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INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY CHITTAGONG

Research Report On…


STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT

Submitted To:
MR. DR. MD. ANOWARUL KABIR
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
DEPARTMENT OF ACCOUNTING
UNIVERSITY OF CHITTAGONG.

Submitted By:
1. MUHAMMAD SHAHINUR EKRAM CHOWDHURY ID NO: R093117
2. MD. IFTEKHER UDDIN CHOWDHURY ID NO: R093121
3. MOZAFFOR ALAM CHOWDHURY ID NO: R093104
4. IRFATUL HOQUE ZIKO ID NO: R101159
5. MD. IFTEKHER HANNAN ID NO: R101132
6. MD. SAIFUL MOWLA RIZVI BHUIYAN ID NO: R101133

RMBA, 4th Trimester, Section (B).

Submitted Date: 21 May, 2010.

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Topic:
A NUMBER OF TEACHERS AND SCHOLARS TODAY THINK THAT
THE STUDY OF BUSINESS POLICY SHOULD NOT BE CONFINED TO
A SINGLE CAPSTONE COURSE BUT SHOULD EXPAND INTO
A FIELD OF STUDY FOR ADDRESSING
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT AS A SPECIALIZED COURSE.

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Table Of Contents:

NO. DESCRIPTION PAGES

01. ABSTRACT 04
02. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE 05
03. SCOPE & METHODOLOGIES OF THE RESEARCH 06
04. LIMITATION OF THE RESEARCH 06
05. INTRODUCTION 07-08
06. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 08
07. OVERVIEW OF SCHOLARS & TEACHERS THINKING ON
AMERICAN U NIVERSITIES, BRITISH UNIVERSITIES, 09-56
AUSTRALIAN U NIVERSITIES, INDIAN UNIVERSITIES &
BANGLADESHI UNIVERSITIES.
08. IMPLICATION 57-59
09 CONCLUDING REMARKS 61
10. REFERENCE 62-73
11. FURTHER RESEARCH 74
12. DATA 75-93

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01. Abstract
This paper examines the Scholars & Teachers Thinking on American Universities (Stanford University,
University of California, University of Michigan, University of Texas, University of Wisconsin etc.), British
Universities (Cambridge University, City University, Oxford University, The University of Manchester,
University of Kent etc.), Australian Universities (RMIT University, The Australian National University,
The University of Melbourne, The University of Queensland, The University of Sydney etc.), Indian
Universities (University of Mumbai, Anna University, University of Calcutta, University of Hyderabad,
University of Delhi etc.) & Bangladeshi Universities (University of Dhaka (DU), Chittagong University
(CU), North South University (NSU), Independent University, Bangladesh (IUB), International Islamic
University Chittagong (IIUC) etc.) and others that the study of Business Policy should not be confined to A
Single Capstone Course but should expand into a field of study for Addressing Strategic Management as A
Specialized Course.
In this paper we use observation and interview methods to contrast the sources and uses of funds a single
Capstone Course but Should Expand into Strategic Management as a Major Course. And to analyze that
information using through plan and thus determine the importance of the influence of different factors,
including the others area of courses.
Some scholars of organization and strategy expend significant energy disparaging and defending various
research methods. Debates about deductive versus inductive theory-building and the objectivity of
information from field observation versus that of large-sample numerical data are dichotomies that surface
frequently in our lives and those of our students. Despite this focus, some of the most respected members
of our research profession (i.e., Simon (1976), Solow (1985), Hambrick (1994), Staw and Sutton (1995),
and Hayes (2002)) have continued to express concerns that the collective efforts of business academics
have produced a paucity of theory that is intellectually rigorous, practically useful, and able to stand the
tests of time and changing circumstances.
The purpose of this paper is to outline a process of theory building that links questions about data,
methods and theory. We hope that this model can provide a common language about the research
process that helps scholars of management better understand the roles of different types of data and
research, and thereby to build more effectively on each other’s work. Our unit of analysis is at two levels:
the individual research project and the iterative cycles of theory building in which a researchers attempt to
build upon each other’s work. The model combines and augments other studies of how communities of
scholars cumulatively build valid and reliable theory. It has normative and pedagogical implications for how
we conduct research, evaluate the work of others, train our doctoral students, and design our courses.
While many feel comfortable in their understanding of these perspectives, it has been our observation that
those who have written about the research process and those who think they understand and practice it
proficiently do not yet share even a common language. The same words are applied to very different
phenomena and processes, and the same observable fact can be called by many different words.
The sources of internet data’s or Papers published in reputable journals often violate rudimentary rules for
generating cumulatively improving, reliable and valid theory. While recognizing that research progress is
hard to achieve at a collective level, we assert here that if scholars and practitioners of management
shared and utilized a sound understanding of the process by which theory is built, we could be much more
productive in doing research that doesn’t just get published, but meets the standards of rigorous
scholarship and helps managers know what actions will lead to the results they seek, given the
circumstances in which they find themselves.
Our purpose in this paper is not to praise or criticize other scholars’ work as good theory or bad theory:
almost every published piece of research has its unique strengths and shortcomings. We will cite examples
of other scholars’ research in this paper, but we do so only to illustrate how the theory-building process
works. We hope that the model described here might constitute a template and a common language that
other scholars might use to reconstruct using how bodies of understanding have accumulated in their own
fields.
Through my study, I have found some problems, which is supportive data of the strategic management
not ensure the specialized field. According to that information, I made to followed to prepare the overview
analysis (Scholars & Teachers Thinking), findings, and implementation at the end of the report is designed
based on important data for supporting this analysis. I have included some important information, which is
very helpful for the various educational institution’s for modify the strategic management as a specialized
or major course.

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02. Research Objective
To find out the over viewing at various countries universities that “A Number of Teachers and Scholars
Today Think that The Study of Business Policy Should not be Confined to A Single Capstone Course but
Should Expand into A Field of Study for Addressing Strategic Management as A Specializes Course.”

The present study on Strategic Management focuses on to study the following -


I) Identification and selection of right decision in Strategic Management as the key attributes of decision
making for teamwork.
II) Strategic difference, Strategic management and key issues in cooperation in due industry’s
implementation process.

The purpose of this course is to develop an understanding, the skill, and experience in formulating and
planning of strategies. The course builds on the foundation developed in Strategic Management: a
successful firm delivers value to customers better than its competitors. The first Strategic core course
focuses on introducing the basic elements which underlie the practice of Strategy. In contrast, this course
emphasizes how to do Strategic planning: how to put these basic elements into practice is a strategic way.
The general idea behind Strategic management may be simple “make profit by meeting a need of an
executing company’s decision making”. But the art of putting it into practice is complex. A thinker always
operates in an environment with constraints, where information is incomplete, and both competitors and
institutions act changeably.

The objective of this course is (1) to introduce participants to concepts and tools that enable intellectuals
to manage and understand this complexity and (2) to provide participants with “hands on” experience in
designing and implementing a strategy in competitive institutions. Central concepts include competitive
and student analyses, problem identification, the design of Strategic course for existing and new major
course and the allocation of resources across mix subjects and institution. The course puts special
emphasis on teamwork and the application of the technical and conceptual skills under time pressure.

Learning materials as follows-


• To provide an integrative framework that will allow students to synthesize knowledge from other
business courses into a comprehensive understanding of competitive advantage.
• To provide a basic understanding of the nature and dynamics of the strategy formulation and
implementation processes as they occur in complex organizations.
• To encourage students to think critically and strategically.
• To develop the ability to identify strategic issues and design appropriate courses of action.

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03. Scope & Methodologies of the research

The research is based on the analysis of secondary data collected internet. The major finding of this paper
is that strategic management continued to be an important strategic alternative and means to course for
the various institutions but the common observation and reason of breakdown is unfortunate judgment in
selection and identification of proper concern. Differences in Major course mission, goals and strategic
objectives, poor information sharing, investment decisions, poor vision, poor motivation and lack of
confidence in connection structure are also responsible for modifying course success and failure.

Exploratory research was used to conduct the study. The study was conducted in various countries and
secondary data were collected from various institutions through internet. For secondary data collection,
institutions were selected by using judgmental Top Ranking and in total 25(+) institutions were selected
from various countries.

And the methodologies we applied that – only the data study method.

04. Limitation of the research

When we collected the data, found some limitations of this capstone course among the various studies of
data collection in this research.
* In the data study methods of the limitations are-
a) An expensive method.
b) Very limited information provided through internet.
c) Unexpected factors may interfere with the study.
d) Relatively more-time-imperceptible.
e) Introduce systematic errors on data.
f) This method is likely to be the slowest of all.
* In the collection of data through internet data, the limitations are-
a) Very expensive for collecting data.
b) Usually adopted in search of unknown destination.

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05. Introduction
(a) Background-
American Education System and others are the strengths for expanding sources of funding, increasing
student bodies with fairly open admission policies, close university-industry relations, a generous tradition
of philanthropy buttressed by federal fiscal policy, and openness to the creation of new sub-disciplines-
have propelled the study of entrepreneurship, as for many other fields of study. These characteristics have
allowed the field of entrepreneurship to develop quickly and independently when compared to other
educational systems in Europe or Asia.
The funding of university education by private individuals or companies is an American specificity that
bears noting. Research centers have always been funded by generous donations from private
organizations that have an interest in the development of a particular field of study. Because of their size
and extended geographical reach, large, multi-location, multi-product corporations are not in a good
position to fund centers or create chairs in a particular university, neglecting others.
Therefore, the bulk of private donations to colleges and universities, for this purpose, come from fast
growing small- and medium-sized companies. Successful entrepreneurs are usually keener to thank their
own university by donating large amounts of money to see centers or chairs created and named after
them. This generous financial support by entrepreneurs has led to the creation of multiple
entrepreneurship centers and chairs, ultimately buttressing small business-oriented studies.
Parallel to this financial trend in entrepreneurship education, colleges have sometimes accompanied the
creation of entrepreneurship centers with the development of an entire department dedicated to this field
of study. Being elevated to the official rank of department, entrepreneurship was finally considered a
serious matter and given the necessary resources to launch research projects, attract faculties, and
develop programs that eventually were turned into majors for students willing to concentrate in small
business management or new venture creation.
The way American universities and others are organized has played a major role in the recognition of
Strategic Management education as a respected field of study. But even more important has been the
tight relationship between university research and commercial applications. It has allowed management
theories to be applied directly during the educational process and turned into real world applications, as
students have launched start-ups while still at school under universities.

(b) Methodology-
In this study we find the methodologies that -
** In the data study methods – we observe and collect about the information through secondary
sources.
** In the collection of data through internet – we design the data’s that the information provider
makes it published as article or report.
** In the collection of data waiting through long time possibilities

(c) Results / Findings-


Strategic management focuses on the concept of strategy formulation and implementation by exploring
the functions and nature of general management. The course serves as an opportunity to develop skills for
strategic thinking and analysis, leadership, communication, teamwork, and cross-functional integration.
Students learn about corporate and business planning and the implementation of organizational change
through structures, systems and people. The approach adopted includes lectures, case analyses and action
learning through group efforts.
LEARNING OUTCOMES as follows upon completion of this course, students will be able to complete the
following key tasks:
Articulate a vision that gives meaning to all the firm’s stakeholders of the firm’s objectives;
Formulate a strategic plan that operations the goals and objectives of the firm;
Identify the resource endowments specific to the firm and those that are homogeneous to industry
participants;
Specify current and desired strategic positioning in order to respond to market demands;
Implement a strategic plan that takes into account the functional areas of business;
Evaluate and revise programs and procedures in order to achieve organizational goals;
Consider the ethical dimensions of the strategic management process; and
Effectively communicate change management strategies in various forums to an array of audiences with
accuracy, clarity, specificity and professionalism.

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(d) Limitations-
• Problem of strategic planning in higher education
Change in functioning of universities environment has inevitably led to necessity of their organizational
transformation. The main feature of a today's situation is that process of high school updating should be
sustained. The dynamic environment does not allow preserving the traditional methods of management by
higher school and its organizational structure. In other words the basic direction of transformation will
consist of creating an adaptive management system by university. It concerns both the Russian higher
schools, and world educational system as a whole. Thus, the new problem of higher schools is a problem
of strategic management.
• Strategic management - the administrative concept entered into the use at the end of the 60s
One of the main functions of strategic management is flexible regulation and duly changes of the
organization structure. The integral elements of the general theory of strategic management are
development of mission and the strategic plan for development of the organization.
• Universities are driven to engage in a strategic planning process by a variety of forces
These include: increasing demand for higher education concurrent with a decline in government and
private funding, changing student demographics, and a need to compete with the emerging models of
higher education while keeping the essence of a traditional comprehensive university. A strategic planning
process can help prepare a university to face these emerging challenges… Strategic planning is one of the
major steps the universities can take to address these challenges. Strategy is a tool for the university to
find its competitive advantage and place within the environment (Lerner, A.L., 1999 //
http://www.des.calstate.edu/strategic.html).
• Strategic planning might inhibit changes, and discourage
The institution’s considering disruptive alternatives for changes. Planning might inhibit creativity, and
"does not easily handle truly creative ideas". A conflict lies with a desire to "retain the stability that
planning brings to an organization ... while enabling it to respond quickly to external changes in the
environment"
(Mintzberg, 1994, p. 178-184).
Strategic planning might increase "political activity among participants" (i.e. faculty and administration, or
individual participants), by increasing conflict within the organization, reinforcing a notion of centralized
hierarchy, and challenging formal channels of authority. (Mintzberg, 1994, pp.197, 200).

(e) Recommendations-
Engaging in a strategic planning process benefits universities in a variety of ways as Strategic planning:
• Creates a framework for determining the direction a university should take to achieve its desired
future,
• Provides a framework for achieving competitive advantage,
• Allows all university constituencies to participate and work together towards accomplishing goals,
• "Raises the vision of all key participants, encouraging them to reflect creatively on the strategic
direction" of the university (Hax & Majluf, 1996, p. 32),
• Allows the dialogue between the participants improving understanding of the organization's vision,
and fostering a sense of ownership of the strategic plan, and belonging to the organization,
• Aims to align the university with its environment (Lerner, A.L., 1999).

06. Statement of the problem


We collect every data through various scope and methodologies that create some findings &
recommendation to established a statement of this research –
• If the international institutions try to measure the executing impact of this capstone course that
output overcoming through executive of any companies.
• If the international institutions modify to establish as specialized that concerns special
considerations and developing course materials.
• If the international institutions Scholars and Teachers try to publish necessary article and research
report that for forecasting future aspects.
• If the international institutions try to measure the executing impact of this capstone course that
helps the executives for increasing decision making affairs.
• If the international institutions Scholars and Teachers try to publish necessary article and research
report that for increasing extreme generations.

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07. Overview of Scholars & Teachers Thinking
There can be little debate that culture—the multiple characteristics and backgrounds that shape
individuals’ and organizations’ identities, perceptions, attitudes, and behavior—strongly influences the
success of business enterprises today. Inter-group conflict constantly threatens the ability of both
domestic and global firms to operate efficiently, cooperatively, and fairly.
Unfortunately, undergraduate and graduate courses in multicultural management (also called “cross-
cultural management”) tend to fall short of this goal. We identify cultural management skills required for
success in today’s business environment, and then examine gaps between those target competencies and
current teaching in multicultural management, and the source of those gaps in the courses’ conceptual
foundations. We suggest improving these courses using concepts from, among other places, “domestic”
diversity management courses. In fact, we propose to improve both types of courses by merging them
into a unified course designed around the border-erasing concept of cultural competence.

• Content routinely taught in “domestic” diversity Strategic management courses


This makes us aware that cultural generalizations do harm beyond simply encouraging students to
stereotype. When generalizations are applied to cultural groups of which the person making the
application does not consider himself a part, negative content tends to turn simple cultural
misunderstandings into inter-group hostility in the form of “us versus them” and “we are superior to
them.” Social psychology labels this process prejudice, while multicultural management more commonly
refers to ethnocentrism, the tendency to think the culture of one’s own group or nation is superior to that
of others (Drever, 1952: 86).
• An incremental approach to updating textbooks
This, rather than purging incorrect or obsolete content, simply adds new material and additional
explanations. This process results in side-by-side contradictory information, which creates confusion and
ambiguity. Psychological research has established that when students encounter contradictory or
ambiguous information about groups other than their own, they are likely to remember the negative
version.
For example, research on in-group bias has established that members of one’s own group tend to be
granted the benefit of the doubt in circumstances where members of other groups are not; the same
behavior may be given a different interpretation depending on whether the person is a member of the
perceiver’s group; and evaluators tend to judge members of groups to which they do not belong more
extremely than members of their own group (Gilovich et al., 2006; Jones, 1997).
• Three Challenges
The unified course we are proposing would better prepare students as future managers in today’s global,
diverse business environment. However, instructors following our suggestions should not expect their
efforts at curricular change to be easy or popular. They are likely to encounter at least three challenges.
First, colleagues in a faculty member’s home department may not be supportive. Cross-departmental,
Co-taught classes may spark conflicts over enrollments and budgets. Concerns may be raised about
maintaining the intellectual distinctiveness of academic disciplines. Untenured faculty members may
receive reminders about the career advancing importance of teaching and publishing in a recognized
academic field. Faculty deeply invested in their own disciplines may skillfully mobilize such concerns to
defend the instructional status quo (Navarro, 2008: 118–119).
Second, a substantial amount of work will be required. Re-conceptualizing a course from scratch is a major
effort, even more so with multiple instructors. But prior to that, former teachers from both predecessor
disciplines will have to read and absorb substantial research from the behavioral sciences, as well as
reexamine their own biases and cultural assumptions.
Third, students will not necessarily be pleased. Our experience is that students expect cross-cultural
management courses to require less work than “courses with numbers,” to be fun rather than challenging,
and certainly not to be uncomfortable. Contradicting these expectations, well taught courses on cultural
competence push students to develop critical thinking skills, confront their own unconscious biases, and
deal with ambiguity.
In the short run, it would not be surprising if student course evaluation ratings fall until student
expectations begin to change. However, after these students enter the workplace, they may silently thank
their professors for helping them develop crucial managerial skills.

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• Organizing of learning
During the last twenty years, many countries have increasingly put emphasis on knowledge and on an
educated population as strategic competitive measures in the global economy. The general aim is to
become knowledge societies and play an active role in the global knowledge economy. The reason for the
increasing emphasis on knowledge can be found in the assumption that we are living through a revolution
as pervasive in scope and effects. For firms in a highly competitive and dynamic market, continuous
innovation becomes a goal in which knowledge is seen as the core resource and learning is viewed as the
most important process.
In a society where knowledge is the main resource, the development and spread of new knowledge
becomes central. Consequently, universities and institutions of higher learning are seen as central agents
of innovation and competitiveness. “If knowledge is the electricity of the new informational-international
economy, then the institutions of higher education are the power sources on which the new development
process must rely” argues that new technologies, highly competitive global markets and the new labor
force all contribute to the increasing demand for learning. Today’s global context forces all organizations to
find ways of adapting to changed surroundings or surrender—that is, learn or burn.
A critical condition for making an institution’s ICT learning (e-learning) effective is assumed to be the
institution’s key actors’ level of understanding the rationale for organizing goal-effective learning. As an
overall framework for identifying conditions of goal-effective learning, a model of relations between certain
factors pertaining to all learning is applied. However, the two organizations chosen for this study represent
very different learning environments. One is a private university and the other a telecommunications
corporation. As this article aims at describing and comparing understanding of and experience with e-
learning in these two organizations, it is necessary to understand how they differ.
Corporations as learning arenas are different from educational institutions because they do not have
learning as a primary objective. Corporate learning aims to serve corporate goals and needs, and in a
general sense to increase competitiveness, profit, efficiency, and so on. At the same time, learning is a
cognitive process in the minds of individuals. As such, learning is related to individual learning experiences,
to groups and to the larger organization.
The content of learning differs in the two contexts. In educational institutions, particularly universities,
learning is based on scientific disciplines or defined knowledge areas.
Corporate learning, on the other hand, is interdisciplinary and oriented to practical tasks’ learning in
corporations is built upon work tasks or work situations, and how to master certain competencies or solve
specific tasks. Time is a central variable. Learning strategies in corporations are often geared towards just-
in-time learning. Just in case learning, on the other hand, is learning knowledge and competencies in
advance of potential use, which is the time perspective of educational institutions where students enroll in
a program to learn a range of competencies for potential use in the future.
Finally, another important dimension relates to the degree of planning and structuring of learning
activities. Educational institutions emphasize formal learning, which is course-based and where emphasis is
put on validation of acquired knowledge through testing and evaluation. This is not the primary focus of
learning in corporations, where learning is a mix of formal courses and much informal learning, with the
test of knowledge being improved job performance—the application of learned knowledge and skills to job
tasks. While the learning activities in educational institutions and corporations are markedly different, their
efforts to organize learning share important properties with regard to planning and facilitating learning for
groups and individuals. It is important to bear in mind that the model for organizing learning that only
takes into account deliberately planned learning activities—not informal and ad hoc learning, which
represent the largest proportion of learning in corporations Because e-learning represents pre-designed
learning activities and our focus is on e-learning, our goal-directed model can be justified.
• Assessment of challenges and improvement areas
In terms of challenges and problems, the respondents highlighted four main issues answering the following question,
“What do you foresee as problems/challenges when implementing ICT-based learning on a broad scale?”
Six of the respondents emphasized the lack of knowledge and skills in using ICT; six saw the lack of
motivation as important; five highlighted the lack of an overall and common policy and strategy; and four
underlined the problems of insufficient infrastructure and the lack of a common platform.
As a follow-up, this question was asked, “What do you regard as the areas in which BI can/should seek
improvement for systematic implementation of ICT in learning/teaching activities?” All but one respondent
emphasized that BI has to develop an overall strategy for their ICT-based learning activities, while four
pointed out that management must be more progressive and visible and provide more resources. Five
respondents emphasized that an incentive system must be established; while all of them highlighted that
the infrastructure must be improved, in terms of training and technical support as well as in terms of a
common platform and access to resources. Five claimed that knowledge diffusion and exchange of
experiences must be emphasized to a larger extent.

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• Observation
In the first step researchers observe phenomena and carefully describe and measure what they see.
Careful observation, documentation and measurement of the phenomena in words and numbers is
important at this stage because if subsequent researchers cannot agree upon the descriptions of
phenomena, then improving theory will prove difficult. Early management studies such as The Functions of
the Executive (Barnard, 1939) and Harvard Business School cases written in the 1940s and 50s were
primarily descriptive work of this genre – and was very valuable.
This stage of research is depicted in Figure 1 as the base of a pyramid because it is a necessary
foundation for the work that follows. The phenomena being explored in this stage include not just things
such as people, organizations and technologies, but processes as well. These observations can be done
anywhere along the continuum from analysis of huge databases on the one end, to field-based,
ethnographic observation on the other.
• To prepare students for postsecondary education, educators and policymakers must perform two
tasks at the same time:
Restructure high schools so they are aligned to the expectations of colleges and revamp instruction so that
college readiness is the goal, measure, and substance of good teaching. The research is clear: the key to
preparing students for college is rigorous high school course work (Adelman 1999; ACT 2005). Therefore,
high schools and teachers must set college-ready expectations for students, teach rigorous content so that
students can apply knowledge in new situations, and use teaching methods that engage students in
learning to reason, write, and use information in complex ways.
The conditions of high school teaching must also change because teachers cannot solve all problems on
their own. Teachers need the help of standards, assessments, curricula, pre-service preparation, and
professional development aligned to college readiness if they are to succeed in the classroom.
No matter what you teach, you face the challenge of bringing students from point A— what they currently
know—to point B—the learning goals of a course. In many courses, the distance between points A and B is
huge, and the path is not obvious. Students must not only acquire new skills and information, but also
radically transform their approach to thinking and learning.
• Strategic Management: Books Reviews
a) FORTHCOMING IN 2010 3RD EDITION: Creative Problem Solving for Managers
Tony Proctor, University of Chester, UK
This text provides an essential introduction to the ideas and skills of creative problem solving. It
demonstrates how and why people are blocked in their thinking, how this impairs the creative problem
solving process and how creative problem solving techniques can help overcome these difficulties.
Theories of creative thinking are critically examined and utilized to justify the variety of techniques which
can be employed to discover insights into difficult management problems. Using case studies and case
histories, together with extensive diagrams, examples and thought-provoking questions, Creative Problem
Solving for Managers provides the most up-to-date and extensive approach to this important topic.
February 2010: 246x174: 328pp
Hb: 978-0-415-55108-3: £90.00 US $150.00
Pb: 978-0-415-55110-6: £29.99 US $56.95
b) FORTHCOMING IN 2010: Corporate Level Strategy Theory and Applications
Olivier Furrer, University of Nijmegen, the Netherlands
The challenges faced by diversified corporations – firms that operate in more than one industry or market
– have changed over the years. There is now a wide range of strategies, including corporate level
strategy, to add competitive advantage to these corporations as a whole.
In Corporate Level Strategy, Furrer guides the reader in developing the ability to consider the impact of
change and other important environmental forces on the opportunities for establishing and sustaining
corporate advantage by exploring three fundamental questions:
• Why are some companies highly specialized, while others embrace a wide range
of products, markets and activities?
• What is the link between scope and performance?
• What can we say about the management of multi-business firms in terms of
structure, management systems and leadership?
Replete with case studies, learning objectives, summaries, questions and notes, this incisive book is an
ideal read for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students.
February 2010: 246x174: 352pp
Hb: 978-0-415-55341-4: £105.00 US $170.00
Pb: 978-0-415-55342-1: £34.99 US $57.95

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c) FORTHCOMING The Ambidextrous Organization The Strategic Management of Learning, Knowledge,
and Innovation
Patrick Rein Moeller, Erasmus Universiteit, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
Accessible and practical, this significant text explains key principles, with emphasis on developing students’
understanding of organizational learning, knowledge, innovation, and ambidexterity, and combines them
with real-life company examples to illustrate the practical application, utility, and limitations of concepts
and theories. For students of strategic management, organizational behavior and knowledge management
this is essential reading. Selected Contents:
Part 1: An Introductory Overview
1. Organizations, Strategic Management, and Organizational Learning
Part 2: Learning, Knowledge and Innovation
2. Organizational Learning: The Concept and Process
3. Organization Learning: Routines, Strategic Management, and Value Creation 4. Learning And Knowledge
5. Knowledge, Innovation and Adaptation
Part 3: The Tensions and Tradeoffs of Exploration and Exploitation
6. Exploration and Exploitation Approaches to Organizational Learning 7. Managing the Search for
Knowledge in Multidimensional Space
Part 4: The Ambidextrous Organization 8. Combining Exploration and Exploitation
9. Developing an Ambidextrous Organization
December 2009: 234x156: 224pp
Hb: 978-0-415-40310-8: £75.00 US $135.00
Pb: 978-0-415-40311-5: £21.99 US $39.95

d) FORTHCOMING: The Geometry of Strategy Concepts for Strategic Management


Robert W. Keidel, Drexel University, Pennsylvania, USA
To excel in today’s exacting climate, organizations-both for profit and not-for-profit-must integrate
strategic planning and strategic thinking. Strategic planning tends to be a formal activity carried out
periodically by top managers, but it is vulnerable in the face of fast-paced change. Meanwhile, strategic
thinking is an informal activity that occurs continuously throughout any organization, but it tends to be
non-cumulative. Keidel offers a framework for integrating strategic planning and strategic thinking that
leverages the strengths of both. The key to his work is the application of simple geometric forms-
especially, 2x2 grids and triangles that help organizational leaders and strategists structure their thinking
and planning. Keidel introduces four key strategic categories-persona (organizational identity),
performance (what an organization measures), puzzle (those complex challenges that an organization
faces), and pattern (how an organization competes, grows, and organizes). Each of these categories
reflects a different kind of thinking that matches a specific geometry-point, linear, angular, and triangular.
The payoff is a novel, powerful way to conceive, create, and communicate strategy, as well as a set of
conceptual lenses for ’reading’ and assessing any organization, including one’s competitors and potential
partners. Keidel’s work is illustrated with case studies from his own consulting practice and grounded in
the theoretical literature underlying the various geometries of thinking.
This book will be a valuable resource for managerial and executive education in strategy, as well as a
provocative reading for organizational strategy consultants and thoughtful practitioners.
December 2009: 234x156: 128pp
Hb: 978-0-415-99924-3: £70.00 US $125.00
Pb: 978-0-415-99925-0: £19.99 US$35.99
eBook: 978-0-203-88101-9

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e) FORTHCOMING 2ND EDITION: Global Corporate Strategy and Trade Policy
Alan Rugman, Indiana University, USA and Alain Verbeke
Series: Routledge Studies in International Business and the World Economy Twenty years after the first
edition of Global Corporate Strategy and Trade Policy first published, Alan Rugman and Alain Verbeke’s
seminal book remains as relevant to an examination of the relationships between firms and governments
as ever. As developed nations now face a sharp rise in imports from rapidly developing countries such as
China and India, this groundbreaking theoretical analysis of strategic management and trade policy, with
the authors’ original framework now substantively updated and extended, may indeed take on a new kind
of consequence for students and practitioners of international business than it did even twenty years ago.
Where once the core of the debate focused on the EU, the US, and Japan, now the so-called ’core triad’
has extended to the broad regions of Europe, North America, and Asia.
The volume has long offered a sophisticated analysis of the interactions between industrial / science policy
and corporate strategy. New to the second edition are extensive discussions of innovation policy,
clustering and its role in enhancing competitiveness, spill-over effects, international technology transfer,
trade and investment agreements such as NAFTA, the deeper integration of the EU, investor state dispute,
and an examination of parent/subsidy relationships within the internal network of the multinational
enterprise. Additionally, the authors have written entirely new chapters analyzing the impact of
environmental regulations on corporate strategy, large firms’ reliance on sales within their home region,
and the role of NGOs in the formulation of both government policy and corporate strategy. Global
Corporate Strategy and Trade Policy reintroduce the basic theoretical models of Rugman and Verbeke and
demonstrate that these models remain required tools for contemporary scholarly analysis.
This new edition also provides the first serious investigation of strategies for multinational enterprises in a
world of globalization and regional economic activity, and incorporates new real world case studies into the
historical context of the volume’s original contribution.
September 2009: 234x156: 224pp
Hb: 978-0-415-80012-9: £60.00 US $110.00

f) FORTHCOMING: Strategy Execution


Andrew MacLennan, Heriot-Watt University, UK
Lively and direct, this work combines the rigor of academic research with the accessibility of practitioner-
oriented texts. Focusing specifically on implementation rather than strategy development and planning, a
wealth of pedagogic features, including textboxes, practical models and plans as well as extensive
examples guide both MBA/DBA students and practicing managers through this challenging yet essential
subject. Departing from the more traditional themes of mainstream strategy books, MacLennan brings the
often neglected area of strategy implementation sharply into focus. Ranging from strategic focus to the
detailed management of activities to implementation for competitive advantage, this book centers
on a small number of process-based models that help managers to:
• Systematically break down high level conceptual planning to the concrete activities necessary for physical
implementation
• Test their plans and generate the detail required to manage more effectively in complex organizations.
Insightful and practical, with models supplemented throughout by summaries of key content issues and
clear signposting to wider reading, this comprehensive and functional text provides a new approach to
strategy implementation in a clear and easy to use format.
Selected Contents: 1. Introduction 2. Strategic Focus 3. Strategy Implementation for Competitive
Advantage 4. Strategy Implementation Challenges 5. Making Strategy Work 6. Organizational Designs,
Processes and Systems 7. The Detailed Management of Activities 8. Project Management and Strategy
Implementation 9. Conclusion
October 2009: 234x156: 224pp
Hb: 978-0-415-38055-3: £90.00 US $160.00
Pb: 978-0-415-38056-0: £24.99 US $44.95

