MATERIALS and their PROPERTIES

Year 7 Lesson Notes

Overview

Topic 1 - N.C. Ref. 1a,1b - Solids, liguids and gases 1. Lesson 1 - Solids

) Lesson 2 - Liquids

, Lesson 3 - Gases

-+ Lesson 4 - Summary of Solids, Liquids. Gases

5. Lesson 5 - 'h lesson revision + 'h lesson Year 7 Test One

Topic 2 - N.C. Ref. 1e, 1f - Elements and Compounds

1. Lesson 1 - Looking at Elements

2. Lesson 2 - Making a Compound

3. Lesson 3 - Summary of Elements and Compounds

4. Lesson 4 - 'h lesson revision + 'h lesson Year 7 Test Two

Topic 3 - N.C. Ref. 1 h, 11 - Mixtures and their Separation

1. Lesson 1 - What is a Mixture? Types of Mixture

2. Lessons 2 + 3 - To Obtain Pure Salt from Rock Salt

3. Lesson 4 - To Obtain Pure water from Salt Water

4. Lesson 5 - To See if Screened Methyl Orange contains more than One Dye

5. Lesson 6 - Was the Cheque Forged?

6. Lesson 7 - To Separate Oil from Water ( a miscible from an immiscible liquid) To Separate Alcohol from Water ( two miscible liquids)

7. Lesson 8 - 'h lesson revision + 'h lesson Year 7 Test Three

Topic 4 - N.C. Ref. 1a,1b,1c,1d,1e - Physical Changes

1. Lesson 1 - Physical Changes

2. Lesson 2 - A Soluble Problem

3. Lesson 3 - Stains

4. Lesson 4 - It all Depends on the Temperature

5. Lesson 5 - Change of State and Energy Changes

6. Lesson 6 - Expansion and Contraction

7. Lesson 7 - 'h lesson revision + 'h lesson Year 7 Test Four

Sc1 - An Investigation on the Boiling of Water 5 Lessons

Topic 5 - N.C. Ref. 20, 2p - Chemical Reactions

1. Lesson 1 - Energy Transfers

2. Lesson 2 - Fossil Fuels and the Environment

3. Lesson 3 - 'h lesson revision + 'h lesson Year 7 Test Five

Topic 1 - N.C. Ref. 1a,1b Solids. liguids and gases

Lesson 1- Solids

Lesson Objectives

• to know that solids have a fixed shape

• to know that solids have a fixed volume

• to know how particles are packed in a solid - in rows, close together, only vibrate

• given a substance or its properties, say if it is a solid or not

• as a result of these properties to know that solids are used for support/to build things

Lesson Reguirements

10 sets, each set consisting of

• an ignition tl!_be ( or clear small 1 1 crrr' block)

• small 11 ern" cube wooden block

• piece of plastercine

• coloured lego block

• worksheet "It's a solid" from Starting Science Resource Pack One Pg. 118

Suggested Lesson Plan

• arrange pupils into groups of 3 (suggest gender mix)

• give out worksheet "It's a solid" and ask pupils to put heading in their books "It's a solid"

• pupils write in their books the writing in the top box on the worksheet

• pupils follow the worksheet

• pupils who finish quickly could, for solids in the laboratory, make a table as below

Solid

What makes it a Solid?

• at end of lesson (time allowed will depend on group) use properties of solids to come up with the following model for particle packing in solids

If Teacher Absent

Starting Science Book 1 Pg. 33, 34, 35 - read and answer questions (full set of answers available)

Homework

Make a table as above for 8 solids at home

Solid

What makes it a solid?

Risk Assessment

• at start of lesson remind pupils not to let ignition tubes roll off the bench

• remind pupils to obey Lab. Rules

2

Lesson 2 - Liguids

Lesson Objectives

• to know that liquids have no fixed shape (they take the shape of the container)

• to know that liquids have a fixed volume

• to know how particles are packed in a liquid - not in a particular way, close together, moving about and changing places

• given a substance or its properties, say if it is a liquid or not

• as a result of these properties to know that liquids are used for pouring and passing through pipes

Lesson Reguirements

10 sets, each set consisting of

• 100 crrr' measuring cylinder

• 250 crrr' conical flask

• 250 ern" beaker (plastic of glass)

• water dyed red

• water dyed blue

• worksheet "It's a liquid" from Starting Science Resource Pack One Pg. 119

Suggested Lesson Plan

• arrange pupils into groups of 3 (suggest gender mix)

• give out worksheet "It's a liquid" and ask pupils to put heading in their books "It's a liquid"

• pupils follow the worksheet

• pupils who finish quickly could, for liquids in the laboratory, make a table as below

Liquid

What makes it a Liquid?

• at end of lesson (time allowed will depend on group) use properties of liquids to come up with the following model for particle packing in liquids

If Teacher Absent

Science Book 1 Pg. 33, 34, 35 - read and answer questions (full set of answers available)

Homework

Make a table as above for 8 liquids at home.

Liquid

What makes it a Liquid?

Risk Assessment

• at start of lesson remind pupils not to spill the liquids and to clean up if they do

• remind pupils to do homework purely from observing liquids at home (don't pour away expensive perfume)

• remind pupils to obey Lab. Rules

3

6

Lesson 3 - Gases

Lesson Objectives

• to know that gases have no fixed shape (they take the shape of the container)

• to know that gases have no fixed volume

• to know that gases can be compressed

• to know how particles are packed in a gas - not in a particular way, far apart, very fast moving in all directions

• given a substance or its properties, say if it is a gas or not

• as a result of these properties to know that gases are used for filling vehicle tyres

Lesson Reguirements

• 2 litre margarine carton

• test tube

• 10 ern" plastic syringe

• worksheet "It's a gas", from Starting Science Resource Pack One Pg. 120

1 bunged boiling tube of bromine vapour as a demo. on the front bench for pupils to look at (not touch)

Starting Science book One

Suggested Lesson Plan

• arrange pupils into groups of 3 (suggest gender mix)

• give out worksheet "It's a gas" and ask pupils to put heading in their books "It's a gas"

• pupils follow the worksheet but omit 5 on the worksheet except for just looking at bromine

• ask pupils to put a finger over the end of an open syringe of air and see if they can press in the plunger a little

• pupils who finish quickly could read Starting Science book One Pg. 34, 35 and answer the questions

• at end of lesson (time allowed will depend on group) use properties of gases to come up with the following model for particle packing in liquids

o

If Teacher Absent

Starting Science Book 1 Pg. 33, 34, 35 - read and answer questions (full set of answers available)

Homework

Make a table for 8 gases.

Gas

What makes it a Gas? .

Risk Assessment

• remind pupil not to touch the tube of bromine vapour/gas

• remind pupils to obey Lab. Rules

4

Lesson 4 - Summary of Solids, Liquids, Gases

Lesson Objectives

• to summarise the key properties and uses of solids. liquids and gases using knowledge from lessons 2.3.and 4

Lesson Requirements

• class set of the worksheet "Solids, liquids and gases' Summary. from Starting Science Resource Pack One Pg. 138

• coloured pencils

Suggested Lesson Plan

• give out worksheet "Solids, liquids and gases" Summary and ask pupils to put heading in their books Solids. liquids and qases Summary

• at start of lesson "brainstorm" and put key facts from pupils on the board

• ask them then to do a double page spread/mind map summarising the properties and used of solids, liquids and gases.

If Teacher Absent

Using Starting Science Book 1 Pg. 33, 34, 35, ask the pupils to do a double page summary of solids, liquids and gases

Homework

• revise for test next lesson

Risk Assessment

• remind pupils to obey Lab. Rules

5

,0

Lesson 5 -112 lesson revision + 112 lesson Year 7 Test One

Lesson Requirements

• class set of "Year 7 Test One"

• file paper ( pupils do not write on the test papers which are collected in and returned to filing cabinet)

Suggested Lesson Plan

The test will take about % lesson depending on group: a top group will manage the test unaided, a lower group may need the questions read out and/or explained to them.

6

Year 7 Test One - Solids, liquids and gases Answer All Questions on File Paper

01)

box 1

box 2

box 3

solid

liquid

gas

On your file paper, copy out the three boxes above. Label box 1 solid, box 2 liquid and box 3 gas as above.

• in box 1 draw how the particles are arranged in a solid

• in box 2 draw how the particles are arranged in a liquid

• in box 3 draw how the particles are arranged in a gas (3 marks)

02)
Arrangement of Solid Liquid Gas
Particles
close together
far apart
in a regular pattern
random Copy the above table onto your file paper and tick two boxes in each vertical column to describe how particles are arranged in a solid. a liquid and a gas.

(6 marks)

03)

Movement of Particles Solid Gas
move around slowly
move around quickly
only vibrate Copy the above table onto your file paper and tick one box in each vertical column to describe the movement of particles, at room temperature, in a solid and in a gas.

(2 marks)

04)

~ Solid Liquid Gas
p
Has a fixed shape
Has a fixed volume
Can flow
Can be squashed Copy the above table onto your file paper and tick the boxes to show the correct properties shown by each state

(6 marks)

05)

Explain why air in tyres gives a comfortable ride,

(3 marks)

Total 20 marks

7

\1-

Topic 2 - N.C. Ref. 1e, 1f Elements and Compounds

Lesson 1- Looking at Elements

Lesson Objectives

• to know that the simplest chemicals are elements and that they cannot be broken down

into anything simpler

• to know that there are just over 100 elements

• to know there are 21 non-metal elements and just over 80 metal elements

• to familiarise pupils with some common elements and their uses

Lesson Reguirements

• Starting Science Book 1

• periodic table - class set

• worksheet "Looking at elements" from Starting Science Resource Pack One Pg. 126 - one per group

• a bunged and taped thick ignition tube containing Yz cm. depth of mercury inside a bunged and taped thick test tube with a piece of cotton wool in the bottom and labelled mercury

• a bunged and taped thick test tube containing chlorine gas and labelled chlorine - have some white paper at the back so the colour of the chlorine can be more clearly seen

10 sets of the following, each set in a 250cm3 plastic beaker

• a bunged, taped, and labelled test tube containing sulphur powder

• a bunged, taped, and labelled test tube containing copper turnings

• a bunged, taped, and labelled test tube containing iodine

• a bunged, taped, and labelled test tube containing aluminium

• a bunged, taped, and labelled test tube containing tin

• a bunged, taped, and labelled test tube containing air but labelled oxygen

• a bunged, taped, and labelled test tube containing nickel

• a bunged, taped, and labelled test tube containing iron filings

Suggested Lesson Plan

• arrange pupils into groups of 3 (suggest gender mix)

• give out periodic tables

• give out worksheet "Looking at elements" and ask pupils to put heading in their books "Looking at elements"

• pupils follow the worksheet

• give a summary at end and give answers to the uses of the elements on worksheet

If Teacher Absent

Starting Science Book 1 Pg. 44 - read and answer questions (full set of answers available)

Homework

Starting Science Book 1 Pg. 44 - read and answer questions

Risk Assessment

• remind pupils to keep samples in plastic beakers and not let the tubes break

• instruct pupils not to remove bungs from tubes

• supervise the pupils with the tubes of mercury and chlorine at the front

• remind pupils to obey Lab. Rules

8

13ct

LESSON 20 - Mixtures and Compounds

JAB 23

Risk Assessment

Goggles, standing for practical work ~nd good laboratory practice as per laboratory rules.

Objectives

1) To know and understand how a compound behaves.

2) To kno\~ and understand the differences between a mixture and a compound.

Lesson Notes

The same 5 tests are then carried out on a heated ~ixture of iron and sulphur.

TEST RESULT WITH HEATED IfWN AND SULPHUR mXTURE I
1) Appearance all black solid I
-, .~,
2) Action of heat q l ows red
3) Action of wat e r all sinks
;
4) Action of aCld hydrogen sulphide gas evolved (care)
5) Action of a all the solid is attracted
magnet Upon heating, the components of the mixture join together so tightly that they lose their separate identities and form an entirely new substance wh i ch behaves di fferently from either of the elements mak i.nq it up. This new substance is called a compound. The compound f o rrned when iron and sulphur mixture is heated is called iron sulphide. The differences between a mixture and a compound are summarized below.

Hixture I Compound .1

1) consists of two or more consists of a single substance
substances
2) behaves like the separate behaves as something new
substances making it up
3) can have a variable cornpo s i tion has a fixed composition
4) can be separated easily can be separated only by a chernical
by physical means reaction JAB 22

Lesson ;·~otes

Consider the following tests on the two elements iron and sulphur.

TEST I RESULT III TH IRON RESULT ','/1 TH SULPHUR i
1 ) Appearance I dark grey crystals canary ye l Low powce r
2) Action of heat q l ows red darkens ln colour, melts
to a dark brown liquid
then vaporizes to orange
vapour.
3) Action of wa t e r sinks floats
4) Action of acid reacts to produce no visible reaction
hydrogen gas
5) ,f\c t i on of a 1 attractec:i not attracted magnet

From the above it is clearly seen that iron and sulphur are two very different elements. The above 5 tests are then caried out on a mixture of iron and sulphur.

TEST RESULT ill TH IRON AND SULPHUR mXTURE
,
1 ) Appearance dark grey crystals and canary ye Ll ow powder
2) Act i on or heat black solid forms l.excess sulphur comes off)
I
3) Action or water mixture separates (iron sinks, sulphur floats)
14) Ac t i on of acid lron ln mixture reacts to produce hydrogen gas,
sulphur in mixture glves no visible reaction
5) Action of a mixture separates (iron attracted, sulphur not
magnet attracted) From the above it can be seen that the components of a mixture behave as when they are on their own - ie. they retain their separate identities. They can easily be separated by simple physical processes like a magnet and I'/ater.

See JAB for details of practical.

