the

mastery of language skill.

a. For teacher

As distribution for the teacher, especially English teacher in order they can

choose and apply game learning method that can make the student

interested in studying.

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b. For school

As an input to recover the system of the school where the research is done.

c. For the researcher

The researcher is expected can take direct experience in applying the chain

card game strategy.

A. Scope of the Study

The writer limits the study to the ability of the students in second grade of

SMP GUPPI SAMATA GOWA in using chain card game strategy to increase the

students’ ability in making English sentence focuses on simple sentence,

compound sentence, and complex sentence especially in present simple sentences.

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

A. The Concept of Chain Card Game

1. What is chain card game?

Chain card game is a free translation from “Permainan Kartu Berantai”

(Carrier, 2009:2). All players are plated these cards as play ramie card. In this

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game players have to arrange their cards so they can be a sentence, or play the

cards to continue the other player’s sentence that haven’t finished yet. It can be in

the first or the last card construction.

A card game is any game using playing cards as the primary things with

which the game is played, be they traditional or game specific. Some games have

formally standardized rules; whole rules for others can vary by region, culture and

person. A card game is played with a deck of playing cards intended for that game

that are identical in size and shape. Each card has two sides the face and the back.

The back of the cards in a deck are indistinguishable (except for those games

employing the non standard cards commonly accompanying a deck of cards, such

as calendar cards), preventing any player who cannot see the card’s face from

knowing its value. The faces of the cards in a deck may all be unique, or may

include duplicates, depending on the game. In either case, any card is readily

identifiable by its face. The set of cards that make up the deck are known to the

entire player using that deck. (Wilkipedia, 2009:1)

2. How to Play Chain Card Game

To support this research, so the writer makes tools such as: lesson plan

(RPP), LKS, cards, observation test and interviewing. This game can be played by

four or more people, with six numbers of cards for each set. This number can be

add or decrease. Every card has one word that is a separate sentence that has

arranged, so if the cards are played well, they will become right sentence. All

players are played the cards as play ramie card. In this game, players have to

arrange their cards so they can be a sentence or play the cards to continue other

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player sentence that haven’t yet can be in the first or the last card construction.

These cards are made of cartoon with size 5x8 cm. This size can be made based

on our taste. (Andreas Suwarno, 2003:3)

3. The Steps of Chain Card Game

a. The first, teacher explains about simple present tense

b. The second, teacher explains how to play chain card game

c. The third, teacher divides the students into some groups

d. The fourth, teacher divides the cards to each groups and let them to play

the cards for 15 minutes

e. The fifth, teacher asks the representative of each group to bring their

cards that have finished and write all of the sentences that has been

arranged in white board. The six, teacher checkups all of the sentences

that has been written by the students in white board

f. The last, teacher asks the students to do the work assignment. (Andreas

Suwarno, 2003:3)

A. Game to Improve Student’s Communicative Skill in Language Learning

In recent years language researchers and practitioners’ have shifted their

focus from developing individual linguistic skill to the use of language to achieve

the speaker’s objectives. This is new area of focus, known as communicative

competence, leads language teacher to seek task oriented activities that engage

their students in creative language use. Games which are task based and have a

purpose beyond the production of correct speech, serve as excellent

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communicative activities (Saricoban and Metin, 2000:92). On the surface, the aim

of language games is for students to use the language however during game play

learners also use the target language to persuade and negotiate their way to desired

result. This process involves the productive and receptive skill simultaneously.

Games offer students a fun-filled and relaxing learning atmosphere. After

learning and practicing new vocabulary, students have opportunity to use

language in a non stressful way (Uberman, 1998: 62). While playing game, the

learner gives attention on the message, not on the language. Rather than pay

attention to the correctness of linguistic form, most participant will do all in order

to they can win. This eases the fear of negative evolution, the concern of being

negatively judged in public, and which is one of language in front of the other

people (Horwitz and Cope, 1986: 62). In a game oriented context, anxiety is

reduced and speech fluency is generated thus communicative competence is

achieved.

Games are also motivating. Game introduces an element of competition

into language-building activities. This provides valuable impetus to a purposeful

use of language (Parasad, 2003: 235). In other words, these activities create a

meaningful context for language use. The competitive ambience also make

learners concentrate and think intensively during the learning process, which

enhance unconscious acquisition of inputs, most students who have experience

game oriented activities hold positive attitudes toward them (Uberman, 1998:

328). Student says that they like the relaxed atmosphere, the competitiveness and

the motivation that games bring to the classroom (Nuyen and Nga, 2003:55). On

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the effectiveness of game, teacher reported that action research reported that their

students seem to learn more quickly and they learn materials better in a stress-free

and comfortable environment. (Nuyen and Nga, 2003:88)

The benefits of using games in language learning can be summed up in

nine points as follows:

1. Promote communicative competence

2. Create a meaningful context for language use

3. Increasing learning motivation

4. Reduce learning anxiety

5. Integrated various linguistic and skill

6. Encourage creative and spontaneous use of language

7. Construct a cooperative learning and environment

8. Foster participatory attitudes of the students

C. The concept of writing

1. What is writing?

According to Byrne (1989) that the writing is clearly much more than

production of graphic symbol, just as speech is more than the production of

sounds. The symbol should be arranged according to certain convention: to form

words and words have to be arranged to from sentences. Writing involves the

encoding of a message of some kind that is translated in to language.

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According to Lever (198:1) that writing is one way of making meaning

from experience for one self and for others. Furthermore, he says that writing

serves as the most available and the most compelling way because the outcome,

visible language is satisfyingly permanent record of thoughts and felling.

Caldesonello et. Al (1982: 4-5) define writing as a revising, recursive and

drafting process. They put forward five common components of the writing:

inventing, planning, drafting and editing. According to them, inventing is any

activities that involve the writer in discovering and generating what he want to

say. Planning is the activity of preparing all writing of preparing equipment.

Before the process of writing is done, revising involves adding or cutting

out writing, or rear, ranging what is writing, or substituting another way of saying

something, and editing means polishing a piece of writing by making word, level,

changes in spelling, mechanics, usage, word choice and so on.