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g) FORTHCOMING TEXTBOOK: Mapping Strategic Diversity Theory and Practice
Dany Jacobs, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands
’A superb text for students and managers alike.’ – John Hassard, University of Manchester, UK
In Mapping Strategic Diversity, Dany Jacobs extends Henry Mintzberg’s work to demonstrate the genuine
diversity of strategy approaches used in the real world of strategic
management. Selected Contents: Introduction 1. The Essence of Strategy 2. A Few Traditional
Classifications of Strategy 3. Thirty P’s for Perspective on Strategy 4. The Great Wood of Strategy 5.
Where There is a Will, There is a Way 6. The Entrepreneur Deliberates, the Market Decides 7. That’s the
Way We See, That’s How We Do It 8. Everything in Continuous Movement 9. Our Second Atlas of the
Wood 10. Gusts of Winds on Pico Paradox 11. Paradoxes Relating to the Content.
October 2009: 234x156: 256pp
Hb: 978-0-415-55023-9: £85.00 US $140.00
Pb: 978-0-415-55024-6: £24.99 US $47.95
i) NEW: Management of International Business Networks
Emanuela Todeva, University of Surrey, UK
Series: Routledge Studies in Business Organizations and Networks
Fully updated and revised, this second edition builds upon the foundations of business network theory
introduced in Business Networks: Strategy and Structure. Selected Contents: 1 Introduction 2. Network
Dynamics and Evolution 3. Managing Network Communications and Resource Flows: Network Coordination
4. Managing Cooperation and Competition in Networks: Network Governance 5. Managing Foreign Market
Entry and Internationalization of Business Networks 6. Managing International Supply-Chain Networks,
R&D Networks & Technology Managements and Partnerships 7. Cases of International Business Networks.
March 2009: 234x156: 256pp
Hb: 978-0-415-36839-1: £75.00 US $150.00
eBook: 978-0-203-02827-8
j) Computational Analysis of Firms’ Organization and Strategic Behavior
Edoardo Mollona, University of Bologna, Italy
Series: Routledge Research in Organizational Behavior and Strategy
Management and organization theories have, in the years, developed rich methodological paraphernalia to
test hypotheses. This book addresses possible applications of computer simulation to theory building in
management and organizational theory.
Selected Contents: Part 1: Computer Simulation as a Research Strategy 1. Why Use Computer Simulation
in Social Science? E. Mollona 2. Computational Modelling and Social Theory Bruce Edmonds 3. Computer
Simulation and Mathematical Analysis in Social Sciences R. Fioresi, E. Mollona & S. Paparoni 4. Mix, Chain
and Replicate – Methodologies for Agent-Based Modelling of Social Systems David Hales
Part 2: Understanding Dynamics of Firms’ Strategic Behavior 5. Revisiting Porter’s Generic Strategies Using
System Dynamics M. Kunc 6. Analysing Theory of Diversification Using System Dynamics S. Gary 7.
Analysing Theory of Outsourcing Using System Dynamics E. Mollona & A. Sposito Part 3: The Shaping of
an Organization from Individual Behaviors 8. An Agent Based Methodological Framework to Simulate
Organizations Pietro Terna 9. From Petri Nets to ABM: The Analysis of the Enterprise’s Process to Model
the Firm Gianluigi Ferraris 10. Organizational Routines and Near Decomposability in Hierarchical Structures
Marco Lamieri & Diana Mangalagiu 11. Organization and Strategy in Banks Alessandro Cappellini &
Alessandro Raimondi Part 4: Future Developments of Computational Approach to the Analysis of Firms’
Strategic and Organizational Behavior 12. Rationality Meets the Tribe: Recent Models of Cultural Group
Selection David Hales.
August 2009: 234x156: 288pp
Hb: 978-0-415-47602-7: £75.00 US $150.00
k) Return on Strategy: How Market Leaders Utilize Unconventional Thinking to Sustain in the X Factor
Universe
Michael Moesgaard Andersen, Adnersen Advisory Group, Denmark and Flemming Poulfelt, Coppenhagen
Business School, Denmark
More and more companies are moving into the market of bridging the gap between differentiation and
cost leadership (the mix between Porter’s classic strategies). The new book will discuss and extend the
concept of bridge-building strategies with disruptive effects by illustrating these strategies with a number
of well known and new examples.
September 2009: 234x156: 250pp
Hb: 978-0-415-80509-4: £75.00
Pb: 978-0-415-80510-0: £27.99
eBook: 978-0-203-87348-9

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l) 2ND EDITION: Business Continuity Management A Crisis Management Approach
Dominic Elliott, University of Liverpool, UK,
Ethné Swartz, Farleigh Dickinson University, New Jersey,
USA and Brahim Herbane, De Montfort University, UK
Since the publication of the first edition in 2002, interest in crisis management has been fuelled by a
number of events, including 9/11.
The first edition of this text was praised for its rigorous yet logical approach, and this is continued in the
second edition, which provides a well-researched, theoretically robust approach to the topic combined with
empirical research in continuity management. New,chapters are included on digital resilience and
principles of risk management for business continuity. All chapters are revised and updated with particular
attention being paid to the impact on smaller companies. New cases include: South Africa Bank, Lego,
Morgan Stanley Dean Witter; small companies impacted by 9/11; and the New York City power outage of
August 2003. Selected Contents: 1. Business Continuity in a Historical and Strategic Context 2. Regulatory
and Legal Issues 3. Digital Resilience 4. Initiating and Preparing for BCM 5. Principles of Risk Management
for Business Continuity 6. Continuity Analysis and Planning 7. Management of Change: Embedding BCM 8.
Operational Management, Testing, Incident Management and Crisis Communications 9. Business
Continuity: Where Next
August 2009: 234x156: 272pp
Hb: 978-0-415-37108-7: £80.00 US $145.00
Pb: 978-0-415-37109-4: £24.99 US $44.95

m) Strategic Corporate Entrepreneurship


Theodore T. Herbert, Crummer Graduate School of Business, Rollins College, USA
August 2009: 246x174: 400pp
Hb: 978-0-415-98959-6: £95.00 US $160.00
Pb: 978-0-415-98960-2: £28.99 US $47.95

n) Management Consulting Today and Tomorrow Casebook Enhancing Skills to Become Better
Professionals
Edited by Larry E. Greiner and Thomas H. Olson,
University of Southern California, USA and Flemming Poulfelt, Copenhagen School of Business, Denmark
This casebook complements the text Management Consulting Today and Tomorrow. The book consists of
twenty cases, including those from Harvard and Stanford and the University of Southern California. The
cases cover a broad range of topics and practice areas that are pertinent to current management
consulting. The six parts parallel the six parts in the text, including an introduction to the cases by the
editors, delineating topics and issues that are critical for today’s consultants. Several cases offer new
insights into the practice areas of Strategy, IT, Operations Management, Change Management and more
on Data Gathering and the Future of Consulting. This casebook, together with the text, will help to
increase awareness among consultants and students about skill requirements, as well as make clients
sensitive to what is demanded of them in a highly competitive consulting environment.
August 2009: 234x156: 448pp
Hb: 978-0-415-80357-1: £55.00 US $100.00
Pb: 978-0-415-80356-4: £22.99 US $39.95

o) Management Consulting Today and Tomorrow Perspectives and Advice from 20 Leading World
Experts
Edited by Larry E. Greiner, University of Southern California, USA and Flemming Poulfelt, Copenhagen
School of Business, Denmark
This book provides a thorough examination of a variety of specialties within the broad range of
management consulting. A book of such scope and depth could only be written by a large number of
experts, each from one of the many specialties related to management consulting.
Together, all twenty contributors take the reader through an industry that is currently undergoing
significant change. While covering all the major practice areas of consulting, the book also offers new
insights into change processes and addresses compelling management issues now facing consulting firms.
July 2009: 234x156: 400pp
Hb: 978-0-415-80359-5: £55.00 US $100.00
Pb: 978-0-415-80358-8: £19.99 US $39.95
eBook: 978-0-203-87507-0

15
p) Achieving a Triple Win: Human Capital Management of the Employee Lifecycle
Edited by Joyce A. Thompsen, AchieveGlobal, USA
Traditionally, organizations have left human capital needs to the human resources department. However,
the talent management landscape has changed. Managers have begun to recognize that attracting and
employing highly talented individuals makes an enormous impact on the company’s bottom line.
The ‘Human Capital Cycle’ model presented in Achieving a Triple Win: Human Capital Management of the
Employee Lifecycle presents a more systematic and comprehensive approach to human capital
management based on the author’s insight into the connection between and organization’s strategy and its
human capital needs and plans. Focusing on the six stages of the employee lifecycle, the book emphasises
the need for a more adaptive, specialised approach to HRM to achieve what the author calls the ‘Triple
Win’ – substantial benefits for customers, employees and the business as a whole. The book includes:
• rich descriptions and examples
• details on how to plan and execute each stage
• questions and issues, case studies.
This book is a useful resource for senior leaders, decision makers, HR professionals and those responsible
for talent management in the private and public sectors. Students of HRM and management would find
this an enlightening supplementary reading.
June 2009: 234x156: 128pp
Hb: 978-0-415-54834-2: £70.00 US $115.00
Pb: 978-0-415-54835-9: £21.99 US$41.95
eBook: 978-0-203-87520-9
q) Working on Innovation
Edited by Christophe Midler, École Polytechnique,
France, Guy Minguet, École des Mines de Nantes,
France and Monique Vervaeke
Since the mid-1980s, the development of competitive strategies based on intensive innovation has deeply
transformed the design of new products and services. The purpose of this book is to put forward a number
of keys for understanding the ongoing dynamics for working professionals in the field of innovation.
July 2009: 234x156: 242pp
Hb: 978-0-415-49844-9: £60.00 US $110.00
eBook: 978-0-203-87283-3
r) NEW TEXTBOOK 4TH EDITION: Strategic Information Management Challenges and Strategies in
Managing Information Systems
Edited by Robert D. Galliers, Bentley University,
Massachusetts, USA and Dorothy E. Leidner, Baylor University, USA
Today there are few organizations that can afford to ignore information technology and few individuals
who would prefer to be without it. As managerial tasks become more complex, so the nature of the
required information systems changes – from structured, routine support to ad hoc, unstructured, complex
enquiries at the highest levels of management. As with the first three editions, this fourth edition of
Strategic Information Management: Challenges and Strategies in Managing Information Systems presents
the many complex and inter-related issues associated with the management of information systems. The
book provides a rich source of material reflecting recent thinking on the key issues facing executives in
information systems strategic management. It draws from a wide range of contemporary articles written
by leading experts from North America, Asia, and Europe. Designed as a course text for MBA, Master’s
level students, and senior undergraduate students taking courses in information management, it also
provides a wealth of information and references for researchers. New to this edition are updated readings
addressing current issues and the latest thinking in information management. Selected Contents: Part
One: Foundations 1. Conceptual Developments in Information Systems Strategy 2. Sustaining Competitive
Advantage 3. The Evolving Information Systems Strategy 4. Approaches to Information Systems Planning
5. The Information Systems Planning Process Part Two: Components of Information Systems Strategy 6.
Information Strategy 7. Information Technology Strategy 8. Information Management Strategy 9.
Evaluating the Outcomes of Information Systems Plans Part Three: Management Perspectives and
Considerations 10. The CIO Role 11. Organizational Culture 12. IT Governance 13. Strategies for Managing
in Difficult Environments 14. Project Evaluation 15. IT and Organizational Performance Part Four: Some
Current Challenges 16. Knowledge Management 17. Privacy, Property and Ethics 18. Enterprise Systems
19. Exploration and Exploitation 20. ‘Best’ Practice 21. Outsourcing 22. Offshoring
July 2009: 246 x 174: 584pp
Hb: 978-0-415-99646-4: £100.00 US $180.00
Pb: 978-0-415-99647-1: £32.99 US $65.00

16
s) NEW: Strategic Innovation New Game Strategies for Competitive Advantage
Allan Afuah, University of Michigan, USA
’Although it was Joseph Schumpeter who taught us that innovation is the engine of growth in free-market
economies, it is Allan Afuah who teaches us how to achieve competitive advantage through strategic
innovation.’ – Frank T. Rothaermel, Sloan Industry Studies Fellow and The Deedy Associate Professor of
Strategy, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA
In today’s fast-changing business environment, those firms that want to remain competitive must also be
innovative. Innovation is not simply developing new technologies into new products or services, but in
many cases finding new models for doing business in the face of change. It often entails changing the
rules of the game. From the late 1990s to today, the dominant themes in the strategy literature have been
strategic innovation, the impact of information and communications technologies on commerce, and
globalization. The primary issues have been and continue to be how to gain a competitive advantage
through strategic innovation (what Afuah calls ’new game strategy’), and how to compete in a world with
rapid technological change and increasing globalization. Strategic Innovation demonstrates to students
how to create and appropriate value using these ’new game’ strategies.
Beginning with a summary of the major strategic frameworks showing the origins of strategic innovation,
Afuah gives a thorough examination of contemporary strategy from an innovation standpoint with several
key advantages:
•focus on developing strategy in the face of change
• rich in quantitative examples of successful strategies, as well as descriptive cases
• emphasis on the analysis of strategy, not just descriptions of strategies
• a detailed, change-inclusive framework for assessing the profitability potential of a strategy or product,
the AVAC (activities, value, appropriability, and change) model
• emphasis on the aspects of strategy that can be linked to the determinants of profitability
• consideration of how both for-profit and non-profit organizations can benefit from new game strategies.
February 2009: 246x174: 504pp
Hb: 978-0-415-99781-2: £95.00 US $165.00
Pb: 978-0-415-99782-9: £33.99 US $59.95
eBook: 978-0-203-88324-2

t) NEW User-Innovation Barriers to Democratization and IP Licensing


Viktor Braun, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
USA and Cornelius Herstatt, Technology University of Hamburg, Germany
This book systematically identifies the most important barriers to user innovation and critically evaluates
the democratization of innovation argument by critically assessing the main legal, economic, technological
and societal barriers to user innovation for the first time and proposing alternative possibilities.
March 2009: 234x156: 274pp
Hb: 978-0-415-77719-3: £60.00 US $120.00

u) Organisational Capital Modelling, Measuring and Contextualising


Edited by Ahmed Bounfour, European Chair On Intellectual Capital Management University
Paris-Sud, France
The most common types of intangible assets are trade secrets (e.g., customer lists and know-how),
copyrights, patents, trademarks, and goodwill. This new volume introduces, and critically examines
organizational capital as an intangible asset.
2008: 234x156: 320pp
Hb: 978-0-415-43771-4: £85.00 US $170.00
eBook: 978-0-203-88521-5

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v) The Routledge Companion to Creativity
Edited by Tudor Rickards, University of Manchester, UK,
Mark A. Runco, University of Georgia at Athens, USA
and Susan Moger, University of Manchester, UK
Creativity can be as difficult to define as it is to achieve. This is a complex and compelling area of study
and this volume is perfectly poised to explore how creativity can be better understood, and used, in a
range of contexts. The book not only centres on creativity in wider organizational theory, but also defines
the conditions in which creativity can flourish, and assesses how the contemporary business environment
has an impact on creative solutions. The volume grounds the concept of creativity in a sound theoretical
framework and explores issues of practical and theoretical consequence covering a range of themes,
including:
• innovation and entrepreneurship
• creativity and design
• environmental influences
• knowledge management
• meta-theories of creativity
• personal creativity
• structured interventions.
Comprising contributions written by an unusually wide array of leading creativity scholars, The Routledge
Companion to Creativity is an insightful and cutting edge resource. It is an essential purchase for anyone
with an interest in creativity from a business, psychology or design perspective.
2008: 246x174: 400pp
Hb: 978-0-415-77317-1: £75.00 US $150.00
eBook: 978-0-203-88884-1

w) Foresight The Art and Science of Anticipating the Future


Denis Loveridge, University of Manchester, UK
Foresight: The Art and Science of Anticipating the Future provides entrepreneurs, business leaders,
investors, inventors, scientists, politicians, and many others with a succinct, integrated guide to
understanding foresight studies and using them as means for strategy development. The text dispels the
belief that anticipations are ’mere guesswork’, and conveys the depth of thought needed, implicitly or
explicitly, to understand human foresight.
The book examines:
• the role of foresight and its institutional counterpart in the modern world
• the epistemology underlying foresight
• the need to extend foresight activity into wider spheres, including sustainable development
• the role that foresight plays in planning processes (including scenario planning).
Much of the material in the book is based upon the internationally known foresight course at the
Manchester Business School’s Institute of Innovation Research (MIoIR) formerly PREST, which the author
developed and directed from 1999 to 2003.
Selected Contents:
Part 1: Systems and Foresight Introduction
1. Foresight and Systems Thinking: An Appreciation
2. Foresight and Systems: Epistemology and Theory
3. Institutional Foresight: Practice and Practicalities
4. Foresight in Industry 5. General sable Outcomes
Part 2: Scenarios and Sustainability
6. Foresight, Scenarios and Scenario Planning
7. Sustainable World
8. The World of 2030, 2050, and Beyond.
2008: 234x156: 288pp
Hb: 978-0-415-39814-5: £90.00 US $160.00
Pb: 978-0-415-39815-2: £26.99 US $47.95
eBook: 978-0-203-89415-6

18
• ‘Strategic management, often called ‘policy’ or nowadays simply ‘strategy,’ is about the direction
of organizations, and most often, business firms.‘
It includes those subjects which are of primary concern to senior management, or to anyone seeking
reasons for the success and failure among organizations. Firms, if not all organizations, are in competition,
competition for factor inputs, competition for customers, and ultimately, competition for revenues that
cover the costs of their chosen manner of surviving. Firms have choices to make if they are to survive.
Those which are strategic include: the selection of goals, the choice of products and services to offer; the
design and configuration of policies determining how the firm positions itself to compete in product
markets (e.g. competitive strategy); the choice of an appropriate level of scope and diversity; and the
design of organization structure, administrative systems and policies used to define and coordinate work.
It is a basic proposition of the strategy field that these choices have critical influence on the success or
failure of the enterprise, and, that they must be integrated. It is the integration (or reinforcing pattern)
among this choice that makes the set a strategy.

• Strategic management as a field of inquiry


Its firmly grounded in practice and exists because of the importance of its subject. The strategic direction
of business organizations is at the heart of wealth creation in modern industrial society. The field has not,
like political science, grown from ancient roots in philosophy, nor does it, like parts of economics, attract
scholars because of the elegance of its theoretical underpinnings. Rather, like medicine or engineering, it
exists because it is worthwhile to codify, teach, and expand what is known about the skilled performance
of roles and tasks that are a necessary part of our civilization. While its origins lie in practice
and codification, its advancement as a field increasingly depends upon building theory that helps explain
and predict organizational success and failure. In the sense of expansion, codification, and teaching,
theory is necessary, tested theory capable of prediction desirable. and the search and creation of both to
better practice, absolutely at the heart of the field. Society is served by efficient, well-adapted
organizations and strategic management is concerned with delivering them through the study of their
creation, success, and survival, as well as with understanding their failure, its costs, and its lessons.
• Strategic management has a rich tradition and long history
As a teaching area in business schools, a history virtually as long as that of business schools themselves.
Prior to the 1960s, the underlying metaphor of the (teaching) field was that of functional integration.
Under this metaphor, the value-added by what was then called ‘business policy’ came from integration of
specialized knowledge within broader perspectives. The perspectives were dual: that of the firm as a
whole, including its performance, and that of the role of the general manager. Together with an
intellectual style that stresses pragmatic realism over abstraction, these perspectives remain at the center
of the field and distinguish it from other fields with different perspectives, but with similar interests in the
same core issues. A new metaphor was introduced in the 1960s, that of ‘strategy.’ Strategy was seen as
more than just coordination or integration of functions-it embodied the joint selection of the product
market arenas in which the firm would compete, and the key policies defining how it would compete.
• Strategy was not necessarily a single decision
A primal action, but was a collection of related reinforcing, resource-allocation decisions and implementing
actions. balanced consideration of the firm’s ‘strengths and weakness,’ and defined its use of ‘synergy and
competitive advantage’ to develop new markets and new products. Ever since the sixties, the strategy
metaphor has survived as a central construct of the field, even without the careful definition necessary for
research purposes. Where the sixties gave rise to basic concepts, the decade of the 1970s brought their
development and application to practice, and in turn gave rise to research in the field as we now know it.
The seventies were marked by the rapid expansion3 of consulting firms specializing in strategy, the
establishment of professional societies, and the advent of journals publishing material on state g ~Three
forces helped strategy flourish in the 1970s. First, the hostility and instability of the environment of the
seventies led to a disenchantment with ‘planning’ and the search for methods of adapting to and taking
advantage of the unexpected. The strategy doctrines of the seventies offered an alternative: building and
protecting specialized strengths that weather change and expressing those strengths in new products and
services as markets shift. The second important force was the continued expansion and further
development of strategy consulting practices based on analytical tools and concepts. The Boston
Consulting Group pioneered in this regard, creating the ‘experience curve’ and deriving the ‘growth-share
matrix.’ The third key force at work was the maturation and predominance of the diversified firm. Top
management began to see their corporations as portfolios of business units and their primary responsibility
as capital allocation among business units. The new systems that evolved. Dubbed ‘strategic management
,’ forced business managers to define their plans and goals in competitive terms and generated a brisk
demand for strategic tools and strategy analysis.

19
• Academic strategy research
Until the seventies, academic strategy research consisted chiefly of clinical case studies of actual
situations, with generalizations sought through induction. Although this style of research continues to play
an important role, the seventies saw the rise of a new research style, one based in deductive methods, the
falsification philosophy of Popper, and the multivariate statistical methods characteristic of econometrics.
Almost simultaneously, three different streams of work were changing the face of the field. Two of these
streams were conducted at Harvard, the third at Purdue University. At the Harvard Business School,
students of Bruce Scott built on Chandler’s (1962) pioneering work and inaugurated a stream of research
on diversification and firm performance. At the Harvard Department of Economics, Richard Caves’ students
began to modify traditional MasonIBain studies of structure and performance to include differing positions
of firms within industries, inaugurating the study of ‘strategic groups’ within industries. Meanwhile, at
Purdue University, Dan Schendel, together with his and Arnold Cooper’s students, began the so-called
‘brewing’ studies which explored the empirical links between organizational resource choices, interpreted
as ‘strategy,’ and firm performance.’ This work demonstrated for the first time the existence of structural
heterogeneity within industries, and led to the first hard empirical evidence of the ‘strategic groups’ under
discussion and development at I-Iarvard. More important than the content of the Purdue and Harvard
studies, however, was the different empirical nature of the work. In addition to cases used for induction,
this new work used difficult data collection, and the rapidly growing power of the computer and
multivariate statistical methods capable of handling large data bases, to test hypotheses in a deductive
style of research. This shift in research style ultimately led to testing could not illuminate. Results were
difficult to interpret, lacking any theory in which to embed them. Cumulating of questions occurred, but
not of results that led to advice for practitioners, or to tests of theory useful for practice. Hence, the work
of the seventies was instrumental in motivating the work of the eighties and its search for linkages to
theory. As importantly, this work and style led to a new generation of researchers better equipped to
handle the new style of research and its intellectual demands.
During the 1980s, owing to the changes noted, the pace of change accelerated; economic thinking moved
closer to center stage in strategic management as disciplines were examined for theoretical motivation for
the empirical work then building. The most influential contribution of the decade from economics was
undoubtedly Porter’s Competitive Strategy (1980). In a remarkably short time, Porter’s applications of
mobility barriers, industry analysis, and generic strategies became broadly accepted and used in teaching,
consultation, and many research projects.
• Porter’s approach to strategy
Whereas Porter’s approach to strategy built on the structure-conduct-performance tradition, which studied
market power, there was another tradition, associated with the University of Chicago, which saw industry
structure as reflecting efficiency outcomes rather than market power. In this tradition differences in
performance tend to signal differences in resource endowments. In addition, another new stream of
thought began to emphasize the importance of unique, difficult-to-imitate resources in sustaining
performance. Within strategic management, these approaches have flowed together and have been
dubbed the resource-based view of the firm.
In addition to these broad perspectives developed within the field, during the 1980s strategy scholars
dramatically increased their use of economic theory and their sophistication in doing so as the examples
that follow indicate. The event-study methods of financial economics were used to investigate strategic
and organizational change as well as the strategic fit of acquisitions. New security-market performance
measures were applied to old questions of diversification and performance, market share and
performance, as well as new areas of inquiry. Transaction-cost viewpoints on scope and integration were
adopted and new theories of the efficiency of social bonding advanced. Studies of innovation began to use
the language and logic of rents and appropriability, and research in venture capital responded to the
agency and adverse selection problems characteristic of that activity. Agency theory perspectives have
been used in the study of firm size, diversification, top-management compensation, and growth. The new
game-theoretic approach to industrial organization has informed studies of producer reputations,
entry and exit, technological change, and the adoption of standards.
In looking backward over these three decades, what comes into focus is the search for theoretical
explanations of very complex phenomena. A linking occurred for the first time between basic disciplines of
the social sciences,’ especially economics, and practical issues involved in managing the firm. What had
begun in the sixties as rather simple concepts that gave insight into phenomena described in cases, ended
in the eighties motivating a search for theory with causal and predictive power able to be used in practice.

20
• Basic Knowledge and Tools
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT provides students with the basic knowledge and tools necessary to
conceptualize a firm’s competitive environment and resources. The subject explains the importance of the
creation and maintenance of a long-term strategic vision for the firm. Students are encouraged to consider
the broader issues relating to the formulation and implementation of a competitive strategy. To
understand how a firm develops and changes its strategic position, students are presented with a range of
contemporary business strategy theories and issues.

• Who should attend


• Executives wishing to enhance their understanding of issues in contemporary business
strategy
• Managers seeking to improve their strategic business and management skills
• Decision makers who need to formulate long-term business strategies based on resource
planning and competitive analysis
§ Learning objectives Upon completion of this subject, students should be able to
• evaluate the competitive situation of a firm
• understand the model of effective strategic leadership
• analyze the industry and business environments
• distinguish between business-level and corporate-level strategies
• understand corporate governance in an international setting
• Delivery method
The subject is delivered online over a 12-week period, with an assigned Professor acting as your mentor.
Your class will comprise students from different countries and industry backgrounds. Practical case studies
and discussions help to stimulate learning and knowledge exchange, while an examination at the end of
the subject will help you review and apply the knowledge and skills you have learnt. Prerequisites Course:
Organizational Behavior, Financial Reporting and Statement Analysis or Finance Marketing Management.

• Syllabus Details

Segment 1: Introduction
Students are introduced to the syllabus, the resources and communication tools available within the
course.
Segment 2: Strategic Thinking
The segment provides the background to understanding how organisations achieve competitive
advantage. Students are introduced to the industrial organization model and resource-based model, which
emphasize the importance of strategic analysis. Similarly, strategic management and leadership are
highlighted as significant drivers in firm value creation to meet stakeholder requirements.
Segment 3: External Analysis
The segment introduces analytical tools and frameworks to evaluate the industry environment and
business context. Porter’s five forces model is explained, which addresses the key issues of profitability
and competition across businesses and industries. Students learn how to collect and analyze data which
can help to develop effective management strategies for enhanced business performance.
Segment 4: Internal Analysis
Students learn about sustained competitive advantage, building on the analysis of a firm’s strengths,
weaknesses, opportunities and threats. The firm’s resources and capabilities are examined in detail,
distinguishing between tangible and intangible resources. The use of value chain analysis to evaluate a
firm’s competitive advantage is described, with a focus on preventing core competencies developing into
core rigidities. Outsourcing is also discussed.
Segment 5: Business-Level Strategy
The segment identifies the basic strategy trends commonly employed by businesses in today’s global
competitive economy. Business-level strategies target customer needs – who will be served and how these
needs will be met. Competitive dynamics vary across slow-cycle, fast-cycle and standard-cycle markets.
Students are encouraged to discuss the benefits and costs of each generic strategy presented in the
segment.
Segment 6: Corporate-Level Strategy
The segment focuses on the importance of corporate-level strategies in developing and nurturing a firm’s
growth. The selection and management of a firm’s business portfolio entails consideration of diversification
and co-operation. Specifically, the segment discusses the different levels of diversification and its pros and
cons. Value creation, incentives and managerial motives are some of the related issues. The risks and
rewards of co-operative strategies and strategic managements are also examined.

21
Segment 7: Mergers and Restructuring
Students are presented with a discussion on how acquisitions and mergers can create or destroy value.
The benefits and risks of merger and acquisition activities are examined, as are the key challenges of
integration and restructuring. Cross-border mergers, in particular, present unique problems and require
special attention. Government privatization and deregulation are some of the related issues explored in the
segment.
Segment 8: International Strategy
The segment prepares students to formulate effective international business strategies that can help a firm
exploit its core competencies. An understanding of the unique opportunities and threats that face a firm in
a global environment is an important first step towards this goal. Students are encouraged to explore
motives for global expansion, describe different international strategies and organizational structures, and
analyze the implications for innovation, risk and performance.
Segment 9: Corporate Governance
The segment explores the different governance mechanisms and how managerial decisions are monitored
and controlled. Students are encouraged to understand agency relationships and managerial opportunism,
and their implications on business strategy. The segment also looks at what steps should be taken to
reduce governance failure and how corporate governance varies across international borders.

• Required textbook
Hoskisson, R.E., M.A. Hitt and R.D. Ireland. Competing for Advantage. Ohio: South-Western, 2003.
Subject Reviewer: Professor Timothy Devinney
University of New South Wales:
The subject was reviewed by Timothy Devinney, Professor at the Australian Graduate School of
Management and Director of the Centre for Corporate Change. He previously held faculty positions at the
University of Chicago, Vanderbilt University and the University of California, Los Angeles. Dr Devinney has
published six books and more than 50 articles. He is the Chair-elect of the International Management
Division of the Academy of Management and Convenor of the Macademia Academic network in Human
Judgment and Decision Making. Dr Devinney sits on the editorial boards of the Journal of Management
Science, Journal of International Business Studies and Journal of Product Innovation Management. He
received his PhD in Economics and MBA from the University of Chicago.

• Objectives: Find, extract, organize, and describe data to support business decisions.
Identify and quantify relationships between variables.
Develop spreadsheet models to analyze data, evaluate alternative decisions, and evaluate risk.
Present and evaluate courses of action.
Understand how to evaluate strategic options and their consequences.
Understand the perspectives of various industry players and be able to anticipate how they are
likely to behave under various circumstances.

• Capstone courses are an important part of most curricula


Because they provide an opportunity to reflect on what has been learned, integrate both general education
and major coursework, and help the transition to the professional world (Gardner & Van deer Veer, 1998).
Jervis and Hartley (2005) described their experience designing and teaching an undergraduate capstone
accounting course addressing university goals, department mission, and AICPA core competencies.
Although capstone courses are recommended as a key part of the accounting curriculum (Arya, Fellingham
& Schroeder, 2003), there are no articles in the accounting education literature that specifically describe
experiences designing and teaching a graduate capstone accounting course.

• Managerial practice and scholarly


It is only comparatively recently that 'strategic management' has been labeled, studied, and privileged as a
field of managerial practice and scholarly attention (Knights and Morgan, 1991). Many business schools
have crowned their programmes with a 'capstone' course in strategic management, which is intended to
provide a 'top-management perspective', in addition to fostering a familiarity with the key concepts in the
field. As perhaps the most managerially of the management specialties, 'strategy' largely takes for granted
the historical and political conditions under which managerial priorities are determined and enacted.
Moreover, as a technocratic mode of decision making serving particular interests, strategy is not simply
confined to the business world; rather, 'strategy' can be seen in the ever widening circle of problems
which are deemed suitable for its application – from public sector and non-profit management to regional
economic development and business school accreditation.

22
• The development of a critical understanding of strategic management
That is less colored by the preoccupations and sectional interests of top managers. Where a managerially
perspective employs an instrumental rationality to help managers improve organizational effectiveness and
corporate profitability, a critical lens seeks to explore the nature of strategic management as an
organizational process, one which has significant political ramifications within organizations and in the
broader society.

• Critical Theory
Management is viewed as a set of practices and discourses embedded within broader asymmetrical power
relations, who systematically privilege the interests and viewpoints of some groups while silencing and
marginalizing others (see also Alvesson and Willmott, 1996). Critical theory (CT) has an emancipator
agenda, which seeks to probe taken-for-granted assumptions for their ideological underpinnings and
restore meaningful participation in arenas subject to systematic distortion of communication. CT draws
attention, moreover, to the dominance of a technical rationality obsessed with the ostensibly efficient
pursuit of unquestioned objectives, and attempts instead to rekindle societal debate around goals and
values. Drawing from this perspective, embryonic critical scholarship on strategic management has tended
to emphasize the discursive and ideological dimensions of strategy, such as the constitution of certain
problems as 'strategic' and the legitimating of specific groups of people as the 'strategic managers' capable
of addressing them (see Thomas, 1998).

• CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES TO STRATEGY


Contemporary approaches to strategy are hardly monotonic, though much current thinking is anchored by the work of
Michael Porter and Henry Mintzberg. Mintzberg and colleagues (1998) discuss ten schools and five definitions of
strategy. One of these, 'strategy as ploy', builds on the game theoretic and military heritage of strategy It suggests
that strategy can be about deceptive and unpredictable maneuvers that confuse and outflank competitors. The
concept of 'ploy' implies a certain deviousness that invites critical scrutiny of underlying goals and motives. It also
suggests that social contestation is more a matter of superior maneuvering than ideological or coercive domination
(Abercrombie et al., 1980). This 'take' on strategy implies possibilities for effective challenges by subordinate groups.
Strategy as 'position' offers a predominant conceptual framework in the field. Porter's (1980) landmark Competitive
Strategy reinterpreted the microeconomics of industrial organization in a managerial context. Close analysis of Porter's
work and subsequent developments provides considerable fuel for critical theorists concerned with the reproduction of
hierarchical economic relations, since it highlights the contradictions between idealized myths of 'perfect competition'
and the more grounded concepts of market power explored by business school strategists. Porter's work uses
economic analysis of market failures to suggest how firms might seek above-normal profits in less than competitive
market segments. Porter's subsequent book, Competitive Advantage (1985), which resonates more with the 'resource
based view' of the firm (Wernerfelt, 1984), attempts to explain how a firm might actively build market barriers and
sustain monopolistic structures. It was not without some justification, perhaps, that Microsoft argued in its anti-trust
suit defense that it was merely pursuing the precepts of good business strategy Some scholars firmly established
within the strategy field have critiqued the prescriptive, technocratic approach to strategy, represented by the work of
Porter (1980; 1985), Andrews (1971) and Chandler (1962), for its
reliance on a rational, logical and linear model of analysis and planning. Sun Tzu's classic work on military strategy
(1983), though often expressed as a series of maxims, advocates an approach that is non-linear, unpredictable and
paradoxical, commending the title 'The Art of War' rather than The Science (Luttwak, 1987; Quinn and Cameron,
1988). Mintzberg (1994; Mintzberg et al., 1998) has been particularly prominent in arguing that the actuality of
strategy is better characterized as an emergent rather than planned organizational phenomenon. Mintzberg
emphasizes the recursive processes of learning, negotiation and adaptation by which strategy is actually enacted, and
suggests that the planning-implementation distinction is unsustainable (Mintzberg, 1990). Mintzberg argues that such
processes are
both inevitable and functional.
A greater attentiveness to strategy as process has been accompanied by increased appreciation of the cognitive
models, or frames, which channel managers' perceptions of their environment (El Sawy and Pauchant, 1988; Whipp et
al., 1989). Weick (1995) has argued that organizational members actively constitute and reify their environments,
bringing sense and order to complex and confusing social worlds in which they are located. In turn, perceptions of the
external environment shape and constitute managerial cognition and action (Daft and Weick, 1984). Institutional
theory, which has become increasingly prominent in recent management thought, clearly displays a constructivist
influence in its emphasis on cognitive and normative pressures in shaping field-level norms and practices (DiMaggio
and Powell, 1983; Scott and Meyer, 1994). Despite an affinity of the constructivist perspective with an instrumental
formulation of CT's historical hermeneutic epistemology (see Willmott, 2003), which seeks to uncover meaning rather
than causation, few authors utilize a constructivist analysis of strategy to draw implications concerning broader
structures of dominance and inequity. Quite the contrary, the perspective is routinely used to generate suggestions for
how managers can improve the strategy process by actively changing corporate cultures and frames (Whittington,
1993). A few notable exceptions have argued that if strategy is rooted in the values and cognitive frames of senior
managers, it is likely to reproduce their ideological frameworks and promote their sectional interests (Bourgeois and
Brodwin, 1984; Smircich and Stubbart, 1985).

23
Understanding the strategy process is also a concern of those who view it as the outcome of political bargaining
process among managerial elites (Bower and Doz, 1979; Child, 1972; Cressey et al., 1985). However, most studies of
the politics of strategy focus on internal struggles among managerial factions rather than with labor or external
stakeholders, and tend to abstract from wider historical and social contexts. Managers are still viewed as the only
organizational actors with legitimate access to the strategy process, a form of discursive closure that trivializes the
politics of strategic management. Pettigrew's (1985) influential study of ICI, for example, makes direct reference to
the way dominant groups are protected by the 'existing bias of the structures and cultures of an organization' (1985:
45), and how these groups actively mobilize this socioeconomic context to 'legitimize existing definitions of the core
strategic concerns, to help justify new priorities, and to delegitimize other novel and threatening definitions of the
organization's situation' (1985: 45). Nevertheless, Pettigrew neglects the historically distinctive, politico-economic
organization and contradictions of the production and consumption processes that have shaped the development and
direction of strategic management at ICI. As Whittington contends, 'the limits of feasible change within ICI were
defined not simply by the personal competencies and organizational advantages of particular managers.. .but also by
the evolving class structures of contemporary British society' (1992: 701). As with the constructivist approach,
advocates of strategy-as-bargaining are also quick to jump to managerially prescriptions. Whittington (1993), for
example, proposes mechanisms to ensure that the strategy process remains objective rather than being captured by a
particular management faction; moreover, he suggests that managers can draw from broader, less visible sources of
power, such as 'the political resources of the state, the network resources of ethnicity, or, if male, the patriarchal
resources of masculinity' (1993: 38). In such thinking, the extra-organizational conditions and forces neglected by
Mintzberg and others are identified as potentially decisive weapons in the arsenal of strategic management.

• According to Stoney:
In the strategic management model, responsibility for corporate level decision-making rests with a core or
strategic elite who are discharged from the day-to-day responsibilities of operational activities, these being
devolved to the lowest possible level of control. Undistracted by operational matters and line responsibility,
the elite, often an 'executive board', is left free to concentrate on strategic thinking and decision-making.

Nevertheless, the 'truth' of strategy does have import when we take seriously the agency of corporate and
state actors in privileging and protecting economic and political advantage. An interest in the discourse of
strategic management should not necessarily just focus on its ideological effects and the consequences for
managers constituting themselves as 'strategists' but should also investigate the substantive effects of the
subjects acting according to the strategic management precepts. Mintzberg (1990) criticizes the approach
to strategic management taken by MBA education. He argues that it produces people with analytical skills
and a great faith in running business from a distance, but with very limited knowledge of how companies
actually work and create value. Their approach, Mintzberg argues, overemphasizes financial criteria and
underplays productive corporate development, having harmful effects on the economy in the long run.
Sveningsson (1999) has shown how strategic management knowledge 'colonized' the thinking and acting
of senior managers in the Swedish newspaper industry and led to the transformation of newspapers into
parts of conglomerates. A joint focus on managerial subjectivity and substantial effects is perhaps to be
recommended (see Ezzamel and Willmottt, 2002). A different form of strategic analysis could usefully
inform appropriate action by progressive social forces concerned with social contests and emancipation, as
well as assisting the development of more democratic organizational forms engaged in market competition
such as co-ops and collectives. The following section explores the relevance of Gramsci's work to outline
an approach to strategy that pays attention to the political economy of strategic practice and considers the
hegemonic alignment of ideological, political and economic issues.
• Strategic management deserves critical investigation
Because it has assumed dominance in managerial discourse and become a model for decision processes in
a wide range of organizations beyond the private sector. Strategy is privileged as a field of management
theory and managerial practice. Strategy pundits and makers make claims to expertise, insight and
authority that reproduce and legitimate organizational inequalities.
• Academic Standard Definitions
Students enrolled in a degree program have selected a major in virtue of that degree program. Within a
major field of study, degree programs may offer concentrations. Students may also elect to pursue a
minor field of study. Major: A major is a program of study offering both depth and breadth in a particular
discipline or field of study. The requirements and the curriculum for a major are determined by the degree
program offering the major with the appropriate approvals of the Office of Academic Affairs. A major must
comprise a minimum of 30 semester credits. Concentration: A major may offer concentrations, areas of
specialization within the field of study. If offered, the degree program may determine if a concentration is
an optional or required component of the major. Generally, students complete a portion of the core major
requirements and then select focused courses to complete the concentration. A concentration must include
a minimum of 15 semester credits of specialized coursework.

24
• Strategic Management: Course Designed
This course is designed to help students effectively guide an organization toward a profitable and dynamic
future. This course provides students with a formal method of defining the organization's purpose and
aligning the entire business to achieve corporate goals. It also examines emerging technologies in
information processing as an important element of strategic planning. Practical analysis of strategic
management is presented through current and relevant case studies to maximize learning opportunities.
The Major Important as general liberal arts education is, it is not enough; without the special
concentration of study, which we call the major program, something important would be missing in the
education of our students. Our students should learn to unite their broad studies in the liberal arts with
the more specialized studies in their major discipline. The work in the major is done within the unity of all
knowledge, and so it is protected from a narrowing spirit of specialization. Yet, our goal is to open all
disciplines to the light of the Gospel and reorient them as its truth demands while respecting the proper
autonomy of each discipline.

Market forces, globalization, internationalization, competition, new providers, cost efficiency—these


descriptors of the brave new world of higher education appear consistently in any discussion of its future.
Even when used in the same national context, such terms describe different phenomena and elicit
different interpretations; cross-cultural conversations are even more difficult. A shared understanding of
the forces that are reshaping higher education within and among nations provides an essential foundation
for the development of sound policy and effective institutional strategies to adapt to these new realities.
Such challenges were the focus of the seventh Transatlantic Dialogue, cosponsored by the American
Council on Education (ACE), the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC), and the
European University Association (EUA) and hosted by the Université Laval in Quebec. The purpose of this
meeting was to explore the forces shaping change in higher education in the United States, Canada, and
Europe; analyze how institutions and policy makers are responding; and assess the costs and benefits of
these responses. This conversation of some 30 presidents, vice chancellors, and rectors (see page 32)
assumed the volatility of the current environment and the need for continuous change. But just how much
change is necessary and desirable, and what kind of change should occur, were open to question. The
Transatlantic Dialogue explored strategies that institutions use to be more responsive and relevant, and
reflected on the conflicts these strategies can present with respect to historic institutional values and
mission. Participants examined the promise and the peril of establishing managements with partners
outside the academy, such as businesses or for-profit educational institutions, and the complexities of
international collaborations that go beyond traditional student and faculty mobility. The new environment
and the many strategic choices facing institutional leaders on both sides of the Atlantic provided the
framework for a rich conversation.
The issues that participants discussed dramatically differed from the ones considered at the first
Transatlantic Dialogue in 1989 in Hartford, Connecticut. At that time, the World Wide Web was virtually
unknown to administrators, and e-mail use was in its infancy. The sharp differences among national
contexts across the Atlantic and within Europe provided few common bases for discussion. The geopolitical
situation was entirely different from the one that would exist half a decade later. The Berlin Wall was still
intact; the Eastern Bloc countries were still part of the Soviet system.

25
26
• Institutional Management of Study Abroad
There is great variety in the approach institutions take in developing study abroad opportunities for their
students. Determining factors include the size of the institution, the range of majors that offer study
abroad opportunities, the mission of the school, financial considerations, and others. Indeed, diversity is
one of the hallmarks of study abroad. There is no one “right” model to guide campus leaders seeking the
best means to serve their students and the institution’s mission.
The task force believes that institutions should make a commitment to study abroad as a vital component
of the undergraduate experience, provide the necessary infrastructure and resources to maintain high
quality study abroad programs, and conduct study abroad programs in a manner characterized by clear
expectations and accountability. The task force also believes that the management of study abroad must
hold service to students as the top priority and maintain a high degree of integrity in keeping with the
institution’s mission and in its efforts to provide the highest quality educational experience for its students.
Attention, involvement, and commitment at the highest levels of an institution’s leadership are vital to the
success and growth of study abroad. It is crucial that campus leaders act deliberately with respect to a set
of specific challenges that virtually all institutions face: building institutional commitment, establishing a
study abroad infrastructure, providing adequate resources, and ensuring clarity and accountability. It is on
these broader issues—related to the institutional management of study abroad—that the task force
focused its work.

• Professor of Strategy
***** Linda Lim***** is Professor of Strategy at the Stephen M. Ross School of Business at the University of
Michigan, Director of the Center for Southeast Asian Studies, a member of the executive committees of the Center for
International Business Education, the Center for Chinese Studies and the Office of International Programs, and a
faculty associate of the Center for Japanese Studies and the Center for South Asian Studies. She has also served as
Associate Director of the University's International Institute, and is a board member of the Knight-Wallace Journalism
Fellows at the University. A native of Singapore, Linda obtained her degrees in economics from the universities of
Cambridge (BA), Yale (MA) and Michigan (PhD). She has authored, co-authored or edited four books and published
nearly 100 other monographs, journal articles and book chapters on trade, investment, industrial policy, and labor,
multinational and local business in Asia. Her recent publications include The Globalization Debate: Issues and
Challenges (for the International Labor Organization) and “State Power and Private Profit in Southeast Asia” (for Asia-
Pacific Economic Literature). Her current research is on the developmental state and Singapore in the global economy;
on the post-MFA adjustment of the apparel export industry in Southeast Asia; and on the ASEAN countries’ economic
linkages with China and India. She is editor of the refereed Journal of Asian Business. Linda teaches MBA courses and
executive education sessions on The World Economy and Business in Asia. She has conducted executive workshops on
Asian business, politics, economics and culture for multinational and Asian companies and associations including Coca-
Cola, Texaco, Lockheed Martin, Corning, Textron, Holder bank, Indofood, Motorola, Thomson TV, Delphi Automotive,
J.D. Powers, Ford Motor Company, General Motors, PacifiCorp, the Chief Executives’ Organization, Monitor Group and
CoreNet Global. She has also done training and ambassador briefings for the U.S. State Department Foreign Service
Institute, and the U.S. Trade Representative, has testified to the U.S. Congress’ House Subcommittee on Asia and the
Pacific, and has addressed the United Nations General Assembly Economic Committee.
Linda has also consulted for various private think tanks, United Nations agencies and the OECD. She is a Trustee
Emeritus of The Asia Society, and was a director of publicly-listed Wood head Industries, an industrial communications
provider, from 1998-2006, up to and including its sale to Molex Inc. She is frequently quoted in the international
business press, including recent citations in the Detroit News, Forbes, Asian Wall Street Journal, Bangkok Post, Straits
Times and Business Times (Singapore), New Straits Times (Malaysia), Financial Express (India), Dinheiro Vivo (Brazil),
Wall Street Journal, Bloomberg’s Markets, and appearances on Lehrer News Hour (TV) and NPR’s Marketplace
program.
When working on any topic, it is recommended that students start with the oldest papers and then work forward in
time—this is also how I arrange the sequence of readings for each weekly module other than the two texts. This will
give you a feel for how the research on a particular topic has developed over time. Always be on the lookout for gaps
or deficiencies in the literature and for evidence of inadequate theory.
If you have not done so already, it is recommended that you become a student member of the Academy of
Management, Academy of International Business, and Strategic Management Society as soon as possible. While you
can access their publications through our library without becoming a member, I have found that periodical
appearances of hard copy publications from these professional associations in your mail box that you have paid for
with membership dues are the best way to motivate you to keep up your reading of the most recent research.

The course is aimed primarily at Ph.D. students, although interested MBA students are also welcome. For the latter
group, the main benefit will be to obtain some flavor of Ph.D. training if you are interested in exploring this direction.
Welcome on board!

27
• Strategic Management Explaining and predicting competitive advantage
It is the defining question of strategic management. The strategic management process encompasses the
decisions and actions involved in formulating corporate-level, business-level, and functional-level strategies
and in managing the firm’s operations in a way that effectively carries out these strategies. The study of
strategic management is therefore multi-leveled (focusing on individual decision makers, individual firms,
networks of firms, and the industrial, social and political environments in which these firms exist) and
multidisciplinary (encompassing such fields as economics, sociology, and psychology).
At Georgia Tech, the study of strategic management is interdisciplinary (drawing on such areas as
organizational theory, organizational behavior, economics, and political and social science) and integrative
(providing focus in the areas of technology and innovation management, entrepreneurship, and
international management). The goal of the PhD program in strategy is the development of highly
qualified individuals with both strong discipline-based research capabilities and a unique understanding of
the challenges faced by managers in high technology environments. The program’s focus on strategic
management within high technology environments provides a strong diff emendator for PhD graduates of
Georgia Tech.
The goal of the PhD program in strategy is the development of highly qualified individuals with both strong
discipline-based research capabilities and a unique understanding of the challenges faced by managers in
high technology environments. Strategic management faculty members at Georgia Tech are active and
nationally recognized scholars focusing their research in the areas listed below.
• Faculty Research Interests
Formation, structure, and performance of strategic technology managements
• High technology venture dynamics
• Institutional dynamics of emerging industries
• National security and technology transfer
• Political economy of international technology transfer
• The reciprocal determination of occupational structure and organizational structure
• Strategic managements and networks
• Strategic entrepreneurship, especially engineering entrepreneurship
• Technology transfer
• Student Success
Unlike in most business schools, the strategy unit at Georgia Tech is a stand-alone unit covering strategy,
entrepreneurship, and international business. The unit spun off in 2002 and initiated its own doctoral
program focusing on technology and innovation in 2003. Our graduates have received top placements.
Strategy PhD students have published coauthored papers in leading academic journals like Industrial and
Corporate Change and Organization Science. One student became the College’s first to receive the
prestigious Kauff man Dissertation Fellowship. Thanks to external grants from organizations like the
National Science Foundation and the National Nanotech Infrastructure Network, several strategy PhD
students are able to focus entirely on their research. Our strategy PhD students have been invited to
present their co-authored research at numerous important conferences.
• Recent Student Dissertation Topics
Essays on Dynamic Capabilities: The e Role of Intellectual Human Capital • al in Firm Innovation
• University Entrepreneurship: The e Role of U.S. Facility in Technology Transfer Recent Student
Placements
• California State University - Sacramento
• University of Virginia Strategic Management Faculty/Areas of Specialty Lloyd Byars, professor; PhD,
Georgia State University: strategic management, management theory, executive education, and human
resource management Marco Ceccagnoli, assistant professor; PhD, Carnegie Mellon University: strategy,
industrial organization, innovation, and intellectual property Lucien Dhooge, Sue and John Staton Professor
of Law; JD, University of Denver: international and comparative law Stuart J. H. Graham, assistant
professor; PhD, University of California at Berkeley: intellectual property strategy, legal environment of
business, business policy and strategy, and management of innovation and new technologies Matthew
Higgins, assistant professor and holder of the Imlay Professorship; PhD, Emory University:
biopharmaceutical mergers and acquisitions, management of new technologies and innovation, and
strategic interaction in high-tech industries Jeongsik “Jay” Lee, assistant professor; PhD, University of
California, Los Angeles: social networks, innovation dynamics, technology and innovation management,
and venture capital John R. McIntyre, professor and director, Center for International Business Education
and Research (CIBER); PhD, University of Georgia: international technology transfer, international
business strategy, comparative management, trade regulation, export/import management, international
trade policy, and multinational enterprises.

28
Frank T. Rothaermel, associate professor and holder of the Angel and Stephen M. Deedy
Professorship; PhD, University of Washington: strategy in high-technology industries, engineering
entrepreneurship, and technology innovation management Steve Salbu, dean, Stephen P. Zelnak
chairholder, and professor; PhD, Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania: business ethics, legal
environment of business, and Cyberlaw Henry Sauermann, associate professor; PhD, Duke University:
innovation, and entrepreneurship Jerry Th ursby, Ernest Scheller Jr. chairholder and professor; PhD,
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill: econometrics, international trade, and licensing of university
technologies Marie Th ursby, Hal and John Smith chairholder, executive director of TI:GER®, and
professor; PhD, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill: technology innovation and entrepreneurship
demission into the PhD program in Management is highly selective, with a limited number of offers
extended each year. Primary factors considered include the applicant’s overall undergraduate and (if
applicable) graduate grade point averages, GMAT scores, compatible research interests with faculty,
career interests and goals as discussed in the essays, letters of recommendation, and the applicant’s
appropriateness for graduate study and ability to handle advanced-level research. Applicants to the PhD
program are encouraged to contact the individual department concerning the availability of openings in
each area.
Applicants should have a strong background in college-level mathematics, particularly knowledge of linear
algebra, calculus, and statistics. Applicants to the PhD program must take the Graduate Management
Admission Test (GMAT) or the Graduate Record Examination (GRE). Additionally, all international
applicants without a U.S. undergraduate or graduate degree must take the Test of English as a Foreign
Language (TOEFL). A TOEFL score of at least 100 on the Internet-based Test or 600 on the paper version
is required. Georgia Tech School codes are: GMAT - HWK-54-07; GRE - 5248- 4201; TOEFL - 5248.
Faculty members look for applicants with a balanced application and a strong sense of direction. Average
test scores for the past several years have been in the 90th percentile or higher. Acceptance into doctoral
study may be made after either the bachelor’s or master’s degrees have been completed. The bachelor’s
degree must be from an accredited institution of higher learning.

• The admission process to the PhD program


Have two stages. First, an applicant must pass a screening by faculty in the appropriate academic area
and a member of that area must accept responsibility as the sponsor of the applicant. Second, all
members of the PhD Committee review the application, decide whether or not to admit the candidate, and
make recommendations for financial assistance. The application deadline is January 15 for the following
semester. Completed files are reviewed beginning in February. You may apply online at:
HTTP://WWW.GRADADMISS. GATECH.EDU. Averages of Admitted PhD Students (Fall 2008)
GMAT 713
GRE 1366
Undergraduate GPA 3.60
Graduate GPA 3.82
Months of Work Experience 37
Age 27

International Applicants
After admission, all international applicants must submit a certified statement of financial support.
Certification of the availability of these funds may be through a bank statement showing the current
balance, a copy of a government contract/scholarship, or a letter from a sponsor certifying support.
If you are admitted to the program and are not awarded a graduate research assistantship (GRA), you are
responsible for tuition and fees and must show at least $60,000 USD in your statement of financial
support.

29
• Strategic Management Society (SMS)
SMJ SPECIAL ISSUE: DEADLINE EXTENDED
The deadline for the SMJ special issue PSYSCHOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
has been extended to January 15, 2009. This special issue focuses on new theoretical and empirical
research on the psychological origins of Strategic Management. This special issue seeks to merge
traditional and modern perspectives in Strategic Management by exploring the psychological foundations
of executive behavior, goal formation, resource formation and deployment, firm performance, strategy
implementation, and market efficiency. A more explicit recognition of the psychological foundations of
strategy offers exciting new directions for research on strategic behavior and firm performance.
ED ZAJAC—Wet are delighted to profile this year’s recipient of the Dan and Mary Lou Schendel Best Paper
prize. This award recognizes a paper published at least five years ago that has made a lasting contribution
to scholarship in strategic management. This year’s winner is Structuring Cooperative Relationships
between Organizations, by Peter Smith Ring and Andrew Van de Venn, published in 1992.
Structuring Cooperative Relationships examines governance structures and processes in cases of repeated
cooperation among multiple organizations. The paper highlights relationships between risk and trust,
contracts and contracting processes, and governance mechanisms. Peter and Andy’s work helped
stimulate a rich and multi-faceted literature on these topics that continues to evolve in the academic and
business literatures.
This year’s prize-winning article underscores an important feature of the Strategic Management Journal;
namely, our willingness to help authors develop work that examines important empirical phenomena while
framing the work in relevant conceptual perspectives. Structuring Cooperative Relationships could not
have achieved its impact if it had nested itself within a single theory, seeking to fill in small gaps in existing
frameworks. Instead, the paper used multiple complementary lenses to examine an issue that no single
theory had been able to tackle successfully. As a result, the work opened important new arenas for
subsequent research, rather than simply seeking to sweep the sand within an existing field of study.
We believe that SMJ’s willingness – indeed, its eagerness – to open new avenues of research, both by
creating new concepts and thoughtfully combining existing points of view, has contributed to the ongoing
vitality of strategic management research and the growth of the strategic management discipline. Of
course, we welcome work that seeks to fill important gaps in existing theory. In addition, though, we
encourage authors to draw on multiple lenses to create important insights about under-explored
phenomena of strategy and organization.
The strategic management challenges facing real-world organizations continues to evolve at a rapid pace,
which necessitates an ongoing reframing of our understanding of strategic management. The Ring and
Van de Ven research, by helping us understand the intricacies of cooperative relationships among
competing firms, is exemplary in this regard. HaPPENINGS WITH THE SMS FEllOWS 2008
DAN SCHENDEL – At the close of this year, I will have completed my three-year term of service as Dean of
the Fellows of the Strategic Management Society. Howard Thomas has been elected my successor by vote
of the Fellows. Our congratulations and best wishes go to Howard as he once again finds himself in service
to our field and the SMS! Howard has chosen Carlos Cavalle as his Deputy Dean, and together they will
see to the leadership and administration of the Fellows. I want to thank Michael Hitt, who served with me
as Deputy Dean of the Fellows over these past three, formative years. Where Mike’s energy to
simultaneously serve as President of the SMS as well as an officer of the Fellows continues to be a source
of wonderment to me, he does it. And I can tell you, he does it effortlessly.
It is the purpose of the Fellows to recognize and honor members of the SMS who have made significant
contributions to theory and practice of strategic management, including contributions to the SMS and its
aims and purposes. Those elected meet and exemplify the founding principles and values of the SMS itself.
In keeping with this purpose and criterion, through the nomination of the Fellows’ nine-member
nomination committee, and the subsequent positive vote of the entire Fellows’ active membership, eight
new members were elected for induction as the 2008 class of SMS Fellows. These eight were: Robert
Burgelman, Stanford University; Constance Helfat, Dartmouth College; Pankaj Ghemawat, IESE; Bruce
Kogut, Columbia University; Margaret Peteraf, Dartmouth College; Harbir Singh, Wharton; George Stalk,
Boston Consulting Group; and David Teece, UC Berkeley. My congratulations to each of them!
Also at the Cologne meeting, an invitation to develop a plenary session around a topic chosen each year
by the Fellows for presentation at the annual international conference was accepted as an item for the
Fellows’ vote. I expect the invitation to be accepted with enthusiasm, judging from the comments made at
our meeting in October. Below is a listing of the current roster of the Fellows, including those deceased. It
is a precept of the Fellows that once elected, a member will be forever listed on the rolls of the Fellows.
For more information about the SMS Fellows, please visit fellows.strategicmanagement.net.
It was an honor to be named an Inaugural Fellow and to be able to serve the Fellows as Dean through
these first years of its life, which I know will be long and distinguished.

30
The Board of Directors of the SMS is inviting nominations for the 2009 SMS Emerging Scholar Award. This
significant annual prize is awarded to a young, emerging scholar for exemplary scholarship as
demonstrated in research, education, professional service, and all related activities that seek to improve
current strategic management knowledge and application.
A successful candidate will possess the potential to make fundamental contributions to the way the field
thinks about knowledge essential to any organization’s achievement of durable success. Especially
important will be knowledge contributions that complement and extend existing strategic management
theory, including those based on ideas from other disciplines and other fields of inquiry that intersect with
strategic management theory and practice. To be considered, a candidate:
• should be under the age of 40, with at least five years of postterminal degree award experience,
• have a record of publication and professional activity that demonstrates work of significance and impact,
• be a member of the Strategic Management Society in good standing.
Nomination of a candidate requires:
• a letter of nomination by another member of the SMS, who must not be a member of the same
organization/institution as the nominee,
• two additional letters of recommendation for the nominee,
• a full current vitae from the nominated individual, including any current working papers.
Nominations for the 2009 award should be send to the SMS Executive Office and will be accepted until
April 30, 2009. The selection will be made and announced in early July 2009.
The recipient of the SMS Emerging Scholar Award will:
• have the opportunity to present his/her research in a prominent setting at the SMS Annual International
Conference,
• receive a prize of USD 5,000
• be appropriately recognized in the SMS journals.
The selection committee is comprised of two members of the SMS Executive Committee, two additional
members of the SMS Board of Directors, and one additional expert chosen from the SMS membership at
large. For more information about this award, please visit www.strategicmanagement.net.

• A PROFESSIONAL SOCIETY FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT


The Strategic Management Society (SMS) is unique in bringing together the worlds of reflective practice
and thoughtful scholarship. The Society consists of more than 2,000 members representing over 50
different countries. Membership, composed of academics, business practitioners, and consultants, focuses
its attention on the development and dissemination of insights on the strategic management process, as
well as fostering contacts and interchange around the world.
The Society is probably best known through the Strategic Management Journal (SMJ) published by John
Wiley & Sons. This Class A journal has become the leading scholarly publication in the field of Strategic
Management and is consistently rated one of the top publications in the management area. The Society
recently launched a new quarterly journal, the Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal (SEJ). The intent is for
the SEJ to soon also become a Class A journal and to promote the development and dissemination of
advances in the field by maintaining the highest standards of intellectual thought combined with practical
relevance, just as its sister publication SMJ has done for many years.
• Strategic Management Objective: To develop a top management perspective on the firm, the
firm’s purpose, and sources of strategic success.
Course Description: This course is about the creation and maintenance of a long-term vision for the
organization and focuses on the determination of strategic direction, nature and sources of competitive
advantage, and the management of the strategic process. As such it deals with the analytical, behavioral,
and creative aspects of business simultaneously.
Dr. David B. Jemison is the Foster Parker Centennial Professor of Management and Finance and Director of
the Texas Executive MBA Program at the McCombs School of Business where he teaches in the Strategic
Management area. He has served as Senior Associate Dean for Academic Affairs and as Chair of the
Management Department at McCombs. Jemison has been a member of the faculty at Stanford University
and at Indiana University and a Visiting Professor at INSEAD. Jemison’s research focuses on business
combinations as a vehicle for strategic renewal and how firms learn from their combined activities. He is
the author of numerous articles, book chapters, monographs, and books and his book, Managing
Acquisitions: Creating Value Through Corporate Renewal, co-authored with Philippe Haspeslagh of
INSEAD, received the 1993 Award from the Academy of Management for the “...most outstanding
contribution to advancing management knowledge.” He has received numerous teaching awards at Texas,
Stanford, and Indiana and received the Outstanding Educator Award from the Business Policy and Strategy
Division of the Academy of Management.

31
• Strategic thinking Core Curriculum
Through this cluster of courses, you gain a general management perspective, thereby enhancing your
ability to see “the big picture” – the strategic perspective that drives the decision-making of senior
executives. Competitive Strategy *Module 2 Explores economic principles of business strategy and
develops an analytical framework for identifying and evaluating alternative strategies. General
management is a complex subject that will be studied from several different perspectives in order to help
students begin to develop their own integrative framework. In the course, students will also develop their
competencies in dealing with complex, unstructured administrative situations, and reflect on their
tolerance for ambiguity and willingness to take risks and accept responsibility for their actions.
Concepts of Strategy* Module 3 Develops understanding of the economic principles essential for the
formulation and evaluation of strategy and explores frameworks for strategic analysis, synthesis and
action. Key elements include the fundamentals of industry and market analysis, trends, market dynamics,
scenarios, strategic positioning, the boundaries of the firm, value chain, core competence and competitive
advantage.
The course evaluates analytical techniques to assist the corporate strategist and develops the integrative
tools needed for creating value in a multiproduct organization. Business Strategies for Sustainability
globalelectives@schulich Provides a perspective framed around the proposition that businesses that rise to
the challenge of sustainability not only succeed in protecting people and the natural environment, but also
secure long-term competitive and financial advantages. Such firms recruit and retain the best and
brightest workers, maintain the trust and loyalty of their customers and business partners, innovate and
develop new products and markets and minimize their risks and liabilities. The course takes a strategic
approach and offers insights into marketing, innovation, organizational behaviour, finance and accounting,
and communicating for sustainability.
International Strategy globalelectives@schulich Examines the development of the international enterprise
in the global economy, focusing on the evolving strategies and structures of firms that operate in multiple
markets around the world, and on the similarities and differences between enterprises in different
countries and cultures. The course identifies domestic and international environmental constraints and
their influence on the operating performance of enterprises in different countries, both developed and
developing. The course critically examines the strategic choices available to firms in a variety of industry
contexts that cut across all spectrums of global competition. These choices include strategic managements
and mergers and acquisitions. You can also further enhance your strategic skills by taking electives in this
area such as “Strategic Issues in Commodity Industries” or “Business Strategies in the Asia Pacific Region”

• Schulich School of Business : York University Toronto, Canada www.schulich.yorku.ca


Course Offerings-Business Strategies for Sustainability Provides a perspective framed around the
proposition that businesses that rise to the challenge of sustainability not only succeed in protecting
people and the natural environment, but also secure long-term competitive and financial advantages. Such
firms recruit and retain the best and brightest workers, maintain the trust and loyalty of their customers
and business partners, innovate and develop new products and markets and minimize their risks and
liabilities. The course takes a strategic approach and offers insights into marketing, innovation,
organizational behaviour, finance and accounting, and communicating for sustainability.

• International Strategy
Examines the development of the international enterprise in the global economy, focusing on the evolving
strategies and structures of firms that operate in multiple markets around the world, and on the
similarities and differences between enterprises in different countries and cultures. The course identifies
domestic and international environmental constraints and their influence on the operating performance of
enterprises in different countries, both developed and developing. The course critically examines the
strategic choices available to firms in a variety of industry contexts that cut across all spectrums of global
competition. These choices include strategic managements and mergers and acquisitions.