Lesson 2- Making a Compound

Lesson Objectives

• to appreciate that the vast number of chemicals arise from only 100 or so elements by their undergoing chemical reactions to form compounds

• to know that a compound is a substance formed when two or more elements chemically combine/react

• to appreciate that many compounds are formed when metal elements chemically combine/react with non-metal elements

• to know that when a non-metal element combines with a metal element it changes its ending

Lesson Requirements

10 sets, each set consisting of

• worksheet "Making a compound" from Starting Science Resource Pack One Pg. 128

• tin lid

• copper powder

• sulphur powder

• small spatula

Suggested Lesson Plan

• Making a compound"

• pupils follow the worksheet

• give a summary at end saying that many compounds are formed by a metal element and a non-metal element chemically combining

• give the following equations for the reaction they did

copper + sulphur

>

copper sulphide

Cu + S

>

CuS

• compare the non-metal element changing its name to a woman changing her name upon marriage

Hints

• put the tin lid on one corner of the tripod - no gauze

• spread the copper and sulphur mixture out over the tin lid

• heat just one part of the mixture and watch the reaction spread through the whole mixture

• heat from below with the tip of the blue flame

If Teacher Absent

Starting Science Book 1 Pg. 45 - read and answer questions (full set of answers available)

Homework

Starting Science Book 1 Pg. 45 - read and answer questions

Risk Assessment

• pupils must stand and wear goggles for all practical work

• pupils must take care not to knock the tin off the tripod

• remind pupils to obey Lab. Rules

9

Lesson 3 - Summary of Elements and Compounds

Lesson Objectives

• to summarise the key points from lessons 1 and 2 on elements and compounds

Lesson Requirements

• Starting Science Book 1

• class set of the worksheet "Elements and compounds" Summary. from Starting Science Resource Pack One Pg. 140

• coloured pencils

Suggested Lesson Plan

• give out worksheet "Elements and compounds" Summary and ask pupils to put heading in their books Elements and compounds Summary

• at start of lesson "brainstorm" and put key facts from pupils on the board

• ask them then to do a double page spread/mind map summarising the key points from the last 2 lessons

• pupils check their answers to questions from Starting Science Book 1, Pg. 45

If Teacher Absent

Lesson can go ahead as planned apart from brainstorming session

Homework

• revise for test next lesson

Risk Assessment

• remind pupils to obey Lab. Rules

10

Lesson 4 -% lesson revision + V2 lesson Year 7 Test Two

Lesson Reguirements

• class set of "Year 7 Test Two"

• file paper ( pupils do not write on the test papers which are collected in and returned to filing cabinet)

Suggested Lesson Plan

The test will take about V2 lesson depending on group: a top group will manage the test unaided. a lower group may need the questions read out and/or explained to them.

11

Year 7 Test Two - Elements and Compounds Answer All Questions on File Paper

01) What do you understand by the word element? (2 marks)

02) What do you understand by the word compound? (2 marks)

03) What do you have to do to cause copper and sulphur to combine/react

chemically? (2 marks)

04) Write the word equation for the formation of the compound from copper

and sulphur. (1 mark)

05) Write the symbol equation for the formation of the compound from copper

and sulphur. (2 marks)

06) Name the elements ( two in each case) that combine to form the following compounds:

a) water

b) carbon dioxide

c) magnesium oxide

d) common salt

e) sand

(5 marks)

07) Copy onto your answer sheet the 6 substances below and at the side of each write:

e - if you think the substance is an element c - if you think the substance is a compound

mercury water

copper oxide aluminium

sugar iron

(6 marks)

Total 20 marks

12

Topic 3 - N.C. Ref. 1h. 11 Mixtures and their Separation

Lesson 1 - What is a Mixture? Types of Mixture

Lesson Objectives

• to understand what is meant by a mixture

• to know some examples of mixtures such as air, soil and sea water

• to know different types of mixture, with examples, and the techniques used to separate them

Lesson Reguirements

• filter paper + filter funnel or glass hook

• 2 boiling tubes

• separating funnel

• mixture of oil and water

• iron and sulphur mixture

• bar magnet

• sheet of paper

Suggested Lesson Plan

This first lesson is a discussion cum demonstration lesson to set the scene for the remaining lessons of this topic

• initially ask if anyone knows what a mixture is, with a view to arriving at - a mixture is something which contains two or more substances that are not chemically combined

• discuss air, soil and sea water as examples of mixtures because they each contain two or more substances that are not chemically combined

• ask pupils to put Topic 3 - N.C. Ref. 1 h. 11 Mixtures and their Separation Lesson 1 - What is a Mixture? Types of Mixture in their books

• write on the board the following types of mixture together with an example:

1. a soluble solid and an insoluble solid - e.g. - salt and sand

2. an insoluble solid and a liquid - e.g. - sand and water

3. a soluble solid and water - e.g. - salt and water

4. two insoluble solids - e.g. - iron and sulphur

5. two soluble solids - e.g. - the dyes in ink

6. two immiscible liquids ( two liquids that do not mix) - e.g. oil and water

7. two miscible liquids (two liquids that do mix) - e.g. alcohol and water

• with discussion come up with the following techniques for their separation

1. dissolution, filtration, evaporation

2. filtration (part of 1 above)

3. filtration (part of 1 above) if we want the solid, simple distillation if we want the liquid bring out here the words solute (the salt) and solvent (the water)

4. technique used depends on the two solids - illustrate here the use of a magnet to separate the iron from the sulphur - hint- have the iron and sulphur on a sheet of paper and move the magnet underneath

If Teacher Absent

Starting Science Book 1 Pg. 6, 62 - read and answer questions (full set of answers available)

13

/'

Homework

Starting Science Book 1 - answer questions on Pg. 6

Risk Assessment

• remind pupils to obey Lab. Rules

Lessons 2 + 3 - To Obtain Pure Salt from Rock Salt

Lesson Objectives

• to know how to separate a soluble from an insoluble solid

• to be able to perform competently the techniques involved

Lesson Requirements

sand and salt mixture (100 ern") 10 sets, each set consisting of

• 5cm3 plastic spoon

• 2 pyrex boiling tubes

• glass hook

• filter paper

• stirring rod with rubber policeman

• 1/3 splint as a boiling stick

• evaporating basin

Suggested Lesson Plan

• the lesson can begin with a short discussion of how to separate a soluble from an

insoluble solid

• the teacher should then demonstrate the apparatus used in the experiment

• arrange pupils into groups of 3 (suggest gender mix)

• the pupils are given a boiling tube containing about 5cm3 of the sand/salt mixture

• they add water (carefully) to the tube until it is about 1/3 full

• they carefully stir with the glass rod with rubber policeman and carefully warm (do not boil) the boiling tube (have 1/3 splint in tube as a boiling stick) - see JAB

• then filter as below:

~ ~ filter paper

glass hOOk ~/l\\Tr-

o

o

o

residue (sand)

filtrate (salt solution)

• pour filtrate into evaporating basin and evaporate. Care - stand and turn off Bunsen if spitting starts

• salt remains in the evaporating basin

KeyWords

Filtration - used to separate an insoluble substance from a liquid or solution Dissolution - the breaking down into tiny bits/particles of a soluble substance in a liquid

14

Residue - the insoluble substance that remains in the filter paper after filtration Filtrate - the liquid or solution that comes through the filter paper during filtration Evaporation - changing a liquid into a vapour

If Teacher Absent

Starting Science Book 1 Pg. 6, 62 - read and answer questions (full set of answers available)

Homework

Using labelled diagrams only, show how sugar can be obtained from a sugar and coal dust mixture

Risk Assessment

• pupils must stand for practical work

• the teacher should demonstrate the various techniques involved before the pupils do the experiment

• when heating liquids in boiling/test tubes, the use of a "boiling stick" is recommended to help prevent liquids coming out of the tube

• check evaporating basin sits securely on gauze

• remind pupils to obey Lab. Rules

15

Lesson 4 - To Obtain Pure water from Salt Water

Lesson Objectives

• to know that simple distillation is the technique used to obtain a pure liquid from dissolved solids

• to be able to perform competently simple distillation

Lesson Reguirements silver nitrate solution

wash bottle of distilled water 1 litre of salt water

10 sets, each set consisting of

• pyrex boiling tube + bung + delivery tube

• pyrex test tube washed with distilled water

• 250 ern" beaker

Suggested Lesson Plan

• the lesson can begin with a short discussion of how to separate a solvent from a solution

• the teacher should then demonstrate the use of aqueous silver nitrate to distinguish between pure water (distilled) and salt water - the latter forms a white precipitate of insoluble silver chloride (only 2 drops of aqueous silver nitrate are needed)

• the pupils distil salt water as shown below:

delivery tube

1 1

cold water

distillate of pure water

gentle heat

Hints

• do not let salt water boil too vigorously or it will go over into the test tube - suggest holding Bunsen in hand and moving it about - low blue flame.

• 1/2 class could do experiment without beaker of cold water and compare the amount of distillate with groups using the beaker - without beaker of cold water less distillate is obtained in the same amount of time. This could lead to the use of a Liebig condenser.

• test the salt water at start with aqueous silver nitrate - white precipitate

• test the distillate at end with aqueous silver nitrate - no precipitate

16

• it is important to wash out test tube and delivery tube with distilled water first because tap water will give a precipitate with aqueous silver nitrate

KeyWord

Distillation - vaporisation (liquid to vapour) followed by condensation (vapour to liquid)

If Teacher Absent

Starting Science Book 1 Pg. 62 - read and answer questions (full set of answers available)

Homework

Using labelled diagrams only, show how you could obtain pure water from a mug of coffee

Risk Assessment

• pupils must stand for practical work

• the teacher should demonstrate the various techniques involved before the pupils do the experiment

• remind pupils to obey Lab. Rules

17

Lesson 5 - To See if Screened Methyl Orange contains more than One Dye

Lesson Objectives

• to know that chromatography is the technique used to separate two or more soluble solids

• to give the pupils the fundamentals of chromatography

Lesson Reguirements

• screened methyl orange (small depth in two 50cm3 beakers)

• chromatography paper

10 sets, each set consisting of

• glass jets

• pyrex boiling tubes with corks and drawing pins

Suggested Lesson Plan

• by discussion with the pupils, build up the word chromatography from chrome - colour and tography - writing. Chromatography comes from Greek and means "colour writing"

• the type of chromatography we do is paper chromatography. Simply a concentrated spot of dye mixture solution is put onto a strip of chromatography paper (like blotting paper). The paper sits in the liquid with the spot above the level of the liquid. As the liquid rises up the paper it "washes" the dye/dyes with it up the paper. Different dyes stick to the paper differently: those sticking only loosely being washed up the paper further than those sticking tightly. Hence the dyes are separated.

cork III///;
V / / / drawing pin

chromatography paper

spot of dyes (screened
methyl orange)

r-- -
'------ liquid (water) • arrange pupils into groups of 3 (suggest gender mix)

Hints

• keep the boiling tube vertical or the colours will wash off the side

• ensure the spot is above the water level or it will simply wash off into the water

18

'a

thermometer

~

,1

fractionating ~~

column

containing ___

glass beads -----I -

round bottomed flask

water out

-t--- Liebig condenser

--::!::::-- .i.>:

=:::::::-:::::: --_

::::--.:- -'::::::---"'_

-~~-' jI---~'

II

water in ~:if;:l

--- f ~hollethanol

(distillate)

• boiling point of water = 100'C

• boiling point of ethanol = 78.3'C

• note the reading on the thermometer is 78'C showing the liquid distilling over is ethanol

• this liquid (ethanol) will burn if put into an evaporating basin and lit - extinguish by putting a gauze over the basin. The liquid remaining in the flask does not burn showing it to be water.

Hints

• do not have the round bottomed flask on a gauze or ring, simply have it clamped and heat holding the Bunsen in the hand (keeping it moving) with a small blue flame

• put a few anti-bumping granules in the flask

Key Word

Fractional distillation - used to separate a mixture of miscible liquids

If Teacher Absent

Co-ordinated Science Chemistry - Pg. 22, 23 read and answer questions on Pg, 23 (full set of answers available)

Homework

• revise for test next lesson

Risk Assessment

• this is a demonstration experiment but the teacher should try out the demonstration first

safety screen + goggles

• do not have pupils too near or on benches

• care - ethanol is flammable

• remind pupils to obey Lab. Rules

22

Results

top

/--1--------- yellow band,

O __ ~--------------~b~l~ue~b~an~d

..... initial spot

.~--+---------------

• the separate bands are called the chromatogram. Chromatography can be used to test the purity of a substance - if pure, a single spot will show up on the chromatogram; if impure, several spots will appear.

If Teacher Absent

Material World read Pg. 22 - 24 and answer questions on Pg. 25

Homework

Given a strip of chromatography paper, pupils could do some chromatography at home, using a spot of food colouring administered with a cocktail stick (obtain permission from parent first)

Risk Assessment

• pupils must stand and wear goggles for all practical work

• warn pupils not to push cork into tube too tightly or tube may break shooting out glass

• warn pupils to take care with glass jets - care not to stick them into themselves or others

• remind pupils to obey Lab. Rules

19

Lesson 6 - Was the Cheque Forqed ?

Lesson Objectives

• to be able to apply chromatography to solve a simple problem

Lesson Requirements

• two different samples of blue ink labelled "sample An and "sample B" (check they give

different chromatograms)

• chromatography paper

10 sets, each set consisting of

• glass jets

• pyrex boiling tubes with corks and drawing pins

Suggested Lesson Plan

B.lgears

Toytown Bank pic

Pay Mr A Forger ,-----------, Seventy Pounds Only 1-1 £_7_0_-=--=--=--=--=====.:?_0_.1

• the lesson can begin by drawing the above cheque on the board and then giving the story

• Ms A Noddy, chief of security at Toytown Bank, suspected that Mr A Forger had added the - ty and the -0 to change the amount from £7 to £70

• for bright groups ask how she could check her suspicion

• for less bright groups tell them Ms Noddy cut out the -ti off seventy, dissolved off the ink and ran a chromatogram on it. She did the same with ink from the signature - Igears and compared the two ink samples.

• arrange pupils into groups of 3 (suggest gender mix)

• ask the pupils to repeat Ms Noddy's experiment using the two ink samples.

• sample A - ink from the -ty

• sample B - ink from the -Igears

• ask the pupils if Mr Forger lived up to his name

KeyWords

Chromatography - the technique used to separate a mixture of soluble solids Chromatogram - the separate bands

If Teacher Absent

Continue with/or start Material World read Pg. 22 - 24 and answer questions on Pg. 25

Risk Assessment

• pupils must stand and wear goggles for all practical work

• warn pupils not to push cork into tube too tightly or tube may break shooting out glass

• warn pupils to take care with glass jets - care not to stick them into themselves or others

• remind pupils to obey Lab. Rules

20

Year 7 Test Three - Mixtures and Their Seoaration Answer All Questions on File Paper

[, . _' ,( ~ t "

01) What do you understand by the word mixture?

02) Below is a list of techniques used in the separation of mixtures:

dissolution filtration

simple distillation chromatography

fractional distillation evaporation

For each of the following mixtures. write down the technique or techniques (in the correct order) for separating them:

a) sand and salt mixture

b) obtaining salt from salt water

c) obtaining pure water from salt water

d) separating water and alcohol/ethanol

e) separating the dyes in smarties

03) Draw a labelled diagram to show how liquids A and B can be separated by fractional distillation

0.:1) Some sugar fell in the garden and became mixed with sand from the child's sand pit. Oescribe briefly how the sugar can be separated from the sand

05) Below are chromatograms of 3 dyes. ,A_ B, and C together with the chromatogram of a mixture of dyes.