From the argument above, it is clear that writing is way of human being to

communicate and express their idea or encoding a message through the graphic

symbol and the and the writer draws a conclusion that writing can be defined as a

process of transferring what someone has in his mind to the written language. The

process involves the formation of graphic symbol; that is combine letters to form

words, and words are arranged to make complete sentence that has a complete

meaning.

2. The types of writing

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The types of writing are based on three factors: purpose of writing, audience

and context.

1. The purpose of writing

Mayer Wangisa (1998) categories the purpose of writing into three

categories: to persuade, to inform and to entertain.

a. To inform

The writer generally explains or describes an idea, a process, an even,

a belief, a person, a place or a thing to give information. The writer

also gives the facts and explains the causes.

b. To persuade

The writer tries to change the audience or behave differently. In this

sense, the writer appeals to the readers’ logic or emotion.

c. The entertain

The writer gives some efforts to make the reader laughed, smiled,

fascinated, surprised or even angry.

2. Audience

In planning to write topic, a writer determines the readers to when the

topic is written to or for. In the sometime, the writer also thinks hard about the

readers’ age, gender, interest, cultural background, region, educational

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background and so on. Readers and audience are not physically present when a

writer is writing a topic. In describe the own personal writer.

3. Context

Context means the use of conventions appropriate the topic and discourse

type. Context also includes some consideration that a writer is going to say about

extensive series of detain, various view point and so on.

3. The importance of writing

Hoiston (1986:2) gives some reasons why writing is important:

1. Writing is a tool for discovery we stimulate our through process by he

act writing and taffy into information and image we have our

unconscious mind.

2. Writing generates new ideas by helping us to make connection and

relationship.

3. Writing helps us to organize our ideas. We can arrange them the

coherent form.

4. Writing down ideas allows us to distance ourselves from them.

5. Writing helps us to absorb and process information, when we write a

topic, we learn is better.

6. Writing enables we solve the problem, by putting the element of into

the written form; we can examine and manipulated them.

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7. Writing on subject makes us actives learners rather than passive

learners of information.

From definition above we may conclude with writing we can express our

ideas, specially feeling to other people without ashamed because the reader is not

present in front of the writer to have face to face communication and with writing

the people can put their ideas, feeling and knowledge into written form more

freely. Writing helps us to discover exactly how we think and what we think

freely.

4. The characteristic of good writing

Experience in school leave some people whit the impression that good

writing simply means writing that contains no had mistakes that is no errors of

grammar, punctuation, or spelling. In fact, good writing is must more than just

correct writing. Its writing that responds to the interests needs of our readers.

Briefly, here are basic characteristic of good, effective writing:

a. Good writing has a clearly defined purposed

b. It make a clear point

c. It supports that point with specific information

d. The information is clearly connected and arranged

e. The words are appropriate, and the sentences are clear, concise, empathic

and correct.

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Good writing is the result of much practice and hard work. This fact

should encourage you: it means that the ability to write well is not a gift that some

people are born with, not a privilege extended to only a view. If you are willing to

work, you can improve your writing. (Richard Nortquist, 2007: 1-2).

5. Writing component

Jacobs at. al (1981: 31) point out five significant components in writing

these are content, organization, vocabulary language use and mechanics.

1. Content

There are four things that could be measured in connection with content.

The composition should contain one purpose only. Should be unity, should have

coherence and continuity and should be adequately developed.

2. Organization

The purpose of organization material in writing involves coherence, order

of importance general to specific, specific to general, chronological order and

spatial order of pattern. When writing the learner should arrange their writing

chronologically. They should present their ideas based on the order of which

happed from beginning to the end.

3. Vocabulary

Vocabulary is one language aspect dealing with the process of writing

study in the process of writing the writer always thanks about putting word into

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sentences and putting sentences into paragraph until they can create a piece of

writing.

4. Language use

Language is writing description and other form of writing involves

connect language and point of grammar. We should be able to do anything more

than letter separate items of language for separate function. And also grammar can

help the students improve the use of formal language.

5. Mechanics

Mechanics in writing deals with capitalization, spelling are punctuation.

Capital letters have principal uses in English writing. This may be used

distinguish between particular and general classes of person, places and things.

Punctuation has only one function: that of making writing clearer for the

reader. Out tendency is to use punctuation, as little, as possible, but we must never

forget the inclination to out punctuation for the sake of clean looking page must

be which organist the reads requirement of centered audience. Equally important

is adherence to the nouns of capitation and to correct spells, because eccentricity,

deviance, inconsistency, or errors in these distract and confuse readers and

ultimately undermine the function of way writing to communication of a message

as clearly one as efficiently possible. (Ehrlich, 1977: 2)

6. Models of writing

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Models of writing, forms of writing, types of writing and domains of

writing have specific purpose. There are four basic models, descriptive, narrative,

expository, and persuasive.

1. Creative writing

The primary purpose of creative writing is to entertain the reader.

2. Descriptive writing

The primary purpose of descriptive writing is to describe a person,

place, or event so that the topic can be clearly seen in the reader’s mind.

The writer must use vivid details that paint a picture for the reader.

3. Expository writing

The primary purpose of expository writing is providing information such

as explanation or directions.

4. Narrative writing

The primary purpose of narrative writing is to describe an experience,

event, or sequence of events in the form of story.

5. Persuasive writing

The primary purpose of persuasive writing is to give an opinion and try to

influence the reader’s way of thinking with supporting evidence.

(Mcdougel, 1998: 2)

D. Kinds of Sentence

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1. Simple sentence

The ability in making simple sentence is the ability of student in finding

idea in sentence form. We should give attention for two things in making sentence

namely: sustention from the writing (expressing idea) and form or structure

(grammatical form and syntactic pattern). Making a sentence include writing skill

because of that making sentence also means expressing the idea and

communication with the other through language symbol DR.Harris (2009:2).

The sentence that made can be the simplest sentence that only consists of

two positions in sentence namely: {S+V}, {S+V+O}, or the complete sentence:

{S+V+O+ADV}.

2. Compound Sentence

Compound sentence in sentences have two or full prediction, in the form

of independent clause. ( Warriner et al, 2004:8)

Ex: - the weather was very bad, therefore all classes where cancelled.