• PhD concentrations
Strategic management and organization Students begin their program of study by examining the major
theories and current research in each of the main areas within the department: strategic management and
organizational studies. Students then further focus on one of these major areas.

32
• Strategic management and organization
Strategic management and organization focuses on the management of organizations from a top
management perspective. It addresses both the external relations between the organization and its
environment and the internal processes of organizational adaptation and change.
The interdisciplinary program builds on two primary areas: strategic management (the formulation and
implementation of strategy) and organizational studies (organization structure and process and managing
the human system to achieve organizational objectives). In addition, students can concentrate on
international management, entrepreneurship, or ethics. In collaboration with faculty, students develop a
program of study that meets their needs. They take courses to develop a solid understanding of work in
both areas, as well as within their area of interest or specialization.
Students combine coursework with active involvement in faculty research. They participate in research
seminars, colloquia with guest speakers, and informal research workshops. Students may also take
advantage of research centers, including the Center for Management Studies and the Strategic
Management Research Center. To round out their experience in the doctoral program, each student is
responsible for preparing and leading an entire class before leaving the program.

• Faculty: Strategic management and organization chair


**J. Myles Shaver
Carlson School Professor and Chair of Strategic Management and Organization PhD, University of Michigan
Major interests-corporate strategy choice and performance; the management and economics of
international expansion.
**Strategic management and organization
PhD coordinator
Akbar Zaheer
Curtis L. Carlson Professor and PhD Coordinator of Strategic Management and Organization; Director of
Strategic Management Research Center PhD, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Major interests-competitive advantage from inter-firm relationships; trust in inter-organizational
collaborations; buyer-supplier relations; research on networks of firms; using inter-firm networks to build
capabilities; strategic decision making in uncertain business environments.
**Alison Davis-Blake
Dean, Carlson School of Management and Investors in Leadership
Distinguished Chair in Organizational Behavior PhD, Stanford University
Major interests-non-standing work arrangements (temporary work, contract work, employee leasing);
outsourcing and organizing for effective outsourcing; organizational salary structures
**Michael L. DeVaughn
Assistant Professor of Strategic Management and Organization PhD, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Major interests
environmental impediments to organizational learning; entrepreneurship dynamic
**Stuart Albert
Associate Professor of Strategic Management and Organization PhD, The Ohio State University
Major interests timing of managerial decisions; temporal comparison theory and the management of
change and transitions within organizations; the response of organizations to business cycles
**Norman E. Bowie
Professor of Strategic Management and Organization; Elmer L. Andersen Chair in Corporate Responsibility
PhD, University of Rochester
Major interests business ethics; corporate social responsibility; international business ethics
**W. Bruce Erickson
Professor of Strategic Management and Organization PhD, Michigan State University
Major interests- industrial organization; private treble-damage suits; small business entrepreneurship.
**Daniel P. Forbes
Assistant Professor of Strategic Management and Organization PhD, New York University
Major interests- strategic decision making; process based approaches to corporate governance; new
venture creation and strategy
**Sophie Leroy
Assistant Professor of Strategic Management and Organization PhD, New York University
Major interests- allocation and regulation of attention at work, perception and evaluation of time, the
effects of managing multiple team memberships
**Arik Lifschitz
Assistant Professor of Strategic Management and Organization PhD, Columbia University
Major interests

33
Business strategy, inter-organizational relationships, organizational learning, and economic sociology
**Ian Maitland
Professor of Strategic Management and Organization PhD, Columbia University
Major interests-business ethics; ethics and markets; international business; ethics of international
sweatshops; impacts of markets on community
**Alfred Marcus
Professor of Strategic Management and Organization PhD, Harvard University
Major interests-business strategy; business and the natural environment; safety and quality; business
regulation and deregulation; business consulting; electric utilities and food industry studies; organizational
learning and competence acquisition
**Tom Murtha
Associate Professor of Strategic Management and Organization PhD, New York University
Major interests- global strategic management; international firm/state strategic interaction; inter-
organizational relations; country-specific organizational capabilities and international competitiveness;
technology management; new industry creation; the global firm.
**Mary L. Nichols
Professor of Strategic Management and Organization PhD, University of Kansas
Major interests-individual and organizational decision processes; organizational design; managing change
**Harry J. Sapienza
Professor of Strategic Management and Organization; Curtis L. Carlson Chair in Management Studies;
Director, Center for Management Studies PhD, University of Maryland-College Park
Major interests- inter-organizational relationships; strategic decision-making; international
entrepreneurship; entrepreneur-venture capitalist relationships
**Pri P. Shah
Associate Professor of Strategic Management and Organization PhD, Northwestern University
Major interests social networks; groups; negotiation; procedural justice
**Gurneeta Singh
Assistant Professor of Strategic Management and Organization PhD, George Washington University
Major interests- knowledge-building strategies, technology managements, geography of innovation,
national institutions
**Puay Khoon (PK) Toh
Assistant Professor of Strategic Management and Organization PhD, University of Michigan
Major interests-organization structure, management of innovation, resource interdependence, strategies in
intellectual property rights, firm’s search behavior
**Paul Vaaler
Associate Professor of Strategic Management and Organization;
Director of the Center for Integrative Leadership PhD, University of Minnesota
Major interests-risk and investment in emergingmarket countries, performance stability in turbulent
industries.
**Andrew H. Van de Ven
Professor of Strategic Management and Organization; Vernon H. Heath Chair in Organizational Innovation
and Change PhD, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Major interests organization theory; management of innovation and change; interorganizational
relationships; nominal group processes and methods of engaged scholarship
**Srilata Zaheer
Associate Dean for Faculty and Research; Carlson School Professor of Strategic Management
andOrganization PhD, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Major interests-offshore outsourcing; the legitimacy of MNEs; the impact of globalization; information
networks; time based strategies
*Shaker A. Zahra
Professor of Strategic Management and Organization; Robert E. Buuck Chair in Entrepreneurship; Co-
Director of the Center of Management Studies PhD, University of Mississippi
Major interests-entrepreneurship (technology, international and corporate);knowledge based competition;
innovation
*Mary E. Zellmer-Bruhn
Associate Professor of Strategic Management and Organization PhD, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Major interests-new venture management teams; team learning and knowledge transfer; temporal aspects
of team performance; cross-cultural teamwork; organizational culture.

34
• Strategic Management Research Center
Founded in 1984, the Strategic Management Research Center (SMRC) studies strategic questions faced by
top- and mid-level managers that cut across the functional lines of organizations. To adequately address
these cross-disciplinary problems, the SMRC currently brings together 140 faculty and PhD students from
27 units throughout the University. Center research focuses on four programmatic areas: managing
innovation and change; international management and trade; mergers and acquisitions; and environment,
energy, and safety.
In addition, the center fosters an intellectually stimulating community that supports learning and research
among faculty, doctoral students, and practitioners.

• Center activities include:


> The Strategic Management Colloquium Series in which leading national scholars present their latest
research
> Three paper series, which disseminate new theories and research by faculty and associates of the
center to a network of other scholars and practitioners throughout the world for review and comment
> Several orientation sessions where faculty and students meet with general managers in selected
organizations to learn about strategic management problems and explore common interests and areas of
study
> Seed money provided to faculty and doctoral students to initiate novel research on embryonic ideas that
address the key issues of the center’s research agenda.

• COURSE DESIGN (teaching style and knowledge)


Some of you will be asked to design a new course from scratch or will want to redesign an existing course
to better suit your teaching style and knowledge. Since course design is a complex and time-consuming
undertaking, give considerable thought to a wide range of issues and questions before starting down this
path. Improving an Existing Course As a new teacher, you will most likely be asked to teach a course
previously taught by another faculty member. You might find that the course is a perfect fit for you and
that you will have to change very little. More likely, however, you will want to undertake some revisions.
Here are some tips for helping you achieve your goal: Do your homework. You clarify your department’s
expectations for this course. If you are teaching a course for only one year and must hand it back to your
colleague when he returns from a sabbatical, you might want to invest minimal time and effort. If you can
get a commitment to teach the course for several years, revising it will make more sense. You Review and
evaluate the course syllabus, lecture notes, textbooks, and other assigned readings, assessment questions,
and other materials the faculty member who previously taught the course will make available to you. you
Review students’ final exams to learn where the course was strong or weak in teaching key concepts. Skim
a few years’ worth of students’ course evaluations if they are available. u If possible, ask the faculty
member who is turning the course over to you to describe his or her impressions of what worked and what
didn’t, or observe this person teaching a class and jot down your thoughts about what you would keep or
change.
Determine what changes to make. If you do decide to make changes to the course, figure out what and
how much you want to change. Even if the faculty member who previously taught the course makes his or
her notes available to you, you should rewrite them in your own style. This will help you master the
material and allow you to insert your own examples and active-learning exercises.
If the content of the course seems satisfactory overall, you can focus more on your presentation. But if
you think it’s necessary to introduce a substantial amount of new content or make major structural
changes, then it may be helpful to read the section below on designing a new course. Remember that it’s
advisable to make changes incrementally, based on student feedback.

• Strategic Management: Business Strategies for Sustainability


Entrepreneurship and New Firm Creation Managing Venture Growth and Transition Corporate
Entrepreneurship The Canadian Life Insurance Industry and International Competition Enterprise Risk
Management and Strategy Strategic Management of Hospitals Introduction to International Business
Business Administration and the Law Business and Occupational Ethics Sustainable Value Creation
Aboriginal Economic Development Program Management Consulting Change, Leadership and Complexity in
the Nonprofit Sector Acquisitions, Mergers and Strategic Managements Board of Directors Strategic
Organizational Design Strategic Management of Technology-Based Firms Strategic Management of E-
Business Restructuring and Turnaround Management The Emergence of Global Management Case Analysis
and Presentation Skills.

35
Traditionally, the European education systems (except for perhaps the United Kingdom) are quite
different from those in the United States. Changes under the Bologna Declaration which is an attempt to
unify the educational system across Europe has a target that is similar to American higher education, but
there will nevertheless continue to be important differences between the US and European educational
systems. After discussing the changes that are taking place across Europe as part of the response to the
Bologna Declaration, this section presents a brief account of IT education in one European country,
Germany, as it exists today, and draws some comparisons with degree programs in the United Kingdom.

• Option Modules
Loosely related to a specific subject are often offered to students to allow them to specialise in areas that
are not within the traditional domain of IS. For example, the following option modules are all part of the
same theme but were deemed not to offer a close match to any of the BooK descriptors: Environmental
Management and Business Strategy, Strategic Management and Operations Management.

Rationalistic School of Thought


The basic underlying assumption in the rationalistic school is that there is one best solution and the
strategist(s) must attain to get as close as possible to this outcome. Since there is only one answer,
anyone given the right resources, will attain this result. As a consequence, the internal processes of the
planning team and their perspectives are irrelevant. This is the fundamental area of difference that makes
scenario planning different from the rationalist (Van der Heijden, 1996). Very few strategists explore or
question the mission statements. It is likely that its origin dates back to the management visions of the
founders. The success stories that followed over the years made them comfortable enough not to question
the mission statements. If the planners are living in a turbulent world, then change may be inevitable even
in its mission statements. However, organizations only think of a change in times of crisis. British Airways
‘World’s Favorite Airline’ slogan was born after a new CEO was recruited. This only happened when the
airline was faced with many problems and issues were pointing towards a complete change.
The next step in the process, the SWOT analysis is crucial and important. It is expanded as ‘strengthens’,
‘weaknesses’, ‘opportunities’ and ‘threats’. The first two is established from the internal factors prevailing
in the company and the last two are the results of environmental scanning. It is important to mention that
SWOT is also incorporated in scenario planning processes.
The next in the strategy process is 'selecting the best strategic option'. As mentioned earlier, the
rationalistic school goes in search of the ‘ultimate future’. In order to do this, forecasting is made of the
business environment against which various strategic options are evaluated. After judging what the future
will look like,
the forecasted utilities are compared with the options. The one with the highest utility is the preferred
strategy. It is here that Scenario planning completely disagrees with the rationalistic school. In the
corporate world today, rationalistic approach is well and alive and through its usage companies have
indeed moved forward from their earlier positions, however, there have also been major failures
(Mintzberg, 1994). The major disadvantages that are commonly found in strategic management literature
are as follows:
1. Everyone thinking rationally will arrive at the same conclusion.
2. A wrong prediction of the future can be costly.
3. The individual mental models and thought processes of the individuals in the planning team is
irrelevant.
4. Forecasting is used as one of the basis for long-term judgments.

Module 1: Strategic Management


Module Description of Strategic management is concerned with the overall purpose and direction of the
organization, encompassing the decisions and the decision making processes which direct the nature,
scope and competitive position of the enterprise. The course emphasizes the need for an holistic
perspective of the strategic issues confronting the organization and of the performance implications of the
alternative structures and processes available for implementing strategy.
This module introduces the participant to the main analytical techniques and conceptual frameworks
provided by the strategic management and business policy discipline, with particular focus on how these
tools apply in a technology environment. The practical application of strategic management and business
policy concepts and theories through case work (which will be focused on technology and technology
based enterprises) enhances the learner’s understanding of the business issues involved in managing
organisations, and develops the participant’s analytical skills and decision making ability.

36
Module Content: Basic Concepts of Strategic Management.
Course introduction. Phases of Strategic Management. Challenges to Strategic Management. Basic model
of strategic management. Organisational Vision and Mission. Strategy Development Process. Corporate
Governance and Social Responsibility Role and Responsibilities of Board of Directors. Role of Top
Management. Social Responsibility. Influence of Stakeholder groups. Environmental Scanning and Industry
Analysis.
• Techniques for identifying external strategic factors.
Analysing the Task Environment including Porter’s approach to industry analysis. International risk
assessment. Strategic groups. Hyper-competition. Competitive intelligence and forecasting. Scenario
Planning. Internal Scanning; Organisational Analysis.. Resource based approach. Value Chain analysis.
Basic organisational structures. Corporate culture. Strategic functions including strategic R&D. Strategic
Operations Issues. Strategic IS / Technology Issues. Strategic audit. Strategy Formulation: Situation
Analysis and Business Strategy. Situational analysis (SWOT). Business Strategies. Environmental influences
on competitive strategies. Evaluating Strategies and Tactics. Co-operative strategies. Strategy
Formulation: Corporate Strategy. Strategies for growth including International Entry Options. Turnaround
Strategies. Portfolio analysis. Corporate Parenting. Strategy Formulation: Functional Strategy and Strategic
Choice. Functional Strategies particularly integration of technology strategy with other organisational
functions. Optimum strategy selection including constructing corporate scenarios. Process of Strategic
Choice. Development of Policies. Strategy Implementation: Organising for Action. Implementing strategy:
Developing Programmes, Budgets and Procedures and achieving Synergies. Organising for action –
Advanced types of Organisational Structure. Reengineering and Strategy Implementation. International
Issues in Strategy Implementation. Managing Corporate Culture. Contemporary Views on Other Strategic
Issues.Primary measures of Corporate, Divisional and Functional Performance. Strategic Issues in
managing Technology and Innovation. Strategic Issues in Management Ventures and Small Businesses.
• Business continues to be one of the most popular Subjects
At both A level and undergraduate level and Business graduates are sought after by employers in
a range of professions. To support this Newman is now offering a degree in Management and Business.
This course is offered as a major, joint or minor subject as part of Newman’s combined Honours
programme, and depending on the subject you choose to combine the course with, the skills you will
acquire could prepare you for a wide variety of careers within marketing, finance, human resources, IT
and strategic management. The Management and Business degree will furnish students with an
understanding of the latest management techniques and theories, focusing on the factors that influence
organisational success and how organisations in both public and private sectors can influence these factors
through their own policies and behaviour. The areas of business covered within the course will ensure that
students develop the relevant skills in demand by future employers. Successful completion of the course
also gives students professional qualifications in Management from the Chartered Management Institute
(CMI). As with all single and combined Honours degrees at Newman you will be given the opportunity to
undertake extensive work experience in a related area to ensure that you gain graduate level work
experience desired by employers. Second year students currently have the opportunity to study abroad in
their second semester and the course is currently being improved to make this option even more
accessible. Even though the range of courses is expanding, Newman remains committed to keeping class
sizes relatively small so that you will benefit from a high quality education resulting from easy access to
your tutors.
The traditional philosophy of management in construction, both in academia and in industry, places great
emphasis on the ability to plan and execute projects. Preparing individuals with project management
competencies is viewed as a necessary role for university programs. Through the sharing of research,
teaching and practice, the construction industry has evolved itself on a project management model.
Professors, researchers and practitioners use project management indicators such as schedule and budget
as the industry's standard of performance. Similarly, to succeed in academic programs focusing on
construction management, the central focus for graduate students is to understand the fundamental skills
of project management. In contrast, a similar emphasis on strategic management is noticeably lacking
(Goodman and Chinowsky, 1997). Specifically, the analysis needed to solve diverse sets of problems which
companies face as they struggle to create competitive organizations requires a distinct set of knowledge,
understanding and skills.
Although the pressures of project performance can often obscure the broader social, economic, and
professional context in which strategic management is undertaken, it is these broad contextual areas that
make strategic management an essential issue for construction students. Rapidly changing social and
technological issues are creating a professional environment that will look very different in the coming
decades than that experienced in today’s organizations.

37
Specifically, three catalysts are converging to motivate construction programs to introduce strategic
management concepts. First, the emergences of broad societal and professional issues are affecting core
construction concerns including the acquisition of employees, the development of markets, and the use of
information. Second, the project management tradition that has served as the centerpiece of graduate
construction education is being challenged as to its capability to address long-term issues. Finally,
traditional assumptions of construction knowledge requirements are being challenged as nontraditional
issues emerge in both the business and professional environments.
This paper introduces one approach to providing this new knowledge set to graduate level construction
students. Specifically, the paper introduces a graduate level course focusing on the strategic management
of construction organizations. Additionally, the paper summarizes the background research that prompted
the introduction of this course, and the traditions in the construction industry that are setting potential
roadblocks to the expansion of this area of education.
• The Strategic Management Course
In response to the gap in strategic management knowledge, a strategic management course has been
introduced for graduate level construction students interested in organization management. The focus of
the course is the study of strategic management issues through a combination of inclass lectures, case-
study analysis, and field studies of construction, architecture, and engineering organizations. The initial
offering of the course was limited to 11 graduate level construction students, with the second class limited
to 15 students. The size of the course will be slowly increased over the next several years until it reaches
an anticipated size of 35 construction graduate students in 1999. However, focusing on a broader impact,
the concepts developed in the course will be made available to other educators to extend the strategic
management concept throughout the construction education community.
Course Curriculum
The strategic management course curriculum provides students with two primary avenues to study
strategic management concepts, classroom cases and field analysis. Through this multifaceted approach,
students obtain both a theoretical understanding of strategic management and a practical understanding
of what company executives are currently doing to address strategic planning within their own
construction organizations.
Classroom Cases
The central component of the strategic management course focuses upon providing students with an
overall understanding of the concepts that underlie strategic planning and management. However, rather
than relying on a traditional lecture format, this introduction is focused around Harvard Business School
case studies. While these cases are traditionally associated with MBA programs, the large number of cases
and teaching materials available in the Harvard Press library (over 7,000) provide a diverse selection which
cover cases from throughout the industrial spectrum, including engineering and construction. The selection
of these materials provided a valuable benefit by serving as an added level of credibility for the course. In
conversations with the students prior to the start of the course, many of them pointed to the Harvard
connection as a primary reason for testing the course since they were familiar with the Harvard business
methodology and its reputation for management studies.
Module 1: Strategic Planning
Case Analysis Technique, Introduction to Strategic and Business Planning, Current Construction Trends
Module 2: Mission Development
Company Organization, Vision Statements, Core Competencies
Case Analysis: Urban Restoration and Investment
Module 3: Company Organization
Hot Teams, Group Dynamics, Corporate Organizations
Case Analysis: Managing Dispersed Organizations
Module 4: Human Resources
Human Resources, Learning Organizations, Corporate Education Plans
Case Analysis: Managing Professional Intellect
Module 5: Market Analysis
Market Analysis, Opportunity Analysis, Emerging Markets
Case Analysis: Competition and Strategy Development
Module 6: Strategic Development
Long-Term Planning, Client Development, Strategic Marketing
Case Analysis: Client Response and Project Development
Module 7: Financial Analysis
Financial Analysis, Reading the Numbers, Economic Trends
Case Analysis: Land Development and Profits
Module 8: Project Presentation

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• Strategic Management Course Curriculum
The modules follow a basic business plan outline, giving students the opportunity to develop a strategic
plan for a new business through the individual modules. The use of the case studies in the course focused
on weekly analytical papers. After an initial week of introduction to the case method of teaching, the
students were introduced to the core of the case study method. In the twice-a-week course format, each
week was devoted to the introduction and exploration of a new topic. The first lecture of each week was
devoted to the discussion of readings selected from the Harvard Business Review articles. Following the
pattern of a standard business plan, the articles introduced the students to the issues and requirements of
starting and operating a construction company. Complementing these articles were a selection of case
studies. In the second lecture of each week, the students were presented with a case study to read and
summarize. Given one week to read and analyze the cases, each student was required to write a summary
of the case and an analysis indicating how the case relates to current construction management practices.
To facilitate discussion of the cases, two students were selected each week to lead the analysis of the
issues. This component of the course was critical to ensure that the students became active participants in
the discussions. In contrast to traditional lecture formats, this focus on discussions and cases provided
opportunities for students to engage in the process of self-discovery and communication that are currently
being advocated by national research agencies (Committee, 1995).
Analysis Efforts
The second component of the strategic management course provided students with the opportunity to
perform a field analysis of a construction company and obtain an understanding of how strategic planning
is currently being done in the construction industry. In contrast to the overall perspective of the Harvard
Business cases, the field analysis component challenged students to capture the strategic management
process of an individual company within the context of a written case study and oral presentation. Of
particular interest, were design and construction companies focusing on emerging markets and expansion
programs.
An example of this field analysis effort is the study of a medium-size construction and development firm
(approximately $250 Million annual revenues) in Atlanta. The firm under study decided to differentiate
itself from its regional competition by focusing on the emerging market of urban restoration and loft
development. The corporate decision to make a strategic emphasis of this area required the company to
branch into several areas beyond its traditional general contracting strength including property
management, restoration design and engineering, and real estate development. The entry into this market
required a combination of management decisions ranging from marketing efforts and construction
management to economic forecasting and the revision of corporate mission statements. This situation is
an example of a corporate decision that could not be achieved through a traditional project focus. Rather,
the students had the opportunity to observe the company as it attempted to take a strategic view of its
new market focus, and begin to put into place the corporate level structures required to address an
emerging market. Concurrently, the students had the opportunity to objectively analyze the positive and
negative steps the company adopted within this process and place the analysis into the form of their own
case study analysis.
The combination of this field effort with the weekly case analyses provides the students with both a
theoretical and a practical exposure to the strategic management topic. Similar to the approach of having
construction students observe field operations to enhance topics such as productivity and equipment, the
two-phase approach reinforces the classroom concepts. However, of greater importance, is the
opportunity to view first-hand the management knowledge gap that exists within many areas of the
construction industry. By analyzing the attempts by companies to expand operations based primarily on
project management justifications, the students obtain a context for obtaining strategic management
knowledge.
Additionally, the students have the opportunity to evaluate their own career aspirations in terms of
breaking from the project management tradition. With a broader perspective on the construction industry,
the students have a greater opportunity to evaluate the opportunities provided by owner organizations,
consulting firms, or the development of their own businesses.
The field analysis efforts have proven to be a valuable benefit for both the students and the companies
studied. Each of the companies participating in the analysis section has sincerely appreciated the
recommendations for future strategic plans as made by the students. This success has provided the basis
for recruiting new organizations to participate in future field analysis exercises. This commitment ensures
that the field analysis component of the course will continue to be an integral learning experience as the
course builds to a full enrollment level.

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Student Follow-Up
The success of any course can be measured through a number of measures. The retention of material,
course evaluations, and student demand are all indicators that have been used to benchmark courses. In
the case of the strategic management course, a different benchmark was adopted for follow-up purposes.
Specifically, the students were followed after the first course to determine the impact of the course on
their career objectives. The hypothesis of the follow-up was that the strategic management course
provided a broader industry perspective and thus altered the career objectives of a notable percentage of
the students. This alteration was broadly defined for the initial study to include options such as changing
focus from obtaining a position with a contractor to obtaining employment with an owner, opening a
business, starting a new division within an existing company, focusing on consulting companies as
employment preferences, or electing to remain in school to pursue a doctorate in the management area.
The common thread throughout these options was a divergence from the preconceived vision that the
students held upon entering the course that the general contracting field was the probable employment
avenue upon graduation. The follow-up process has tracked the career directions of the original 11
students through to their current employment or education status. Based on this follow-up study, the
following data was developed:
Electing to remain for Ph.D. studies in strategic management: 3
Electing to work for owner organization: 3
Starting new business venture: 1
Electing to work for non-engineering consultant: 1
Electing to work for general contractor: 1
Remaining as Ph.D. student in non-management area: 1
Unknown status: 1
While it is difficult to make any definitive conclusions from an initial data set, clear trends are emerging
from the follow-up study. First, the number of students electing to continue their studies in strategic
management provides a clear indication that the topic has a graduate-level audience. Second, the focus on
owner organizations and consulting opportunities indicates a strong interest in non-traditional employment
opportunities. Finally, the overwhelming number of students that elected to follow non-traditional career
paths indicates a strong need for construction management programs to address the changing
construction profession. Although further follow-up studies are required to validate these initial findings,
the data provides a basis from which to examine the potential industry barriers to breaking the
construction education tradition.

• STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Late fall 2010 Course Description


The second module returns to the foundations of strategic management research and focuses more
deeply on different streams of research in strategic management (competitive; resource based;
capabilities; process; corporate strategy; origins and dynamics; cognitive and normative aspects, etc.).
The objective of the module is to give students an introduction to the major theoretical areas in the
field and to discuss major threads and controversies. Students will learn about various perspectives,
make connections between theory and empirical research, and identify insights into and critiques of
strategic management research. Please read this module description very carefully. All practical
questions outside the seminar should be directed to Marie, marie.tsujita@hhs.se Preparations The
focus will be on writing, analyzing and reflecting over contemporary strategic management research.
Students are expected to come well prepared to the seminars to discuss and critique the readings.
One inaugural seminar (1h), three principal seminars (three hours each) and one final paper
presentation seminar (3-5h, depending on group size) are included. Each seminar is focused on three
different strategy perspectives and includes at least 2-4 articles/perspective. Each student will serve as
discussion leader for one strategic management perspective. Discussion leaders have an important
role in integrating the particular readings into an understanding of the field. Rather than present a
summary of the readings, the leader should prepare her/his own views, critique and questions and
expect to act as moderator. Moreover, each student should provide a „reading card for one of the core
articles per seminar and promote our understanding of that particular article. Please note that
although you hand in a written „literature card you are of course also responsible for doing the
remaining readings in each session. After it is established who will participate in what part, the
discussion leaders and core paper presenters will be assigned by Marie and me. We will not coordinate
any changes, switches, etc. However, you can switch with each other as long as you provide Marie
with that information at least one month ahead of the particular meeting. Please note that except for
sickness and corresponding excuses there will be no chance to make up for a missed seminars,
assignments, deadlines papers etc. Faculty (Module II) Patrick Regnér (patrick.regner@hhs.se) Course
Assistant: Marie Tsujita (Marie.Tsujita@hhs.se )

40
Assignments 1. Discussion leader (~30%) The discussion leader introduces the particular perspective, but
rather than present a summary of the readings she/he should help to integrate the perspective and
readings into an understanding of the field. The leader should prepare hers/his views, critique and
questions and is expected to act as moderator. Below are questions that are designed to help in preparing
for the discussion leader and core paper presenter role. a) What are the fundamental phenomena and
problems that the perspective addresses? b) What kind of phenomena and/or problems are the individual
authors concerned with describing and/or explaining? c) What are the key ideas and concepts? How are
they related? d) If empirical: What kind of data was collected? What method was used? e) What
assumptions are made? (With regard to human behavior and other circumstances and regarding method.)
f) What are the major contributions in terms of descriptions; conceptual framework; new findings; and
theoretical explanations? For whom is the knowledge generated of value? (Constituency: Researchers,
managers, policymakers, etc.) g) What are the major weaknesses of the perspective/paper? How might
they be addressed?
2. Core Paper Presenter (~20%) Each participant will be a core paper presenter for one paper per
seminar. It involves a maximum five minute presentation and a „literature card consisting of maximum two
pages submitted no later than one week before the seminar meets to all participants and Marie
(marie.tsujita@hhs.se, not Patrick). Please see the questions above to help in preparing the „literature
card and presentation.
3. Final Term Paper (~50%) Each student submits a term paper at the end of the course (maximum 25
pages, double spaced, font 12, and normal 1 inch margins). Develop a research paper based on the
readings, preferably suitable for submission to an academic conference (or a draft for such a paper). You
will need to begin thinking about your term paper early in the course. Please feel free to discuss your
ideas with me whenever you are ready to do so in conjunction with the seminar (normally right after the
seminar). Describe a strategy and organizations problem relevant to scholars (and practitioners) in
strategy and organization. Based on the course reading discuss theoretical perspectives that address your
research problem. Revise your research problem if you find that it has already been addressed in previous
research. Derive main arguments and claims or areas for investigations that relate to your research
problem (if possible, formulate them in terms of propositions/hypotheses). How does your study contribute
to knowledge in the area? Revise your ideas based on the discussions in the course.
Your paper should include a problem definition, contribution, theory and some type of claims/hypotheses,
description of your research design, the data required, methods used to collect (and analyze) the data and
possible conclusions. Please note that you need to analyze and discuss a sufficient amount of the papers
included in the course. If you for some reason do not find any way (seems very unlikely) to integrate
sufficient amount of the literature (in depth analysis of one perspective/seminar or a more general
discussion of all) you can provide an introductory section (“kappa”) with a more comprehensive discussion
and evaluation of the readings (not a summary). For those of you that take only one module (I or II) the
requirements for the final paper are the same as above, but the maximum number of pages are limited to
Papers should be sent to Marie (marie.tsujita@hhs.se, not Patrick). Please note that it might be possible
that your final paper (and/or core paper) presentation will have to be revised after my review. Preliminary
seminars Seminar I (Inaugural meeting; 1h) – Course/Module Overview – Requirements/Assignments –
Introduction to Strategic Management Seminar II (3h) A. Market Power & Collusion/IO Perspectives B.
Resource Based View (RBV) C. Routines/Dynamic Capabilities View Seminar III (3h) A. Strategy
Formulation & Corporate Strategy B. Strategy Process C. Strategy as Practice Seminar IV (3h) A. Cognitive
Perspectives B. Strategy Origins and Dynamics: Content & Process C. Other Seminar V (3-5h; depending
on group size) Brief final paper presentations and discussions.
• The field of strategic management
Within the evolving science of strategic organization: The strategic management field has matured over
the last decade and is now at a critical point in its development. This essay suggests a direction for how
the field can evolve by outlining an integrative research and teaching agenda that we hope inspires
scholars in our field. There are significant challenges and risks in front of us. A tip of the iceberg is that
students now rank poorly their strategic management courses at several top business schools, which
through much of the 1980s and early 1990s typically earned exceptional teaching ratings. At present,
business students at many schools seem to prefer topics such as entrepreneurship, technology
management and corporate finance. In a few instances, departments that had once been dedicated to
strategic management have folded.
Even in schools where strategic management courses are strong, the curriculum may not be entirely up-
to-date. The number of strategy journals and other research outlets with top-tier impact has not increased
as fast as needed (in part because of reputation lags at new journals), and thus strategy researchers
compete for limited slots available in research publication outlets that will count significantly in promotion
and tenure decisions.

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Our critics come from other corners as well. Managers often criticize strategic management scholarship for
being unnecessarily theoretical and dissociated from the real problems of strategy. While practitioners
often find useful our research in change management and the strategy development process, many other
frameworks are not part of the regular practice of management but are the special province of
consultants.