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dye A

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dye B

dye C

dye mixture

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(3 marks) (1 mark) (1 mark) (1 mark) (1 mark)

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Total 20 marks

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24

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Lesson 7 - To Separate Oil from Water ( a miscible from an immiscible liquid) To Separate Alcohol from Water (two miscible liquids)

Lesson Objectives

• to know how to use a separating funnel to separate a miscible from an immiscible liquid

• to understand the process of fractional distillation

Lesson Requirements

• separating funnel

• fractional distillation apparatus

• oil and water mixture

• alcohol (ethanol)

• evaporating basin - to burn alcohol in

• gauze - to put over burning alcohol in order to extinguish flame

• -1 COC to 11 COC thermometer

• anti-bumping granules

Suggested Lesson Plan

• the lesson can begin by holding up the oil/water mixture and asking the class how it can be separated

• the teacher should then demonstrate the separating funnel - see below

oil

water

• run out the water leaving the oil behind

• then demonstrate the fractional distillation apparatus below to separate alcohol/ethanol

• from water

• start by burning a little ethanol in an evaporating basin (extinguish by putting gauze on top)

• then repeat the above with alcohol/ethanol - water mixture and show it does not burn

21

thermometer

fractionating column

containing ______

glass beads ~

round bottomed flask

_________ Liebig condenser

water in

• boilinq point of water = 1 oo-c

• boiling point of ethanol = 78.3°C

• note the reading on the thermometer is 78°C showing the liquid distilling over is ethanol

• this liquid (ethanol) will burn if put into an evaporating basin and lit - extinguish by putting a gauze over the basin. The liquid remaining in the flask does not burn showing it to be water.

Hints

• do not have the round bottomed flask on a gauze or ring, simply have it clamped and heat holding the Bunsen in the hand (keeping it moving) with a small blue flame

• put a few anti-bumping granules in the flask

KeyWord

Fractional distillation - used to separate a mixture of miscible liquids

If Teacher Absent

Co-ordinated Science Chemistry - Pg. 22, 23 read and answer questions on Pg. 23 (full set of answers available)

Homework

• revise for test next lesson

Risk Assessment

• this is a demonstration experiment but the teacher should try out the demonstration

first

• safety screen + goggles

• do not have pupils too near or on benches

• care - ethanol is flammable

• remind pupils to obey Lab. Rules

22

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Lesson 8 - % lesson revision + % lesson Year 7 Test Three

Lesson Requirements

• class set of "Year 7 Test Three"

• file paper ( pupils do not write on the test papers which are collected in and returned to filing cabinet)

Suqgested Lesson Plan

The test will take about % lesson depending on group: a top group will manage the test unaided, a lower group may need the questions read out and/or explained to them.

23

Topic 3 - N.C. Ref. 2a,2b,2c,2d,2e - Physical Changes

Lesson 1- Physical Changes

Lesson Objectives

• to appreciate that mass is conserved when a physical change takes place

• to appreciate that changes of state are physical changes

Lesson Reguirements

10 sets. each set consisting of

• ice cube

• top pan balance (two if possible)

• worksheet "All Change! (1) " from Starting Science Resource Pack One Pg. 121

• test tube containing 1/2 cm depth of salol

• kettle

• watch glass

• hand lens

Suggested Lesson Plan

• arrange pupils into groups of 3 (suggest gender mix)

• ask pupils to put ice cube in beaker and weight ice cube + beaker

• pupils note the weighing

• pupils carefully warm the beaker (holding it in the hand) over a small, blue Bunsen

flame to melt the ice cube

• when cool, the pupil weigh the beaker + melted ice and find the mass is the same

• pupils follow the worksheet "All Change! (1) "

• give a summary at end saying that:

"on heating the salol changes from the solid state to the liquid state. On cooling the salol changes back from the liquid state to the solid state. Thus changes of state are physical changes as they are easily reversible

If Teacher Absent

Co-ordinated Science Chemistry - Pg. 82, 83 read and answer questions on Pg. 83 (full set of answers available)

Homework

List 8 examples of physical changes together with the reason why they are physical changes

Risk Assessment

• pupils must stand and wear goggles for all practical work

• pupils must take care when they are heating the ice cube in the beaker

• remind pupils to obey Lab. Rules

25

Lesson 2 - A Soluble Problem

Lesson Objectives

• to appreciate that some solids are soluble(dissolve) in water and some are not

• to appreciate that if a pure liquid is evaporated nothing remains

• to appreciate that if a solution is evaporated a solid (solute) remains

Lesson Requirements

250 crrr' pyrex beaker containing distilled water labelled "A" 250 ern" pyrex beaker containing salt water labelled "B" labelled sample boiling tubes containing (/4 full of chemical):

• sodium bromide

• potassium chloride

• magnesium chloride

• calcium sulphate

• aluminium oxide

• talc

1 0 sets, each set consisting of

• 2 clean pyrex boiling tubes

• paper holders or test tube holders(care)

• worksheet "A soluble problem" from Starting Science Resource Pack One Pg. 152

• 250 ern? pyrex beaker

• stirring rod with rubber policeman

• spatula

Suggested Lesson Plan

• arrange pupils into groups of 3 (suggest gender mix)

• pupils follow the worksheet "A soluble problem"

• after looking at the water samples at the front, using the teat pipette in the beaker, pupils

put 1/2 cm depth of one of the samples into their boiling tube

• they then follow the worksheet

for the "more to do" section pupils can help themselves from the boiling tubes of chemicals - remind pupils to take only a small spatula measure of each chemical

• summarise lesson objectives at end

If Teacher Absent

Starting Science Book One - Pg. 55 - Read page and answer questions (answers available)

Homework

Starting Science Book One - Pg. 55 - Read page and answer questions

Risk Assessment

• pupils must stand and wear goggles for all practical work

• pupils must take care when they are heating the samples in the boiling tubes - they should keep the tube moving (difficult to do with test tube holders) and use a small blue flame

• remind pupils to obey Lab. Rules

26

Lesson 3 - Stains

Lesson Objectives

• to appreciate that there are solvents other than water (non-aqueous solvents)

• to appreciate that solutes have different solubilities in different solvents

Lesson Requirements

3 litre ice cream carton to put spotting tiles in at end small bottles with droppers, labelled as:

• meths

• paraffin

• white spirit

• propanone (labelled "nail varnish remover")

• 1,1,1- trichloroethane (labelled "correction fluid remover")

• water

small bottles with 1/3 splint in each, labelled as:

• grease

• tar

• nail varnish

10 sets, each set consisting of

• worksheet "Stains" from Starting Science Resource Pack One Pg. 155

• spotting tiles

Suqgested Lesson Plan

• pupils into groups of 3 (suggest gender mix)

• pupils follow the worksheet "Stains" except when solvent has been added, instead of blotting with rag simply look and see if the solvent is coloured by the stain

• to save time different groups use different stains so that each group tests one stain with all 6 solvents

• at the end ask pupils to put the spotting tile + contents into the large ice cream carton at

the front

• they then follow the worksheet

for the "more to do" section pupils can help themselves from the boiling tubes of chemicals - remind pupils to take only a small spatula measure of each chemical

• summarise lesson objectives at end

Hints

• Put just a small amount of stain in each spot on spotting tile with the splint

• Put just two drops of each solvent to the stain

If Teacher Absent

Starting Science Book One - Pg. 59 - Read page and answer questions (answers available)

Homework

Starting Science Book One - Pg. 59 - Read page and answer questions

Risk Assessment

• pupils must stand and wear goggles for all practical work (non-aqueous solvents can attack the cornea)

• pupils must take care when they are using pipettes instruct them to keep pipette vertical (dropper at top) and not squirt contents at anyone or across room

• remind pupils to obey Lab. Rules

27

Lesson 4 - It all Depends on the Temperature (1)

Lesson Objectives

• to appreciate that solutes have different solubilities at different temperatures

• to appreciate that generally, the solubility of a solute increases with temperature

• to know that rapid cooling produces small crystals: slow cooling produces large crystals

Lesson Reguirements

• copper sulphate powder

• kettle

• hot saturated solution of potassium nitrate (100 crrr' in a pyrex beaker will do)

• petri dish

• teat pipette

• OHP

10 sets, each set consisting of

• worksheet "It all depends on the temperature (1) " from Starting Science Resource Pack

One Pg. 154

• test tube

• spatula

• stirring rod + rubber policeman

• 250 ern" pyrex beaker

• scrap paper

Suggested Lesson Plan

• arrange pupils into groups of 3 (suggest gender mix)

• give each group some copper sulphate powder on some scrap paper - at end ask them to return unused copper sulphate and return to bottle

• pupils follow the worksheet "It all depends on the temperature (1) except for stage 4 - half the groups allow the copper sulphate solution to cool slowly, the other half cool the tube quickly under the cold tap (hold tube in sink to avoid water splashing - demonstrate to pupils)

• as a demo. cover the bottom of the petri dish sitting on the OHP (use pipette) with hot potassium nitrate solution and watch - as it cools the crystals can be seen "growing" on the screen.

• summarise lesson objectives at end

If Teacher Absent

Starting Science Book One - Pg. 56 - Read page and answer questions (answers available)

Homework

Starting Science Book One - Pg. 56 - Read page and answer questions

Risk Assessment

• pupils must stand and wear goggles for all practical

• pupils must not touch the copper sulphate solution or solid and put their fingers to their mouths

• remind pupils to obey Lab. Rules

28

Lesson 5 - Change of state and Energy Changes

Lesson Objectives

• to appreciate that energy must be put into a liquid to change it into a vapour/gas

• to appreciate that energy must be taken out of a vapour/gas to change it into a liquid

• to appreciate that energy must be taken out of a liquid to change it into a solid

• to know that different materials change state at different temperatures

Lesson Reguirements

• Starting Science Book One - Pg. 49

Suggested Lesson Plan

• this lesson is a teacher lead discussion lesson followed by pupils working from Starting Science and answering questions (answers to all questions are available)

• with the pupils, discuss the top picture on page 49 in Starting Science Book One leading to the knowledge that heating causes solid to liquid and liquid to vapour/gas; cooling causes vapour/gas to liquid and liquid to solid

• other common examples of state changes can be discussed - ask the pupils (working in groups of 3) to write down 4 examples each of:

a) heating causing solid to liquid

b) heating causing liquid to vapour/gas

c) cooling causing vapour/gas changing to liquid

d) cooling causing liquid changing to solid

• pupils copy the two pictures on page 49

• from their own experiences discuss with the pupils that different materials change state at different temperatures (ice melts at o-c whereas iron melts at 1539°e and diamond melts at 3550°C)

• summarise lesson objectives at end

If Teacher Absent

Starting Science Book One - Pg. 49 - Read page and answer questions (answers available)

Homework

List 4 substances that melt above 10000e

What do these 4 substances have in common? - expect pupils to give answer "all metals" List 4 substances that boil below o-c

What do these 4 substances have in common? - expect pupils to give answer "all gases"

Risk Assessment

• remind pupils to obey Lab. Rules

29

Lesson 6 - Expansion and Contraction

Lesson Objectives

• to appreciate that materials expand when heated

• to appreciate that materials contract when cooled

• to appreciate that different materials expand (and contract) by different amounts

• to appreciate that when materials expand and contract the forces are sometimes considerable

Lesson Requirements

• Starting Science Book One - Pg. 41

• bar breaker

• ball and ring

• bimetallic strip

• safety screen

• cloth

Suggested Lesson Plan

• the teacher demonstrates the following experiments:

a) the bar breaker

b) the ball and ring

c) the bimetallic strip

to illustrate the first three lesson objectives above. The bar breaker effectively demonstrates the last objective

• after a short discussion of the above experiments the pupils write up the experiments

• if finished, pupils can read Starting Science Book One - Pg. 41 and answer the questions

Hints

• Put damp cloth over bar on bar breaker experiment

If Teacher Absent

Starting Science Book One - Pg. 41 - Read page and answer questions

Homework

Revise for test next lesson

Risk Assessment

• use safety screen for bar breaker experiment and wear goggles

• have cloth over end to prevent bar shooting out

• remind pupils to obey Lab. Rules

30

Lesson 7 - '12 lesson revision + '12 lesson Year 7 Test Four

Lesson Reguirements

• file paper ( pupils do not write on the test papers which are collected in and returned to filing cabinet)

Suggested Lesson Plan

The test will take about % lesson depending on group: a top group will manage the test unaided, a lower group may need the questions read out and/or explained to them.

31

Year 7 Test Four - Physical Changes Answer All Questions on File Paper

01) What do you understand by a physical change?

(2 marks)

02) Give 5 examples of physical changes

03) What must be done to change a gas into a liquid?

04) What must be done to change a solid into a liquid?

05) How would you obtain large crystals from a hot saturated solution?

06) How would you obtain small crystals from a hot saturated solution?

07) What happens to an iron bar (apart from getting hot) when it is heated?

08) What happens to an iron bar (apart from getting cold) when it is cooled?

09) If grease didn't come off a shirt after being washed, what would you do to remove the grease?

010) Name two substances which melt above 1000°C

011) Name two substances which boil below O°C

012) Name a substance which is still solid at 3000°C

32

(5 marks)

( 1 mark)

( 1 mark)

(1 mark)

(1 mark)

(1 mark)

(1 mark)

(2 marks)

(2 marks)

(2 marks)

(1 mark)

Total 20 marks

Sc1 - An Investigation on the Boiling of Water 5 Lessons

Lesson Reguirements

• class set of "Student's Guide to Sc1" - A5 size

• 250 ern" pyrex beakers

• 250 crrr' measuring cylinders (plastic)

• boiling tubes

• -10°C to 110°C alcohol thermometers

• file paper

Suggested Plan

Lesson 1

• introduce the pupils to what a Sc1 is and give out A5 copies of "Student's Guide to Sc1"

• go over the guide with them

• introduce pupils to the idea of a fair test - "Starting Science Resource Pack One" Pg. 98, 99 may be useful

Lessons 2 - 4

• stress to the pupils that they must work individually

• pupils spend these 3 lessons doing their practical work

Lesson 5

• this last lesson can be used completing the write-up

Risk Assessment

• remind pupils to stand for all practical work

• remind pupils to wear goggles

• remind pupils to obey Lab. Rules

33

Topic 5 - N.C. Ref. 20, 2p - Chemical Reactions

Lesson 1 - Energy Transfers

Lesson Objectives

• to appreciate that chemical reactions take in energy or give out energy

• to appreciate that energy given out in chemical reactions can be controlled and used

Lesson Reguirements

• ethanol

• splints

• glass/ceramic wool

• thermit mixture (aluminium + iron oxide)

• sand tray filled with sand

• magnesium ribbon (fuse for thermit reaction)

• barium peroxide (catalyst for thermit)

• bar magnet

10 sets, each set consisting of

• pyrex boiling tube

• -10°C to 110°C alcohol thermometers

• gauze

Suggested Lesson Plan

• initial class discussion to tease out from pupils any chemical reactions that give out heat/energy - expect them to come up with burning of fuels

• arrange pupils into groups of 3 (suggest gender mix)

• pupils then carry out the following experiment

thermometer

20 cm3 water

Glass/ceramic wool containing 10 drops of ethanol

34

• bottle top stands on retort stand, bottom of boiling tube is 2 cm above top edge of bottle

top

• take temperature of water at start

• allow ethanol to burn for 1 minute( light with a splint from a Bunsen)

• after 1 minute, extinguish flame by putting a gauze over it

• take temperature of water at end (gently stir water before taking temperature)

• note the temperature rise

• also note any carbon deposit on bottom of boiling tube

• pupils appreciate that burning fuels produce heat/energy

demonstrate the thermit reaction (see JAB and try it out first) - this illustrates how the heat from a chemical reaction can be put to use:

aluminium + iron oxide

aluminium oxide + iron + HEAT

The heat is sufficient to melt the iron and fuse the sand to it.