3. Complex sentences

Sentences in sentences which have two or more full prediction, on of these

is an independent clause (or main clause) that is similar to the form of the simple

sentence and one or more of these are dependent clause (or sub- ordinate clause).

(Warier et al, 2004:8)

Ex: - All classes were cancelled because the weather was bad.

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CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHOD

This chapter presents the research design, research variables, population

and sample, research instrument, procedure or collecting data and technique of

data analysis.

A. Research Design

The research used pre-experimental design with one group pre-test and post-

test. The students was given pre-test to know the student’s ability in making

sentence before applying chain card game strategy, and then apply the treatment.

After apply the treatment, post-test was given to know the student’s achievement

in making sentence after applying chain card game strategy.

The research design conducted as follows

O1 X O2

Note:

O1 : Pre-test

X : Treatment

O2 : Post-test

(Gay, 1986: 28)

1. Pre test (O1)

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Before doing the treatment, the students were given the pre test to find out

the students’ ability to use simple, compound, and complex sentences. The kind of

test that was given to the students was essay test.

2. Treatment

After giving pre test, the students treated by using Chain Card Game Strategy. The

procedure of this treatment as follows:

a. The first, teacher explained about simple present tense

b. The second, teacher explained how to play chain card game

c. The third, teacher divided the students into some groups

d. The fourth, teacher divided the cards to each groups and let them to play

the cards for 15 minutes

e. The fifth, teacher asked the representative of each groups to bring their

cards that have finished and wrote all of the sentences that has been arranged in

white board

f. The six, teacher checked up all of the sentences that has been written by

the students in white board

g. The last, teacher asked the students to do the work assignment

3. Post test

Post-test was given to the students to know their ability in making English

sentence after applying chain card game strategy. The test was essay test.

B. Research Variable

The research has two variables. They were independent variable and

independent variable. Independent variable of this research was the application of

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the chain card game strategy. Dependent variable was students’ ability in making

English sentence.

C. Population and Sample

1. Population

The population was the second year students of SMP GUPPI

SAMATA GOWA in 2009/2010 academic year which consisted of

three classes. Each class consisted of 30 students. The total population

was 90.

2. Sample

The sample was taken by using total sampling. It meant that

only one class, VIII B as sample.

D. Hypothesis

The hypotheses of this research were formulated as follows:

1. H0 (Null Hypotheses): There was no significance of the difference of

the students’ writing ability before and after teaching writing through

Chain Card Game method.

2. H1 (Alternative Hypotheses): There was a significance of the students’

writing ability before and after teaching writing through Chain Card

Game method.

3.

E. Instrument of the Research

The research used pre-test and pos-test. The pre-test was given after the

treatment to find out student’s ability in making English sentence.

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1. Pre-test was given to the students to check their ability in making English

sentence before applying chain card game strategy. The test was essay test.

2. Post-test was given to the students to know their ability in making English

sentence after applying chain card game strategy. The test was essay test.

F. Procedure of Collecting Data

The procedure of collecting data was performed through these steps:

1. The first, the students were given pre-test to know their ability in

making English sentence.

2. The second, applying chain card game strategy for some meeting. The

steps were as follows:

a. The first, teacher explained about simple present tense

b. The second, teacher explained how to play chain card game

c. The third, teacher divided the students into some groups

d. The fourth, teacher divided the cards to each groups and let them to

play the cards for 15 minutes

e. The fifth, teacher asked the representative of each groups to bring

their cards that have finished and write all of the sentences that has been

arranged in white board

f. The six, teacher checked up all of the sentences that has been written

by the students in white board

g. The last, teacher asked the students to do the work assignment

3. The third after given treatment, the students were given post-test to

know the ability in making English sentence.

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G. Technique of data analysis

Some formulas were applied in this study to process the data as follows:
1. The students’ score was tabulated by using the following criteria:
The total score of the writing test was 100 consisting of five components,

namely :

Component Score

Content 20
Organization 20
Grammar 20
Vocabulary 20
Mechanics 20
Total 100

2 . The mean score of the students was found out by means, following the

formula.

∑X
X=
N
Where:
X = the mean score
∑X = the sum of all score
N = Total number of the students

(Gay, 1981: 298)


The writer classified the score into seven categories (Depdikbud, 1985:6) standard
of evaluation as follows:
a. 9.6 to 10 is classified as excellent

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b. 9.6 to 9.5 is classified as very good
c. 7.6 to 8.5 is classified as good
d. 6.6 to 7.5 is classified as fairly good
e. 5.6 to 6.5 is classified as fair
f. 4.6 to 5.5 is classified as poor
g. 0.00 to 3.5 is classified as very poor

3. Categorizing the whole score into the following classification

1. 86-100 : Excellent to very good

2. 68-85 : Good to average

3. 48-67 : Fair to poor

4. 32-47 : Very poor

4. Finding of the significance difference between the result of the pre-test and

post-test by using the following formula:

t= D

∑D2 – (∑D) 2

N (N- 1)

Notation:

T : test of significance

D : Deviation

∑D : The Sum of D Square

(∑D) 2 : The Sum of ∑ D

N : Number of Students

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CHAPTER IV

FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

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This chapter consists of findings of the research and discussion of the

interpretation of data analysis in detail the finding at the research covers the result

of the data collected through the test.

a. The Findings

The finding of the research deal with the answer of problem statement

which is aims was to find out the students’ ability in use simple sentence,

compound sentence, and also complex sentence. It can be seen through the result

of pre-test and post-test, as follows:

Table 1

No Variables Pre-test Post-test Increasing


Mean Mean Score (%)
Score
1. Simple Sentence 51 67.33 32.01

2 Compound Sentence 58 74.5 28.45


3 Complex Sentence 55.33 71.16 28.61

The table above shows the students’ mean score in pre-test and post-test in

students’ writing ability where the variables are simple, compound, and complex

sentences. The mean score of simple sentence at pre-test is classified as poor with

the mean score 51, while the mean score of compound sentence is 58 which

classified as “fair“, so do the mean score of students’ complex sentence 55.53

The table above indicates the students’ score. In the pre-test, the students’

achievement on simple sentence is just about 51 which classified as “poor”, but in

the post test the students’ compound has improved to 67.33, which classified as

“fair”. In the complex element the students’ score moved from 55.33 to 67.33

classified as ‘fair’. The students’ ability in writing simple sentence moved from

51 to 67.33. The percentage level of the students’ ability in writing simple

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sentence is 54.43% (67.33-51) and for the compound sentence is 16.5 (74.5-58)

while the percentage level of the students’ ability in writing complex sentence is

15.83 (71.16-55.33).