• Scholars in the root disciplines of our field


Often criticize strategic management research for insufficient grounding in theory.2 The strategic
management field has a relatively weak voice in the formulation of public policy, perhaps because we have
not focused sufficiently on the important implications of our insights for managers in government and
other non-profit domains (Barney, 2005).3 We have been accused of encouraging our business students
into the behaviors that led to recent ethics and accounting failures in large firms such as Enron, Tyco and
WorldCom. Perhaps most important, those of us committed to scholarship in the field increasingly have an
unsettling sense that we are not working on the most important strategic issues of our time. In sum, the
number and intensity of constituencies discontented with strategic management seems to be rising and
should not be ignored.
There are also some major accomplishments worth celebrating. Research in strategic management has
improved general understanding of major issues in the resource-allocation process – from analysis to
diagnosis to strategy formulation to implementation. Strategic management faculties have trained a
generation of BAs, MBAs and working managers, and have had a central and substantial influence on
strategic thinking and the practice of management. We have developed important theoretical insights
concerning practical strategic issues such as vertical integration, diversification and managing the multi-
business enterprise both home and abroad.
The central message of this essay is that strategic management scholars (including the two of us) should
raise our aspirations. We need to move ahead with the confidence and authority to have the kind of
meaningful impact envisioned when strategic management emerged as a distinct field years ago. This
essay reflects this view, as it also reflects on opportunities for the strategic management field to confront
new issues with integrative theory concerning strategic organization. In addition, the strategic
management field will benefit from a renewed focus on important phenomena and new pedagogy that
builds on our heritage of innovation. Taking on these opportunities now is crucial for revitalizing the
intellectual base and agenda of the field, for understanding the heterogeneous performance of institutions
and markets, and for re-establishing and increasing creative complementarities between teaching and
research. The opportunity today is to generate new integrative theory based on the empirically validated
insights that we have obtained over the past several decades. This new integrative theory emphasizes
property rights and carries implications for the strategic organization of both institutions and markets. By
tripping off a new cycle of integrative knowledge creation and scientific discovery about the strategic
organization of both institutions and markets, the strategic management field will better serve the needs
of students, executives, scholars (including those in the social-science disciplines) and society.

• Genesis of strategic management


The field of strategic management emerged mainly during the 1970s and early 1980s from the social and
administrative sciences, primarily because of interest among both practitioners and students in analytically
grounded and focused heuristics for understanding the principles driving organizations to sustained
superior performance (for an excellent review, see Hoskisson et al., 1999).
The central aim of our field is to explain and predict the performance of organizations, and particularly
firms, as distinct from the performance of markets, individuals and economies. In this article, we maintain
that the findings from our research to date indicate that firm performance is substantially embedded in the
performance of markets and other institutions. Our principal audiences are managers and managers-to-be,
whom we try to reach both pedagogically and practically, and other academics in the social sciences,
whom we seek for legitimacy and influence. We want to add policy-makers and managers in a range of
other institutions to this list. Explaining organizational performance requires both theory – to define
organizations, performance, their interrelationships, etc. – and empirical analysis. We call specifically for a
broadening of the research and teaching agenda to ‘strategic organization’, an approach that considers
simultaneously the purposeful action of individuals in shaping both institutions and markets.
From the inception of strategic management, one important antecedent field – business policy – offered
the ‘big picture’ on firm performance differences, but that big picture derived mainly from field-based
methods rather than the crosssectional analytics of the social sciences. The detailed theory building and
empirics of the social sciences produced insights on organizations and performance, but were often
relatively narrow and difficult to translate into action by general managers with broad responsibilities for
resource allocation (Bower and Gilbert, 2005, Shanley and Peteraf, 2007).

42
The increased financial valuations of companies since the 1980s make both the pragmatic and scholarly
agenda of strategic management of explaining firm performance more compelling today than ever. Yet we
have also established that firm performance cannot be explained and predicted independently from
relevant markets and supporting institutions. As the strategic management field evolved, we have had to
defend its distinction from root disciplines and traditions while (sometimes privately) worrying about the
quality of our theory and methodologies and about the comprehensiveness and accuracy of our empirics.
Both of your authors have been called into deans’ offices and attended business school retreats to
articulate fully the character and contributions of strategic management, and we typically found ourselves
defending our field to colleagues as an important, rigorous, and distinct field of study with its own theory,
methods and empirics. Both of your authors also admit to feeling relieved (especially during the early part
of the 1990s) when we were successful in the argument.
The necessary defensiveness of earlier times is turning into a liability. For the strategic management field
to flourish, we need to become more cohesive and boldly inspiring rather than defensive, rigid and timid.
The field must connect to and embrace new theory, methods and empirics from other social and
administrative sciences, and make them relevant to students, managers and other stakeholders. In
particular, we have much to learn from the fields of anthropology, history, political science, social
psychology and sociology, and much to gain from collaborations with colleagues in these disciplines as well
as those in entrepreneurship, finance, organizational behavior, information sciences, and technology
management. Through collaborations with scholars in these fields, we can generate new knowledge and
systematic original theory building.
Some of these connections are happening already: interdisciplinary research studies that achieve the
precise standards of each embedded discipline carry the potential to lead us toward important strategic
insights (Postrel and Rumelt, 1992). Much more research of this sort is needed. In this essay, we also
maintain that the core agenda of the field of strategic management be extended in several ways. The
approach we advocate emphasizes the complex challenges of managing diverse institutions regardless of
their formal contractual structure as firms, non-profits, or even public agencies. We also recommend
deeper, integrative treatment of the interplay between institutions and markets, each of which is a form of
strategic organization (Williamson, 1975, 1985). The perspective we advocate is that our constituents can
benefit from the insights we generate regarding how organizations of both types yield heterogeneous
performance.

• Develop new teaching materials and pedagogy to reinvigorate our courses


The first courses in strategic management, developed and implemented in leading business schools during
the 1970s and 1980s, were heralded for their pedagogical innovation and for their resonance with
students. Today, many of our strategic management courses are viewed as repositories of multiple
frameworks that are not tightly integrated and that are aging rapidly. In many of these courses, the macro
level of analysis is the industry rather than the country or the culture. Few of these courses emphasize a
long historical perspective. We need pedagogy that is innovative in both content and context, including
new course materials that demonstrate the breadth of strategic issues that we analyze and the depth of
our critical frameworks. Contextualism recognizes that there is a gap between universal theory and
concepts useful in a specific context, that is, useful to a specific manager, at a specific time, on a specific
issue.7 That said, we hasten to add that the recognition of boundaries and the limitations of knowledge do
not imply ad hoc approaches to problem solving.
Indeed, it is critical that the material that we teach (just as the research we produce) should add up to
something cohesive and integrative. The insights that emerge from course development ought to be both
valued and valuable. Michael Tushman of Harvard Business School often speaks about his experiences in
tying together research and teaching themes by working with managers in specialized educational
programs designed specifically for this purpose: translating scholarly insights from professors into practice,
and practical experiences from managers into scholarly insights for professors.8 Think of bringing the
same corroborative, resonant pedagogical approaches to MBA and undergraduate programs. And think of
the power of complementing this approach with a longer historical perspective.
Our central recommendations are as follows.
1. Creative approaches are needed.
2. We need to teach about important questions where managerial capability as well as strategic choice
matters.
3. We should teach about organizations and markets together.
4. Teaching assignments should be integrated with research assignments to increase their
complementarities.
5. Innovative curriculum designers and teachers should be recognized for their contributions in promotion
and tenure processes.

43
We want to be helpful and specific, without being restrictive, about how pedagogical innovation may
occur. With this objective in mind, we provide a few examples of pedagogical innovation to clarify the
kinds of improvements that we advocate. First, one facet of pedagogical innovation could involve
structured field experiences combined with integrative class discussions. Attempting such an integrative
educational experience should prove to be challenging and exciting for both instructors and their students.
Above, we refer to programs designed by Michael Tushman and his colleagues at Harvard Business School
for IBM that yield unprecedented insights for research because of the ways in which the frameworks are
tested and adapted based on their applicability in use. These programs are one example of integrative
pedagogy.
A third facet of pedagogical innovation involves developing modes of learning outside the traditional
teacher–student exchange. Peer review, peer-to-peer exchange and the cultivation of specialized student
expertise represent examples of this process. The provision of real-time feedback about student
comprehension through polling devices can greatly enhance even a traditional lecture because the
information allows the instructor to adjust the pace and emphasis of the lecture even as it is delivered.
The salient idea here is that the instructor is learning rather than only teaching in a classroom session.
Many other facets of pedagogical innovation are relevant, such as service projects, investigative travel and
new kinds of homework assignments, to name a few. Rather than comprehensiveness, we call for greater
creativity. Some of the lowest-hanging fruit in pedagogical innovation involves deploying more than one
tried technique simultaneously, for example, employing diverse media in integrative class discussions
based on field experiences (imagine a group of students making a short film about a difficult managerial
situation). The opportunities are likely to deepen if new theory and important phenomena are integrated
into the agenda of the strategic management field (imagine that the film is about the challenge of
managing an innovative public–private partnership in a setting of poverty).
The marketplace of ideas, like the marketplace for differentiated products and services, has its barriers to
entry and market frictions (Arrow, 1974). Academic programs, beginning at the undergraduate level and
certainly at the graduate level, typically inculcate students in ideas and techniques that are approved by
senior faculty. These insider instruments of control are accompanied by outside influences, such as
financial support for certain kinds of research and, to a lesser extent, certain kinds of teaching. As a
hypothesis, would a professor write (or assign) a case analysis that was critical of A. H. Robins’s handling
of the Dalkon Shield crisis if that professor is on the faculty of the university that received a substantial
endowment from the Robins family? Just as entrants in real-world product markets need to be tough,
strategic management researchers who are willing to ask important questions need to be toughminded
and to be prepared to field criticisms. Intellectual training is not sufficient to prepare scholars to reach
their full potential in the marketplace of ideas. Staving off the ‘slings and arrows of outrageous fortune’ (to
quote Shakespeare’s Hamlet) is also part of the deal if we are to avoid going along to get along.

• The impact of strategic management when introduced into UK local authorities.


This somewhat unusual setting for a managerial framework developed in the private sector has provided
an opportunity to pose some fundamental questions about the nature, role and purpose of strategic
management in what is an overtly political and democratic institution, led by locally elected councillors. As
a consequence, the arguments presented in this paper will have conceptual implications for researchers
and practitioners of strategic management in both the public and private sectors alike, and many of the
insights developed will have significance in western economies outside the UK. Indeed, it is argued that
strategic management is part of the broader international trend to minimise some important differences
which have existed between the two sectors. In particular, in Anglo-Saxon countries such as the US, the
UK, Australia and New Zealand, the values, practices and disciplines of the private sector appear to be
increasingly influential in restructuring and managing the public sphere.
The critical approach developed in the paper analyses strategic management from a sociological
perspective and, in so doing, seeks to inject some of the rigour and insight which traditional economic and
business policy approaches have so far failed to incorporate. As a result, strategic management remains in
the grip of classical thought and rational assumptions; about the nature of society, its organisations and
decision-making processes (Whittington 1993; Kay 1993). Although important sociological concepts such
as power and conflict have begun to catch the attention of mainstream strategy writers, they do not form
the basis of a radical and much needed reworking of the overall theoretical framework. Rather, these
powerful concepts appear almost as afterthoughts in stand alone chapters used to update ageing strategy
texts with insights into the politics, game playing and Machiavellian nature of everyday organisational life.
The incorporation of such insights suggests a growing realisation by both the current producers and
consumers of strategy literature that the theories of the last three decades are too simplistic to cope with
the complexities and contradictions faced when attempting to manage organisations and their
environments.

44
As a consequence, there is also a growing emphasis on issues of implementation, as strategy gurus advise
managers and students alike on practical issues ranging from the management of change and cultural
sensitivity to stakeholder mapping and political game playing. Although efforts to instil a sense of realism
into otherwise inadequate and naive conceptualisations of strategic management are to be welcomed,
recent attempts do not go nearly far enough. The paper will argue that despite the adoption of sociological
terms, the current literature on strategic management remains weak, providing only a partial explanation
of this complex and sophisticated social phenomenon. Because sociological concepts tend to be bolted on
as theoretical extras, they merely paper over the cracks in the existing strategy literature. For such
concepts to be meaningfully analysed requires considerable abstraction and a theoretical framework which
is capable of integrating different levels of analysis coherently. Critical perspectives developed within the
sociological tradition enable us to adopt such an approach and to locate organisations, managers and their
decisions within the wider constraints and contradictions of capitalism.

• Strategic Management: Utilizes the skills


This capstone course utilizes the skills, tools, and knowledge developed earlier in the graduate program to
explain the integrative functions of senior corporate management in long-range strategic planning and
decision making. The course focuses on the strategy development process in organizations and on how to
create sustainable competitive advantage. It includes the analysis of the strategic position of
organizations, strategic choices for the future and how to implement strategies. Topics are covered from a
general management perspective and include setting corporate goals and objectives, analyzing external
competitive environments, understanding business models, identifying strategy options, and designing
appropriate organization systems and structure for implementation of plans. International and e-business
issues are integrated throughout.

• Kingston Business School, UK


The core Strategic Management module is designed to further develop your understanding of the
processes of strategic management. As in Part 1, this takes a thematic approach that responds to topical
and live issues while addressing a number of key strategic issues that organisations encounter in their
relations with the wider business and public policy environment. Current themes are:
• leadership and professional development
• globalisation of markets, finance, production, information and technology
• corporate governance, social responsibility and sustainability
• management of change
• management consultancy
• entrepreneurship, intrapreneurship, creativity and innovation.
The Leadership and Professional Development programme which is designed to enable critical reflection on
your learning style and interpersonal skills, including team working and leadership. It's emphasis is on
career development and you also have the opportunity to concentrate on your particular interests through
the Electives and your MBA Project.

INDUCTION WEEK
BRIDGING STUDIES + INDUCTION: CORE SUBJECTS
• Information Management
• Managing Financial Resources
• Managing People & Organisations
• Business & Financial Environment
• Operations Management
• Marketing Management
• Strategic Management 1
INTERNATIONAL STUDY TRIP: CORE SUBJECTS
• Strategic Management 2
• Leadership & Professional Development
• Plus four elective subjects
EXAMINATION
• Kingston MBA Project
• Including Research Methods Workshops

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• Study of strategic management processes acts as a guide to formulate, implement, and evaluate
strategies more effectively in all kinds of profit and non-profit organisations
In economic terms, these resources (or factors of production) are all the natural, manufactured, and
human resources that are used in the production of goods or services. The process of strategic
management looks into the full set of decisions and actions required for an organization to achieve a long
term competitive position in the global environment. It examines the strategic decisions that determine the
future long-term direction and competitive position of an enterprise. Therefore, the study of strategic
management processes acts as a guide to formulate, implement, and evaluate strategies more effectively
in all kinds of profit and non-profit organisations. In a formal sense, strategic management may be
described as a process of identifying, choosing and implementing the most effective (profitable) means of
ensuring long-term compatibility between the internal skills and resources of an organization, and the
competitive, economic and social environments within which that organization operates. This, then, is
what strategic management is all about. As the unit is normally taken by students in the last semester of
study you are encouraged to bring to the course the insights and expertise you have gained in your prior
studies together with your own life experience – strategic management is an opportunity for you to bring
all of those resources to bear on beginning to deal with real world problems faced by organisations. In this
sense the unit will give you the opportunity to test the theories you have encountered so far with the
experiences of real world organisations. I welcome you to the unit and hope you find the material relevant
and thought-provoking.

• Journals and Periodicals Apart from books (Pace university: Lubin School of Business)
You will find it valuable to get into the practice of reading relevant articles from journals and periodicals
(including newspapers and magazines). Strategic Management Journal.
Books
Costain, H. (Ed.). 1998. Readings in strategic management. Sydney: Dryden.
Viljoen, J., & Dann, S. 2003. Strategic Management (4th ed). Frenchs Forest, Sydney: Prentice Hall
Wheelen, T.L., & Hunger, J.D. 2004. Strategic Management and Business Policy. Sydney: Prentice Hall
MBA: Management—Strategic Management
Preliminary Skill: 0 Credits
Foundation Core: 6–19 Credits
Professional Core: 15 Credits
Required Specialization Courses: (9)
MGT 637 Competitive Business Strategy (Core) 3
MGT 638 Corporate Diversification Strategy (Core) 3
MGT 646 Government Institutions and Business 3
Strategy (INB 600)
Specialization Electives: (6) Choose 2
MGT 627 Organization Theory (MBA 670) 3
MGT 630 Seminar in Strategic Management Issues 3
MGT 648 Environmental Issues (MBA 670) 3
MGT 650 Negotiation and Bargaining 3
MGT 675 Corporate Strategic Planning 3
MGT 678 Business Plan Development (MGT 632 or 637) 3
MGT 687 Advanced Topics in Management 3
MGT 689 Organization Development (MBA 670) 3
Breadth Electives (6)
Lubin 600 level, not MGT or MBA prefixed 6
Capstone: (3)
MBA 688 Business Strategy and Stakeholder Responsibility
Total Credits: 45–58

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• Marine Corps War College
Mission: The mission of the Marine Corps War College is to educate selected senior officers and civilians
for decision-making across the range of military operations in a joint, interagency, and multinational
environment.
Objective: Marine Corps War College graduates are prepared to assume senior leadership positions of
increasing complexity through the study of national military strategy, theater strategy and plans, and
military support to those strategies within the context of national security policies, decision-making,
objectives, and resources.
Educational Philosophy: The Marine Corps War College employs active adult teaching methods to provide a
professional educational experience where students are accountable to both the faculty and their peers for
their contribution. The small student body and low student-to-faculty ratio enhance this active learning
experience. Instructional methods and techniques include extensive reading, seminars, formal and
informal presentations, tutorials, case studies, research, writing, war games, decision exercises, and
examinations.
The College acknowledges that senior military and civilian leaders must complement competence in
national defense matters with an understanding of the political, economic, social, and informational
environments, which influence the formulation of national strategy. Domestic and international field study
travel provides opportunities to meet with senior government and civilian leaders who share responsibility
for formulating national policy and strategy. Integrated throughout the curriculum, such travel
complements the five core courses of the curriculum. This travel provides a global perspective and
framework upon which students can base their analysis, assessment, formulation, and application of
national and military strategy.
These active learning methods require diligence, self-discipline, and time for preparation and reflection.
Accordingly, well-planned professional study and preparation time (PSPT) is a vital aspect of the College’s
curriculum. PSPT is integrated throughout each academic course as time students may use to prepare for
each class.
Joint Professional Military Education (JPME)
Service Senior Level Colleges (SLC) focus on national military strategy as derived from national security
strategy and policy, and its impact on strategic leadership, force readiness, theater strategy and
campaigning. SLC subject matter is inherently a joint; JPME at this level focuses on the development of
joint attitudes and perspectives.
The Marine Corps War College achieved JPME Phase II certification during Academic Year 2005- 2006 and
was fully accredited in 2008-2009. This program of joint instruction addresses the seven primary learning
areas identified in the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Instruction 1800.01C, Officer Professional
Military Education Policy (OPMEP):
• National Security Strategy
• National Military Strategy and Organization
• Joint Warfare, Theater Strategy and Campaigning
• National and Joint Planning Systems and Processes
• Integration of Joint, Interagency, and Multinational Capabilities
• Information Operations, Command and Control, and Battlespace Awareness
• Joint Strategic Leadership Development
Degree
All MCWAR students who successfully complete the curriculum earn a regionally accredited Master of
Strategic Studies degree.
Program Goals
Overarching program goals of the College serve as a guideline for curriculum development and ensure the
curriculum meets the needs of the Nation. These goals are:
• Provide a top-level education that forms an encompassing and pragmatic intellectual foundation from
which to apply strategic, critical, and creative thinking and decision-making skills in the complex joint,
interagency, and global environments.
• Analyze, evaluate, and apply the relationships among policy and strategy; political, diplomatic,
informational, military, economic, cultural, and social forces; and the application of all forms of power
within the global context of national security.
• Develop skills in the employment of joint, interagency, and multinational forces to achieve national
objectives.

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• COURSE OVERVIEW : Course Description
This course is intended to provide participants with a range of analytical tools with which to assess the
value and nature of corporate strategies. To achieve these objectives, the course introduces participants to
the total view of the organization, its mission, goals, long-term prospects, and how it relates and interacts
with various actors and forces in its environment, concepts and practices of strategic analysis and strategy
formulation, both informal and explicitly planned, analysis of business environment and identification of
long term trends and change, competitive positioning with respect to rivals, aspects of strategic leadership
at top levels of organisations, and decision making under conditions of high uncertainty and ambiguity.
Learning Outcomes On completion of the course, students will:
• Develop knowledge & skills needed to conduct strategic analysis in a variety of industries and
competitive situations and, especially, to provide you with a stronger understanding of the competitive
challenges of a global market environment
• Gain hands on experience in crafting business strategy, reasoning carefully about strategic options, using
what-if analysis to evaluate action alternatives, and making sound strategic decisions.
• Enhance your capacity to think strategically about a company, its present business position, its long-term
direction, its resources and competitive capabilities, the caliber of its strategy, and its opportunities for
gaining sustainable competitive advantage.
• Acquaint with the managerial tasks associated with implementing and executing company strategies, drill
you in the range of actions managers can take to promote competent strategy execution, and give you
some confidence in being able to function effectively as part of a company’s strategy-implementing team.

Workload Students taking this course are expected to commit at least 8-10 hours a week; three contact
hours; 3 hour lecture and 6-7 hours working on Webct, group discussions and decision making in the Glo
Bus strategy game. During the course students should be prepared allocate at least about 6 additional
hours for the given case analysis which is a group work with one presentation per group. At least 6 hours
should be allocated for the development of the three year strategic plan for the company created in the
Glo Bus strategy simulation. In addition students are expected to commit at least 6 hours to read and
familiarise with the Glo Bus simulation and to take the two quizzes given. Course classification Transitional
Structure of the Course the course will be delivered as three hour seminar. Students will discuss
application of key strategic management concepts through case analysis and case presentations. Students
will gain skills of crafting and executing a strategy through the business decisions taken in running a global
company in the Glo Bus simulation. In addition, videos and case studies will be used during the three hour
seminar.

• Private Study The Course lends itself to discussion and analysis of practical case histories.
In the Course we shall use case studies to illustrate our studies of the growing body of theory in strategic
management. An important feature of the Course is an emphasis on perspective and developing one’s own
point of view. A key task is to identify which questions to ask rather than to seek answers to questions put
by someone else. Throughout the Course, in class analysis of cases, in deciding on topics for assignments,
and evaluating theoretical concepts, students must frame their own questions wherever possible. Case
discussions form an important part of the course. Students must come to class prepared to discuss the
case studies. During the Course teams will analyze aspects of case studies in workshops and report their
findings in class. During the teaching sessions we shall refer to various chapters in the Textbook. Students
are encouraged to read the indicated chapters before coming to the class. In addition students are
provided with the strategy game; Glo-Bus, based on a real world case of digital camera industry. This will
be used to illustrate various applications of strategy linked to the
text.(http://www.anu.edu.au/academicskills/).

• International Strategic Management


3 Course Overview
Synopsis Firms playing in the international and/or global market need to formulate company policies and
strategies that take account of the fact that they manufacture, serve, employ and market to or in countries
with different laws, different beliefs and different levels of socio-economic development compared to the
firm’s country of origin. This course provides a capstone course for the major in international business that
draws together the various theoretical concepts and strategies explored throughout the major in an
integrated and strategic manner with an orientation toward real life application and practice.

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The major topics that will be studied include international strategic planning and implementation in MNCs,
strategies for international competition, international market entry modes, international joint ventures and
strategic managements, organizational structure of MNCs, control in international operations, intra- and
inter-firm technology and knowledge management, cross-cultural communication and decision-making,
motivation and leadership in international management, international human resource management, and
international social and ethical responsibilities of firms.
Prerequisites To be advised by the course or program coordinator.
Structure of the Course: The classes on each teaching date will have a number of sessions conducting a
number of major activities, including:
(1) a lecture session with a focus on major subject topics and issues, and structured question discussion,
(2) on-line video case discussion session facilitated by the lecturer/tutor, and
(3) a case study presentation session by students on selected cases from the prescribed textbook as
specified in the Class Timetable. You are, therefore, required to study the selected textbook topics and
cases, and to prepare the answers for the discussion questions and be ready to ask and answer questions,
present your case study findings, and participate in class and on-line discussions and activities.
Enrolling in Tutorials Electronic Enrolment: Courses utilises the Electronic Tutorial Allocation (ETA)
software for tutorial enrolment online. The ETA software will be open for enrolment before Week 1 and
you are required to enrol in a specific seminar class before attending the class in week 1. The link to ETA
can be found in the header of the course’s web page. To maintain equity, ETA gives preference to the
days and times requested based on prompt enrolment. Once you are enrolled in a specific tutorial, the
course administrators require written permission from your lecturer to change your enrolment. Where
advised by teaching staff, ETA can be used to convey assessment results to students during the semester.
3.6 Course Websites The School of Management, Marketing and International Business utilises the
Internet to communicate with its students. Information such as assessment details, timetables,
examination notices and course materials are posted to the course website for the information of all
students. The course website can be located at:
http://cbe.anu.edu.au/courses/course.asp?code=BUSI3020 or on Wattle at http://wattle.anu.edu.au/ with
the title ‘BUSI3020 – International Strategic Management’.
It is the responsibility of each individual student to regularly visit the websites in order to remain informed
about the current administration of the course. Apart from the above mentioned uses, the websites are
further utilised to update students on changes to timetables, examinations and assessments as they occur.

• COURSE PURPOSE The strategic management process


It requires general managers to make creative decisions and demonstrate leadership when formulating
corporate strategy and organizing the firm’s resources to accomplish its goals and objectives; it also
demands mastering a body of analytical tools and using sound judgment. This course prepares you for a
responsible administrative position by dealing with organizations from a top-management point-of-view. It
teaches you to assess, formulate, and implement a unified, comprehensive, and integrated set of decisions
that attains organization purpose under constantly changing circumstances. As such, it intends to achieve
the following program objectives:
* Apply a systems view of the business enterprise including seeing the organization from different
stakeholder perspectives and applying an integrative approach to business issues;
* Able to think critically to address business challenges and opportunities including a variety of problem-
solving methods, decision-making models, and creative business solutions; and
* Develop business-related behavioral skills in order to work with others to start a successful career
including leadership, organizational, interpersonal, team, and life-long learning skills.

We assume you enter the course with:


* knowledge of the functional business areas of accounting, finance, human resources, information
systems, marketing, and operations;
* analytical skills such as statistics and economics, and the use of microcomputers;
* an appreciation for organization theories and behavioral concepts, including leadership,
entrepreneurship, structure, and culture; and
* an understanding of the nature of the modern business firm, its roles and responsibilities, and the
political, social, and technological environments which it is part of, both domestically and globally. We
expect you will leave the course able to analyze business problems and synthesize action plans. This
course should therefore help you to:
* accept your responsibilities as an organization member and leader, able to develop and share an
organization-al vision, and deal with a multitude of stakeholders;

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* appreciate the dynamics of industry competition;
* develop the resources, capabilities, and core competences that make a company successful in earning
and sustaining above-average returns;
* identify the conditions that promote or constrain intra- and inter-organization relations;
* become aware of the difficulties of designing and executing strategic change, particularly when
integrating strategy with finance, human resources, information technology, marketing, and operations;*
broaden your perspective, lengthen your horizon, and provide greater self-insight into your management
assumptions and personal principles;
* sharpen your skills in presenting analyses and plans of action, both orally and in writing; and
* realize that good decisions are typically a synthesis of the ideas of several people.

• LEARNING ASSESSMENT
You are being prepared for your career, which will require lots of hard work, research, collaboration,
critical thinking, and communication. My personal teaching philosophy is that since you have much to
offer, I create an environment where you as students can learn in your own unique ways in exchange for
your commitment to learn. I believe that education is a participant sport, not for spectators! The learning
process in this course is a result of mutual contributions, where you are responsible for your own learning.
To achieve our course objectives, it is critical you actively participate in meaningful discussions, debates,
and exchanging viewpoints. We do not engage in these to provide a definite answer but rather to be
aware of the issues and the various perspectives on them. My assessment of you will be based on your
demonstrating knowledge of the course materials in the case analyses, class contribution, simulation, and
final examination. The rationale for selecting the text, cases, readings, and simulation is to meet the
stated objectives. Hence, preparing, analyzing, and discussing cases will expose you to the major issues,
problems, challenges, frustrations, and (hopefully) realities in formulating and implementing organizational
strategy. You must prepare each case and contribute to the case discussions. The text material and HBR
articles (available on ERES) target executives and are designed to bridge the gap between cutting edge
research and practice. While corporate strategies are idiosyncratic, you should be able to apply generic
concepts to concrete companies and circumstances. The course Web site contains contemporary and
practical examples.

• Strategic Management in Public Organisations


Organisations, including government agencies, must create value through the actions of people. Public
policies are only ideas until they are implemented by real agencies facing real constraints. Managers have
the unique responsibility of coordinating workers and creating an environment in which they will
understand the work to be done, and learn to do it better and more efficiently. Managers use a variety of
tools to accomplish this task (for example, personnel policy, budgeting, production and operations
analysis).This course examines these tools in a series of case discussions and readings. This module is for
those interested in learning strategic management skills.

At the completion of this subject students should demonstrate their ability to:
1. Assess the nature of an industry’s strategic issues and the environment in which they are generated
2. Understand issues related to corporate level strategy.
3. Understand the nature of global strategy
4. Understand the importance of organizational structure in corporate strategy
5. Undertake a comprehensive strategic review of an organization and its strategic issues.

Individual sessions have there own objectives and these are outlined below:
Session 1; Approaches to strategy – the design school debate
What are the fundamental philosophies underlying strategic management?
In particular, to what extent is strategy a deliberate process, and to what extent is it emergent.
Session 2; Integration, Managements, and Diversification
Why do firms use integration strategies? In what circumstances are managements and diversified
portfolios useful? Assess the different aspects of integration. Explain corporate managements, their
benefits and limitations.
Session 3; Globalisation and global strategies
How do global teams operate in global affiliates? What are micromultinationals? What makes an industry a
candidate for globalisation, and how does that differ from internationalisation? Assess different strategic
aspects of globalization including an assessment of emerging Micro-multinationals.
Session 4; Strategy and structure

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What are the advantages and limitations of different structures? In what circumstances will one structure
be better than another? Review different structures, their central and decentralized capability. Assess
which structures match particular global strategies.
Session 5; Social Responsibility at the Corporate Level How can corporate social responsibility (CSR) be
applied? How do we link CSR to national and international communities? Review CSR and explain the key
benefits. Analyze how CSR intense firms outperform non-intense CSR firms.
Session 6; Strategic Control and Aligning strategy with organizational culture
Which aspect of corporate strategy should be measured? How will managers adapt culture and rewards to
match outcomes? Reflect on different aspects of strategic control. Apply various strategic control measures
to corporate strategy.
In the second half of the semester the focus will be on applying the strategic theory to the projects. Class
sessions will be a combination of review/revision, case study and project application. In addition to the
discipline-based learning objectives, all academic programs at Macquarie seek to develop students’ generic
skills in a range of areas. One of the aims of this unit is that students develop their skills in the following:
• Communication skills; Critical analysis skills;
• Problem-solving skills; Creative thinking skills.
• WHAT ARE THE PURPOSES OF HIGHER EDUCATION?
From the outset, it is necessary to understand what the purposes of higher education are. A clear
understanding will shape the responses of institutions and individuals to the need for strategic planning
and management. One definition that identified four purposes for higher education was offered by the
National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education in the United Kingdom, chaired by Sir Ron Dearing in
1997:
a) to inspire and enable individuals to develop their capabilities to the highest potential levels throughout
life, so that they grow intellectually, are well equipped for work, can contribute effectively to society, and
achieve personal fulfillment;
b) to increase knowledge and understanding for their own sake and to foster their application to the
benefit of the economy and society;
c) to serve the needs of an adaptable, sustainable, knowledge-based economy at local, regional, and
national levels;
d) to play a major part in shaping a democratic, civilized, inclusive society.
It is to achieve these ends that higher education has developed. These are common ideals, recognized
throughout the world.
To varying degrees, they provide the philosophical framework within which all institutions of higher
education operate. The full or partial fulfillment of these objectives provides the essential raison d’être for
universities, polytechnics, colleges, and other providers of higher education, and offers the backdrop
against which all effective planning and management of higher education must take place.
• Australian planning education courses
It needs to equip planners for international practice as well as local practice in the context of global issues
like climate change, urbanization and international migration. I would argue that there is an emerging
global consensus being developed through new global networks of planners and planning educators, who
largely agree on three imperatives for human settlements in the 21st century: environmental
sustainability, including migration of climate change-influenced hazards; reduction of gross inequalities of
health, income, and opportunity; and the development of local and global active citizenship and
involvement in decision making processes. Planning must re-invent itself, not only for the profession to
remain relevant, but because spatial planning matters. Planning education must also re-invent itself, to
train a new generation of professionals who can influence decisions on which rest nothing less than the
fate of the earth.
• Capstone course purpose
This course is one of two MBT (Management of Business and Technology) Capstone courses. As their
names imply, GBAT9113 Strategic Management of Business and Technology focuses on strategic
management, while GBAT9104 Management of Innovation and Technical Change focuses on innovation
and managing change. The main aim of the capstone courses is to enable graduates to synthesise all their
learning across the MBT Program, and to achieve a common understanding of the Master of Business &
Technology qualification. Regardless of the individual MBT pathway you have chosen, the capstone
courses will add significant value to your Masters degree by building on your knowledge and skills from a
range of disciplines (financial, legal, technological, etc) that may have been developed through your
previous MBT courses or prior study and professional experience.