Break open the "sand capsule" and test the iron inside with the magnet.

The thermit reaction is used for "on the spot" welding. It is used for filling gaps in railway lines and incendiary bombs - put down barrels of tanks to render them useless.

Hints

See JAB and try thermit first

If Teacher Absent

Starting Science Book One - Pg. 105 - Read page and answer questions (answers available)

Homework

Starting Science Book One - Pg. 105 - Read page and answer questions

Risk Assessment

• pupils must stand and wear goggles for all practical work

• remind pupils to take care with the burning ethanol

• remind pupils to obey Lab. Rules

• safety screen for thermit demonstration, wear goggles, have pupils well back and see JAB

35

Lesson 2 - Fossil Fuels and the Environment

Lesson Objectives

• to know that coal, oil and gas are fossil fuels

• to know that a fuel is something that produces energy on burning

• to appreciate that the burning of fossil fuels has an accumulative and detrimental effect on the environment

• to know that the carbon in fossil fuels produces carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide on burning, and to know a harmful effect of each of these gases

• to know that sulphur is an impurity in fossil fuels and this forms sulphur dioxide gas on burning

• to know that sulphur dioxide forms acid rain with water

• to know two harmful effects of acid rain

Lesson Reguirements

• Starting Science Book One - Pg. 107

Suggested Lesson Plan

• as a class exercise, discuss Starting Science Book One - Pg. 107

• the pupils can then put the heading "Fossil Fuels and the Environment" in their books and

• summarise Pg. 107 in their books

• they can then answer the questions on Pg. 107

If Teacher Absent

Starting Science Book One - Pg. 107 - Read page and answer questions (answers available)

Homework

Revise for test next lesson

Risk Assessment

• remind pupils to obey Lab. Rules

36

Year 7 Test Five - Physical Changes Answer All Questions on File Paper

01) What is a fuel? {1 mark}
02) Name 3 fossil fuels (3 marks)
03) Name the element contained in all fossil fuels (1 mark)
04) Name two gases produced when the above element burns (2 marks)
05) Give a harmful effect of each of these 2 gases (2 marks)
06) Which element is an impurity in fossil fuels? (1 mark)
07) Name the gas produced when this element burns (1 mark)
08) What does this gas form when it rains? (1 mark)
09) Give 2 harmful effects of this gas after it has dissolved in water (2 marks) 010) The thermit reaction produces a lot of heat:

a) give the word equation for the thermit reaction

(2 marks)

b) give 2 uses of the thermit reaction

(2 marks)

011) What is needed to start the thermit reaction?

(1 mark)

012) What temperature is produced in the thermit reaction?

(1 mark)

Total 20 marks

38

Lesson 3 - Vz lesson revision + Vz lesson Year 7 Test Five

Lesson Reguirements

• class set of "Year 7 Test five"

• file paper ( pupils do not write on the test papers which are collected in and returned to filing cabinet)

Suggested Lesson Plan

The test will take about Y2 lesson depending on group: a top group will manage the test unaided. a lower group may need the questions read out and/or explained to them.

37

MATERIALS and their PROPERTIES

Year 8 Lesson Notes

Overview

Topic 1 - N.C. Ref. 2f, 2g, 2h, 31 - Geological Changes

1. Lessons 1 + 2 - Rock Cycle - Igneous Rocks

2. Lessons 3/4 - Weathering

3. Lessons 4/5 - Sedimentary Rocks

4. Lesson 6 - Metamorphic Rocks

5. Lesson 7 - The Rock Cycle - recap.

6. Lesson 8 - Test

Topic 2 - N.C. Ref. 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d - Metals

1. Lesson 1 - Reacting metals with Air and Water

2. Lesson 2 - Reactive Metals with Air and Water

3. Lesson 3 - Reacting Metals with Acids

4. Lesson 4 - Displacement reactions

5. Lesson 5 - The Thermit Reaction

6. Lesson 6 - 1/2 lesson revision + 1/2 lesson Year 8 Test Two

Topic 3 - N.C. Ref. 2e, 2f, 2g, 2h - Acids and Bases

1. Lesson 1 - Using Litmus Indicator

2. Lesson 2 - Making Indicator from Red Cabbage

3. Lesson 3 - Universal Indicator

4. Lesson 4 - The pH Scale

5. Lesson 5 - Testing the pH of Soil

6. Lesson 6 - Salts 1

7. Lesson 7 - Salts 2

8. Lesson 8 - Salts 3

9. Lesson 9 - A8plications of Neutralisation

10. Lesson 10- 12 lesson revision + 1/2 lesson Year 8 Test Three

Sc1 - An Investigation into Neutralisation 5 Lessons

Topic 4 - N.C. Ref. 2m, 2n - Chemical Reactions

1. Lesson 1 - Getting Metals From Their Ores (1)

2. Lessons 2+3 - Getting Metals From Their Ores (2)

3. Lesson 4 - Non Useful Reactions (1) - The Rusting of Iron

4. Lesson 5 - Non Useful Reactions (2) - The Spoiling of Food

5. Lesson 6 - 1/2 lesson revision + 1/2 lesson Year 8 Test Four

Topic 2 - N.C. Ref. 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d - Metals

Lesson 1 - Reacting metals with Air and Water Lesson Objectives

• pupils should appreciate that the order of reactivity of metals with air is the same as that with water

• pupils should be able to come up with an activity series by reacting metals with air and water

Lesson Reguirements

• small pieces of copper, tin, lead, iron, magnesium, zinc

• 1 set of marked, bunged and taped pyrex test tubes containing copper, tin, lead, zinc, magnesiun, iron (but not exposed to air)

• 10 sets, each consisting of:

• marked, bunged and taped pyrex test tubes containing: copper, tin, lead, zinc, magnesiun, iron

• (the above metals should have been exposed to air for 4 weeks before sealing in the tubes)

• marked, bunged and taped pyrex test tubes containing: copper, tin, lead, zinc, magnesiun, iron in 1/2 tube of distilled water

(the above metals should have been exposed to air for 4 weeks before sealing in the tubes)

• 250 ern" pyrex beaker

Suggested Lesson Plan Activity 1

• arrange pupils into groups of 3 (suggest gender mix)

• each group collects a set of the 6 metals which have been exposed to air for 4 weeks

• ask pupils to examine their 6 metals and compare them to the same 6 metals that have not been exposed to the air for 4 weeks

• pupils then complete the table below for the 6 metals:

Has Metal Reacted With Air?
Metal Is it still
Shiny?
Not at all Slowly Rapidly Activity 2

• arrange pupils into groups of 3 (suggest gender mix)

• ask pupils to examine their 6 metals that have been in water for 4 weeks

• pupils then complete the table below for the 6 metals:

2

Has Metal Reacted With Water?
Metal Is it still
Shiny?
Not at all Slowly Rapidly • make sure pupils keep the sets of tubes together in the plastic beakers - ask them not to remove the tape and bung

• at end of lesson have a short discussion with the pupils with a view to coming up with an activity series for the 6 metals i) with air; ii) with water - is the order the same with both air and water? It should be, the order (most reactive metal first) being: magnesium>zinc>iron>tin>lead>copper

If Teacher Absent

Starting Science Book 2 Pg. 19 - read and answer questions(full set of answers available)

Homework

Write up the two activities with a summary at the end

Risk Assessment

• wear goggles for practical work

• don't push bungs into test tubes (tubes may break)

• obey lab. rules

3

Lesson 2 - The Reactive Alkali Metals and Calcium

Lesson Objectives

• pupils should appreciate that lithium, sodium and potassium are called the alkali metals

and are very reactive

• pupils should appreciate why the above are called the alkali metals

• pupils should appreciate the order of reactivity of metals increases down a group

• pupils should appreciate the order of reactivity of metals decreases across a period

• pupils know the characteristic test for hydrogen gas

Lesson Requirements

• lithium, sodium, potassium and calcium

• large glass pneumatic trough

• phenol phthalein indicator

• two pyrex test tubes

• safety screen

• scalpel

• tweezers

• filter paper

Suggested Lesson Plan

• put 1/2 c.m. depth of water into the pneumatic trough

• add a squirt of phenol phthalein indicator (colourless in acid and neutral, pink in alkali)

• remove a piece of lithium using the scalpel point and put onto the filter paper

• holding the lithium with the tweezers carefully cut the piece into two

• let the pupils see the shiny surface when freshly cut and if you immediately score the freshly cut surface the score mark can be seen indicating the surface immediately reacted with the air/oxygen to form a dull layer of oxide

• then cut off a piece of lithium (zrnrrr') and put the other two pieces back into the oil in the bottle - discuss with the pupils the need for keeping the alkali metals under oil (to keep away from water)

• with the pupils well back and wearing goggles and safety screen in place, at arm's length add the (2mm3) piece of lithium to the water (use tweezers)

• after a short while the lithium reacts vigorously with the water producing an alkaline solution (phenol phthalein goes pink) - hence the name alkali metals

• empty the water in the pneumatic trough and repeat the above with sodium followed by potassium - with the potassium a lilac flame is seen (this is the hydrogen gas formed by the reaction of the potassium with the water, burning - the reaction with potassium is so vigorous that the heat energy produced is sufficient to ignite the hydrogen gas)

• after the demonstration the pupils should appreciate that all three alkali metals give an alkaline solution and the order of reactivity is - most reactive first - potassium>sodium>lithium. Link this order to their relative positions in Group 1 of the periodic table i.e. the reactivity increases as the group is descended

• discuss with pupils why water is not automatically used to put out a fire where unknown chemicals are involved - if alkali metals are there, water will make matters much worse

• discuss with the pupils that they only have your word for hydrogen being given off, so you will now react a less reactive metal - calcium - with water so that the hydrogen will come off more slowly and can be collected and tested

• put a 2 c.m. depth of water into the pneumatic trough and add a squirt of phenol phthalein

• fill a test tube with water and collect the gas given off by the calcium on water

• when the test tube is full, put your thumb over the end and immediately hold another test

tube of air over the tube of hydrogen and keep the tubes in place for 2 minutes

• remove the top tube (thumb over the end) and hold near the bunsen flame

• a loud pop should be heard indicating the gas is hydrogen

• characteristic test for hydrogen - mix the unknown gas with air and ignite; a pop indicates the unknown gas is hydrogen

4

If Teacher Absent

Material World Pg. 130, 131 - read, summarise and try the questions on Pg. 131

Homework

Write up the experiments

Risk Assessment

• wear goggles for practical work

• safety screen - do not allow pupils round the side of the screen of to sit/stand on benches

• keep bottles of alkali metals right away from water

• return metals to technician immediately after lesson - do not leave unattended

• do not touch alkali metals

• any calcium remaining in trough at end, allow to "react out"

• when finished with filter paper, scalpel and tweezers - put in trough of water to remove any pieces of alkali metals remaining

• obey lab. rules

5

Lesson 3 - The Reaction of Metals with Acids

Lesson Objectives

• pupils should appreciate that acids are reservoirs of hydrogen that can be released by adding a metal

• pupils appreciate that metals release this hydrogen with acids more readily than with water

• pupils know that metals above hydrogen in the activity series will displace it from an acid

• pupils know that metals below hydrogen in the activity series will not displace it from an acid

Lesson Reguirements

• magnesium ribbon

• granulated zinc

• granulated tin

• iron filings

• lead shot

• copper turnings

• 250 ern" pyrex beaker

Suggested Lesson Plan

• arrange pupils into groups of 3 (suggest gender mix)

• give each group a piece of paper containing 1/2 cm length magnesium ribbon, a few iron

filings and 1 piece of each of the other 4 metals

• pupils put a 2cm depth of dilute sulphuric acid into the beaker

• pupils put the 6 metals into the acid and observe

• pupils then complete the table below for the 6 metals:

• when finished, pupils bring their beakers containing the metals to the front and the teacher put all contents into the 3 litre ice cream carton

Has Metal Reacted With Acid?
Metal
Not at all Slowly Rapidly • pupils then compare the above table with the one they obtained for metals reacting with water. They then complete the table below. Tell them to include the alkali metals and calcium and ask why the alkali metals and calcium are not reacted with acids - too reactive/explosive

6

60

Least reactive

• at the end summarise, putting the 10 metals they have seen in an order of reactivityinclude hydrogen (metals above hydrogen in the activity series displace it from an acid; those metals below hydrogen will not displace it from an acid).

• The order of reactivity (most reactive first) of the 10 metals is: potassium>sodium>lithium>calcium>magnesium>zinc>iron>tin>lead>hydrogen>copper

Metals which don't react with Water but do react with Acid

Metals reacting with Water

Most reactive

Metals which don't react with Water of Acid

If Teacher Absent

Starting Science Book 2 Pg. 19 - read, summarise and answer questions(full set of answers available) - if done, continue with Pg. 20

Homework

Starting Science Book 2 Pg. 19 - read and answer questions(answers available -see JAB)

Risk Assessment

• wear goggles for practical work

• obey lab. rules

7

61

Lesson 4 - Displacement Reactions

Lesson Objectives

• pupils should appreciate that a more reactive metal will displace a less reactive metal from one of its compounds

• pupils should be able to put metals in order of reactivity by seeing their reaction with compounds of other metals

Lesson Reguirements

• magnesium ribbon

• granulated zinc

• granulated tin

• small iron nail (not galvanised)

• copper turnings

• copper sulphate solution

• silver nitrate solution

• 3 litre ice cream carton

• 10 sets, each consisting of:

• evaporating basin

• 10 cm. length copper wire

• pyrex test tube

Suggested Lesson Plan

• arrange pupils into groups of 3 (suggest gender mix)

• put y. cm. length magnesium ribbon, 1 iron nail and 1 piece each of zinc, tin and copper onto a piece of paper - repeat 9 times.