1. The increasing students’ ability in writing simple sentence

The following table shows the students ability in increasing writing simple

sentence by using chain card games.

Table 2

The mean score of students’ increasing in writing simple sentence

Pre-test Post-test The Increasing (%)


51 67.33 31.96 %
Data in the table above shows that the mean score of increasing students

ability in writing simple sentence in pre-test, post-test and improvement. The

students’ writing increasing by using chain cards game is mean score in pre-test

(51), it was low score before giving treatment and the mean score post-test was

higher after giving treatment. It can be calculated that the students progress

(67.33). The increasing of the students’ vocabulary by using chain card games is

significant because the score of post-test greater than the pre-test. It appears that

the mean score of the post-test obtains by the student are different. In order to

know the level of significance 5 % (0.05), degree of freedom (df=N-1)= 29 is the

result of calculation is shown as follow:

Table 3
The result of significance of the students’ writing simple sentence
variable t-test value t-table value
Simple sentence 5.29 2.54
The table shows that the t-test value (5.29) is greater than the t-table value

(2.54). Based on this result, it is concluded that the difference of both means is

statically significant.

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Graphic 1
The increasing of students’ writing simple sentence by using chain card games

2. The increasing of students’ writing ability in compound sentence

The following table shows the students ability in writing compound

sentence by using chain card games.

Table 4
The mean score of students’ increasing of compound sentence
Pre-test Post-test The Increasing (%)
58 74.5 28.44
The table above shows that the increasing of students ability in writing

compound sentence about pre-test, post-test and increasing. The students’ ability

in writing compound sentence by using chin card game has mean score in pre-test

(58), it was low score also before giving treatment and the mean score post-test

was higher after giving treatment. It can be calculated that the students progress

(74.5). The increasing of the students’ ability in writing compound by using chain

card game is significant because the result of significance of students’ ability in

writing compound sentence shows that the t-test value is greater than the t-table

value. It appears that the mean score of the post-test obtains by the student are

different. In order to know the level of significance 5 % (0.05), degree of freedom

(df=N-1)= 29 is the result of calculation is shown as follow:

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Table 5

The result of significance of the students’ vocabulary

variable t-test value t-table value


compound 5.88 2.54

The table shows that the t-test value (5.88) is greater than the t-table value

(2.54). Based on this result, it is concluded that the difference of both means is

statically significant.

The graphic below shows the significance of the research in increasing the

students’ ability in writing compound sentences;

Graphic 2

The graphic shows that the increasing of the student ability, in pre-test the

student increasing ability in writing compound sentence is 58. It means that the

student improvement in pre-test was lower than the student increasing in the post-

test because the students’ increasing in post-test is 74.5.

3. The increasing of students’ ability in writing complex sentence by using chain

card games.

The following table shows the students ability in writing complex sentence

by using the chain card games.

Table 6

The mean score of students’ increasing in writing complex sentence ability

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Pre-test Post-test Increasing (%)
55.33 71.16 31.96

Data in the table above shows that the increasing of students ability in

writing complex sentence in pre-test, post-test and increasing. The students’

ability in writing complex sentence by using chain card game has mean score in

pre-test (55.33), it was low score before giving treatment and the mean score post-

test was higher after giving treatment. It can be calculated that the students

progress (71.16). The increasing of the students’ ability in writing complex

sentence by using chain card game is significant because the score of post-test

greater than the pre-test. It appears that the mean score of the post-test obtains by

the student are different. In order to know the level of significance 5 % (0.05),

degree of freedom (df=N-1)= 29 is the result of calculation is shown as follow:

Table 7

The result of significance of the students’ writing complex

variable t-test value t-table value


Complex sentence 12.08 2.54
The table shows that the t-test value (10.19) is greater than the t-table

value (2.54). Based on this result, it is concluded that the difference of both means

is statically significant.

Graphic 3

The graphic shows that the increasing of the students’ ability in writing

complex sentence, in pre-test the students’ writing ability in complex sentence is

52.77. It means that the student increasing in post-test was higher than the

29
students’ improvement in pre-test. Because the students speaking improvement in

post-test is 71.16.

4. The students’ increasing ability in writing by using chain card games

Table 8

The students’ writing ability

No Value %
1. Simple Sentence 31.96

2. Compound Sentence 28.44

3. Complex Sentence 21.69


Data in the table above shows the students’ writing ability in making

sentence, namely simple, compound, and also complex sentences. The students’

ability in writing simple sentence in increasing students’ ability have the

percentage is 31.96%, the students’ compound sentence writing ability is 28.44 %,

and the students’ writing ability of complex sentence is 21.69 %.

From the calculate data above, the students’ ability in writing compound

sentences is highest than simple sentences and complex sentences.

Graphic 4

Increasing of the students writing ability in simple sentence is 31.96% the

mean score of students’ writing ability in compound sentence is 28.44 and

complex sentence is 21.96%.

Table 9

The significance

No Significance t-test t-table


1. Simple Sentences 5.29 2.54

2. Compound sentences 5.88 2.54

30
3. Complex sentences 12.08 2.54

5. Hypothesis Testing

Table 10. Statistic T-testing Operation

Writing Ability t-test t-table


Simple Sentences 5.29
Compound sentences 5.88 2.54
Complex sentences 12.08

After calculating the t-test value, then it is compared with the value of t-

table with the level of significance p=0.05 with the degree of freedom (df = 29),

the value of t-test value for simple sentence and complex sentence is greater than

t-table value. The t-test value for simple sentence is 5.29, while the t-test for

compound sentence is 5.88 and the t-test for complex sentence is 10.24. This

shows that mean score difference between pretest and post test is statistically

significant.