51
As an MBT graduate, it is expected that you will be able to perform effectively at a high strategic level.
Business and technology are integral to MBT coursework, which seeks to address the significant influence
on strategic management practices, across the spectrum of both commercial and non-commercial
organisations, of the rapidly changing technological environment. The integration of business and
technology in your graduate business education will be reinforced via the two Capstone courses. It is
therefore strongly recommended that they be the final courses in your MBT studies.

• Course structure
Unit 1: Strategy in Modern Business Organisations, explores what strategic management is all about, how
technology impacts on strategic thinking in organisations, and the major approaches to strategic
management – planned and emergent. You will learn to recognise what contribution strategic
management offers the modern technology-driven organization and gain an appreciation of the key
principles that underpin modern strategic management. You will also examine the theoretical and practical
frameworks employed in considering, developing and managing strategy. You will learn to recognise the
wicked nature of some strategic problems and the importance of corporate social responsibility and
sustainability to modern strategic management.
Unit 2: The Strategic Management Process. As reflected by its title, in this Unit we will closely examine the
strategic management process. This means that we will look at the way in which strategic thinking is
developed, and how ultimately this will be captured and translated into a plan. You will gain an
understanding of the actions, processes and stages that are required in a modern organization to identify
strategic options, develop a strategic vision, understanding the corporate mission, create objectives and
strategies to turn the vision into action, and to implement and manage these effectively and sustainably.
Unit 3: Getting an understanding of the future: External Analysis and Scenario Development, explores the
way in which strategic managers must understand and analyze their organisation’s external environment –
the context or situation that must be considered when developing strategy. Typically, strategic
management involves three levels of analysis: the organisation’s macro-environment (the wider world
outside the organisation’s direct control); the sector, industry and market in which the organization
operates; and the organization itself. This Unit will focus on the first two levels; macro-environment and
industry/sector. It is from the forces in these external environments that the opportunities and threats to
the organisation’s strategic vision and sustainability are to be found. Using techniques such as scenario
development you will learn to identify what significant external issues present positive Opportunities or
negative Threats for the organization, how to identify strategic risks and develop contingencies for these
risks.
Unit 4: Building Competitive Advantage: Understanding capabilities and strengths in a strategic sense,
moves on from the external forces at work outside the organization to help us understand the internal
environment: the strengths, strategic capabilities, resources and assets available to create strategy. This
Unit looks at how to analyze the organization to identify its positive strategic resources and capabilities
(strengths) and its strategic deficiencies (weaknesses), and to understand how these strengths and
weaknesses – that are grounded in an organisation’s resources, capabilities and competencies – offer the
potential to develop competitive and strategic advantages that position the organization to survive, and
thrive.
Unit 5: Strategically agile organizations: Building an adaptive culture and capability, creates an
understanding of how modern organisations need to develop capacity and understanding of how to remain
agile, to be able to respond to changes in the environment quickly and appropriately. We now look further
into how strategic managers evaluate, select and manage the strategic opportunities and issues using
principles designed to sustain the organization over the long term. We then develop our skills and
processes for how strategic managers scan and understand the environment – to identify what issues are
emerging that they need to respond to. Using techniques like strategic gap analysis, strategic assumption
definition and the principles of agile and great organisations, we will develop our understanding of the
capabilities that agile strategic organisations possess and nurture.
Unit 6: Technology and Strategy. Understanding the impact of technology as an enabler of strategic and
competitive advantage is as vital to an effective strategic manager in the 21st century as understanding
finance, marketing, human resources and sustainability. Technology today is one of the key strategic
enablers and force multipliers that enable new businesses to emerge, smaller competitors to overtake
larger ones and national organisations to compete on the global stage. In this Unit, we will consider the
importance of technology in strategic thinking, and look at models of how technology is incorporated into
strategic thinking and planning. We will reflect on the question of what the organisation’s core
technologies are, try to gain an understanding of the impact of things like adoption cycles and technology
S-Curves, and how they can be applied to a strategic technological development.

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Unit 7: Innovation and New Product Development. Almost every business writer, commentator, policy
maker and reader of strategic management today recognises that innovation and the new products that
are frequently the outcome of innovation are amongst the most significant forms of strategic and
competitive advantage. In this Unit, we will explore the processes and practices that strategic managers
use to stimulate, manage and exploit innovation for strategic gain. We will also develop our understanding
of effective processes and practices for introducing new products, and for harnessing the output of an
organisation’s innovation. Being first to market with products and services that add value and provide
strategic advantage makes the investments in R&D and innovation worthwhile – when managed
effectively.
Unit 8: The Strategic Toolkit – A Range of Generic Strategic Options. While one of the key outputs that
strategic managers look for from analysis is strategic options, many strategies have been used successfully
before. Like the difference between an elite sportsperson and an eminent artist, the tools are common. It
is the finesse and skill with which they are used that makes the difference. In this Unit, we examine a
range of common strategy options such as merger/acquisition, integration, diversification, cost leadership,
differentiation and the like, and consider their suitability and the conditions under which they work best.
Unit 9: Strategic Management of Intellectual Capital and Knowledge. Like innovation and technology, the
forces of globalisation and the almost white-water-like turbulence of change in many organisations today,
one of the clear strategic differentiators and competencies to emerge has been harnessing intellectual
capital and knowledge. In this Unit, we will gain an understanding of just how intellectual capital offers
strategic advantages, how it needs to be managed effectively, how it can be created and how it can be
turned into the type of intellectual property that can be placed on the organisation’s balance sheet.
Unit 10: Multi-country Strategies: Competing and Operating in Multiple Markets, considers the unique
opportunities and challenges that arise from an organization looking to compete or operate in multiple
countries. We examine how the lowering of barriers has triggered many organisations to pursue multi-
country strategies and benefit from the attractiveness of new markets and manage the threat of new
competitors. We will look to gain a clearer understanding of how globalisation and the reduction in trade
barriers mean that sustainable organisations large and small are now competing on an international stage,
bringing into play a different set of conditions, a different way of thinking and some different strategic
practices and processes.
Unit 11: Implementation – the key to Strategic Success. Strategy most commonly fails not because of poor
planning or lack of strategic thinking and creativity, but because of the failure to implement it properly. If,
as Alexander Graham Bell opined, success is 1% inspiration and 99% perspiration, then implementation is
the essential 99%. Drawing heavily on concepts gained from many of your completed MBT courses, and
particularly from GBAT9101 Project Management, in this Unit we discuss how to convert good ideas into
actionable road maps, processes and practices to ensure that the strategies have the best chance of being
successful.
Unit 12: Recognizing and Engaging Key Strategic Stakeholders. Finally, we need to bring all the strategic
thinking together into something that we can convey effectively to the organisation’s major strategic
stakeholders in order to get them united to take the organization forward. We need to understand who the
critical stakeholders are, what impact their actions can have on the strategy and what they have at stake.
Whether you call it a roadmap, a plan or a blueprint, we need to document and, importantly, communicate
the strategy to these stakeholders in a way that generates alignment or compensates for their likely
responses. In this Unit, we consider the issues involved in doing this effectively and efficiently. We will also
consider the need for processes of strategic review. In conclusion, we step back and take an overview of
the range of issues covered in the course, and pull together a clear understanding of the role and practice
of the strategic management of business and technology.
• Indian & Bangladeshi Education Higher education
This is one of the crucial enablers for India & Bangladesh to become a powerhouse in offshoring. The
higher education and training system continues to be one of India’s strategic advantages together with a
large English-speaking population, a British-style legal system, and close ties to the English-speaking world
through both its colonial roots and the contact of its scientists and engineers with Western Europe and the
United States.
Higher Education: Its Development and Present Status Some excellent centers of higher education have
been created in India. The foremost and best known are the five Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT).
Other strong educational institutions include the Indian Institutes of Management (IIM), and the Indian
Institute of Science (IISc). There are other institutions of academic and research excellence which come
under the ambit of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). In addition to these public
sector institutions, the private sector has contributed the Indian Institute of Science, Tata Institute of
Fundamental Research, and the Birla Institute of Technology and Science among others.

53
• Syrategic Management Society (SMS) Special conference India
Jointly with the Indian School of Business (ISB), we are currently gearing up for a special conference to
take place in Hyderabad, India, December 12-14, 2008. After much preparation and anticipation, the
conference has shaped up to be an exciting event. Gaining a great deal of interest within India and
beyond its borders, the number of submissions and registrants far exceeded our initial expectations. The
more than 400 expected attendees have validated the time and efforts we have invested in this event.
The conference will include many of the ‘SMS staples’ that have come to be expected of our organization,
but will also include other aspects such as the ‘Deans’ Conclave,’ which adds a new and interesting
dynamic to the program.
PLENARY PANELS
The plenary panels will focus on innovations in business models, globalization challenges, and sourcing
innovations by multinational companies. In each panel, thoughtful industry captains moderated by a
leading scholar will reflect on state-of-the-art advances in strategy practice and identify new frontiers for
strategy research.
The focus of six plenary panels will be:
Innovation as Strategy — The Indian Story Globalization of India Inc.
Strategy and Leadership: India in the 21st Century Multinational Innovation in India
The Future of Business Education Strategic Management Society in India Forty PhD candidates were
selected and invited to participate in the Doctoral Consortium. The popularity of this part of the conference
made the selection process difficult, but also led to a well-rounded and diverse group of participants.
Housing accommodations, as well as a travel honorarium, will be provided to those selected, and was
made possible through funding from sponsors. The Doctoral Consortium is being co-chaired by Ram
Mudambi (Temple University), and Jasjit Singh (INSEAD), along with K Narayanan (IIT Bombay), and
Ravee Chittoor (IIM Calcutta). In addition to the work with doctoral students, we have invited junior
faculty in Strategic Management and associated areas to participate in the Faculty Development
Consortium, to be held as part of the Conference. As with the Doctoral Consortium, this was made
possible through the support of a sponsoring institution. The Faculty Consortium will be co-chaired by
Gerard George (Imperial College) and Phanish Puranam (London Business School).
• STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT: Objectives
The objectives of this course are to develop a holistic perspective of enterprise, critical from point of view
of the top executives.
Course Contents
• Introduction: Evolution, Meaning, Nature and Scope of Strategic Management;
• Dimensions of strategic decisions, Benefits of Strategic Management
• Strategic Management Process
• Strategy formulation
• Strategic Intent and Vision; -Defining & developing the organization mission -Assessing the
external environment – Remote & Operating Environment, Environmental forecasting -Industry
Analysis – Porter’s model -Internal analysis of the firm- Developing company profile, Concept of
Value Chain, Concept of Core Competence, Impact of Organisational Learning on Strategic
Management
• Formulating long-term objectives & grand strategies –
• § Qualities of long-term objectives -Meaning & Evaluation of Grand Strategies – Concentration,
Market Development, Product Development, Innovation, Vertical Integration, Horizontal
Integration (Merger & Acquisition), Joint Venture, Diversification – Concentric & Conglomerate,
Turnaround, Liquidation
• Selection of long-term objectives & grand strategy
• Strategic Analysis & Choice
• Strategic analysis at corporate level – BCG Matrix, GE nine-cell planning grid, Impact Matrix -
Grand strategy selection at business level – SWOT analysis - Factors determining strategic choice
• Strategy Implementation.
• Operationalizing the Strategy – Annual Objectives, Functional Strategies & Business
(Comprehensive) Policies
• Institutionalizing the strategy - Strategy and Structure; Leadership & Strategy, Impact of
Organisational Values & culture on Strategy;
• q Strategic Control
• Establishing strategic control
• Developing & Using Operational Control Systems
• q Strategic Management in an International Firm;
• q Strategy and Corporate Evolution in Indian Context.

54
Suggested Readings
1. Strategic Management by Pearce & Robinson
2. Business Policy by Azhar Kazmi
3. Strategic Management by Thompson & Strickland, TMH India
4. Competitive Advantage by Michael Porter, Free Press, New York
5. Competitive Strategy by Michael Porter, Free Press, New York

• BUSINESS POLICY & STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Objective:


In Bangladeshi university this course in Business Policy and Strategic Management is framed to help the
students to learn the concepts related to Business Policies and Strategic Management so as to understand
how a successful Business Policies and Strategies are framed at different levels of Management for
organizational success and smooth functioning of an organization in today’s dynamic environment.
I Introduction to Business Policy & Strategic Management: [9%]
- Definition, Concept, Objective and Significance
- The levels at which strategy operates
- Characteristic of Strategic Management
- An Overview: Strategic Management Process
- Concept of Strategic Decision Making
II Strategy Formulation: [20%]
- Understanding Strategic Intent: Vision, Mission, Business Definition, Goals and Objectives
- Concepts of Strategic Stretch, Leverage & Fit
- Environment Appraisal: Concept & Environmental Sector; PEST Analysis
- Organizational Appraisal: Concepts & Capability Factors ; Porter’s Value Chain Model
- Framework for developing Strategic Advantage
- SWOT Analysis as a Tool for assessing Organizational Capabilities and Environment Opportunities
- Type of Strategies: Corporate Level (Concept of Grand Strategies) , Business Level and
Functional Level.
- Guidelines for Crafting Successful Business Strategies
III Strategy Analysis and Choice: [22%]
- Corporate Level Strategy Analysis: BCG Matrix & GE 9 cell Matrix,
- Business Level Strategy Analysis: Life Cycle Analysis, Porter’s Five Forces of Industry Analysis
- Concept of Strategic Decision Making.
- Subjective Factors in Strategic Choice and Process of Strategic Choice
IV Strategy Implementation: [18 %]
- Interrelation Between Strategy Formulation and Implementation
- Aspects of Strategy Implementation
- An overview of Project, Procedural Implementation, Resource Allocation
- Structural Implementation: An overview of: Structural Consideration, Structure for Strategies.
- Behavioral Implementation: An overview of: Leadership, Corporate Culture, Corporate Politics
and Use of Power, Personal Values and Business Ethics.
- Functional /Operational Implementation: An overview of: Functional Strategies.
V Strategy Evaluation and Control : [13%]
- An Overview of Strategic Evaluation and Control
- Strategic Control and Operational Control
- Techniques for Strategic Evaluation and Control
- Role of Organizational Systems in Evaluation
- Mc Kinsey’s 7s Framework.
VI. Cases in Strategic Management: [18%]
- Minimum five cases encompassing the above topics to be analyzed and discussed in the class.
Cases to be incorporated in Question Paper.

Books Recommended
1. Business Policy & Strategic Management – Azhar Kazmi
2. Strategic Management, 12th Ed. – Concepts and Cases – Arthur A. Thompson Jr. and A.J.Strickland
3. Management Policy and Strategic Management (Concepts, Skills and Practices) – R.M.Shrivastava
4. Business Policy and Strategic Management – P.Subba Rao
5. Strategic Planning Formulation of Corporate Strategy - Ramaswamy
Note: Figures to the right indicates weightage for the concern topic in terms of marks as well as session
allotted.

55
• MBA : Strategic Management- Table of Contents
Section Unit Title Page
I Introduction, Definition, Meaning
I 1 Definition, Nature, Scope of Strategic Management
I 2 Defining Strategic Intent
I 3 Internal Appraisal Methods and Techniques
II Environmental Assessment and Corporate Strategy
II 4 Environmental Appraisal
II 5 Corporate Level Strategies
II 6 Business Level Strategies
III Strategic Choice and Implementation
III 7 Strategic Analysis and Choice
III 8 Strategy Implementation
III 9 Strategic Control and Operational Control
© Parameshwar P. Iyer 2006. Indian Institute of Science Bangalore – 560 012. India Successful strategy
formulation does not at all guarantee successful strategy implementation. Although inextricably
interdependent, strategy formulation and strategy implementations are characteristically different. In a
single word, strategy implementation means change. It is widely agreed that "the real work begins after
strategies are formulated." Successful strategy implementation requires support, discipline, motivation.,
and hard work from all managers and employees. It is sometimes frightening to think that a. single
individual can sabotage strategy-implementation efforts irreparably.
Formulating the right strategies is not enough, because managers and employees must be motivated to
implement those strategies. Management issues considered central to strategy implementation include
matching organizational structure with strategy, linking performance and pay to strategies, creating an
organizational climate conducive to change, managing political relationships, creating a strategy-supportive
culture, adapting production/operations processes, and managing human resources . Establishing annual
objectives, devising policies, and allocating resources are central strategy-implementation activities
common to all organizations. Depending on the size and type of organization, other management issues
could be equally important to successful strategy implementation.

• Strategic Management: A course designed to provide students with an integrative learning


That experience that will allow the student to develop strategic management knowledge and skills. The
course will draw upon many areas of study, and several qualitative and quantitative techniques will be
used to enable the student to understand theoretical concepts and to practice applications. Case studies,
field work and outside research will be some of the methodologies used in the study of this course.
Business Capstone Seminar is a capstone experience for senior-level students offering the opportunity to
demonstrate that they can integrate the Catholic Tradition with liberal studies education and professional
studies. Students must demonstrate understanding of the concepts of truth, ethics, justice, and
community and then must apply these abstract concepts to real-world business case studies. The
emphasis is on ethical decision-making and practice in business.

56
08. Implication
When researchers move from the bottom to the top of the pyramid in these three steps – observation,
categorization and association, and in so doing give us constructs, frameworks and models – they have
followed the inductive portion of the theory building process. Researchers can then get busy improving
these theories by cycling from the top down to the bottom of this pyramid in the deductive portion of the
cycle – seeking to “test” the hypotheses that had been inductively formulated. This most often is done by
exploring whether the same correlations exist between attributes and outcomes in a different set of data
than the data from which the hypothesized relationships were induced. When scholars test a theory on a
new data set (whether the data are numbers in a computer, or are field observations taken in a new
context), they sometimes find that the attributes of the phenomena in the new data do indeed correlate
with the outcomes as predicted. When this happens, this “test” confirms that the theory is of use under
the conditions or circumstances observed.
We will approach Strategic Management in four main ways:
1. Readings, group work, discussion, and lecture.
2. Analysis of case studies introducing actual strategic concerns of general
managers at different levels of firms’ structures.
3. Student consulting projects.
4. Reviewing recent, renowned books on Strategic Management and other cutting- edge
research.
• Implications for Course Design
Schools of management generally employ two methods of classroom instruction: case based and lecture-based
classes. These are descriptive categorizations of the phenomena. Attempts to assess which method of instruction is
associated with the best outcomes are fraught with anomaly. We suggest that there is a different, circumstance-based
categorization scheme that may constitute a better foundation of a theory of course design: Whether the instructor is
using the course to develop theory, or to help students practice the use of theory. When designing a course on a
subject about which normative theory has not yet emerged, designing the course to move up the inductive side of the
theory pyramid can be very productive.
For example, in 1998 Harvard Business School professor Kent Bowen decided to create a course on owning and
running small businesses, because many MBA graduates end up doing just that. Then discovering that little had been
written about how to run low-tech, slow-growth companies, he tackled the problem with an inductive course design.
He first wrote a series of cases that simply described what managers in these sorts of companies worry about and do.
The purpose of each case discussion was to help the professor and students to understand the phenomena
thoroughly. After a few classes, Bowen paused, and orchestrated a class discussion to define patterns in the
phenomena – to begin categorizing by type of company, type of manager, and type of problem. They next explored
the association between these types, and the outcomes of interest. This portion of Bowen’s course had an inductive
architecture that moved up the theory pyramid. Then armed with their preliminary body of theory, Bowen and his
students cycled down the deductive side of the pyramid to examine more companies in a broader range of
circumstances. This allowed them to discover things that their initial theories could not explain; and to improve their
constructs, refine their classification scheme, and improve their understanding of what causes what, and why.
A second circumstance is where well-researched theories pertaining to a field of management already
exist. In this situation, deductive course architecture can help professors improve the theories. For
example, Clayton Christensen’s case-based course, Building a Sustainable Enterprise, is designed
deductively. For each class, students read two documents – a paper that summarizes a normative theory
about a dimension of a general manager’s job, and a case about a company facing a problem that is
relevant to that theory. In class discussions, students then look through the lenses of the theory, to see if
it accurately explains what historically happened in the company. They also use the theory to discuss what
management actions will and will not lead to the desired outcomes, given the situation the company is in.
Students often discover an anomaly in these complicated cases that enables the class to revisit the
crispness of definitions, the categorization scheme, and the associated statement of causality.
Students follow this process, theory after theory, class after class, for the semester. In the process, the
theories are refined, and the students learn not just how to use theory, but how to improve it. As these
experiences suggest, the dichotomy that many see between teaching and research need not create
conflict. Professors who simply lecture have difficulty escaping this trade-off, of course. But for faculty who
are willing follow the process of theory building as they teach, it may be better to view developing and
teaching courses as course research. And there are two circumstances in which professors might find
themselves. When a body of theory has not yet coalesced, an inductive architecture is productive. When
useful theory already has emerged, then a deductive architecture can make sense. In both circumstances,
however, instructors whose interest is to build theory and help students learn how to use theory, can
harness the brainpower of their students by leading them through cycles up and down the theory-building
pyramid.

57
• Standards, assessments, and course requirements are not aligned to college.
Sixty-five percent of college professors do not believe high school standards prepare students for college,
perhaps because they believe standards cover too many topics without targeting the essential knowledge
and skills required for college readiness (ACT 2007a). High school assessments administered for state
accountability purposes often measure ninth- or tenth-grade level knowledge and skills and rarely ask
students to explain their reasoning or to apply knowledge to new situations, giving teachers and students
little useful feedback about college readiness (Callan, et al. 2006; Conley 2003). Furthermore, high school
course requirements are poorly aligned to college expectations, so that it is common for students to
graduate from high school without taking the right courses to get into college (Wagner 2006; Barth 2003).
This disconnect is particularly troubling because most students do not know what courses are required for
college admission (Venezia, et al. 2003).
Furthermore, few teachers have formal ways to inform their teaching with college expectations such as
up-to-date admission and placement information or access to systematic data on what college professors
expect students to know and be able to do (Venezia, et al. 2003; Callan, et al. 2006). Plus, due to the
large size of most high schools, a crowded and complex master schedule gives teachers scant time for
updating their content knowledge to a college level or for collaboration with colleagues to discuss how
students are progressing toward college readiness.

• Setting High Expectations


First, high school teachers must believe that all students can learn to high standards in order to help
them master a college preparatory curriculum. Teachers working with students of color especially need
high expectations; research shows that high school teachers tend to have lower expectations for students
in high-minority schools unless they have strong preparation for teaching there (MetLife 2001; Ladson-
Billings 1999). But beliefs are not enough. To maintain high expectations and deliver on them, teachers
need teaching skills that include the ability to make content accessible to a wide range of learners
(Darling-Hammond and Bransford 2005;Wenglinsky 2002).

Student work assignments must also set high expectations for students. In a 2005 study of higher
achieving and lower-achieving high schools, the Education Trust finds a gap in the rigor of assignments.
Teachers in higher-achieving high schools were much more likely to ask students to engage in college
preparatory activities like reading books, reading every day, completing reading-heavy assignments, and
participating in classroom discussion (Education Trust 2005). Learning to set high expectations for college
and assigning rigorous work should begin in teacher preparation programs in which candidates get their
first introduction to aligning curriculum with standards. However, high expectations are also absorbed from
fellow teachers and school leaders, in addition to springing from a teacher’s own attitudes (Chase 1991).

The key task for increasing the rigor of course work is for teachers to know their content at a college
level and to update that knowledge regularly. Research shows that secondary math and science
teachers with strong content knowledge make a greater impact on student learning; training in how to
teach that content knowledge is also beneficial (Walsh and Tracy 2004; Allen 2003; Monk 1994). Research
in other disciplines is spotty, but it stands to reason that teachers need the capacity to impart the “big
ideas” of each discipline to their students in a way that stretches students toward college readiness (Allen
2003; Presley and Gong 2005).
High school teachers also need to teach students thinking skills essential to each content area. Each
academic discipline has its own set of practices that define what good and bad thinking looks like for that
discipline (see Heller and Greenleaf 2007). For example, students in history class should not just memorize
facts like the causes of the Civil War; instead, they learn that history is about interpretation of events and
how to engage in that interpretation critically and responsibly. Research suggests that students learn more
when teachers use teaching methods that require students to apply appropriate disciplinary processes to
the subject matter they are learning (e.g., use of scientific inquiry) (Newman, et al. 1996; Lee, et al.
1995). High school students need to learn these ways of thinking in addition to the “big ideas” so they can
analyze and synthesize new knowledge once they get to college (ACT 2006d).
Teachers should first develop content knowledge and the capacity to teach disciplinary thinking skills in
their teacher preparation program. Ongoing professional development in the content area is also needed.
A chemistry teacher, for example, must keep pace with changing views of atomic structure and how
chemists practice their trade (Heller and Greenleaf 2007). To highlight the importance of content
knowledge in pre-service preparation, the American Association of Colleges of Teacher Education
developed profiles of preparation programs that prepare teachers with strong content knowledge in
science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields since policymakers have placed so much
emphasis on STEM (AACTE 2007).

58
Motivation is the key to learning in the upper grades, even more than in the earlier grades (National
Research Council 2004). Motivation may be particularly important for disadvantaged students for whom
college has not been presented as a real option (Irvine 1990). However, a focus on motivation should not
be separated from teaching students rigorous content and higher-order thinking skills. Instead, these skills
should be taught and modeled through the teaching of rigorous content (Center for Research on Learning
2001).

Decades of research in literacy and math reveal some motivation strategies that high school teachers
can learn in their preservice preparation and hone once in the classroom (National Research Council
2004). In terms of literacy, researchers have found that giving older students some choice in reading
materials is a helpful motivator, as is allowing adolescents to draw on their interests and abilities outside
of school to complete reading and writing tasks (Guthrie and Humenick 2004; Moje 2006). In general,
students are motivated when given tasks that are challenging but achievable and when given
opportunities to apply knowledge in real-world situations (National Research Council 2000). Students,
especially struggling students, need “scaffolded” support from teachers, such as having extensive
opportunities to practice and revise their work in response to feedback, so that they learn how to reach
high standards by applying purposeful effort over time (National Research Council 2000).

• Making Appropriate Teaching Assignments


It is fair to ask that students be taught by teachers who demonstrate subject matter competency and
knowledge of how to teach their content (Darling-Hammond 2006). However, teaching a subject for which
one is not trained (otherwise known as out-of-field teaching) is a significant problem in the upper grades,
particularly in math (Jerald 2002). On top of that challenge, high school teachers are most likely not to be
“highly qualified” as defined by NCLB2 (Stullich, et al. 2006). Both problems compound in low-performing
high schools, causing administrators difficulty in staffing classrooms with well-trained teachers. Only a
comprehensive approach to recruitment and retention will allow administrators to make appropriate
assignments so that students can learn college preparatory material from teachers trained in their
discipline.
On the supply side, high schools need a large pool of candidates to select from, including getting an early
jump in the hiring process to have the best shot at recruiting trained teachers. A 2003 study by the New
Teacher Project finds that the lengthy, bureaucratic hiring process in most districts discourages higher-
quality candidates, and they exit the process faster than lower-quality candidates (Levin and Quinn 2003).
High schools also need smart incentives to attract candidates with the right content knowledge for the
right classroom, and teaching struggling students must change from being a hazing period for rookies into
a rewarding challenge for veteran stars. Routinely, new teachers are given the most difficult assignments,
in the most struggling schools. If they are to use their knowledge and skills to prepare students for
college, then they will need a better transition into teaching, like induction, than the current sink or swim
model.

• Focusing Induction and Professional Development on College Readiness


If rigorous college preparatory teaching is the goal for high school teachers, then brand-new teachers will
need help in delivering content in ways that engage students, especially since new teachers are more
likely to work with poor and minority students (Peske and Haycock 2006). New teachers need
comprehensive induction support in their early years to keep them in the profession and to improve
their skills (Management for Excellent Education 2004). Unfortunately, high school teachers are less likely
than teachers in lower grades to receive induction (Ingersoll 2007). Since many new teachers wrestle with
what content to teach and how to teach it (Kauffman, et al. 2002), mentoring from an expert veteran in
the novice’s subject area is crucial to making induction work in a college-readiness setting (Management
for Excellent Education 2004). Moreover, the focus of high school induction should be on curriculum and
should include regularly scheduled common planning time with colleagues centering on students’ academic
growth toward college; otherwise, the induction may offer emotional support but is unlikely to improve
teaching skills (Education Trust 2005). For all the criticism of one-day disparate workshops that pass for
professional development, current practice remains largely incoherent and sporadic (NCES 2001). But
professional development is more effective and better promotes college readiness when it is delivered at
the school building and driven by clear goals, useful data, and teacher input.

59
The clear goal is to focus teaching on college readiness. Setting goals is usually achieved by strong
school leaders who set the tone and culture of a school and who ensure that professional development
keeps its eye on the prize: improved student learning and college preparation (NASSP 2004). Research
shows that school leaders must keep professional development focused on student learning so that
meeting time does not degenerate to procedural matters like the bell schedule or complaining about pep
rallies (Supovitz and Christman 2003). Helpful data comes not from a single test at the end of the year—
however important that assessment may be for accountability purposes—but from ongoing benchmark
assessments, aligned to college readiness standards and administered at regular intervals. The best
leaders carve out time for teachers to collaborate, and they gather them regularly to ask, “What are we
doing well, and how can we improve so that students learn more?” (NASSP 2004; Education Trust 2005).
From that point on, teacher input is needed because teachers themselves have much of the expertise
they need, and they can strategize about ways to improve instruction (Education Trust 2005). Teachers
may discover the need to update their content knowledge in certain areas or to home in on a certain
teaching strategy. Regardless, that decision is made with strong teacher input, driven by classroom data
on college readiness, rather than made by administrators isolated in the central office.
In this way, finding time in the master schedule and leveraging college readiness data become the means
to target and strengthen professional development at the high school level, rather than coming up with
money to send teachers to workshops.

• Recipe for Success: Improve Instruction and Improve Conditions


Setting the high goal of college readiness will require nothing less than an intensive, sustained effort to
reform high school teaching. Many positive reforms in some states and districts have led to raising high
school standards, aligning them with college expectations, and increasing course requirements for
graduation; such reforms must happen everywhere. But what also remains is to systematically increase
the rigor of instruction so that high school teaching is aligned with college expectations.
Policymakers must recognize the critical role teachers play in preparing students for college and must
ensure that teachers get the assistance and resources they need. Teachers, after all, are the ones who
make the greatest impact on students’ learning for college by setting high expectations, teaching rigorous
content and college preparatory skills, and motivating more students to set their sights on college. But
they also deserve, and must receive, the supports and conditions necessary for success—their own and
that of their students headed to college.

60
09. Concluding remarks
At the ending remarking that –
This paper began by suggesting the need for management education to be conducted in a different
learning environment. Essentially, a teaching style that is action-oriented, supportive of experiential
learning, problem-solving, project-based learning, creativity, and peer evaluation. The results so far
reinforce our commitment to this style of teaching. However, just as entrepreneurship is not easily
defined, neither are the motivations and expectations of students enrolling in the Entrepreneurship Major.
Given that popularity of strategic management at the University is likely to increase, the challenge remains
deliver a programme that is relevant to differing needs of students. This is a challenge that must be met
immediately to ensure the value of the energy and enthusiasm created through the delivery process spills
over into the Project Evaluation and planning unit.
Without students completing the requirements of this unit in a context relevant to them (i.e. baby
business, existing business, phantom business, or a bold graduation business venture), the outcomes
related to the programme may be diminished. It would seem an ongoing learning process awaits both the
developers of the programme and the students enrolled to identify desirable outcomes.