• about y. fill 10 evaporating basins with copper sulphate solution

• ask each group to collect an evaporating basin containing copper sulphate, and a piece of paper containing the 5 metals

• the pupils then add the 5 metals at the same time to the copper sulphate solution and observe

• any metal showing visible signs of reaction or fizzing is the most reactive

• if a metal is more reactive than copper, it will displace the copper from the copper sulphate solution and the displaced copper forms a layer on the metal causing it to go brown or black - the order of going brown/black being the order of reactivity

• pupils should note down the order of reactivity of the 5 metals - the order should be (most reactive metal first): magnesium>zinc>iron>tin>copper

The reaction occurring is: M(s) + CUS04(aq)

MS04(aq)

metal + copper sulphate ---I~~ solution

metal sulphate + copper solution

where M is magnesium, zinc, iron or tin (i.e. a more reactive metal than copper)

• pupils should note the blue colour of the copper sulphate solution fading as the copper is displaced

• pupils then empty the contents of their evaporating basins into the 3 litre ice cream carton at the front

• put a 2cm. depth of silver nitrate solution into each of the ten test tubes

• each group takes a tube together with a piece of copper wire

• pupils put the copper wire into the silver nitrate solution and note and explain their observations

• pupils should see the copper wire becoming coated with silver and the solution going blue as the copper goes into solution (see Co-ordinated Science Chemistry Pg. 147)

8

• the reaction occurring is: CUts) + AgN03(aq)

CuN03(aq)

+

copper + silver nitrate -----l~~ solution

copper nitrate + silver

solution

• at end pupils discard the solution in test tubes and return the copper wire to front

If Teacher Absent

Starting Science Book 2 Pg. 21 - read, summarise and answer questions(full set of answers available)

Homework

Write up the two experiments, finishing with a summary of the key points as per lesson objectives

Risk Assessment

• wear goggles for practical work

• obey lab. rules

9

Lesson 5 - The Thermit Reaction

Lesson Objectives

• pupils should appreciate that a more reactive metal will displace a less reactive metal from one of its compounds

• pupils should know the thermit reaction as another example of a displacement reaction and be aware of its uses

Lesson Reguirements

• thermit mixture (aluminium + iron oxide)

• sand tray filled with sand

• magnesium ribbon (fuse for thermit reaction)

• barium peroxide (catalyst for thermit)

• bar magnet

• safety screen

Suggested Lesson Plan

• demonstrate the thermit reaction (see JAB and try it out first) - this illustrates another displacement reaction and how the heat from it can be put to use:

+ Fe(s) + HEAT

aluminium + iron oxide

------.. aluminium oxide + iron + HEAT

The heat is sufficient to melt the iron and fuse the sand to it.

Break open the "sand capsule" and test the iron inside with the magnet.

The thermit reaction is used for "on the spot" welding. It is used for filling gaps in railway lines and incendiary bombs - put down barrels of tanks to render them useless.

The thermit reaction is a specific case of where a less reactive metal (iron in this case) can be extracted from its ore (iron oxide) by displacement by a more reactive metal (aluminium in this case)

• pupils then write up the experiment - if finish early they can begin revision for test next lesson

Hints

See JAB and try thermit first

If Teacher Absent

Co-ordinated Science Chemistry, Pg. 146,147 - read, summarise and answer questions on Pg. 147 - answers available - see JAB)

Homework

Revise for test next lesson

Risk Assessment

• wear goggles for practical work

• safety screen

• obey lab. rules

10

Lesson 6- 1/2 lesson revision + 1/2 lesson Year 8 Test Two

Lesson Reguirements

• class set of "Year 8 Test Two"

• file paper (pupils do not write on the test papers which are collected in and returned to filing cabinet)

Suggested Lesson Plan

The test will take about 1/2 lesson depending on group: a top group will manage the test unaided, a lower group may need the questions read out and/or explained to them.

11

Year 8 Test Two - Metals Answer All Questions on File Paper

Q1) Name the gas produced when metals react with water

(1 mark)

Q2) What other type of chemical can metals react with to produce this same gas?

(1 mark)

If a piece of potassium is put into water to which some phenol phthalein has been added, there is a very vigorous reaction.

Q3) Does the potassium sink or float with water? (1 mark)
Q4) What colour is the flame? (1 mark)
QS) What is burning to produce this flame? (1 mark)
Q6) What colour does the indicator change to? (1 mark)
Q7) What does the change in colour of the indicator tell us? (1 mark) A piece of magnesium ribbon, an iron nail and a piece of copper wire were put, at the same time, into some copper sulphate solution in an evaporating basin:

Results

Bubbles were seen immediately around the sides of the magnesium ribbon. After a few minutes the iron nail "turned brown".

The copper wire did not change.

Some brown bits were seen at the bottom of the evaporating basin.

Q8) Write down the 3 metals, iron, copper and magnesium, in order of reactivity,

putting the most reactive first. (1 mark)

Q9) What were the bubbles around the sides of the magnesium ribbon? (2 marks)

Q10) Why did the iron nail "go brown"? (2 marks)

Q11) What were the brown bits at the bottom of the evaporating basin? (2 marks)

Q12) What gradually happens to the colour of the copper sulphate solution? (1 mark)

Below is part of an activity series: potassium>sodium>calcium>aluminium>zinc>hydrogen>silver>gold>platinum

Q13) Which of the above metals is the least reactive

Q14) Name 2 metals which do not react with acids to displace the hydrogen Q1S) Name 2 metals which react safely with acids to displace the hydrogen

(1 mark) (2 marks) (2 marks)

Total 20 marks

12

66

Topic 3 - N.C. Ref. 2e, 2f, 2g, 2h - Acids and Bases

Lesson 1 - Using Litmus Indicator Lesson Objectives

• pupils should understand what an indicator is and how it reacts with different chemicals

Lesson Requirements

• dropper bottles (labelled) containing the following:

• hydrochloric acid; sulphuric acid; nitric acid; lemon juice; vinegar; sodium hydroxide solution; ammonia solution; bicarbonate of soda (sodium bicarbonate) solution; sugar solution; salt solution (it is important to make up the sugar and salt solution in distilled water and put them into dropper bottles washed with distilled water)

• 10 spotting tiles

• 2 books of red litmus paper

• 2 books of blue litmus paper

• 3 litre ice cream carton

Suggested Lesson Plan

• discuss with the pupils the word indicator as used on cars - they tell us in which direction the car is going. There are special chemicals which scientists also call indicators. Chemical indicators can give information about other chemicals. Litmus is a common indicator - it is made from a sort of lichen. Lichens are plants which live on the bark of trees or on concrete or stone.

• arrange pupils into groups of 3 (suggest gender mix)

• put the 10 chemicals into each of the 10 spotting tiles as below:

CD@ ®® ®@

@@ ®® 00

Spot No. Chemical
1 hydrochloric acid
2 sulphuric acid
3 nitric acid
4 lemon juice
5 vinegar
6 sodium hydroxide solution
7 ammonia solution
8 bicarbonate of soda (sodium bicarbonate) solution
9 sugar solution
10 salt solution • each group collects a spotting tile with the chemicals in (put in by teacher) together with 1 piece of red litmus paper and 1 piece of blue litmus paper

• ask pupils to tear each piece of litmus paper in half and then to tear each half into 5 small pieces - this saves on litmus and there is no need for larger pieces

• pupils add one piece of red and one piece of blue litmus paper to each spot of chemical

• pupils note their results on a table as below - expected answers in italics

13

Results

Chemical With Red With Blue Nature of
Litmus Litmus Solution
hydrochloric acid Stays Red Blue to Red Acid
sulphuric acid Stays Red Blue to Red Acid
nitric acid Stays Red Blue to Red Acid
lemon juice Stays Red Blue to Red Acid
vinegar Stays Red Blue to Red Acid
sodium hydroxide solution Red to Blue Stays Blue Alkali
ammonia solution Red to Blue Stays Blue Alkali
bicarbonate of soda (sodium Red to Blue Stays Blue Alkali
bicarbonate) solution
sugar solution Stays Red Stays Blue Neutral
salt solution Stays Red Stays Blue Neutral • discuss the results with the pupils with a view to coming up with the following conclusion

• at end instruct pupils to bring spotting tiles + contents and put into 3 litre ice cream carton at front ( go round and check litmus paper has not been put into sinks)

Conclusion

With Red Litmus Paper With Blue Litmus Paper
ACIDS RED RED
ALKALIS BLUE BLUE
NEUTRAL SOLUTIONS RED BLUE If Teacher Absent

Starting Science Book 2 Pg. 22 - read, summarise and answer questions(full set of answers available)

Homework

• give each pupil 1 piece of red and 1 piece of blue litmus paper and ask them to test 6 substances at home (check with parents first)

• ask them then to draw a table with 4 columns as below:

Substance Tested With Red Litmus With Blue Litmus Nature of
Substance Risk Assessment

• wear goggles for practical work

• obey lab. rules

14

Lesson 2 - Making Indicator from Red Cabbage Lesson Objectives

• pupils should be able to make their own indicator from red cabbage

• pupils should appreciate that different indicators have characteristic colour changes

Lesson Reguirements

• dropper bottles (labelled) containing the following:

• hydrochloric acid; sulphuric acid; nitric acid; lemon juice; vinegar; sodium hydroxide solution; ammonia solution; bicarbonate of soda (sodium bicarbonate) solution; sugar solution; salt solution (it is important to make up the sugar and salt solution in distilled water and put them into dropper bottles washed with distilled water)

• 10 spotting tiles

• 10 teat pipettes

• ten 250 ern" pyrex beakers

• red cabbage

• 3 litre ice cream carton

Suggested Lesson Plan

• arrange pupils into groups of 3 (suggest gender mix)

•. pupils 1/2 fill the pyrex beaker with water and add a small red cabbage leaf

• pupils then bring the water to the boil and boil for 10 minutes

• when cool, they decant the liquid from the beaker into the boiling tube until about 1/4 full

• whilst the pupils are doing this, put the 10 chemicals into each of the 10 spotting tiles as below:

CD@ ®@ ®@

@@ (}J® 00

Spot No. Chemical
1 hydrochloric acid
2 sulphuric acid
3 nitric acid
4 lemon juice
5 vinegar
6 sodium hydroxide solution
7 ammonia solution
8 bicarbonate of soda (sodium bicarbonate) solution
9 sugar solution
10 salt solution • each group collects a spotting tile with the chemicals in (put in by teacher)

• ask pupils to add 1 drop of red cabbage water to each of the 10 chemicals in the spotting tile using the teat pipette (keep pipette vertical with opening at bottom)

• pupils note their results on a table as below - expected answers in italics

15

Results

Chemical With Red Cabbage Water Nature of Solution
hydrochloric acid Blue to Red Acid
sulphuric acid Blue to Red Acid
nitric acid Blue to Red Acid
lemon juice Blue to Red Acid
vinegar Blue to Red Acid
sodium hydroxide solution Blue to Green Alkali
ammonia solution Blue to Green Alkali
bicarbonate of soda (sodium Blue to Green Alkali
bicarbonate) solution
sugar solution Stays Blue Neutral
salt solution Stays Blue Neutral • discuss the results with the pupils with a view to coming up with the following conclusion

• at end instruct pupils to bring spotting tiles + contents and put into 3 litre ice cream carton at front

Conclusion

With Red Cabbage Water
ACIDS RED
ALKALIS GREEN
NEUTRAL SOLUTIONS BLUE If Teacher Absent

Starting Science Book 2 Pg. 23 - read, summarise and answer questions(full set of answers available)

Homework

• write up the experiment neatly

Risk Assessment

• wear goggles for practical work

• obey lab. rules

16

Lesson 3 - Universal Indicator and the pH Scale - 1 Lesson Objectives

• pupils should appreciate the difference between a simple indicator such as litmus and a complex indicator like universal indicator

• pupils "get a feeling" for the different colours of universal indicator and know which are

"acid colours", which are "alkaline colours" and which is the "neutral colour" Lesson Reguirements

• dropper bottles (labelled) containing the following:

• hydrochloric acid; sulphuric acid; nitric acid; lemon juice; vinegar; sodium hydroxide solution; ammonia solution; bicarbonate of soda (sodium bicarbonate) solution; sugar solution; salt solution (it is important to make up the sugar and salt solution in distilled water and put them into dropper bottles washed with distilled water)

• 10 spotting tiles

• 1 book of universal indicator paper

• 3 litre ice cream carton

• large universal indicator chart

• small universal indicator charts from books of universal indicator paper

Suggested Lesson Plan

• arrange pupils into groups of 3 (suggest gender mix)

• put the 10 chemicals into each of the 10 spotting tiles as below:

CD@ @@ ®@

@@ (J)®

00

Spot No. Chemical
1 hydrochloric acid
2 sulphuric acid
3 nitric acid
4 lemon juice
5 vinegar
6 sodium hydroxide solution
7 ammonia solution
8 bicarbonate of soda (sodium bicarbonate) solution
9 sugar solution
10 salt solution • each group collects a spotting tile with the chemicals in (put in by teacher) together with 1 piece of universal indicator paper

• ask pupils to tear the strip of universal indicator paper in half and then to tear each half into 5 small pieces

• pupils add 1 piece of universal indicator paper to each spot of chemical

• tell pupils to put the initial colour of universal indicator paper as green (not buff/orange) as green is its colour in distilled water

• pupils note their results on a table as below - expected answers in italics

17

Results

Chemical With Universal pH Value Nature of
Indicator Solution
hydrochloric acid Green to Red 1 Strong Acid
sulphuric acid Green to Red 1 Strong Acid
nitric acid Green to Red 1 Strong Acid
lemon juice Green to 4-6 Weak Acid
OrangelY ellow
vinegar Green to 4-6 Weak Acid
OrangelYellow
sodium hydroxide solution Green to Purple 13/14 Strong Alkali
ammonia solution Green to Blue/Green 8-10 Weak Alkali
bicarbonate of soda (sodium Green to Blue/Green 8-10 Weak Alkali
bicarbonate) solution
sugar solution Stays Green 7 Neutral
salt solution Stays Green 7 Neutral • discuss the results with the pupils to check they have achieved the lesson objectives

• at end instruct pupils to bring spotting tiles + contents and put into 3 litre ice cream carton at front

If Teacher Absent

Starting Science Book 2 Pg. 24 - read, summarise and answer questions(full set of answers available)

Homework

• give each pupil 1 piece of universal indicator paper and ask them to test the same 6 substances as before at home (check with parents first)

• ask them then to draw a table with 4 columns as below:

Substance Tested Colour Change with pH Value Nature of
Universal Indicator Substance Risk Assessment

• wear goggles for practical work

• obey lab. rules

18

Lesson 4 - Universal Indicator and the pH Scale - 2 Lesson Objectives

• pupils should appreciate the full pH range and know the pH values of common

substances Lesson Requirements

• large universal indicator chart

• JAB's OHT "The pH Scale"

• packs of crayons

Suggested Lesson Plan

• discuss the fact that simple indicators such as litmus and red cabbage water indicate only if a chemical is acidic or alkaline. They do not indicate how acidic or how alkaline. Universal indicator is a mixture of indicators and will indicate how acidic or how alkaline a chemical is by having a whole range of colours. Each colour corresponds to a pH value (potenz + H). The pH scale, as shown below, ranges from 0 to 14.

pH value 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
colour red orange yellow green turquoise blue purple
A C I D I C <III • A L K A L I N E

strongly weakly NEUTRAL weakly strongly
acidic acidic alkaline alkaline
• pupils then copy JAB's OHT "The pH Scale" - ask pupils to use colours If Teacher Absent

Material World Pg. 140 - read, summarise and answer questions Pg. 141

Homework

• do a 1 page summary on what you have done on "Acids and Bases" so far

Risk Assessment • obey lab. rules

19

Lesson 5 - Using Universal Indicator to find the pH of Soils Lesson Objectives

• pupils should know how to find the pH of soil

• pupils should appreciate why we need to know the pH of a soil Lesson Reguirements