These findings are used to determine whether or not the hypothesis stated

in this research is statistically proved. As being stated in previous chapter that the

null hypothesis (H0) is rejected when the value of t-test is greater than the value of

t-table and the alternative hypothesis (H1) is accepted. Therefore, based on the

above result where the value of t-test is greater than the value of t-table, the

alternative hypothesis (H1) is accepted and the null hypothesis (H0) is rejected.

This means that the hypothesis “There is a significance difference of the

students’ writing ability before and after teaching through chain card games” is

accepted (p = .05. df = 24). And this also means that chain card games could

significantly improve the students’ writing ability in making simple sentences,

compound and complex sentences.

31
B. Discussion

The research finding indicates that the students’ ability in writing is

increase by using Chain Card Games. The description of the result of simple

sentences, compound and complex sentences test showed the increasing of the

students’ ability on writing trough Chain Card Games.

This finding is not surprising the writer as all steps in the Chain Card

Games had successfully been conducted. Since the beginning of the treatment the

students are involved to determine what topics they wanted to speak about. The

table below showed the students’ involvement.

Table 11
The Students’ Involvement in writing sentence through Chain Card Games
N Involved No involved
f % f %
30
30 100 0 -

This is happened until the end of the treatment. All students are active and

give participation in doing all the tasks given.

Another thing that supports the success the method is that Chain Card

Games encourages the students’ communicative skill and intrinsic motivation as

said the previous chapter. This is encouraged through self-determination. The

students learn fun by using the card. They do the games to study by themselves

freely, and planned their own way by their own team.

32
The way the students interacted during treatment was also one thing that

supported the success of Chain Card Games. The process of learning was done

through mutual interaction. Each group members used the cards to make any

sentences and then helped another friend as the group decision. In that way the

students felt quite admitted their existence.

Besides motivation, communicative skill and also interaction, the learning

atmosphere is also one factor that supports the success of Chain Card Games.

During the treatment, the students are given freedom to play the card and making

sentences as much as they can. The teacher is there just to facilitate and help the

students who really needed supervision.

CHAPTER V

CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

A. Conclusions

After conducting the research about Chain Card Games in the students’

writing ability at SMP GUPPI Samata Gowa and based on the research findings in

the previous chapter, the writer puts forward the following conclusions:

1) Chain Card Games is one of effective teaching method in improving

the students’ writing ability. It is indicate by the research that has

been done at SMP GUPPI SAMATA. The research findings indicate

that the students’ writing ability in making simple, compound and

complex sentences is significantly improve through the application

of chain card games. The students’ mean score increased from which

classified as fair to good where categorized as average to good score

33
2) Chain Card Games can improve the students’ writing ability. It is

analyzed through the hypothetical testing which show that the t-

value of vocabulary is greater than t-table (5.29>2.54), then the t-

value of grammar is greater also than t-table (5.88>2.54) and t-value

of pronunciation is greater than t-table (12.08>2.54).

3) Chain Card Games involves the students into the actual activities,

build their critical thinking by learning in mutual cooperation and

create their communicative smartly to perform the success result of

teaching and learning.

B. Suggestion

Concerning to the conclusions above, the writer puts some suggestions as

follows:

1. Chain Card Games is expected to be a reference for the teacher in

teaching writing as one alternatives teaching method.

2. Besides, Chain Card Games can be applied for the other language skills,

such us speaking, or the other subjects of English

3. Chain Card Games is a better method to improve the students’ writing

ability; the students are expected to increase their intensity learning

writing through chain card games.

4. The teacher should be more creative to manage the method for teaching

writing ability.

34
5. The researchers in the future are suggesting that they could use these

research findings to investigate the students’ achievement in writing,

speaking, vocabulary or the other English subjects.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Byrny, Donn. 1998. Teaching Writing Skill. Longman. London.

Calderonello, Al and Edwards. Jr. 1984. Roughdraft: The Process of WritingT.


Boston Haughton Miffin Company.

Debdikbud. 1985. Petunjuk Pelaksanaan Praktek Belajar Mengajar dan Petunjuk


Pelaksanaan Sistem Penelitian. Jakarta. Depdikbud.

Elirlich, Eugene. 1997. Punctuation Capitalization and Spelling. New York: Mc


Graw Hill Book Company.

Gay. L. R. 1981. Education Research. Merrun Publisher Company.

Harris. DR 2009. (www.geoticies. com).

Hoiston, Maxine. 1986. Contemporary Composition, Boston Haughton Miff in


Company.

Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, MB., and Cope, J. A. 1986. Foreign Language


Classroom anxiety. The Modern Language Journal 70 (2): 152-132.

Jacobs. Holly. L. et al. 1981. Testing ESL Composition a Practical Approach


London. Newbury House Publisher Inc.

Lever, J.M. et al. Four Words of Writing Washington DC. Forum. Volume. XXVI
No. 1.

35
Mcdougel, 1998. The Language Literature and Writers
www.kimskorner4teachertalk.com.

Miffin Haughton. 1984. Grammar and Composition (45)

Nuyen, N. T. T. and Nga, K. T. T. 2003. The Effectiveness of Learning


Vocabulary Through Games. Asian TEFL Journal 5. http://www. Asian-
efl-journal.com/dec.o3-sub.van.html (Accessed September 25, 1004).

Pak Guru Online http://pelawiselatan.blogspot.com/2009/08

Pappas . 1990. International Language Perspective in the Elementary School.

Parasad, U. 2003. Achieving Communicative Competence in English. India’s


National Newspaper (29, July). http://www.hindo.com/the
hindu/edu/2003/07/09/stories/20030729000 10200.htm (Accessed
September 25, 2004).
Ricard, Noudquist. 2007. Grammar and Composition.
http://www.grammar.about.com.

Scaricoban, A and Metin, E. 2003. Songs, Verse and Games For Teaching
Grammar. The Internet TSL Journal 6 (10).
Htt://iteslj.org/techniques/Scaricoban.songs.html (Accessed September
27,2004).

Trienekens, Jacques H. 1998. Management of Processes in Chains, a Research


Framework, Ph. D. Thesis Wageningen University.