Strategic Management continued to be an important strategic alternative and means to strategic ends for
the various firms but there is need to understand the reason of failure and success. Management between
companies has long been a modus operandi in business. Until recently business managements were
exceptions to normal operations since they are formed to deal with specific objectives linked to product
development, market access, joint distribution, cross licensing, cross manufacturing etc. The significant
change in the business environment due to economic conditions, high cost, globalization of business and
increasing political control has changed the focus of management strategies to the point where they are
now becoming the rule rather than the exception. Most firms involved in international strategic
management/joint ventures are dealing with uncertain, changing environments and are frequently
operating in unfamiliar political environments. Mistakes in joint venturing are caused by poor judgment in
selection and identification of partner, poor management and negotiation. Firms form joint venture is to
reduce the risk and minimize the chance of making mistakes in uncertain environments but because of
misunderstanding of the role of each partner in building trust and relationship cause failure.
Difficulties arising from difference in management mission, goals and strategic objectives, information
sharing, investment decision, poor vision and poor chemistry between the corporation creating stress and
some times partners confront in power issues between them.
This paper has addressed the mistakes that firms experienced in strategic management. The nature of
these mistakes and the common causes are thoroughly discussed. The definition of strategic management
success varied among profitability, market access, technology, management stability and overall
performance. The mistakes and basic causes in managements are week partner selection, lack of vision,
unclear goals and objectives, mistrust, poor management and poor balance of power. Managing mistakes
in the context of strategic management is not easy but it can overcome in longer period. However it is
possible to learn from the mistakes of other firms and in the long run and will manage their strategic
management more effectively.

61
10. References
* Books:
` a. Arthur A. Thompson, Jr. A. J. Strickland; Strategic Management; (Concepts &
Cases) New Delhi, 13th edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. Ltd., Publishers,
Copyright @2003.
b. Charles W.L.Hill, Gareth R.Jones;(An Integrated Approach) New Delhi, 7th
edition, Houghton Mifflin Company Ltd., Publishers, Copyright @2007.
c. Kothari, C,R; Research Methodology; Methods of data collection, New Dhlhi,
Second edition, new age international (P) Ltd, Publishers, Copyright @2005.
d. Kothari, C,R; Research Methodology; Interpretation and Report writing, New
Dhlhi, Second edition, new age international (P) Ltd, Publishers, Copyright
@2005.
e. Mohiuddin, Muhammad; Business Communication; Types of reports; Published
by- Bijoy Roy, new age publications, second edition.

* Internet:
a) American University:
www.universityofcalifornia.edu:-----Syllabus of MBA PROGRAM
• http://www.universityofcalifornia.edu/admissions/pdf/ITU.pdf
• http://www.universityofcalifornia.edu/news/budgetmyths.pdf
• http://www.business.uc.edu/PDF/QAOM/QA711.pdf
• http://mot.berkeley.edu/Berkeley_Students/Students/Courses/Course_Descriptions/InnovEntreInfoTechSP09Syl.pdf
• http://www.servsig.org/Syllabi/Service_Operations_Management_Syllabi.pdf
• http://steveblank.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/spring-2009-mba-295f-syllabus1.pdf
• http://www.business.umt.edu/faculty/uhlenbruck/syllabus-MBA665-S08.doc
• http://shahu.unishivaji.ac.in/syllabus/commerce/MBA%20-New/af/MBA%20Cridit%20System%20Syllabus.pdf
• http://www.tu-harburg.de/education/master/download/intmaster_program.pdf
• http://www.u21global.edu.sg/portal/corporate/docs/PDAFS/690_v4.pdf
• http://shahu.unishivaji.ac.in/syllabus/commerce/MBA%20-New/af/MBA%20Cridit%20System%20Syllabus.pdf
• http://www.ud.ac.ae/mba/pdf/MBA%20%20PDF%20Files/Concentration%20Courses/International%20Business%20%26%
20Marketing%20(IBM)/MIBM%20715%20-%20International%20Marketing%20Strategies.pdf
• http://www.universityofcalifornia.edu/accountability/documents/accountabilityprofile09_uci.pdf
• http://www.universityofcalifornia.edu/diversity/documents/07-diversity_report.pdf
• http://www.robots.ox.ac.uk/~jwyoon/non-academic/MOT-programme.pdf
• http://www.extension.ucsb.edu/ip/L552W_UIP_Brochure.pdf
• http://www.allied.edu/documents/university-catalog/AAUUniversityCatalogV101-Part%20II-
AAUProgramsandCoursesCatalog.pdf
• http://worldscibooks.com/etextbook/6147/6147_intro.pdf
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www.unimelb.edu.au
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• http://www.business.illinois.edu/josephm/Publications/Mahoney%20and%20McGahan.pdfhttp://www.du.ac.in/course/sylla
bi/bcomhons.pdf
• http://www.educationdev.net/educationdev/Docs/Turkey_education_2.PDF
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• http://archive.ifla.org/IV/ifla74/papers/123-Kousha_Abdoli-en.pdf
• http://www.oulu.fi/intl/exchange_students/tatkkurssit.pdf
• http://www.tolani.org/tims/downloads/info_brochure.pdf
• http://executiveeducation.wharton.upenn.edu/resources/upload/senior-leadership-strategic-management.pdf
• http://www.hs-pforzheim.de/De-de/Wirtschaft-und-
Recht/Master/MBA_IM/Documents/MBA_IM_Brochure_2010_V1_01032010.pdf
• http://www.unesco.org/iiep/virtualuniversity/media/document/Ch2_Mason.pdf
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• http://www.saurashtrauniversity.edu/syllebus/013-MBA-2004.pdf
• http://www.iitd.ac.in/deptt/ms/fulltime/DMS%20Information%20Brochure.pdf
• http://www.sbim.in/SBIM_PGDM_Information_Brochure_2009_11.pdf
• http://www.unipune.ernet.in/stud_info/Syllabi/Faculty%20of%20Management/1.%20M.B.S.%20Syllabus.pdf
• http://www.kalvimalar.com/application_form/UNIVERSITYS/bharathiar_university/mba_application.pdf
• http://emba2.schulich.yorku.ca/pdf/EMBA%20Viewbook%20-%20updated%20Mar%2011%202010.pdf
• http://www.mfc.edu/2010.pdf
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www.annauniv.edu
• http://www.wu.ac.at/structure/en/about/publications/FolderMasterStrategy.pdf
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• http://www.latrobe.edu.au/scitecheng/students/documents/First-Year-Guide-FSTE-Bendigo.pdf
• http://www.ksrct.ac.in/admin/Banner_upload/1251520250MBA_Mandatory.pdf
• http://www.mcmaster.ca/graduate/GCPC/Business/may07_08.pdf
• http://www.ascilite.org.au/ajet/ajet25/kay.pdf
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• http://www.annamaria.edu/filestorage/fck/file/Bachelor%20Accelerated%20Business%20Overview.pdf
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30000/26726/folder/63728/Volume+4+Issue+1.FINAL.pdf

www.uohyd.ernet.in
• http://www.uohyd.ernet.in/academic/academic_outreach/centre_fo_distance_edu/PDF/Prospectus2010.pdf
• http://www.ipeindia.org/KenticoCMS/getdoc/cf37f134-e46f-4bb3-a6ad-6b753413886d/MBAPE-2009-12.aspx
• http://www.uohyd.ernet.in/pdf/Prospectus.pdf
• http://vishwavishwani.ac.in/Downloads/VVISM_Prospectus.pdf
• http://www.ifla.org/files/health-and-biosciences-libraries/newsletters/july-2009.pdf
• http://executiveeducation.wharton.upenn.edu/resources/upload/senior-leadership-strategic-management.pdf
• http://www.c3l.uni-oldenburg.de/cde/econ/readings/rumble92.pdf
• http://smsuoh.in/PROSPECTUS%202009-10.pdf

70
• http://www.mdx.ac.uk/Assets/Mauritius%20Brochure%20cover_15-02-10.pdf
• http://usacm.acm.org/globalizationreport/chapter7.pdf
• http://www.business.ku.edu/_FileLibrary/PageFile/1035/KU_Masters_viewbook.pdf
• http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/jul252009/157.pdf
• http://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/pdf/digest7e.pdf
• http://jpt.mohe.gov.my/PENGUMUMAN/MPM2010.pdf
• http://www.iimaalumni.org/n/front/home/pdffeb09/New%26Event.pdf
• http://www.indsearch.org/pdf/IndSearchNewsletter.pdf
• http://www.tapmi.edu.in/download/PGP%20Handbook%202009-2011.pdf
• http://www.ivey.uwo.ca/about/annual_report.pdf
• http://www.icai.org/resource_file/9579newsletter_august06.pdf
• http://specials.kenan-flagler.unc.edu/inexchange/dates/Documents/Biobook%20spring%20exch08.pdf
• http://www.ecch.com/uploads/ECCHO35.pdf
• http://www.infodev.org/en/Document.627.pdf
• http://www.wider.unu.edu/publications/working-papers/research-papers/2009/en_GB/rp2009-
52/_files/82435123739820318/default/RP2009-52.pdf

www.caluniv.ac.in
• http://www.caluniv.ac.in/academic/home_sc_crs.pdf
• http://www.iimcal.ac.in/Overseas%20write_up.pdf
• http://www.mbmcu.org/broucher_web.pdf
• http://www.vidyasagar.ac.in/admission/pdf/MBA%20BROCHURE%2009-11.pdf
• http://www.vidyasagar.ac.in/admission/pdf/MBA%20BROCHURE%2008.pdf
• http://www.hhl.de/fileadmin/texte/abt-hochschulmarketing/Broschueren/ftMBAbrochure.pdf
• http://strategicmanagement.net/pdfs/NEWSLETTER2009W.pdf
• http://www.ciber.gatech.edu/workingpaper/2003/04-014.pdf
• http://www.iah.org.au/pdfs/march_03.pdf
• http://www.basis.wisc.edu/documents/Weather_Insurance_proposal.pdf
• http://usasbe.org/conference/2010/USASBE2010Program-web.pdf
• http://www.umanitoba.ca/institutes/natural_resources/pdf/NRI%20Newsletter,%20Sept%202006.pdf
• http://www.unesco.org/iiep/virtualuniversity/media/document/Ch13_NetVarsity_Mitra.pdf
• http://www.financialexpress.com/download.php?fileName=IIM-KOZIKODHE.pdf
• http://www.ugc.ac.in/financialsupport/xiplan/upe290409.pdf
• http://www.iimaalumni.org/n/front/home/pdffeb09/New%26Event.pdf
• http://www.iift.edu/iift/IIFT_Profile.pdf
• http://ec.europa.eu/education/programmes/mundus/doc/india.pdf
• http://www.icai.org/resource_file/9579newsletter_august06.pdf
• http://www.esamion.com/pdf/book_of_abstracts.pdf
• http://www.uohyd.ernet.in/pdf/Prospectus.pdf
• http://www.unipune.ernet.in/stud_info/Syllabi/Faculty%20of%20Commerce/4.%20M.Com%20Syllabus.pdf
• http://tripuraemployment.nic.in/PublicationActivities/MBA%20Courses/MBACourses.pdf
• http://www.thurgoodmarshallfund.net/v1/images/pdf/hbcurecruitmentstudy.pdf
• http://vlsi-india.org/vsi/download/publications/vsi-vision-vol3-1.pdf
• http://www.ubs.puchd.ac.in/pdf/ubs-placement-brochure-2008-2010.pdf
• http://www.ifla.org/VII/s23/bulletin/set-bulletin_jan2009.pdf
• http://www.xiss.ac.in/Xiss_RD.pdf
• http://www.iiml.ac.in/pdf/CAT07_Bulletin.pdf

mum.digitaluniversity.ac
• http://www.iitk.ac.in/infocell/announce/convention/papers/Strategy%20Learning-02-Juha%20Kettunen.pdf
• http://www.curaj.ac.in/cp.pdf
• http://www.nmims.edu/images/SBM%20Prospectus_2010.pdf
• http://www.albany.edu/faculty/miesing/teaching/glostrat.pdf
• http://www.pearsonvueindia.com/nmat/sbm%20prospectus_2010.pdf
• http://www.mfc.edu/2010.pdf
• http://www.pace.edu/Lubin/WFO/images/bpc/2009/2009PaceBusinessPlanCompetitionProgram.pdf
• http://mgmt.iisc.ernet.in/~piyer/MB%20401%20Strategic%20Management%20Syllabus%2026-01-2006.pdf
• http://www.unipune.ernet.in/UPMPC/Vision%202020-UoP.pdf
• http://www.imsrindia.com/new%20IMSR%20Prospectus%202008.pdf
• http://fletcher.tufts.edu/admissions/catalog_bulletin/connection-09.pdf
• http://www.ugc.ac.in/pub/report/10.pdf
• http://www.esmu.be/attachments/102_university_enterprise_report.pdf
• http://www.hrcollege.edu/web/images/HRC_Prospectus_degree_Revised.pdf
• http://www.universitylane.com/uploads/prospects/College_Handbook_(09-10)_5.pdf
• http://international.curtin.edu.au/documents/researchatcurtin.pdf
• http://www.ciber.gatech.edu/workingpaper/2003/04-014.pdf
• http://shahu.unishivaji.ac.in/syllabus/commerce/MBA%20-New/af/MBA%20Cridit%20System%20Syllabus.pdf
• http://www.ubs.puchd.ac.in/pdf/ubs-placement-brochure-2008-2010.pdf
• http://www.manpower.se/Uploaded/39AB33159C0D4A48ACDFBB6A924D059F.pdf
• http://www.rizvicollege.com/rizcolasc/prospectus2003-2004.pdf
• http://www.universityofcalicut.info/syl/MBA%20Regulation.pdf
• http://conocimiento.incae.edu/ES/biblioteca/recursos-servicios/historia-incae/INCAE-Background.pdf
• http://www.minocw.nl/documenten/StrategicAgenda.pdf
• http://www.met.edu/LC/MET/METNews/Vol3/MET%20NEWS3.pdf

71
e) Bangladeshi University
www.iub.edu.bd
• http://www.sb.iub.edu.bd/my_internship_report_Body_2.pdf
• http://www.sb.iub.edu.bd/Sabreen_Khan_0510157_Summer2009.pdf
• http://www.cdmp.org.bd/reports/QPR%202009%202nd%20%20Apr-Jun%20EC%2026-08-09.pdf
• http://www.undp.org.bd/library/reports/UNDP%20-
%20BANGLADESH%20MIGRATION%20AND%20REMITTANCES%20080120.pdf
• http://www.secbd.org/Propectus-SAPL.pdf
• http://www.banbeis.gov.bd/report/report.pdf
• http://www.bids.org.bd/files/biennial%20_2006-2008.pdf
• http://dspace.icddrb.org/dspace/bitstream/123456789/1081/1/ICDDRBProtocol-1995-006.pdf
• http://www.csebd.com/cse/download/InformationOCL.pdf
• http://www.bcpsbd.org/Journal/BCPS%20J%20May%2007.pdf
• http://www.fri.gov.bd/images/report/BFRI_AR_03-05.pdf
• http://iom.org.bd/publications/6.pdf
• http://www.unesco.org/iiep/PDF/pubs/Bangladesh.pdf
• http://www.hypersciences.org/IJISTE/Iss.1-2010/IJISTE-6-1-2010.pdf
• http://ciber.msu.edu/Research/books/StudyAbroadRoundtableBooklet.pdf
• http://www.col.org/SiteCollectionDocuments/03Transnational_Bangladesh.pdf
• http://www.sb.iub.edu.bd/Internship_Report_by_Fatima.pdf
• http://www.saciwaters.org/pdfs/Consolidated_Education_Study_Report.pdf
• http://www.wbiconpro.com/24%5B1%5D.Khaled.pdf
• http://www.hedprogram.org/Portals/0/PDFs/South%20Asia%20Impact%20Report.8.09.pdf
• http://www.iub.edu.bd/ftp/Admission_Form.pdf
• http://www.sb.iub.edu.bd/corporate_grooming_2010.pdf
• http://www.iub.edu.bd/CV_SESM/Tooheen,%20Rahat%20Bari_CV_Jan%2022-09%20(1).pdf
• http://centers.iub.edu.bd/chpd/Pres_Sem-Floodland_Paul%20Thompson_Sep%2006-07.pdf
• http://www.dnet.org.bd/KP_Files/KP_e-Waste_Research_Paper_first_6_pages.pdf
• http://www.bracuniversity.net/I%26S/sph/directory/nasima.selim/Nasima_full_CV_181108.pdf
• http://www.iccitbd.net/ICCIT2009%20Program%20Schedule.pdf
• http://www.devstud-udhaka.ac.bd/cv/Tamanna%20Afreen%20Rimi.pdf
• http://www.igs-bracu.ac.bd/UserFiles/File/CV%20BU.pdf
• http://www.cpd.org.bd/pub_attach/DR95.pdf
• http://www.istt.edu.bd/pdf/research/msi.pdf
• http://www.cpd-bangladesh.org/activities/tpa/Papers/WTOworkshop_binder.pdf
• http://www.lab-bd.org/Lab%20Webside%20Develop.%206.4.09/LAB%20ELECTION%202009.%2017.3.09.pdf
• http://www.lib.iub.edu.bd/new/Sept05.pdf
• http://www.iub.edu.bd/CV_SESM/Huq,%20Nafisa_CV_Feb%201-09.pdf

www.northsouth.edu
• http://nsupc.org/downloads/IIUPE%2007%20brochere.pdf
• http://nsupc.org/downloads/IIUPE%2007%20Catalogue.pdf
• http://www.ergonline.org/ifc/document/mou_with_NSU.pdf
• http://www.igs-bracu.ac.bd/UserFiles/File/archive_file/IGS%20Annual%20Report.pdf
• http://www.northsouth.edu/pdf/MBA_adm_form.pdf
• http://www.banbeis.gov.bd/report/report.doc
• http://biggani.com/files_of_biggani/mashiur/interview/resume_dr_awal.pdf
• http://www.bangladeshstudies.org/files/WPS_no1-rev2.pdf
• http://www.cpd.org.bd/pub_attach/DR-93.pdf
• http://www.cpd.org.bd/pub_attach/DR-44.pdf
• http://www.undp.org.bd/publications/Beyond%20Hartals.pdf
• http://www.ewubd.edu/ewu/downloadfile/crt/abstract2007.pdf
• http://corp.cellbazaar.com/images/international/MIT_Innovations_CellBazaar.pdf
• http://www.dhakachamber.com/Bulletin/CurrentLIB04.PDF
• http://www.banbeis.gov.bd/report/report.pdf
• http://www.sb.iub.edu.bd/internship/autumn2005/0220175.pdf
• http://www.prismbd.org/Hospital%20waste%20management%202005-05-25.pdf
• http://www.lcgbangladesh.org/PovertyIssues/reports/CARE%20-
%20Literature%20Review%20on%20Extreme%20Poverty.pdf
• http://www.northsouth.edu/html/mrem.pdf
• http://biggani.com/files_of_biggani/mashiur/interview/resume_dr_awal.pdf
• http://dspace.bracu.ac.bd/bitstream/10361/151/1/Annual%20report%202006.pdf
• http://cms.orcausa.org/Documents/1/Span_35_TMT_Jul11-03.pdf
• http://home.orcausa.org/CMS/Documents/1/Span_31_November_2001.pdf
• http://www.lcgbangladesh.org/pages/Directory%20of%20Dev%20Org.pdf
• http://www.banbeis.gov.bd/report/report.pdf
• http://cms.orcausa.org/Documents/1/Span_28_1999.pdf
• http://nsupc.org/downloads/IIUPE%2007%20brochere.pdf
• http://www.nsucc.org/download/events/cyber%20athletics/2005.pdf
• http://mppg-nsu.org/attachments/049_5-B-MPPG_newsletter_2.pdf
• http://www.nsucc.org/download/events/softfair/2005.pdf
• http://historyofeconomics.org/ConferenceArchive/2004program.pdf
• http://www.international.ac.uk/resources/ROLE%20OF%20PRIVATE%20UNIVERSITIES%20IN%20HUMAN%20RESOURCE
%20Development%20in%20Bangladesh.pdf

72
• http://siu.no/en/content/download/8878/92283/file/42%20MAST%20IN%20PUBLIC%20POLICY%20AND%20GOVERNANC
E.pdf
• http://www.iza.org/en/webcontent/personnel/vitae/nargis_cv.pdf
• http://www.myeducationbd.com/index.php?view=article&catid=53%3Aprivate-university&id=65%3Anorth-south-
university-mrem-admission-in-fall-2009&format=pdf&option=com_content&Itemid=80
• http://www.sandeeonline.org/research_and_training_workshop/4th_research_training/participants_list.pdf
• http://spctoday.com/cv/cv.spc.oct09.pdf
• http://www.nsucdc.com/Members_list_of101.pdf
• http://www.napsipag-research.org/pdf/M_SHAMSUR_RAHMAN.pdf
• http://www.linguistics.illinois.edu/alumni/matesol/documents/Fall98.pdf
• http://www.wpro.who.int/NR/rdonlyres/BC8EF043-2346-4DA9-828A-BFB93293FCDD/0/Bangladesh.pdf
• http://www.warpo.gov.bd/newsletter/Newsletter%2010d.pdf

www.iiuc.ac.bd
• http://www.greenbangladesh.com/images/hrm_challenge.pdf
• http://www.iiuc.ac.bd/Programs/BEEE/syllabus.pdf
• http://www.iiucdc.org/Doc/MBA_Faculty_Manual_2008.pdf
• http://www.iiucdc.org/Doc/Internship_Report_MBA/Report%20IBBL.pdf
• http://www.mission-alnoor.org/Images_publ/UPDATED-RESUME-APRIL-2010.pdf
• http://ddms.usim.edu.my/bitstream/handle/123456789/1934/Problems%20and%20Prospects%20of%20Bangladesh%20Isl
amic%20Library%20Network.pdf?sequence=1
• http://lib.iiu.edu.my/resources/howto/SIS_BusMgmt.pdf
• http://www1.nefafoundation.org/miscellaneous/nefambnetherlands1207.pdf
• http://www.ib-ts.org/spring2008/IJMP_1_2_2008.pdf
• http://www.su.ait.ac.th/docs/106batch.pdf
• http://www.col.org/SiteCollectionDocuments/03Transnational_Bangladesh.pdf
• http://www.iiuc.ac.bd/Programs/BEEE/syllabus.pdf
• http://www.ib-ts.org/spring2008/IJMP_1_2_2008.pdf
• http://www.unesco.org/iiep/PDF/pubs/Bangladesh.pdf

University of Dhaka (DU)


• http://dspace.icddrb.org/dspace/bitstream/123456789/2616/1/Teaching+health+social+science,+bangladesh+case+study,
96.pdf
• http://www.iawe.org/WRDRR_Bangladesh/PPT/S2CDMP.pdf
• http://informingscience.org/proceedings/IS2002Proceedings/papers/Burge086stude.pdf
• http://www.bibm-bd.org/EMBM.pdf
• http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/prospectus/llb_prospectus.pdf
• http://circle.ubc.ca/bitstream/handle/2429/10023/Session%20Abstracts%20and%20Proposals.pdf?sequence=4
• http://www.diit.info/NCC-Newsletter.pdf
• http://www.ballarat.edu.au/vco/legal/acboard/Course_Documents/Course_Documents/2009/AdvancedDiplomaofCommerce
.pdf
• http://etd.uwc.ac.za/usrfiles/modules/etd/docs/etd_gen8Srv25Nme4_9398_1182223698.pdf
• http://www.cemca.org/newsletter/Mar2009/Mar2009.pdf
• http://www.britishcouncil.org/gg3_main_prog_all.pdf
• http://cdcs-biz.com/Image/WISE%20-%20Paper.pdf
• http://www.bim.org.bd/html/Full_AP_2009-10.pdf
• http://www.psu.edu.sa/mba/MBA-Handbook-2007.pdf
• http://www.eropa.org.ph/conferences/TRIPTYCH/PHIL2008_program_finalpdf.pdf
• http://www.iiep.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/pdf/jane01.pdf
• http://www.unisa.edu.au/businessres/docs/ColloquiumProgram2008.pdf
• http://www.itc.nl/PDF/ITC%20News/2001-1.pdf
• http://vi.unctad.org/files/vimeet/2006meeting/cd1/documents/viprogress.PDF
• http://www.iau-aiu.net/conferences/Mexico2009/pdf/GMA_Booklet.pdf
• http://siteresources.worldbank.org/BANGLADESHEXTN/Resources/295759-1182963268987/dhakaurbanreport.pdf
• http://www.buseco.monash.edu.au/mkt/news/2009/year-book-2008.pdf
• http://www.iist.unu.edu/newrh/III/1/docs/techreports/report234.pdf
• http://www.du.ac.in/du/departments.pdf

Chittagong University (CU)


• http://www.col.org/forum/PCFpapers/mamun.pdf
• http://www.dfid.stir.ac.uk/dfid/sufer/sufer2.pdf
• http://www.bup.edu.bd/download/prospectus_BBA_2009_2010.pdf
• http://www.math.upd.edu.ph/imamis/files/KLSchool07SciRep.pdf
• http://socrates.aucc.ca/_pdf/english/publications/recruitment-guidebook_e.pdf
• http://coe.berkeley.edu/forefront/images/fall2002.pdf
• http://www.adamsmith.edu/Adam_Smith_University_Catalog_2008-2010.pdf
• http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/files/55595/11999600665Bangladesh.pdf/Bangladesh.pdf
• http://www2.surrey.ac.uk/about/corporate/documents/university_of_surrey_review_2009.pdf
• http://www.cu-portland.edu/alumni/news/documents/CU_Connection_Summer08_FINAL_080731lowres.pdf
• http://www.du.ac.in/du/college07.pdf
• http://www.aku.edu/Admissions/pdfs/AKU_Prospectus_2008.pdf
• http://www.mendaki.org.sg/Policy%20Digest%2008.pdf

73
11. Further research

We think if getting times for searching and learn more to build strategic thinking & support about this
topic. In the context of globalization of world economy and increase in competition the firm can mutually
benefited in many ways if they can successfully use the management strategy. Every year number of firms
entering into strategic management with an objective to achieve and fulfill their corporate goals but
unfortunately management breaks before they achieve their desire goals. The future scope of research in
strategic management is now wide due to large number of firms relying on cooperative strategy and
strategy management becomes network of management due to involvement of so many firms.

This network is very prominent in industries like information technology and technology related industries
and maintaining relationship with so many firms is not only challenging but also difficult. Success and
failure of this management both in short-run and in the long run depends on how effectively firms will
manage their relationship. This paper has many research implications particularly in issues relating to
identification and evaluation of right partner for collaboration, Strategic management, management
negotiation and conflicts in strategic management.

Though there are many issues and factors responsible for success and failure of management but some of
these issues are discussed thoroughly in the context of strategic management and the application. The
findings of this paper will help the corporate managers to understand the crux of strategic managements
and in academics it will be very useful in learning and understanding the theory of strategic management
and the application in corporate world.

74
12. Data
EVALUATION OF CONSULTING PROJECT GROUP PRESENTATIONS

Topic: __________________________________________________________________

Group Members: ____________________________________________________________

∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ The Presentation is worth 100 points, allocated as follows: ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗


1. Analysis and ideas were presented in an interesting manner (e.g., audio visual aids
were used effectively to support/highlight main points; props were used effectively, etc.).
Points:
___
Excellent Good Satisfactory Poor Unacceptable
(20-18) (17-16) (15-14) (13-12) (11 or less)

2. The presentation was delivered in a professional manner (e.g., presenters wore


appropriate business attire, made frequent eye contact with the audience, exhibited
enthusiasm for the topic, did not read their presentation or stumble for words, handled
questions concisely and knowledgeably). Points:
___
Excellent Good Satisfactory Poor Unacceptable
(20-18) (17-16) (15-14) (13-12) (11 or less)

3. The presentation was clear and well organized and met the time requirements
(e.g., appropriate introductions of team, topic, and overview of presentation; the sections of
the presentation did not duplicate content; the presentation appeared as an integrated whole
- not a series of individual reports).
Points:
___
Excellent Good Satisfactory Poor Unacceptable
(20-18) (17-16) (15-14) (13-12) (11 or less)
4. The presentation contributed to our understanding of businesses and their
environments by providing sound strategic analysis and insight (e.g., all and only
relevant information was provided, various forms of evidence were used, techniques of
strategic analysis were applied, strategy concepts were employed to find solutions and
suggest ways of implementation). Points:
___
Excellent Good Satisfactory Poor Unacceptable
(20-18) (17-16) (15-14) (13-12) (11 or less)

5. Critical thinking was evident (the analysis, conclusions, and suggestions showed logically
consistent thinking and were characterized by judging and synthesizing). Points:
___
Excellent Good Satisfactory Poor Unacceptable
(20-18) (17-16) (15-14) (13-12) (11 or less)

Point Total: ______

75
University of Texas at Dallas / EMBA Strategic Management
Prof. Mike Peng (Fall 2009 – Spring 2010)

Course BPS 6310 Strategic Management (EMBA)


Professor Mike Peng, Provost’s Distinguished Professor
Term Fall 2009 – Spring 2010
Meetings Per EMBA office instructions
Professor’s Contact Information
Office Phone (972) 883-2714
Other Phone (972) 883-4276 (Teresa Kruse, instructional support)
Office Location SOM 4.404
Email Address mikepeng@utdallas.edu / tkruse@utdallas.edu
Office Hours By appointment
Other Information Please check Blackboard periodically. For logistics, please email Teresa
General Course Information
Pre-requisites, Corequisites, & other restrictions , Current enrollment in the EMBA program
Course Description
This course focuses on the strategic challenges confronting firms that compete in the global economy. A
firm’s strategy is its “theory” of how to gain competitive advantage and compete successfully in the
marketplace. Strategic management is the process that managers, especially executives, develop and
implement a firm’s strategy. Our objective is to have an enhanced understanding of the most fundamental
question in strategic management: What determines the success and failure of companies around
the world?
Learning Outcomes
Positioned in the heart of the EMBA curriculum (both content- and timing-wise), this course directly
contributes to the core mission of our EMBA program— fostering an executive mindset. It helps you
develop the following perspectives:
A strategic perspective: We will help you develop a firm-level policy formulation and implementation
orientation, as opposed to a functional, project-level focus found in other tactical courses. Our first key
word, naturally, is strategic.
An analytical perspective: Develop an ability to draw on three leading perspectives in strategy—
namely, industry-, resource-, and institution-based views—to perform deep analysis underpinning strategic
decisions.
A business-as-a-system perspective: Develop a deep understanding of the interconnectedness of
internal organizational components and external environment elements on a worldwide basis.
Globalization, business ethics, corporate governance, and social responsibility are crucial components of
this perspective.
A worldly perspective: Our second key word is global. A hallmark of this course is that it is not US-
centric. In addition to studying US-based firms, in case studies, we will be investigating organizations
headquartered in Britain, China, Israel, South Africa, and Spain doing business in a variety of host
countries around the globe. We will be studying a global market-leading textbooks studied by your
competitors in over 30 countries.
A managing-for-change perspective: The only constant in the global economy seems to be change.
As EMBA students, you will need to embrace and take advantage of change. Such change is often fostered
by debates. We will be engaging in a series of cutting-edge debates. Debates are both exciting yet
uncertain. It is imperative that you be knowledgeable about different sides of these debates, form your
own views, and be prepared to embrace change unleashed by these debates.
Of course, we will also help you develop a collaborative-leader perspective as outlined in the EMBA mission
statement. But most courses do that, so that will not be a point of our differentiation here.
Course Policies: Grading (credit)
Criteria:Participation 40%
Two (2) one-page individual papers (20%)
Two on debates/ethics OR one on a case (not assigned to your group) + one on a debate/ethics issue
Contributions to class discussions (20%)
Team presentation on a debate based on a case 20% Term project: One (1) ten-page group case write-
up 40%
Total 100%
Two Individual 1- Page Papers (both on debates/ethics OR
one on a case + one on a debate/ethics issue)

76
Stylistic requirements are:
Typed, and cannot exceed one page, with one inch margin on four sides of the paper. If you have
performed extensive outside research (such as most recent Internet posting), you may attach one page as
an appendix, which can only be a direct printout or a spreadsheet but cannot be your write-up;
You may present your paper in paragraph form, in which case single space is allowed, or in outline
form as bullet points;
The font size cannot be smaller than 10 (I am using “times new roman” 10 point now);
Submit a hardcopy at the beginning of the class, in addition to Blackboard submission;
While you may form study groups to discuss these questions, the position paper should be written
strictly on an individual basis.

One-Page Paper(s) on Ethics and/or Debates:


Most textbooks present knowledge “as is” and ignore the fact that the field has numerous inconclusive but
important debates. Every chapter of the Global Strategy text—now a global market leader—has
a section on “Debates and Extensions,” some of which have significant ethical dimensions (see also the
critical discussion questions on ethics in every chapter). Pick any one debate/ethical dilemma to write one
or two one-page papers (single-spaced, no cover page please).
You need to both summarize the debate/ethical dilemma (less than ½ page), and answer the question:
How does the assigned chapter/reading help you understand and participate in the debate?
For example, between two contrasting positions A and B, you had always intuitively supported A (before
taking the class). Now you find assigned readings to intellectually support your support for A. Or, despite
your initial belief in A, through this course, you now support B. Tell us why.