• glass hooks

• filter paper

• spatulas

• 3 litre ice cream carton

• 10 sets, each consisting of:

• 1 pyrex test tube + 1 pyrex boiling tube

• universal indicator solution in dropper bottle

Suggested Lesson Plan

• first discuss with pupils the need to know the pH of soil - different crops grow best on soils of different pH (Starting Science Book 2 Pg. 24)

• arrange pupils into groups of 3 (suggest gender mix)

• pupils put 1 spatula measure of soil into the test tube (remind pupils lesson before to bring a small amount of soil)

• add water until test tube is about 3/4 full, put bung on (care - not too tightly) and shake taking care not to let anything come out of the tube

• filter the contents into the boiling tube (see below) until there is about 1 cm. depth of filtrate

residue

• add 2 drops of universal indicator solution (remind pupils that the universal indicator solution starts off green)

• note the full colour change and look on the pH chart to find the pH of the soil

• when finished ask pupils to put all the apparatus (including soil) into the 3 litre ice cream carton at the front

• pupils then write up the experiment

If Teacher Absent

Starting Science Book 2 Pg. 24 (if done do Pg. 25) - read, summarise and answer questions(full set of answers available)

Homework

Starting Science Book 2 Pg. 24 (if done do Pg. 25) - read, summarise and answer questions(full set of answers available)

Risk Assessment

• wear goggles for practical work

• obey lab. rules

20

Lesson 6 - Salts 1 Lesson Objectives

• pupils should know that metals react with acids to form salts + hydrogen

Lesson Reguirements

• magnesium ribbon

• sulphuric acid

• 10 sets, each consisting of:

• 250 ern" pyrex beaker

• watch glass

Suggested Lesson Plan

• as a demo. put dilute sulphuric acid into a boiling tube until about 3/4 full

• ask a pupil to feel the tube

• add 6 cm. of magnesium ribbon in 1 cm. pieces until all has gone/disappeared

• ask class if magnesium has dissolved or reacted

• ask the same pupil to feel the tube now - care it will be hot - an exothermic reaction

• argue, if the magnesium has simply dissolved in the acid to make a solution, then on evaporation the magnesium should be left

• if, however, the magnesium has reacted with the acid, then on evaporation a new substance will be left

• arrange pupils into groups of 3 (suggest gender mix)

• ask pupils to set up the following apparatus - beaker no more than 1/2 full with waterdon't turn on Bunsen until told to do so

Liquid (acid + magnesium)

watch glass

• teacher goes round putting about 2 ern" of liquid (from adding magnesium to sulphuric

acid) in each group's watch glass .. - - .

• pupils now turn on Bunsens and evaporate the liquid in the watch glass until the amount remaining is about the size of a small finger nail - then turn off Bunsens

• when cool, ask the pupils to observe what they see in the watch glass

• they should see white rings (when viewed from above) as below:

watch glass

} white rings

• pupils should realise that these white rings are not magnesium (which is "silver coloured") but something else - i.e, the salt magnesium sulphate

• the magnesium does in fact react with the sulphuric acid - the equation for the reaction is given below:

21

+

MgS04(aq)

+

magnesium + sulphuric acid

magnesium sulphate + hydrogen

METAL

+ ACID

SALT

+

HYDROGEN

If Teacher Absent

Co-ordinated Science Chemistry Pg. 136, 137 - read, summarise and answer questions(full set of answers available)

Homework

• write up the experiment

Risk Assessment

• wear goggles for practical work

• make sure beaker sits firmly on gauze

• do not let the water in the beaker boil too vigorously

• obey lab. rules

22

Lesson 7 - Salts 2 Lesson Objectives

• pupils should know that alkalis (soluble bases) react with acids to form salts and water only

Lesson Requirements

• 10 sets, each consisting of:

• 2 pyrex test tubes

• evaporating basin

• teat pipette

• phenol phthalein

• chinograph pencil

• plain paper

• dilute hydrochloric acid

• sodium hydroxide solution

• watch glass

• test tube rack

Sugqested Lesson Plan

• arrange pupils into groups of 3 (suggest gender mix)

• remind the pupils they have just made a salt by the action of a metal on an acid

• they are now going to make a salt by the action of an alkali (soluble base) on an acid

• the pupils carry out the following:

1.

Test tube 1 (in rack)

2 cm. depth of hydrochloric acid + 2 drops of phenol phthalein indicator (colourless)

2. mark the liquid level in tube 1 with chinograph pencil

3. pour about 2 cm. depth of sodium hydroxide solution into another test tube, also in the rack

4. with teat pipette add (care to keep pipette vertical at all times - opening at bottom) sodium hydroxide solution slowly to the acid + indicator until the first sign of pink appears (white paper will help). The acid is now neutralised

5. mark the new level in test tube 1 with chinograph pencil

6. empty contents of test tube 1 down sink

7. wash out test tube 1 with water (care not to wash off chinograph marks)

8. put hydrochloric acid into test tube 1 up to the first mark

9. add sodium hydroxide solution (as before - step 4 above) up to the second mark - the acid has now been neutralised without the indicator

10. pour the contents of the test tube 1 into an evaporating basin and carefully evaporate to dryness (avoid "spitting" and stop evaporating when amount of liquid remaining is about the size of a 1 p coin)

11. the white solid remaining in the evaporating basin is the salt sodium chloride

NaOH(aq) + HCI(aq) • NaCI(aq) + H2O(I)
sodium + hydrochloric • sodium + water
hydroxide acid chloride
BASE + ACID • SALT + WATER only
23 Hint

• slightly bend gauze so that evaporating basin sits level. Do not let pupils cool tripods under tap. Go round with crucible tongs and put pupils' evaporating basins on heat proof mat

If Teacher Absent

Co-ordinated Science Chemistry Pg. 136,137 (if done, Pg.134, 135) - read, summarise and answer questions (full set of answers available)

Homework

• write up the experiment

Risk Assessment

• wear goggles and stand for practical work

• make sure evaporating basin sits firmly on gauze

• when evaporating, turn Bunsen flame (blue) down low as soon as liquid boils

• care with sodium hydroxide solution - if it gets in the eye, permanent eye damage will probably result

• obey lab. rules

24

Lesson 8 - Salts 3 Lesson Objectives

• pupils should know that carbonates react with acids to form salts, water and carbon dioxide

• pupils should know that in salt formation the hydrogen of an acid is replaced by a metal

Lesson Reguirements

• 10 sets, each consisting of:

• 250 ern" pyrex beaker

• spatula

• evaporating basin

• glass rod

• copper carbonate

• dilute sulphuric acid

Suggested Lesson Plan

• arrange pupils into groups of 3 (suggest gender mix)

• remind the pupils they have made a salt by; i) action of a metal on an acid; li) action of a base on an acid

• they are now going to make a salt by the action of a carbonate on an acid

• the pupils carry out the following:

2. add copper carbonate with dry spatula, a little at a time, until no more reacts (some left on bottom of beaker) - note bubbles of carbon dioxide gas evolved

1.

3. filter as below:

20 ern" dilute sulphuric acid

Residue (excess copper carbonate)

Filtrate (copper sulphate solution)

4. pour filtrate into evaporating basin and evaporate only until crystals form on the glass rod when cooled in air - see JAB

5. leave the solution to cool until next lesson (teacher puts evaporating basins on side using tongs)

25

lq
CuC03(S) + H2S04(aq) ~ CUS04(aq) + H2O(I) + CO2(Q)
copper + sulphuric ~ copper + water + carbon
carbonate acid sulphate dioxide
~
CARBONATE + ACID SALT + WATER + CARBON
DIOXIDE • summarise by asking pupils to look at the three methods of salt preparation in order to come up with the common factor that in all cases the hydrogen of the acid has been replaced by a metal

Hint

• slightly bend gauze so that evaporating basin sits level. Do not let pupils cool tripods under tap. Go round with crucible tongs and put pupil' evaporating basins on heat proof mat

If Teacher Absent

Co-ordinated Science Chemistry Pg. 136, 137 (if done, Pg. 134,135) - read, summarise and answer questions(full set of answers available)

Homework

• write up the experiment

Risk Assessment

• wear goggles and stand for practical work

• make sure evaporating basin sits firmly on gauze

• when evaporating, turn Bunsen flame (blue) down low as soon as liquid boils

• obey lab. rules

26

go

Lesson 9 - Applications of Neutralisation Lesson Objectives

• pupils should know that neutralisation is when something is added to an acid to destroy its acidity, or when something is added to an alkali to destroy its alkalinity

• pupils should know two everyday applications of neutralisation: i) treatment of acid soils; ii) treatment of indigestion

Lesson Requirements

• 10 sets, each consisting of:

• 250 ern" pyrex beaker

• spatula

• very, very dilute acid (pH 4-6)

• chalk (calcium carbonate powder)

• scrap paper

• glass rod

• universal indicator in dropper bottle

Suqgested Lesson Plan

• arrange pupils into groups of 3 (suggest gender mix)

• ask pupils to examine the salt crystals (copper sulphate) they made last lesson

• pupils have seen in lesson 5 how to find the pH of a soil. Most plants grow best when the pH of the soil is close to 7. If the soil is too acidic or too alkaline the plants grow badly or not at all

• remind pupils of acid rain (Topic 1) causing soil to be too acidic. Most often soil is too acidic and so is treated with quicklime (calcium oxide), slaked lime (calcium hydroxide) or chalk (calcium carbonate) - these are all bases and quite cheap

• give each group about 20 crrr' of very, very dilute acid (say it is acid rain) and a piece of paper containing powdered chalk (calcium carbonate)

• pupils put about 3 drops of universal indicator solution into the "acid rain" and see the pH is 4-6 (weak acid)

• pupils then add the chalk with the dry spatula, a bit at a time (stirring with the glass rod) and see the colour of the indicator change to green as the "acid rain" is neutralised

• pupils should see bubbles of gas (carbon dioxide) - link to lesson 8, i.e. acid on a carbonate to make a salt + carbon dioxide

neutralisation

CaC03(s) +

chalk +

(calcium carbonate)

acid rain (dilute sulphuric acid)

------ ..... calcium sulphate

+ water

+

carbon dioxide

• then ask pupils what acid they have in their stomachs - hopefully they will know it is hydrochloric acid in order to digest food. Too much of it, however, leads to acid indigestion which can be painful. To cure the indigestion the excess acid must be neutralised with a drink of sodium hydrogen carbonate solution(sodium bicarbonate/baking soda) which is the main ingredient of an indigestion tablet.

• discuss why we could not neutralise this excess acid with a strong alkali such as sodium hydroxide solution which would cause more damage than the excess acid

If Teacher Absent

Co-ordinated Science Chemistry Pg. 135 - read, summarise and answer questions (full set of answers available)

Homework

• revise for test next lesson

Risk Assessment

• obey lab. rules

27

~\

Lesson 10- 1/2 lesson revision + 1/2 lesson Year 8 Test Three

Lesson Requirements

• class set of "Year 8 Test Three"

• file paper (pupils do not write on the test papers which are collected in and returned to filing cabinet)

Suqgested Lesson Plan

The test will take about 1h lesson depending on group: a top group will manage the test unaided, a lower group may need the questions read out and/or explained to them.

28

Topic 4 - N.C. Ref. 2m, 2n - Chemical Reactions

Lesson 1 - Getting Metals Fron Their Ores (1) Lesson Objectives

• pupils should appreciate that metals are useful substances

• pupils should appreciate that most metals exist as their ores (naturally occurring compounds of the metal)

• pupils should know how to extract the useful metal copper from one of its compounds

Lesson Reguirements

10 sets, each consisting of:

• copper oxide powder

• activated charcoal

• pyrex test tube

• 250 ern" pyrex beaker

Suggested Lesson Plan

• spend just a few minutes discussing with the pupils the usefulness of metals and the fact that most metals exist as their ores, not as the metal itself

• arrange pupils into groups of 3 (suggest gender mix)

• teacher puts 1 spatula measure of copper oxide and 4 spatula measures of charcoal in each test tube

• pupils clamp the tube vertically

• with the blue Bunsen flame heat the tube strongly for ten minutes (holding Bunsen in

hand)

• carefully tip contents of tube into a 250 cm3 pyrex beaker half full of water

• let solid settle and pour off most of the water (care not to pour off any solid)

• look carefully to see if any pink/red bits of copper are seen

copper oxide + carbon (charcoal)

----~~~ copper + carbon monoxide

CuO

+

C

Cu +

co

• at end, pupils pour of water and put any solid into the bin - not down the sink

• pupils then write up the experiment

If Teacher Absent

Starting Science Book 2 Pg. 56 - Read, summarise and answer questions (answers available)

Homework

Complete experiment write-up

Risk Assessment

• wear goggles

• watch for "spitting" when hot contents from test tube hit cold water - perform at arm's length

• obey lab. rules

31

Lessons 2+3 - Getting Metals From Their Ores (2) Lesson Objectives

• pupils should know the workings of the blast furnace for the production of iron

• pupils should know the amount of metal produced and its cost depend upon: i)howeasy

it is to supply the metal and ii) the demand for the metal Lesson Reguirements

• video 54 "The Steel Story"

• Starting Science Book 2 Pg.57,58

Suggested Lesson Plan

• pupils watch video 54 "The Steel Story" and make notes on

• after watching the video pupils put the title "Getting Metals From Their Ores"

• pupils summarise Starting Science Book 2 Pg. 57, paying particular attention to the section Smelting metal ores - include a large, labelled diagram of the blast furnace

• answer questions on Pg. 57 (answers available)

• pupils then read, summarise (paying particular attention to the factors affecting the amount of metal produced and its cost) and answer questions on Pg. 58

If Teacher Absent

Starting Science Book 2 Pg. 57 (if done, then Pg. 58) - Read, summarise and answer questions (answers available)

Homework

Complete experiment write-up

Risk Assessment

• wear goggles

• watch for "spitting" when hot contents from test tube hit cold water - perform at arm's length

• obey lab. rules

32

Lesson 4 - Non-Useful Reactions (1) - The Rusting of Iron Lesson Objectives

• pupils should know that rusting is a chemical reaction that is not useful

• pupils should know how to set up an experiment to find the factors that cause rusting

Lesson Reguirements

• 30 pyrex test tubes

• 30 bungs to fit test tubes

• mineral oil

• kettle

• 30 small iron nails or tacks (not coated/galvanised)

• anhydrous calcium chloride

• cotton wool

• 3 one litre plastic beakers

• masking tape

Suggested Lesson Plan

• arrange pupils into groups of 3 (suggest gender mix)

• each group collects 3 test tubes and 3 bungs and sets up the following:

cotton wool

bung

anhydrous calcium chloride

layer of oil

Boiled water

Tube 2

Tube 3

Tube 1 - nail in contact with both air and water

Tube 2 - nail in contact with air only ( anhydrous calcium chloride removes water from the air) Tube 3 - nail in contact with water only (boiling removes air from the water, the layer of oil

prevents air from entering the water)