Uberman, A. 1998. The Use of Games: For Vocabulary Presentation and


Revision. English Teaching Forum 36 (1): 20.
http://exchanges.state.gov/forum/vols/vol 136/nol/p20.htm (Accessed
September 27, 2004).

Wilkipedia. 2009 in http://en.wilkipedia.org/wiki/cardgame.


http://www.answer.com/topic/simple-sentence 2009. Wilkipedia, 2009 in
http://answer.com/topic/simple-sentence

36
37
A. The students’ Pre-test in writing sentence
PRE-TEST AND POST TEST MEAN SCORE
SIMPLE SENTENCE
PRE- POST- ∑D ∑D²
TEST TEST
1 75 85 10 100
2 45 85 40 1600
3 40 70 30 900
4 40 60 20 400
5 45 80 35 1225
6 70 75 5 25
7 40 80 40 1600
8 45 60 15 225
9 45 75 30 900
10 50 85 35 1225
11 40 90 50 2500
12 85 80 -5 25
13 40 90 50 2500
14 70 70 0 0
15 70 70 0 0
16 45 50 5 25
17 40 50 10 100
18 55 60 5 25
19 70 60 -10 100
20 40 70 30 900
21 40 50 10 100
22 40 60 20 400
23 40 60 20 400
24 65 65 0 0
25 40 50 0 0
26 45 50 5 25
27 40 50 10 100
28 45 60 15 225
29 85 90 5 25
30 40 40 0 0
SUM 1530 2020 480 15650
Mean Sco. 51 67.33333 16

B.
PRE-TEST AND POST TEST MEAN SCORE
COMPLEX SENTENCE
PRE- POST- ∑D ∑D²

38
No. ELEMENT SCORING
Jumla Rata-
Respon SIMPLE Compound
Complex h Rata
den SENT. Sent.
1 75 75 50 200 66.67
2 45 75 60 180 60.00
3 40 60 55 155 51.67
4 40 60 40 140 46.67
5 45 60 60 165 55.00
6 70 45 45 160 53.33
7 40 45 50 135 45.00
8 45 70 45 160 53.33
9 45 70 65 180 60.00
10 50 70 60 180 60.00
11 40 40 60 140 46.67
12 85 70 40 195 65.00
13 40 70 45 155 51.67
14 70 40 65 175 58.33
15 70 70 70 210 70.00
16 45 60 50 155 51.67
17 40 60 50 150 51.67
18 55 60 55 170 56.67
19 70 60 55 185 61.67
20 40 65 55 160 53.33
21 40 50 70 160 53.33
22 40 55 75 170 56.67
23 40 55 70 165 55.00
24 65 60 60 185 61.67
25 40 40 60 140 46.67
26 45 50 60 155 51.67
27 40 50 45 135 45
48.333
45 55 45
28 145 33
29 85 45 50 180 60
48.333
40 55 50
30 145 33
SUM 1530 1740 1660
Mean 55.33333
Sco. 51 58 333

D.
POST TEST

39
No. ELEMENT SCORING
Jumla Rata-
Respon SIMPLE Compound Comple h Rata
den SENT. Sent. x
1 85 80 60 225 75.00
2 85 80 70 235 78.33
3 70 75 60 205 68.33
4 60 75 60 195 65.00
5 80 65 75 220 73.33
6 75 85 60 220 73.33
7 80 90 65 235 78.33
8 60 85 65 210 70.00
9 75 80 70 225 75.00
10 85 85 70 240 80.00
11 90 85 70 245 81.67
12 80 80 60 220 73.33
13 90 85 65 240 80.00
14 70 90 75 235 78.33
15 70 75 70 215 71.67
16 50 80 65 195 65.00
17 50 80 65 195 65.00
18 60 80 70 210 70.00
19 60 90 70 220 73.33
20 70 60 75 205 68.33
21 50 70 80 200 66.67
22 60 55 85 200 66.67
23 60 90 90 240 80.00
24 65 75 90 230 76.67
25 50 60 80 190 63.33
26 50 60 85 195 65.00
61.666
50 55 80
27 185 67
28 60 50 70 180 60
73.333
90 55 75
29 220 33
53.333
40 60 60
30 160 33
SUM 2020 2235 2135
Mean 67.33333 67.33333
Sco. 333 74.5 33

1.a. Pre-test Simple ( Mean Score)

40
X=
∑×
N

X = 1530

30

= 51

b. Post-test

X=
∑×
N

X = 2020

30

X = 67,3

c. The students’ Increasing Ability

% = X2-X1 100
×

X1

% = 67.3-51 100
×

67.3

% = 31, 96

41
1. Compound
A. Pretest mean score

X=
∑×
N

X = 1740

30

X= 50

b. Post-Test

X=
∑×
N

X= 2235

30

X = 74.5

C. The student’s Increasing Ability

% = X2-X1 100
×

X1

% = 74,5-58 x 100

58

% = 28.44

42
1. Complex
a. Pre-test (Mean Score)

X=
∑×
N

X = 1660

30

X = 55, 3

b. Post-Test

X=
∑×
N

X = 2135

30

X= 67, 3

c. The students’ Increasing Ability

% = X2-X1 100
×

X1

% = 67, 3-55,3 x 100

43
55, 3

% =21, 69

THE T-TEST VALUE FOR SIMPLE SENTENCE

2 = 15650

∑D

= 480

∑D

N = 30

=
D
∑D

= 480
D

30

= 16

t = D

∑ D − (∑ D ) 2
N
N (N – 1)
t = 16
15650-(480)
30

44
30 (30-1)
t= 16
15650-230400
30
30(29)
t= 16
15650-230400
30 (29)
870
t= 16
15650-7680
870
t= 16
7970
870

t = 16
9, 16

t = 16
3,026
T= 5, 29

The test of pre-test and post-test is = 5, 29

45
2. THE T-TEST VALUE FOR COMPOUND SENTENCE

2 = 13825

∑D
= 475

∑D
N = 30
=
D
∑D
N
= 475
D
30
= 15,83
t = D

∑ D − (∑ D ) 2
N
N (N – 1)
t = 15, 83
13825-(475)
30

46
30 (30-1)
t= 15,83
13825-22562520,83
30
30(29)
= 15,83
13825-7520,83
870
t= 15,38
6304.17
870

t = 15.83
7.2461

t = 15,38
2.69

T= 5, 88

C. THE T-TEST FOR COMPLEX SENTENCE

2 = 9025

∑D

= 475

∑D

N = 30
=
D
∑D
N
= 475
D
30

= 15, 83

47
t = D

∑ D − (∑ D ) 2
N
N (N – 1)

t = 15, 83
9025-(475)
30
30 (30-1)

t= 15,83
9025-225625
30
30(29)
t= 15,83
9025-7520.83
30 (29)
870
t= 15,83
1504, 17
870
t= 15, 83
1.72

t = 15,83
1, 31
t = 12.08
Instrumen Penelitian

Sekolah : SMP GUPPI Samata Gowa


Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris
Tingkat : VIII (Delapan)
Tahun Ajaran : 2009/2010

Arrange the words below into good sentences by using chain


card!

likes work there he to


48
1

says he it funny is
2..

alway he the cut and th branch leav


3.

In taking it of

the in gard leave sway the trees


4.
whe rain th of run is
n e

hand he washes his


5.

1……………………………………………………………………………………
…………….
2……………………………………………………………………………………
…………….
3……………………………………………………………………………………
…………….
4……………………………………………………………………………………
…………….
5……………………………………………………………………………………
…………….
Instrumen Penelitian

Sekolah : SMP GUPPI Samata Gowa


Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris
Tingkat : VIII (Delapan)
Tahun Ajaran : 2009/2010

49
Arrange the words below into good sentences by using chain
card!
1.
his washe warsidi Mr. hands

uses cream he soap the


2.

washes he warsi whil hand Mr


the
3. di e s .
uses crea the soap
m

4.
run is the rain

involv ofte warsidi childre Mr. to


5. es n n

th garde
take his care togeth of e n
er
1……………………………………………………………………………………
…………….
2……………………………………………………………………………………
…………….
3……………………………………………………………………………………
…………….
4……………………………………………………………………………………
…………….
5……………………………………………………………………………………
…………….

Instrumen Penelitian
Sekolah : SMP GUPPI Samata Gowa
Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris
Tingkat : VIII (Delapan)

50
Tahun Ajaran : 2009/2010

Arrange the words below into good sentences by using chain


card!
1.
Mr. washe warsidi
2.
flowe plants Warsid Mr. the
rs i

works she in mond from to


an
3. ay
offic frida
e y

4.
works sh

lives Bogo Tina in


5. r

1……………………………………………………………………………………
…………….
2……………………………………………………………………………………
…………….
3……………………………………………………………………………………
…………….
4……………………………………………………………………………………
…………….
5……………………………………………………………………………………
…………….

51
Instrumen Penelitian
Sekolah : SMP GUPPI Samata Gowa
Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris
Tingkat : VIII (Delapan)
Tahun Ajaran : 2009/2010

Arrange the words below into good sentences by using chain


card!
1.
telepo answe she the

goes with out friend her she


2.

work she begin at every nin da


3. s y
finish and at five
es

4.
types sh letter a

answe Tini while telepho the letter


5. rs ne

type she

1……………………………………………………………………………………
…………….
2……………………………………………………………………………………
…………….
3……………………………………………………………………………………
…………….
4……………………………………………………………………………………
…………….
5……………………………………………………………………………………
…………….

52
Instrumen Penelitian
Sekolah : SMP GUPPI Samata Gowa
Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris
Tingkat : VIII (Delapan)
Tahun Ajaran : 2009/2010

Arrange the words below into good sentences by using chain


card!
1.
Sya is name my

at live Sunggumina I
2.
sa

she and smart is beautiful


3.

4.
football I like

have I friend a
5.

1……………………………………………………………………………………
…………….
2……………………………………………………………………………………
…………….
3……………………………………………………………………………………
…………….
4……………………………………………………………………………………
…………….

53
5……………………………………………………………………………………
…………….

Instrumen Penelitian
Sekolah : SMP GUPPI Samata Gowa
Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris
Tingkat : VIII (Delapan)
Tahun Ajaran : 2009/2010

Arrange the words below into good sentences by using chain


card!
1.
nam is Rini her
2.
likes to she meatb eat

3.
kind also is she

4.
her I like

usuall she buys every day whe is


5. y n

is home
meatba seller the Passed by he
ll r

54
1……………………………………………………………………………………
…………….
2……………………………………………………………………………………
…………….
3……………………………………………………………………………………
…………….
4……………………………………………………………………………………
…………….
5……………………………………………………………………………………
…………….

Instrumen Penelitian
Sekolah : SMP GUPPI Samata Gowa
Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris
Tingkat : VIII (Delapan)
Tahun Ajaran : 2009/2010
Pre Test

1. Arrange the words below into good simple sentences!


1. English – writing – studying – are – the students (+)
2. Seriously – piano – plays – Ani (+)
3. fastly – runs – the cat (+)
4. walks – he – in hurry (+)
5. pen – buy – I – a (+)
6. Jessica – name – my – is
7. Nurse – is – a – Martha
8. Banana- I – like
9. Patient – she – looks – after – the
10. Playground – is – this – the
11. Food- is – tasty – the – very – this
12. School – is – it – big –a
13. Works – he – hard
14. Twenty – tables – are – there
15. I – cake – eat – a
16. Cook – my – mother- rice
17. Dinda – school – goes – everyday – to

55
18. Mamank – floor – the – sweeps
19. Nyrma – patients- the – treats
20. Reads- every – day – a – novel- Deni