• pupils put masking tape on each tube which is labelled with the tube number and their

name (tape fastens better if it is put all the way round the tube so that it sticks on itself)

• have 3 plastic 1 litre beakers at front labelled: tube 1; tube 2; tube 3

• pupils put their tubes in the correct beakers

• leave tubes until next lesson or until rusting has occurred in tube 1

• pupils write up the experiment (they can leave gaps to fill in the results and conclusion after looking at their tubes next lesson - the results and conclusion are given below)

Results

Tube 1 - rusting of the nail Tube 2 - no rusting of nail

Tube 3 - no rusting of nail ( in practice there may be a little rust on the nail because boiling does not remove all the air from the water)

Conclusion

Both air and water are needed for rusting

33

Hint

• for tube 2 - pupils put nail and cotton wool (not too much) in tube, the teacher goes round and just covers cotton wool with anhydrous calcium chloride - when finished put lid on anhydrous calcium chloride

• for tube 3 - pupils put nail in tube, the teacher puts in the boiled water from the kettle, pupils put the layer of oil in tube (only enough to cover the surface of the water with a thin layer)

If Teacher Absent

Starting Science Book 2 Pg. 20 - Read, summarise and answer questions (answers available)

Homework

Complete experiment write-up

Risk Assessment

• wear goggles

• hold tube 3 at the top to avoid burning fingers

• obey lab. rules

34

Lesson 5 - Non-Useful Reactions (2) - The Spoiling of Food

Lesson Objectives

• pupils should know the factors that cause rusting

• pupils should know that the spoiling of food is a chemical reaction that is not useful

• pupils should know 2 examples of microbes

• pupils should know examples of "good/useful" and "bad/non useful" microbes

• pupils should know of 3 ways of preserving food

Lesson Reguirements

Starting Science Book 2 Pg. 26, 27 Suggested Lesson Plan

• pupils look at their tubes from last lesson and fill in the results and conclusion gaps

• pupils read Starting Science Book 2 Pg. 26, summarise/mind map and try the questions at the bottom of the page

• when complete, do the same with page 27

If Teacher Absent

Starting Science Book 2 Pg. 26,27 - Read, summarise and answer questions

Homework

Revise for test next lesson

Risk Assessment • obey lab. rules

35

Lesson 6 - 1/2 lesson revision + 1/2 lesson Year 8 Test Four

Lesson Reguirements

• class set of "Year 8 Test Four"

• file paper (pupils do not write on the test papers which are collected in and returned to filing cabinet)

Suggested Lesson Plan

The test will take about 1/2 lesson depending on group: a top group will manage the test unaided, a lower group may need the questions read out and/or explained to them.

36

Year 8 Test Four - Chemical Reactions Answer All Questions on File Paper

Q1) Give an example of a useful chemical reaction

Q2) One of the materials fed into the blast furnace is limestone. What does the limestone do ?

Q3) Name the other two materials fed into the blast furnace

Q4) What is an ore?

QS) What is smelting?

Q6) Not all chemical reactions are useful: name two chemical reactions that are not useful

Q7) State how you could slow down the two reactions you gave in Q6 above

Q8) Give an example of a useful microbe

Q9) Give an example of a non-useful microbe

Q10) Give 3 ways of making food last longer

Q11) What are needed for iron to rust?

Q12) Name the fungus used to change sugar into alcohol

Q13) What two factors do the amount of metal produced and its cost depend upon?

(1 mark)

(1 mark)

(2 marks)

(1 mark)

(1 mark)

(2 marks)

(2 marks) (1mark) (1mark) (3 marks)

(2 marks)

(1 mark)

(2 marks)

Total 20 marks

37

MATERIALS and their PROPERTIES

Year 9 Lesson Notes

Overview

Topic 1 - N.C. Ref. 1 c - Particulate Theory and Diffusion

1. Lesson 1 - Made of particles? 1 Solids

2. Lesson 2 - Made of particles? 2 Liquids

3. Lesson 3 - Made of particles? 3 Gases

4. Lesson 4 - Does it make sense - about molecules?(1)

5. Lesson 5 - Does it make sense - about moving molecules?(1)

6. Lesson 6 - Does it make sense - about moving molecules?(2)

7. Lesson 7 - 1/2 lesson revision + '/2 lesson Year 9 Test One

Topic 2 - N.C. Ref. 1d. 1f,1g - Atomic Structure. Compounds and Formulae

1. Lesson 1 - Elements

2. Lesson 2 - Compounds

3. Lesson 3 - Formulae

4. Lesson 4 - 1/2 lesson revision + 1/2 lesson Year 9 Test Two

Sc1 - An Investigation into Dissolving Sugar 5 Lessons

Topic 3 - N.C. Ref. 1 j, 1 k, 11 - Metals and Non- Metals

1. Lesson 1 - Metals

2. Lesson 2 - Non-Metals

3. Lesson 3 - Classifying Elements as Metals or Non-Metals

4. Lesson 4 - 1/2 lesson revision + 1/2 lesson Year 9 Test Three

Topic 4 - N.C. Ref. 2i, 2j, 2k. 21 - Chemical Reactions

1. Lesson 1 - Conservation of Mass

2. Lesson 2 - Materials from Chemical Reactions

3. Lesson 3 - To Obtain Copper from its Compound

4. Lessons 4 + 5 - Word Equations and Symbol Equations

5. Lesson 6 - Different Types of Reaction

6. Lesson 7 - Different Types of Reaction (II)

7. Lesson 8 - Different Types of Reaction (III)

8. Lesson 9 - 1/2 lesson revision + 1/2 lesson Year 9 Test Four

Topic 1 - N.C. Ref. 1c - Particulate Theory and Diffusion

Lesson 1 - Made of particles? 1 Solids

Lesson Objectives

• to get pupils to think about the mechanism of what is happening during melting

• to get pupils to consider the following two possibilities:

is matter a continuous material simply changing consistency? or

is matter made up of discrete particles loosening from one another upon melting?

Lesson Requirements

• Starting Science Book 3 - class set

• 10 sets, each consisting of:

• worksheet "Made of particles? 1 Solids" from Starting Science Resource Pack Three Pg.67

• small ice cube
• watch glass
• pestle and mortar
• salt crystals
• hand lens Suggested Lesson Plan

• arrange pupils into groups of 3 (suggest gender mix)

• quick recap. From Yr. 7 work that solids can be changed into liquids

• pupils follow the worksheet "Made of particles? 1 Solids" but using a watch glass instead of a saucer

• at the end of the lesson gather the class together and get a feeling as to which of the two mechanisms for melting appears the most popular. Ask pupils why they favour their mechanism over the alternative one

• conclude by saying that the "particle" model appears the correct one for solids from the observations with the hand lens

If Teacher Absent

Starting Science Book 3 Pg. 41 - read and answer questions(full set of answers available)

Homework

Starting Science Book 3 Pg. 41 - read and answer questions(full set of answers available)

Risk Assessment

• Obey lab. rules

2

Lesson 2 - Made of particles? 2 Liguids

Lesson Objectives

• pupils appreciate how a model can be used to explain particles in a liquid

• pupils appreciate how the "particles" model for liquids can account for the actual behaviour of liquids, but the "continuous matter" model cannot

Lesson Reguirements

• two 3 ~tre margarine cartons

• 50 ern ethanol

• three 100 crrr' measuring cylinders

• 10 sets. each consisting of:

• worksheet "Made of particles? 2 Liquids" from Starting Science Resource Pack Three

Pg.68

• 3 measuring cylinders - 50cm3 or 100cm3

• dried peas

• dry sand

Suggested Lesson Plan

• arrange pupils into groups of 3 (suggest gender mix)

• pupils follow the worksheet as far as the end of Activity 3

• at the end of Activity 3, gather the pupils together and discuss Activity 3 so all pupils are aware of the small sand particles slotting into the spaces between the larger pea particles

• then demonstrate Activity 4 - the pupils see that 50 crrr' ethanol when added to 50 ern" water take up less than 100 em"

• the pupils should be able to tell you the reason - the smaller water particles are slotting into the spaces between the larger ethanol particles

• conclude by saying that the above observation can be explained by assuming that liquids consist of particles with small spaces in between but could not be explained by the "continuous material" model

If Teacher Absent

Starting Science Book 3 Pg. 42 - read and answer questions(full set of answers available)

Homework

Starting Science Book 3 Pg. 42 - read and answer questions(full set of answers available)

Risk Assessment • Obey lab. rules

3

Lesson 3 - Made of particles? 3 Gases

Lesson Objectives

• pupils can use circumstantial evidence to appreciate that gases too (like solids and liquids) are made up of tiny particles

Lesson Requirements

• worksheet "Made of particles? 3 Gases" from Starting Science Resource Pack Three

Pg.75 - 10 sets

• smoke cell + cover slip

• vaseline

• 12 volt electrical supply (for smoke cell)

• microscope - magnification 50 to 100 times

• piece of string

• teat pipette

Suggested Lesson Plan

• arrange pupils into groups of 3 (suggest gender mix)

• give each group a worksheet "Made of particles? 3 Gases"

• set up the smoke cell (see Starting Science Resource Pack Three Pg. 63) - demonstration, not pupil activity

• let pupils, in their groups, come and look through microscope - guide them what they should be looking for (tiny bright particles against a black background)

• when all have seen, discuss with pupils that it is the "air" particles bumping into the smoke particles that makes them move

• liken the movement of an "air" particle to the movement of a ball in a pinball machine

container wall

- "air" particle

o - smoke particle __. path of "air" particle

• it can be seen that the "air" particle moves in a random fashion - called Brownian motion after the biologist Brown who discovered it - travelling in straight lines between collisions

• then summarise the last 3 lessons by saying that solids. Liquids and gases are made up of particles and when we go from solids to liquids the particles simply move a little further apart; and when we go from liquids to gases the particles move very much further apart

If Teacher Absent

Starting Science Book 3 Pg. 41 - read and answer questions(full set of answers available)

Homework

Starting Science Book 3 Pg. 41 - read and answer questions(full set of answers available)

Risk Assessment • Obey lab. rules

4

Lesson 4 - Does it make sense - about molecules?(1)

Lesson Objectives

• to appreciate that air particles escape through tiny holes in balloon rubber as they bombard against it

• to appreciate that the pressure inside a balloon arises from the gas particles bombarding the balloon rubber

Lesson Requirements

• worksheet "Does it make sense - about molecules?(1)" from Starting Science Resource

Pack One Pg.123 -10 sets

• large balloon

• tape measure

• top pan balance measuring to 0.01g

• large glass pneumatic trough

Suqgested Lesson Plan

• N.B. - measure the girth and mass of balloon a week before

• Measure the girth and mass of the balloon (one week later)

• arrange pupils into groups of 3 (suggest gender mix)

• give each group a worksheet "Does it make sense - about molecules?(1 r

• ask pupils to work through the worksheet

• at the end discuss the lesson objectives with the pupils

If Teacher Absent

Starting Science Book 1 Pg. 40 - read and answer questions(full set of answers available)

Homework

Starting Science Book 1 Pg. 40 - read and answer questions(full set of answers available)

Risk Assessment • Obey lab. rules

5

Lesson 5 - Does it make sense - about moving molecules?(1)

Lesson Objectives

• to appreciate that particles in a gas are constantly moving about

• to appreciate that, at the same temperature, particles of greater mass move more slowly than particles of lesser mass

Lesson Requirements

• worksheet "Does it make sense - about moving molecules?(1)" from Starting Science

Resource Pack One Pg.124 - class set

• gas jar of bromine gas with cover slip on

• gas jar of air with top vaselined

• long dry(rinsed out with a little propanone) glass tube + 2 bungs to fit ends

• glass wool

• conc. hydrochloric acid

• conc. ammonia solution

• 2 tweezers

Suggested Lesson Plan

• give out worksheet "Does it make sense - about moving molecules?(1)"

• give the class a few minutes to look through the worksheet

• carry out the worksheet as a demonstration

• measure from the junction of the two gas jars how many cm the brown gas has risen in 30s, 1 min, 1 min 30s, 2min - note these figs. down

• then set up the long tube experiment as below:

halfway

glass wool soaked in conc. hydrochloric acid

glass wool soaked in conc. ammonia soln.

• a white cloud of solid ammonium chloride is seen to form where the two gases meet - the fact that the cloud forms nearer the conc. hydrochloric acid end tells us that the ammonia gas particles of smaller mass travel faster than the hydrogen chloride gas particles (from the conc. hydrochloric acid) of larger mass

• discuss the lesson objectives with the pupils

If Teacher Absent

Starting Science Book 1 Pg. 36 - read and answer questions(full set of answers available)

Homework

Starting Science Book 1 Pg. 36 - read and answer questions(full set of answers available)

Risk Assessment

• keep pupils well back whilst you slide the gas jar of air over the jar of bromine (it should

take a couple of seconds with virtually no loss of bromine) - fume cupboard if possible

• care not to knock the jars over

• have plenty of ventilation

• care with the conc. solns. of hydrochloric acid and ammonia- do not inhale the ammonia

• Obey lab. rules

6

L~ \

Lesson 6 - Does it make sense - about moving molecules?(2)

Lesson Objectives

• to understand what diffusion is

• to appreciate that diffusion occurs slower in liquids than in gases

• to appreciate that diffusion occurs faster the higher the temperature

Lesson Requirements

• solution of potassium manganate (VII)

• 2 kettles

• masking tape

• 10 sets, each consisting of:

worksheet "Does it make sense - about moving molecules?(2)"

• from Starting Science Resource Pack One Pg.125

• 2 test tubes

• teat pipette

• test tube rack

• measuring cylinder

• thermometer -10°C to 110°C

• ruler

Suggested Lesson Plan

• start by giving the pupils a definition of diffusion - "the movement of particles from a

region of high concentration to one of lower concentration"

• arrange pupils into groups of 3 (suggest gender mix)

• give out worksheet "Does it make sense - about moving molecules?(2)"

• give each group 1/2 test tube of potassium manganate (VII) solution + teat pipette

• pupils follow the worksheet except they put bottom of masking tape 8 cm from bottom of empty test tube

• pupils put water in test tube up to bottom of masking tape

• pupils take temperature of water - note keep thermometer bulb in water while taking temperature

• pupils put 1 drop of manganate (VII) solution carefully into bottom of water (as per worksheet)

• start clock when pipette has been removed and measure the height in cm (from bottom of tube) it has risen to at 5, 10, 15 minute intervals from start - note markings on ruler do not start at end of ruler

• split the groups into 3 so that some groups do the experiment with water at room temperature, some with water at about so-c, and some with water at about so-c

• collect group readings on board in a table as below:

~ 25°C 50°C so-c
n
5
10
15 7

L02

• by comparing these times with the time for the gas bromine to diffuse it Should be clear that gases diffuse faster than liquids - indicating that gas particles are moving faster (and so have more kinetic energy) than liquid particles

• it should also be clear that the higher the temperature the faster the particles diffuse

• end the lesson by saying that although gas particles travel at speeds ranging from 100 to 2000 metres per second. they take quite a while to move up a tube (bromine expt.) or across a room because of the collisions with the "air" particles

If Teacher Absent

Starting Science Book 1 Pg. 37 - read and answer questions(full set of answers available)

Homework

• revise for test next lesson

Risk Assessment

• wear goggles

• keep teat pipettes vertical (bulb at top)

• care not to spill manganate (VII) solution or get on skin or clothes (a solution of sodium metabisulphite will remove manganate (VII) solution stains)

• Obey lab. rules

8

Lesson 7 - 1/2 lesson revision + 1/2 lesson Year 9 Test One

Lesson Reguirements

• class set of "Year 9 Test One"

• file paper (pupils do not write on the test papers which are collected in and returned to filing cabinet)

Suggested Lesson Plan

The test will take about 1/2 lesson depending on group: a top group will manage the test unaided, a lower group may need the questions read out and/or explained to them.