1. Arrange the words below into good compound sentences!

1. English – John – speaks – and French – Mary – speaks


2. Anna – Azzam – Jakarta – to- goes – Bandung – to – goes- and
3. Slowly – quickly – eats – Irma – Ika –and – eats
4. And – the dog – stoles – fish – stoles – bone – the cat
5. A novel – Arham – and – reads – Isa – magazine – reads.
6. Santi – from – comes- Yogyakarta – comes – Ira – and – from – Makassar
7. Twelve- years- am – I – my- elder – sister- and- years – twenty – old
8. Blackboard – cleans – the – Ani – tables – cleans – Anti – the – and
9. Watches- Rita – show – entertainment - Uchi- cartoon –movie – watches –
and
10. Walks – quickly – Ifa- and- slowly – Irma – walks
11. Plays – Ayu – a – piano – and – a guitar – Ira – plays
12. Opens – Ika – her – and- her – opens- Ira – email.
13. Studies – Fitri – English – and – Hasna – her – lesson – studies –
Mathematic
14. Sits – a – desk – on – Anna – and – Wati – on – sits – a- chair.
15. Likes – Mount Tea- Yahya – Akmal – Green Tea – likes- and
16. Alqaf – a car – and – sells – Ridwan – motorcycle – a
17. Amin – Ika- loves – wiwin – Ida – and – loves
18. Teaches – Mr.Muin – Grammar – and – teaches – Mrs. Dewi – speaking.
19. Ewi – the- clothes – washes – Idha – and – washes – dishes – the.
20. Runs – Andi – fastly – Anggi – and – run – slowly

1. Arrange the words below into good complex sentences!


1. My room- Mr. Takur- to – came – I - was – when – sleeping
2. The – sway – when – it – the – trees- leaves – the ground – of – rain = runs
3. Goes- she – to – while – mother – school – her – cooks – mother – kitchen
– in – the
4. Anne – guitar – plays – a – while – sings – she – song – a
5. Sets – the – sky – on – sun – the- the – in- east – comes – when – the – it –
morning
6. Do-I-always – my – homework – school – after
7. Helps – usually – she – her – mother – after – homework – doing – her
8. Cries – Nita – always – her – when – mother – are – going – work - to
9. Was – playing – football – when – his – Andi – mother- him – called.
10. Early- Rita – came – school – to – when – was – going – to – Bali – her –
headmaster.
11. To – the – radio – while – sings – she – listens – a – song

56
12. Ten – was- years- old- I – moved – we – when – Australia – from
13. TV – watches – they – while – parents – are – they –newspaper- reading
14. Book – a – write – when – I – father – knocked – my – door – the
15. Prepare – dinner – our – we – my – mother – cooked – has – the – in –
kitchen-when.
16. Sitting – is- he – living – in – the – room – watching – while – film –a
17. A- new – recipe – she – tries- she – when – has – a – magazine – bought
18. Herman – working – is – computer – a – he – attended- while – a- call -
with
19. Talking – is – he – the- phone – on – his – when – mother – his –
screamed.
20. Always – he – does – homework – his – watching – television – after.

INSTRUMEN PENELITIAN
Sekolah : SMP GUPPI Samata Gowa
Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris
Tingkat : VIII (Delapan)
Tahun Ajaran : 2009/2010
Post-Test

1. Make ten simple sentences and write it down in your paper!


2. Make ten compound sentences and write it down in your
paper!
3. Make ten complex sentences and write its down in your paper!

57
4. Arrange the words below into good simple sentences!
1. stands – me – she – in front – of (+)
2. a – letter – writes – she (+)
3. play – football – they (+)
4. an – I – apple - bring (+)
5. we – drama – watch (+)
6. things – many – he - knows
7. editor – is – the - Herman
8. television – watch - they
9. cake – Rina - sells
10. noodles – eats - Zhie
11. rises – the - sun
12. sit – calmly - we
13. her – teeth – brushes - Ewi
14. doctor – is – my – father - a
15. Mandarin – course – language – takes- Rita – a
16. Buys – an – apple – Idah
17. Watermelon – hate – I
18. Rani – to – the – listens – radio
19. Meatballs – eat- we
20. Mangoes – some – are- there

1. Arrange the words below into good compound sentences!


1. My father – proposal – his - types – and – coffee – drinks – a - cup
2. Washes – my mother – and – the clothes - dries
3. The pool – swim – he – in – and – the park – runs - in
4. Dan – soccer – play – school- at – and – home – at – computer – his –
works - on
5. The radio – she – the car – and –drives – listens - to
6. Works – she – hospital – at – treats – and – patients - the
7. Comes – Irma – early – looks – and - happy
8. Zalsya- cries – loudly – and – speaks
9. Plays- Irgi – football – wins – and the - game

58
10. Wets- his – hair – and – Heri – uses – shampoo- a
11. Grammar – learn – we – he – and – learns - writing
12. Do – the students – exercise – collects – it - and
13. Usually – go – I – school – and – friends – my –also- to
14. Listen- to- we – her- explanation- the – write- teacher – and -
15. Needs – Iwan – liters – of – two – oil cooking – and – liter – a – sugar
- of
16. Bandung – go –t o – we – visit – and – our - grandmother
17. Makes- Rimba- paint – a – he- and – uses – airbrush - the
18. Meatball – eats – and – drinks – juice – orange - he
19. See – I – and – smell – flower – it - a
20. jumps – Andi – highly – Anggi – and – jumps – slowly

1. Arrange the words below into good complex sentences!


1. My mother – hand – her – washed- after – eaten – had -she
2. Me- he – cooking – visited – was – I - when
3. After – studying – slept - she
4. Was – action – doing – the robber – their – when – the boy – football -
watched
5. Entered- the window – when – the robber – to - the room – they –
after - broke
6. Gets – up – early – Susno – his – mother- when – comes – to – home -
his
7. Sending – was- Rani Juliani – message- a – Antasari – when – her -
called
8. Talked – to Edo – Wiliardi – when – Ary – coming - was
9. Go fishing- I – Jamil – when – his – room – in - studying
10. Paper – the – cuts – he –puts – it the- on- table - paper
11. Cleaned – the classroom – the headmaster- when – punishing – was -
Ardi
12. TV- watched – when – policemen – were- the- coming- we
13. Picnic – we – went – visiting- while – picnic - grandparents
14. Lili – her – homework- after- does – praying Isya
15. Helps- Ewi – Ida – when – is – washing – she - dishes.
16. Invited- the headmaster – his teachers- was- he – when – his birthday -
celebrating
17. Got up – Ifa- early – going – to – before - school
18. Late- he – comes- when – lived – he – the village - at
19. Always – my mother – happy – we – when – got A – school - at
20. Gives- always – reward – a – she – her student – was – when – good.

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