9

Year 9 Test One - Particulate Theory and Diffusion Answer All Questions on File Paper

Q1) If 50 crrr' ethanol and 50 ern" water are mixed, what is the total volume?

(1 mark)

Q2) Explain your answer to Q1

(2 marks)

Q3) What is diffusion?

(1 mark)

Q4) Do particles move faster in a gas or in a liquid?

(1 mark)

Q5) What can be done to the particles in a gas or in a liquid to make them move faster?

Q6) What happens to particles in a liquid when it changes into a gas?

(1 mark) (1 mark)

Q7) Explain why a balloon gradually goes down

(2 marks)

Q8) Draw the path of a gas particle as it passes across a room

(2 marks)

Q9) Even though gas particles travel at many hundreds of metres per second,

explain why it takes a few minutes for the gas particles to travel across a room (2 marks)

Q10) Draw and label the "long tube" experiment, showing what is at each end and

where the two gases meet (3 marks)

Q11) What does the "long tube" experiment show? (1 marks)

Q12) Name the solid fonmed when the two gases meet (1 mark)

Q13) Give two things in common to both solids, liquids and gases (2 marks)

Total 20 marks

10

Topic 2 - N.C. Ref. 1 d, 1f,1 g - Atomic Structure, Compounds and Formulae

Lesson 1 - Elements

Lesson Objectives

• to know all elements consist of atoms

• to know that atoms consist of protons, neutrons and electrons

• to know that all atoms of the same element contain the same number of protons

• to know that different atoms of the same element (differ only in the number of neutrons) are called isotopes

Lesson Requirements

• AS copy of periodic table - class set

• starting Science Resource Book Three Pg. 69 reduced to AS - class set

• starting Science Book 3 Pg. 45

Suggested Lesson Plan

• recap. From Year 7 on what an element is - a substance that cannot be broken down into anything simpler by chemical means.

• give out A5 copy of periodic table and Science Resource Book Three Pg. 69 reduced to A5

• work through Starting Science Book 3 Pg. 45 with pupils

• pupils summarise sections "What makes different elements behave differently?" + diagram and "Did you know?"

• when finished pupils start on "Science Resource Book Three Pg. 69" reduced to A5

• give each group a worksheet "Does it make sense - about molecules?(1)"

If Teacher Absent

Starting Science Book 3 Pg. 45 - read and answer questions(full set of answers available)

Homework

• complete Science Resource Book Three Pg. 69" reduced to AS

• read Starting Science Book 3 Pg. 46 and answer questions Risk Assessment

• obey lab. rules

11

Lesson 2 - Compounds

Lesson Objectives

• to know that some elements combine through chemical reaction

• to know that when elements combine through chemical reaction they form compounds

• to know that compounds have a definite composition and behave differently to the elements making them up

Lesson Reguirements

• 10 sets, each consisting of:

• worksheet "Iron and sulphur" from Starting Science Resource Book Three Pg. 70

• 1 .6g sulphur weighed out on scrap paper folded down middle

• 2.8g iron filings(fine) weighed out on scrap paper folded down middle

• pyrex test tube

• bar magnet

• stirring rod

Suggested Lesson Plan

• arrange pupils into groups of 3 (suggest gender mix)

• pupils work through worksheet "Iron and sulphur" but instead of tin lids they proceed as:

• collect paper of sulphur and paper of iron

• test each for magnetic property by moving magnet underneath paper (don't let iron stick to magnet)

• carefully (without spilling - correct amounts weighed out) put the iron and sulphur into the

same pyrex test tube

• mix with stirring rod

• move magnet up outside of tube to see if mixture can be separated

• mix again with stirring rod

• heat mixture with blue Bunsen flame, once reaction is going, remove from heat and see

the glow spread through the whole mixture (exothermic reaction)

• put on heat proof mat to cool (don't let tube falloff)

• when cool, move magnet up outside of tube again - no separation this time

• the pupils can see that the compound formed by heating the iron and sulphur mixture behaves differently from the elements making it up, it cannot be easily separated like the mixture and it has a fixed composition (1.6g sulphur and 2.8g iron)

If Teacher Absent

Starting Science Book 3 Pg. 48 - read and answer questions(full set of answers available)

Homework

• Starting Science Book 3 Pg. 48 - read and answer questions

Risk Assessment

• wear goggles

• keep test tube of iron and sulphur at arm's length when heating

• do not smell tube contents

• have plenty of ventilation

• obey lab. rules

12

Lesson 3 - Formulae

Lesson Objectives

• pupils appreciate that most common compounds are made up of a metal element joined

to a non-metal element or an acid radical

• pupils know the names of common acid radicals

• pupils can give the names of common compounds and elements given their formulae

• pupils can give the formulae of common compounds given their names

Lesson Reguirements

• nothing specific

Suggested Lesson Plan

• remind pupils that in the previous lesson the compound iron sulphide was formed by heating together the metal iron and the non-metal sulphur - the formula for iron sulphide is FeS

• pupils copy down the following table (put on board) giving names and valency (combining power) of common metals, non-metals and acid radicals ( an acid radical is what is left of an acid once the hydrogen has been removed)

metal symbol i valency Non-metal symbol valency
sodium Na I +1 1 chlorine CI -1
I
copper Cu I +2 1 bromine Sr -1
zinc Zn I +2 ~ oxygen I 0 -2
lead Pb I +2 ~ sulphur S -2
aluminium AI ! +3 ~ nitrogen N -3 Acid radical I symbol I valency
carbonate CO;,"- I -2
sulphate S04~- I -2
nitrate NO:o- I -1 • generally a compound can only be formed between a metal (with + valency) and something with a - valency (non-metal or acid radical)

• simple compounds consist of two parts: the metal part and the non-metal/acid radical part

Rules for working out Formulae

1. write formula for metal first followed by formula of non-metal

2. write valency for each part above it

3. swap over valencies as shown in example below

egs. What are the formulae for a) magnesium nitride; b) copper nitrate?

a) magnesium nitride 1. Mg N

2.~

b) copper nitrate

1. Cu N03

2X. 2. Cui?N~

Note - the NO;, is in ( ) because the whole of it is doubled, not just the 03

when a non-metal forms a compound it changes its name, i.e. oxygen ----+ oxide (Year 7 notes)

13

110

If Teacher Absent

Material World Pg. 62-66 - read and answer try questions on Pg. 66

Homework

• revise for test next lesson

Risk Assessment

• obey lab. rules

14

Lesson 4 - 1/2 lesson revision + 1/2 lesson Year 9 Test Two

Lesson Requirements

• class set of "Year 9 Test Two"

• file paper (pupils do not write on the test papers which are collected in and returned to filing cabinet)

Suggested Lesson Plan

The test will take about 1/2 lesson depending on group: a top group will manage the test unaided, a lower group may need the questions read out and/or explained to them.

15

\\2- »

Year 9 Test Two - Atomic Structure. Compounds and Formulae Answer All Questions on File Paper

01) An atom of helium has 2 protons, 2 neutrons and 2 electrons. Draw a diagram to represent the helium atom, with a p to represent a proton, an n to represent a

neutron and an e to represent an electron. (2 marks)

02) What is common to all atoms of the same element?

(2 marks)

03) Name the following substances whose formulae are given:

e) MgC03

b) NaCI

d) FeS04

(6 marks)

04) Which of the above are elements?

(2 marks)

05) Name the compounds formed when each of the following sets of elements combine:

a) iron and sulphur

b) magnesium and oxygen

c) zinc and chlorine

(3 marks)

06) What are isotopes?

(1 mark)

07) Name the elements forming each of the following compounds:

a) lead oxide

b) carbon dioxide

c) zinc nitrate

d) sodium carbonate

(4 marks)

Total 20 marks

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Sc1 - An investigation into Dissolving Sugar 5 Lessons

Lesson Reguirements

• granulated sugar

• 100 crrr' plastic measuring cylinders

• 250 crrr' pyrex beakers

• pyrex boiling tubes

• top pan balance

• _10DC - 11 ODC alcohol thermometers

• stirring rods

• spatulas

Suggested Plan Lesson 1

• refresh pupils' minds on Sc1 and give out A5 copies of "Student's Guide to Sc1"

• go over the guide with them

• remind pupils of fair testing

Lessons 2-4

• stress to the pupils that they must work individually

• pupils spend these 3 lessons doing their practical work

Lesson 5

• this lesson can be used completing the write-up

Risk Assessment

• remind pupils to stand for all practical work

• remind pupils to wear goggles

• remind pupils to obey Lab. Rules

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Topic 3 - N.C. Ref. 1 j. 1 k. 11 - Metals and Non-Metals

Lesson 1 - Metals

Lesson Objectives

• to know where the metals are found on the periodic table

• to know the characteristic properties of metals

Lesson Requirements

• starting Science Book 3 Pg. 46

• some extra AS copies of Periodic Table

10 sets, each containing:

• iron rod, copper rod, aluminium rod and brass rod (old physics rods will do nicely)

• two 11/2 volt batteries, 1 switch, 1 bulb, 4 leads, 2 croc. Clips

• bar magnet

Suggested Lesson Plan

• put in the "stair line" on the AS periodic table as on Science Book 3 Pg. 46

• elements on left of "stairs" are metals, those on right non-metals - there are 21 nonmetals and just over 80 metals

• arrange pupils into groups of 3 (suggest gender mix)

• put the following circuit on the board and ask the pupils to make it:

A

B

• each of the 4 metal rods is put between the crocodile clips and the switch pressed to see if the rod conducts electricity (brass is an alloy it is a mixture of the metals copper and zinc, but its properties are those of metals)

• note which of the metals conduct electricity

• hold each rod 10cm from the end which is held in the blue Bunsen flame

• note which of the rods conduct heat - leave the rods to coolon the heat proof mat

• when cool gently hit the rods together

• note which of the rods ring

• gently try and bend each rod a little (if it bends a little, straighten it out again)

• note which of the rods bent without breaking

• test each rod with the bar magnet

• note which of the rods is magnetic

• at end of lesson get the pupils to come up with the following list of properties of metals a) conduct electricity; b) conduct heat; c) sonorous(ring when hit); d) malleable(can be hammered into shape without breaking); e) are shiny solids at room temperature;

f) iron, cobalt and nickel are magnetic

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If Teacher Absent

Co-ordinated Science Chemistry Pg. 142, 143 - read and summarise

Homework

• list 6 metals(or alloys) and list a different use for each together with the property justifying this use

Risk Assessment

• remind pupils to put rod on asbestos mat as soon as they feel any heat

• obey lab. rules

19

_ jib

Lesson 2 - Non-Metals

Lesson Objectives

• to know where the non-metals are found on the periodic table

• to know the characteristic properties of non-metals

Lesson Reguirements

10 sets, each containing:

• roll sulphur (stick or lump of sulphur)

• two 11/2 volt batteries, 1 switch. 1 bulb, 4 leads, 2 croc. Clips

• bar magnet

Suggested Lesson Plan

• from last lesson the pupils know where non-metals lie on the periodic table

• arrange pupils into groups of 3 (suggest gender mix)

• put the following circuit on the board and ask the pupils to make it:

A

B:::;!----'

• the sulphur (a non-metal) is put between the crocodile clips and the switch pressed to see if the sulphur conducts electricity

• note if the sulphur conducts electricity

• pupils hold a finger 3cm from a blue Bunsen flame for 2 minutes

• note if the finger gets hot

• does a non-metal (air is a mixture of non-metals -nitrogen and oxygen) conduct heat?

• put the following table on the board and the pupils copy it and complete it for the nonmetal sulphur

Property Non-Metal
conduct electricity
conduct heat
Sonorous
malleable
shiny
magnetic If Teacher Absent

Co-ordinated Science Chemistry Pg. 142, 143 - answer questions Pg. 143 (answers available - see JAB)

Homework

• try and find a use for each of the non-metals: a) oxygen; b) nitrogen; c) chlorine; d) silicon; e) krypton

Risk Assessment

• remind pupils not to burn their fingers

• obey lab. rules

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Lesson 3 - Classifyinq Elements as Metals or Non-Metals

Lesson Objectives

• pupils should be able to classify elements as metals or non-metals using their properties

Lesson Requirements

10 sets, each containing:

bunged and taped pyrex test tubes, labelled A B, C and D containing:

• A - an iron nail

• B-2 pieces of granulated tin

• C - powdered sulphur

• D - charcoal

Suggested Lesson Plan

• arrange pupils into groups of 3 (suggest gender mix)

• pupils look at the four tubes and complete the following table

Tube I Metal or Non-Metal Reason for Choice
A I
B I I
C
D • ask them to put as many reasons as they can under "Reason for Choice"

• when finished, pupils can summarise the last 3 lessons on a double page spread (mind map ?)

If Teacher Absent

Summarise the last two lessons on a double page spread (mind map ?)

Homework

Revise for test next lesson

Risk Assessment • obey lab. rules

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Lesson 4 - 1/2 lesson revision + 1/2 lesson Year 9 Test Three

Lesson Requirements

• class set of "Year 9 Test Three"

• file paper (pupils do not write on the test papers which are collected in and returned to filing cabinet)

Suggested Lesson Plan

The test will take about '12 lesson depending on group: a top group will manage the test unaided, a lower group may need the questions read out and/or explained to them.

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Year 9 Test Three - Metals, Non-Metals and Element Classification Answer All Questions on File Paper

01) To the nearest 2, how many non-metals are there?

02) List 5 properties of metals

03) Out of metals and non-metals, which have the most properties in common?

04) Explain your answer to 03 above

05) Give 5 different uses of metals and the property that goes with each use

Property

Use

06) Name the 3 metals that are magnetic

07) a) name a non-metal that is a solid at room temperature

b) name a non-metal that is a liquid at room temperature

c) name two non-metals that are gases at room temperature

(1 mark)

(5 marks)

(1 mark)

(1 mark)

(5 marks)

(3 marks)

(4 marks)

Total 20 marks

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