This assignment is to be done on an individual basis. A hardcopy is required at the beginning of the class
when this debate is discussed, in addition to Blackboard submission.
As an expert on certain debates, please be prepared to participate in these debates in class. Of
course, I expect everybody to have read these debates and be able to participate. But I may call on the
experts, those who write the papers on these debates, to add more to our discussion.

One-Page Paper(s) on a Case: Given the space constraints, you will be better served if you focus on one
or two discussion questions in this paper. Please don’t attempt to answer all discussion questions in this 1-
page paper. Please select a case not assigned to your group for presentation.
Team Presentation on a Debate based on a Case
As a group, you will present a debate based on a case. It will normally be presented after the lecture is
over but before the class discussion begins. You will have 15 minutes and 6 slides. Slide 1 is the
mandatory title slide, with all names and emails. So you really only have 5 slides. Use Slides 2 and 3 to
summarize the case, and use Slides 4 and 5 to illustrate how the case illustrates a debate. It is not
mandatory that all members of the group present the case.
Please note that the key is not to be comprehensive. The case discussion, after your presentation
involving the entire class, will be comprehensive. Do not attempt to summarize the entire case in Slides 2
and 3. Only summarize the relevant information. Please make your slides readable—you will lose
points if classmates sitting in the back row cannot read the slides you present. Although case discussion
questions are helpful, do not attempt to answer them all. The key here is to focus on one debate (as
suggested).
You choose the most effective format to present the debate. One possibility is to have team member 1
present side A, team member 2 present side B, and then team member 3 play the role of
moderator/reconciler. Alternatively, the entire team can represent side A, and engage the rest of the class
as side B. Please prepare one hardcopy handout (6 slides printed on 1 sheet) for the professor. Please do
not email ahead of time—nobody has that kind of time to open, print, and bring your handout to class.

TERM PROJECT:Ten-Page Case, Write-Up


This is a group-based exercise (1) to write your own case study (6-8 pages) and (2) to write your own
case analysis (2-4 pages)—for a combined total of 10 pages excluding the title page and any
attachments, such as figures, tables, appendix, and references.
Your guiding question is: "How to solve a strategic problem in global strategy?" The first part will
be a case study focusing on a hard-to-tackle strategic problem.
Examples include: (1) How to profit from the global recession? (2) How to divorce from our JV partner
while minimizing the damage to our interests and reputation? (3) How to govern a newly acquired foreign
company? (4) How to deal with some ethical dilemmas? Make sure you use question marks (?).

77
Try to follow the format of the cases that we study during the term, give enough details on the
background of the firm, and focus on a difficult decision. This part should take approximately 6-8 pages.
The second part will be your analysis and recommendations to these managers in terms of how to
proceed, which should take about 2-4 pages (similar to your case analysis mentioned earlier)—at least 1
page should be devoted to recommendations. All together, the ideal length is 10 pages, excluding
attachments such as figures and tables. In terms of the attachments, please be reasonable. Under no
circumstances can the total report (all inclusive) exceed 20 pages—I will stop reading .
The best papers will show evidence of some investigative efforts—digging for more information,
interviews/phone calls/emails with managers—and of synthesis and careful editing. They will also be
insightful, going beyond the most obvious lessons to draw out the story behind the story.
The quality will be evaluated along content and process dimensions (60% and 40%, respectively). Careful
editing is expected. Simply “cut and paste” sections written by different coauthors will result in a very poor
grade. A complete list of the grading criteria—pay attention! Outside research is expected. Please
properly document your sources either in footnotes/endnotes or in APA format (that is, author name, year
format, such as [Peng, 2009]) with a reference list attached at the end of your work—Please see the
section on “Scholarly Professionalism and Citizenship” for more information.
One inch margins should be left on four sides of the paper, and the font size cannot be smaller than 10
(I am using “times new roman” 10 point now);
On the title page, everybody’s email is required;
Also on the title page, include a 1-paragraph, double-spaced executive summary (less than 100
words);
Double space your main text (references and tables can use single space)
There is no length limitation about attachments (e.g., graphs, tables, and references). But be
professional and reasonable.
Each group will give a presentation to the rest of the class on the last day of class with no more than 12
slides (slide 1 will be a required title page with names and emails). In addition to the presentation, the
following items are required for submission on the presentation day:
One page handout (6 slides per sheet, printed on both sides of the paper, with one physical sheet) to
both the professor and everybody else in the class (we have a total of 40 students)
One hardcopy of the paper to give to the professor
Softcopies of Word and PowerPoint files submitted to Blackboard Normally, everybody in the group gets
the same grade. However, if there is any significant free rider, please file a complaint against this
individual—the form is posted on Blackboard. Your complaint will be stronger if there are other members
in your group who also file their complaints. I will investigate and talk to that individual. Therefore,
anonymous complaint cannot be entertained. You will have to report your name, and your name will be
revealed to the person who you complain about. Please note this complaint mechanism is totally optional,
and I hope none will need to use it.

Class Participation
Since the course is built almost exclusively around the case method, attendance and participation are very
important and required of each student. As in the real world, the cases are rich in detail, yet open-ended
and incomplete at the same time. Therefore, do not approach a case as you would a book chapter or a
magazine article. In order to derive maximum benefit from the case method, it is essential that you
mentally "get inside" the case. Class participation will be graded based on the subjective assessment of
the professor.

Given the extensive group-based work and the high-caliber of the students, my previous experience
suggested that this is likely to be a key area of differentiation in your final grade. Please note that you will
not earn full mark for “class participation” if you simply show up.
"Dos" for Case Discussions
Keep an open mind
Relate outside experience
Be provocative and constructive
"Don'ts" for Case Discussions
Do not make sudden topic changes; recognize the flow of discussion
Do not repeat yourself and others
Do not "cut" others to "score points"
Remember it is the quality of your participation, not the quantity (or “air time”), that will lead to good
performance in class discussion. The following criteria are employed:

78
Excellent class participation: The student consistently attends class, consistently contributes to case
discussions, and consistently demonstrates superior understanding and insights
Good class participation: The student consistently attends class, consistently contributes to case
discussions, and occasionally demonstrates superior understanding and insights
Mediocre class participation: The student inconsistently attends class, inconsistently contributes to case
discussions, and rarely demonstrates superior understanding and insights. Make-up Exams No: Extra
Credit No;Late Work Late written assignment will be downgraded by 10% every business day

Special Assignments
For all papers, both hardcopies and Blackboard submissions will be required. That is, please submit all
written homework via Blackboard. In addition, please also print out a hardcopy and deliver to me in-
person, in-class. If you are unable to deliver the hardcopy in-person, in-class, please ask a classmate to
print out a hardcopy for you and give to me on your behalf.
Academic Professionalism and Citizenship
You are expected to exhibit the highest level of professionalism and courtesy in and out of class.
Minimum behavioral expectations include:
Turn off cell phones, beepers, and pagers while in class
Arrive punctually to class (if you have to be late in arrival or to depart early, please find a seat closer to
the door in a non-disruptive manner)
More seriously, please be aware that anyone who commits an act of scholastic dishonesty is subject to
disciplinary actions. Given that this course is writingintensive, the primary concern is plagiarism—defined
as not giving credit to others’ work and representing such work as one’s own. Operationally, if words are
copied verbatim, they must be placed in quotation marks and properly documented—either in footnotes or
in (name, year) format (such as [Peng, 2009] for my book) with a reference list at the end of your work.
Direct quotes should also provide a page number. Quotation marks and page numbers are not necessary
when you paraphrase someone else’s work using your own words. Nevertheless, you should still give
credit to the origin of these ideas. Failure to do so consists of plagiarism. For an example of adequate
documentation of sources, see end-of-chapter Notes sections after each chapter in my book. See also
http://www.utdallas.edu/student/slife/dishonesty.html-NOTES from the Bureaucracy Your mastery of
the following notes will be tested during a pop quiz—just kidding!
Student Conduct and Discipline
The UT System and UTD have rules and regulations for the orderly and efficient conduct of their business.
It is the responsibility of each student and each student organization to be knowledgeable about the rules
and regulations which govern student conduct and activities. General information on student conduct and
discipline is contained in the UTD publication, A to Z Guide, which is provided to all registered students
each academic year.
UTD administers student discipline within the procedures of recognized and established due process.
Procedures are defined and described in the Rules and Regulations, Board of Regents, the University of
Texas System, Part 1, Chapter VI, Section 3, and in Title V, Rules on Student Services and Activities of the
university’s Handbook of Operating Procedures. Copies of these rules and regulations are available to
students in the Office of the Dean of Students, where staff members are available to assist students in
interpreting the rules and regulations (972/883-6391).
A student at the university neither loses the rights nor escapes the responsibilities of citizenship. He or she
is expected to obey federal, state, and local laws as well as the university regulations, and administrative
rules. Students are subject to discipline for violating the standards of conduct whether such conduct takes
place on or off campus, or whether civil or criminal penalties are also imposed for such conduct.
Academic Integrity
The faculty expects from its students a high level of responsibility and academic honesty. Because the
value of an academic degree depends upon the absolute integrity of the work done by the student for that
degree, it is imperative that a student demonstrate a high standard of individual honor in his or her
scholastic work.
Scholastic dishonesty includes, but is not limited to, statements, acts or omissions related to applications
for enrollment or the award of a degree, and/or the submission as one’s own work or material that is not
one’s own. As a general rule, scholastic dishonesty involves one of the following acts: cheating, plagiarism,
collusion and/or falsifying academic records. Students suspected of academic dishonesty are subject to
disciplinary proceedings. Plagiarism, especially from the web, from portions of papers for other classes,
and from any other source is unacceptable and will be dealt with under the university’s policy on
plagiarism (see general catalog for details). This course will use the resources of turnitin.com, which
searches the web for possible plagiarism and is over 90% effective.

79
Email Use
UTD recognizes the value and efficiency of communication between faculty/staff and students through
electronic mail. At the same time, email raises some issues concerning security and the identity of each
individual in an email exchange. The university encourages all official student email correspondence be
sent only to a student’s UTD email address and that faculty and staff consider email from students official
only if it originates from a UTD student account. This allows the university to maintain a high degree of
confidence in the identity of all individual corresponding and the security of the transmitted information.
UTD furnishes each student with a free email account that is to be used in all communication with
university personnel. The Department of Information Resources at UTD provides a method for students to
have their UTD mail forwarded to other accounts.

Withdrawal from Class


The administration of this institution has set deadlines for withdrawal of any college level courses. These
dates and times are published in that semester's course catalog. Administration procedures must be
followed. It is the student's responsibility to handle withdrawal requirements from any class. In other
words, I cannot drop or withdraw any student. You must do the proper paperwork to ensure that you will
not receive a final grade of "F" in a course if you choose not to attend the class once you are enrolled.

Student Grievance Procedures


Procedures for student grievances are found in Title V, Rules on Student Services and Activities, of the
university’s Handbook of Operating Procedures. In attempting to resolve any student grievance regarding
grades, evaluations, or other fulfillments of academic responsibility, it is the obligation of the student first
to make a serious effort to resolve the matter with the instructor, supervisor, administrator, or committee
with whom the grievance originates (hereafter called “the respondent”). Individual faculty members retain
primary responsibility for assigning grades and evaluations. If the matter cannot be resolved at that level,
the grievance must be submitted in writing to the respondent with a copy of the respondent’s School
Dean. If the matter is not resolved by the written response provided by the respondent, the student may
submit a written appeal to the School Dean. If the grievance is not resolved by the School Dean’s decision,
the student may make a written appeal to the Dean of Graduate or Undergraduate Education, and the
deal will appoint and convene an Academic Appeals Panel. The decision of the Academic Appeals Panel is
final. The results of the academic appeals process will be distributed to all involved parties. Copies of these
rules and regulations are available to students in the Office of the Dean of Students, where staff members
are available to assist students in interpreting the rules and regulations.

Incomplete Grades
As per university policy, incomplete grades will be granted only for work unavoidably missed at the
semester’s end and only if 70% of the course work has been completed. An incomplete grade must be
resolved within eight (8) weeks from the first day of the subsequent long semester. If the required work to
complete the course and to remove the incomplete grade is not submitted by the specified deadline, the
incomplete grade is changed automatically to a grade of F.

Disability Services
The goal of Disability Services is to provide students with disabilities educational opportunities equal to
those of their non-disabled peers. Disability Services is located in room 1.610 in the Student Union. Office
hours are Monday and Thursday, 8:30 a.m. to 6:30 p.m.; Tuesday and Wednesday, 8:30 a.m. to 7:30
p.m.; and Friday, 8:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. Please contact: UTD Office of Disability Services, SU 22
PO Box 830688, Richardson, Texas 75083-0688 (972) 883-2098 (voice or TTY) Essentially, the law
requires that colleges and universities make those reasonable adjustments necessary to eliminate
discrimination on the basis of disability. For example, it may be necessary to remove classroom
prohibitions against tape recorders or animals (in the case of dog guides) for students who are blind.
Occasionally an assignment requirement may be substituted (for example, a research paper versus an oral
presentation for a student who is hearing impaired). Classes enrolled students with mobility impairments
may have to be rescheduled in accessible facilities. The college or university may need to provide special
services such as registration, note taking, or mobility assistance.
It is the student’s responsibility to notify his or her professors of the need for such an accommodation.
Disability Services provides students with letters to present to faculty members to verify that the student
has a disability and needs accommodations. Individuals requiring special accommodation should contact
the professor after class or during office hours.

80
Religious Holy Days
UTD will excuse a student from class or other required activities for the travel to and observance of a
religious holy day for a religion whose places of worship are exempt from property tax under Section
11.20, Tax Code, Texas Code Annotated. The student is encouraged to notify the instructor or activity
sponsor as soon as possible regarding the absence, preferably in advance of the assignment. The student,
so excused, will be allowed to take the exam or complete the assignment within a reasonable time after
the absence: a period equal to the length of the absence, up to a maximum of one week. A student who
notifies the instructor and completes any missed exam or assignment may not be penalized for the
absence. A student who fails to complete the exam or assignment within the prescribed period may
receive a failing grade for that exam or assignment.
If a student or an instructor disagrees about the nature of the absence [i.e., for the purpose of observing
a religious holy day] or if there is similar disagreement about whether the student has been given a
reasonable time to complete any missed assignments or examinations, either the student or the instructor
may request a ruling from the chief executive officer of the institution, or his or her designee. The chief
executive officer or designee must take into account the legislative intent of TEC 51.911(b), and the
student and instructor will abide by the decision of the chief executive officer or designee.

Off-Campus Instruction and Course Activities


Off-campus, out-of-state, and foreign instruction and activities are subject to state law and University
policies and procedures regarding travel and risk-related activities. Information regarding these rules and
regulations may be found at http://www.utdallas.edu/BusinessAffairs/Travel_Risk_Activities.htm.
Additional information is available from the office of the school dean.

SM 1 Introduction / Ch 1: Strategizing around the globe


In-class exercise: What is your company’s strategy? What is its “official” mission statement?
Case: The Guns of August, 1914 (PACKET)
1. What exactly is strategy?
2. What were the main characteristics of the French and German strategies in 1914?
3. What were the strong points in these strategies? The weak points? What should have been done
differently? Why?
4. What principles of strategy do the success and failure of each side suggest?

SM 2 Ch 2: Managing industry competition


Case: Bookoff, Amazon Japan, and the Japanese bookselling industry
1. Why is the profitability of large Japanese retail booksellers relatively poor and their scale relatively
small?
2. The Saihan system serves as a price-fixing cartel to deter entry. This practice, often labeled as
“collusive” and “anticompetitive,” would be illegal in many other countries such as the United States. What
are the benefits for individual companies and the industry to participate in this system? What are the
costs? (You may want to consult Chapter 8)
3. Draw on the industry-, resource-, and institution-based views to explain the success of Bookoff and the
more mediocre performance of Amazon Japan. What is going to happen to them if the Saihan system
dissolves?
4. If you were a board member of Barnes & Noble or Borders, would you approve a proposal to open a
series of bookstores in Japan now? Would you change your mind if the Saihan system dissolves? Debate to
be presented: Industry rivalry versus strategic groups (in particular mobility barriers, see pp. 50-53)

SM 3 Ch 3: Leveraging resources and capabilities


Case: Private military companies: Dogs of war or pussycats of peace? (PACKET)
1. From a resource-based view, explain why certain PMCs not only outperform other PMCs, but also
outperform certain national militaries?
2. From an institution-based view, explain what is behind the rise and the emerging concerns of this
industry? Why are some PMCs interested in self-regulation?
3. As an investor, will you consider buying stocks of PMCs such as DynCorp? Why or why not? Do you
have any ethical reservations?
4. As an oil company executive setting up operations in a political unstable country, would you consider
hiring security personnel from Blackwater? Debate to be presented: Static resources versus dynamic
capabilities (OR bad apples versus bad barrels in Ch 4)

81
SM 4 Ch. 4: Emphasizing institutions, cultures, and ethics
Case: Unilever’s “Fair & Lovely” whitening cream: Doing well but not doing good
1. The author argues that Unilever’s “Fair & Lovely” is doing well but not doing good. Do you agree?
2. Milton Friedman wrote (in 1970) that “the business of business is business.” If you were a Unilever
executive, how would you defend the product?
3. If you were an Indian government official or a social activist, what would be your proposed solution?
Debate to be presented: Bad apples versus bad barrels (OR pick anything from Ch 12 on corporate social
responsibility) 1 Minor changes may be made in the course content as the semester progresses
SM 5 Ch. 6: Entering foreign markets / Ch. 7: Strategic managements
Case: Pearl River Piano Group’s international strategy
1. Drawing on industry-, resource-, and institution-based views, explain how PRPG, from its humble roots,
managed to become China’s largest and the world’s second largest piano producer.
2. Why did Tong believe that PRPG must engage in significant internationalization (other than the current
direct export strategy) at this point?
3. If you were one of those professors who visited Tong in March 2000, how can you brief him on the
various pros and cons of various foreign market entry options?
4. Again, if you were one of those professors, how would you specifically point out a direction to tackle the
US market for PRPG? Debate to be presented: Managements versus acquisitions
SM 6 Ch. 8: Managing competitive dynamics
Case: Is a diamond (cartel) forever?
1. Most cartels fail within a short period of time due to organizational and incentive problems. Why is the
diamond cartel so long lasting (spanning the entire 20th century and still going, despite some recent loss
of power)?
2. Drawing on industry-, resource-, and institution-based views, explain why De Beers has been
phenomenally successful.
3. Given the multidimensional current challenges, what are the opportunities for De Beers? What are the
threats? What strengths and weaknesses does De Beers have when dealing with these challenges?
4. Discuss the future of the rivalry between De Beers and Leviev, especially in the new arena of retail
competition with branded jewelry. How does the future hold for both firms? Debate to be presented:
Strategy versus IO economics and antitrust policy (should De Beers be prosecuted by competition/antitrust
authorities in South Africa and the United States?)
SM 7 Ch 9: Diversifying, acquiring, and restructuring
Case: Corporate strategy at Cardinal Health
1. What are the benefits and costs of Cardinal Health’s product related diversification strategy?
2. What has made Cardinal Health the biggest player in the US health care industry in general and the
undisputed profitability leader in the drug distribution business in general?
3. To focus more on international activities, what are the main opportunities and obstacles?
4. Does Cardinal Health need to adjust its organizational structure (currently represented by the four US
focused product divisions) to create a better fit with its more internationally oriented strategy? Debate to
be presented (pick one or both): Product relatedness, acquisitions vs. managements (why didn’t Cardinal
use managements?)
SM 8 Ch 11: Corporate governance / Ch 12: corporate social responsibility
Case: The Wal-Mart effect (PACKET)
C. Fishman, 2006, The Wal-Mart effect and a decent society: Who knew shopping was so important?
Academy of Management Perspectives, 20: 6-25.
1. Do you think Wal-Mart is a “problem”? Why or why not? In other words, what’s wrong about Wal-Mart?
Or, what’s right about Wal-Mart?
2. Fishman wrote that “Wal-Mart is a creation of us and our money . . . It is also a mirror. Wal-Mart is
quintessentially American” (pp. 24-25). Freeman argued that the so-called “Wal-Mart effect” has been
present “since the opening of the first Wal-Mart and every other business start-up.” If so, does the
American style capitalism—or, if we may, capitalism broadly defined—really have a problem?
3. Critics argue that because of Wal-Mart’s relentless pressure on suppliers to lower costs, Wal-Mart destroys
numerous manufacturing jobs in the United States and sends jobs to countries such as China. Do you think this
criticism is fair?
4. While this case focuses on the US economy, Wal-Mart is also “global,” in the case that it is now the largest
corporate employer and the largest retailer in both Canada and Mexico. It is also the second largest grocer in Britain.
It has stores in many other countries. What is the likely Wal-Mart effect on other countries—or the global economy in
general? Debate to be presented: The fundamental debate: Are stakeholders (other than those Wal-Mart deeply cares
about, consumers and shareholders) have a legitimate “claim” here?

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SM 9 Case presentations: Lessons from recent projects in global strategy REQUIRED:
Distribute a one-page handout (maximum 12 slides, with six slides printed on one sheet on one side,
double-sided printing) to the professor and everybody else in the class
A hardcopy and softcopy of your 10-page case write up (both Word and PowerPoint)

About Your Professor


Mike W. Peng (PhD, University of Washington) is the Provost’s Distinguished Professor of Global
Strategy, the first holder of such distinction at UTD. He joined the faculty in summer 2005. Professor Peng
is widely regarded as one of the most prolific and most influential scholars in global strategy—both the
United Nations and the World Bank have cited his work in major publications. His market leading
textbooks, Global Strategy and Global Business, are studied in business schools in over 30 countries, and
have been translated into Chinese and Portuguese.
Since Professor Peng started teaching in UTD’s MBA, EMBA, and GLEMBA programs in 2006, our program
rankings have experienced an upsurge. Financial Times in both 2007 and 2008 ranked our EMBA program
number one in Texas, top 20 in the United States, and top 40 in the world. In 2009, our Cohort (full-time)
MBA program made top 50 in the United States (as ranked by U.S. News and World Report). Dr. Peng’s
more detailed bio can be found (1) in the Global Strategy textbook that we will be using and (2) at the
following two websites: www.mikepeng.com www.utdallas.edu/~mikepeng

Appendix 1: Grading Criteria for Writing Assignments (for your 10-page term project case
write up)
I. Content Issues (60%)
(a) Clarity of the story line (10%)
(b) Use of concepts and theories applied to the case (20%)
(b) Reasonableness of analysis (10%)
(c) Appropriateness of recommendations/conclusions (20%)
II. Process Issues (40%)*
(a) Effectiveness of presentation (20%)
(including speech posture, maintaining eye contact with the audience instead of reading off the script, use
of visual aids, timing, and answer of questions)
(b) Effectiveness of written reports (20%)
(including readability, flow, logic, and organization; writing mechanics, such as free of grammatical and
spelling errors, use of sections and headings, and page numbering; use of literature; and attachments
such as graphs, tables, and calculations, whenever applicable)
//UTDEMBAstrategy09FallSlyPeng.doc//07/24/2009//

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A Road Map
To the World of Strategic Management
Chapter 1:
A transcendental tour- A road map and list of streets – An upward introductory journey of basic terms
Motivation for writing this book: biographic milestones
Strategic management is a world of its own, and this book is an introductory transcendental tour. Figure A
is a vertical road map to the world of strategic management. Some of the readers of this book will quickly
recognize the short version of the names of the spheres that create the intersections on this road map:
strategy, mission, vision, data, process, environment, design, resources, actors, performance,
and actions. While some readers may recognize the spheres, others know the pattern, though in a
different context. This is the world of strategic management, a world of its own. Though the map shows
the main roads, readers who decide to enter this world may get lost. For their sake, a detailed list of
avenues, streets, and alleys is appended to the road map. You do not have to travel them all, but if you
do, the list will safely guide you back to the spheres and main roads. This list also reveals the received
terms: organizational strategy, organizational mission, organizational vision, data, strategic process,
organization environment, organization design, organization resources (or strategic resources), strategic
actors, organization performance, and strategic actions. For brevity, most of the time, we use the naked
terms. The received terms are used to eliminate doubts (control process or strategic process?).
To faithfully introduce the world of strategic management there are many roads to follow, but only two
paths: top-down and bottom-up, that is, either descending from organizational strategy, through vision
and mission toward strategic actions, or ascending from the world of action toward strategy. The
spiral paths ascending and descending in the world of strategic management are indicated on the map.
Real-life strategic management follows both paths. Only continuous and careful progress up and down this
vertical road map reveals the intricate nature of strategic management.
Road Map to the World of Strategic Management: List of Streets
Actions, strategic actions, acquisitions, diversification, divestments forward and backward vertical
integration joint ventures liquidations long-term contracts mergers new investments start-up strategic
managements takeovers vertical integration .
Actors, strategic actor’s agent board of director’s chief executive officer corporate planner dominant
coalition entrepreneurs executive team middle-level management organizational staff corporate portfolio
approaches BCG approach BCG Zoo Cash Cows corporate hurdle rate Dogs economies of scale efficient
frontier experience-curve growth-share matrix mix and composition of business units, product-market
evolution approach productivity of a portfolio Question Marks Risk-Return Portfolio Approach Rule of Three
and Four Stars Strategic Planning Grid data.
Design, organization design organizational structure degree of centralization divisional, functional, matrix
hierarchical level hierarchy line of authority mechanistic, organic organizational chart organizational
formalization power centralization professionalism span of control organization processes capital allocation
capital budgeting communication compensation control process quality control management control cost
control appraisal of personnel operational control motivation.
Environment, organization environment environmental analysis environmental complexity environmental
dynamism environmental hostility environmental uncertainty legitimacy organization legitimating relevant
environment task environment competitors customers shareholders stakeholders governmental regulations
scanning the environment turbulent environments ownership structure industry entrance barriers exit
barriers industry life cycle life-cycle stage of the industry market/industry product life cycle product-market
arena stage of the life cycle strategic groups.
Mission, organizational mission organization’s philosophy organizations business unit concerns cost
centers diversified corporation multi-industry multi-product-market units multi unit business profit centers
natural business strategy center virtual organization.
Performance, organization performance bankruptcy compatibility corporate value costs per unit delivery
time earning per share effectiveness efficiency fit growth internal rate of return liquidity margins market
price market share net present value of future earnings net return on investment organization-
environment fit organizational effectiveness organizational efficiency personnel turnover productivity
profitability return on assets return on equity return on investment return on sales service calls per unit of
time stock price survival turnover per employee value added value of assets.
Process, strategic process adaptive, management, planning consciousness of strategy event external
analysis formal planning futurity of decisions (planning horizons), goal satisfying internal analysis risk
taking past experience (traditions) strategic decision making strategic triggers strategy formulation

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strategy implementation strategy making SWOT strengths weaknesses opportunities threats systematic
analysis trigger uncertainty avoidance.
Resources, organization resources caliber of personnel competency competitive advantage competitive
weapons core competencies core technology distinctive competencies employee qualifications human
resources liquid resources management experience raw material skills.
Strategy, organization strategy policy aims constraints goals goal structure objectives organizational goal
structure performance goals value goals business-level strategy corporate strategy functional strategy
finance manpower marketing advertising branding customers' needs distribution outlets marketing
channels marketing research media selection packaging promotion research and development
multifunctional strategy organizational strategy cost leadership differentiation first-in product-market
innovation focus-costs focus differentiation growth strategies liquidation and divestiture strategies me-too
strategy niche strategy share-increasing strategies stuck in the middle turnaround strategies strategy
content nature of innovation size of domain face of product-market change product-market breadth
gestalts taxonomies uncertainty perceived uncertainty need for information.
Vision, organizational vision culture intentions organizational value system strategic intent values.
In order to retain the total pattern, understand details, and pursue interrelationships, the following pages
ascend and descend this vertical road map repeatedly, and at a varying pace, path working in the world of
strategic management. On the first introductory round, the ten basic terms, spheres, bold and italicized,
are presented and important relationships indicated. In just a few pages you make a full introductory
journey on the vertical road map. However, the complete holistic nature of strategic management and the
down-to-earth details require additional path working. Further cycles up and down the world of strategic
management each aim to elaborate it from a different point of view. The bold and italicized spheres
throughout the book are your guides. The boxed examples will illuminate your way. When in doubt, use
the road map. If lost, use the List of Streets.
How many professors use a rehearsal of a highly reputed cooperative orchestra to teach
management? When I joined the Faculty of Management at Tel Aviv University in the early seventies, a
friend who had just spent a year with the International Institute of Management, Berlin, Germany, told
me: “You have to meet Bill Starbuck”. Since Wisconsin was out of the question, I had to wait until
Professor William Starbuck become the ITT Professor of Creative Management at New York University’s
Stern School of Business. In 1997, he was also the President of the Academy of Management. In addition
to publishing numerous articles on accounting, bargaining, business strategy, computer programming,
computer simulation, forecasting, decision making, human-computer interaction, learning, organizational
design, organizational growth and development, perception, scientific methods, and social revolutions, he
has a unique homepage on the Internet which he alone writes and maintains. I think this book was
motivated in large part by the autobiography included in his homepage. Twenty years too late, I
participated in his doctoral seminar, which focused on getting your paper published. In addition to the
invited guest speakers, editors of the best journals in management, the seminar was based on Professor
Starbuck’s accumulated experience as an editor and member of the editorial boards of a dozen or so
periodicals. Though the seminar was held on Friday afternoons, just before the Sabbath, I never missed a
session.
Professor Miller pulled forward the wheeled operation table until I faced a large television monitor
screen. “This is your heart”, he said. More than thirty years ago Professor Miller emigrated from South
Africa to Israel, later to become one of the country’s leading cardiologists. When he was recommended to
me, I was amazed to discover that his private clinic is located two buildings from my parents’ old
apartment. His wife knew my family and me. Professor Miller wears a small black skullcap, called a
yarmulke, worn especially by Orthodox and Conservative Jewish males. While he laboriously typed his
diagnosis and recommendations in English on his laptop computer, I glanced over the titles of the books in
his library. I always do. It astonishes how much you can learn about a person from his/her library.
Professor Miller’s library was almost equally divided between medical books and sacred Jewish books. I
recognized two books on the Kabbalah.
During the short coronary angiography catheterization process I was wide-awake, and could see
the screen from the corner of my eye. The truth is I was too frightened to watch. Now, at Professor
Miller’s request, the technician behind the glass wall put a few pictures on the large monitor screen. “This
is your right artery - he said - no problems here”. That was the reason for my second catheterization.
Check-up mapping showed some suspected shadows on the lower parts of my heart. Two experts
recommended a second coronary angiography. Professor Miller asked for another picture: “This is your left
artery. The stent deployed two months ago is about here. As you can see, it is wide open and
functioning”. I couldn’t exactly see, but it was good news. A day later I was back at my office.

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Organizational performance is the core of strategic management. It is also the core of the
broader field of management, and the reason for its existence. Strategic management is the domain of top
management. It has to do with deciding on the goals of the organization and the actual means and ways
employed to achieve these goals. Thus, evaluating the performance of an organization encompasses an
appraisal of the choice of the goals, as well as an assessment of the attainment of these goals.

It is no wonder that measuring organizational performance is so tricky. A rough-cut approach to


organizational performance is to divide organizations into those that are successful and those that fail.
This, of course, leaves the question “how successful is the organization” wide open. Useful and popular
measures for business organization performance include corporate value and profitability. Denominated in
current dollars - stock price,

For example - or percentages - net return on investment, for example - these measures are quantifiable
and comparable. Not easily quantifiable and comparable; too many colleagues make their living analyzing
values of corporations, sometimes with different results. Thus, even the use of these relatively precise
measures requires extensive data, expertise, and many notes. Obviously, value and profitability are very
narrow measures of organizational performance. Also, they are not always applicable. Other measures,
mainly applicable to business organizations, include market share, cash flow and liquidity. Growth is a
performance measure that can apply to many organizations.
Introductory management courses stress survival as an ultimate measure of organizational
performance, but also prescribe survival as a primary organizational goal. This discrepancy is somewhat
mitigated by the introduction of organizational effectiveness and organizational efficiency. Effectiveness
relates to the choice of goals, and efficiency to the attainment of these goals. Thus, effectiveness and
efficiency together may serve to evaluate strategy: goals and operations.
Unlike value and profitability, effectiveness and efficiency are not easily quantifiable. Profitability,
in addition to return on investment, or return on equity, depending on the reason and purpose for its
evaluation, is sometimes measured by earning per share, return on sales, return on assets, or internal rate
of return. Corporate value, in addition to stock price, is sometime evaluated as the net present value of
future earnings, market price, or value of assets. Efficiency, when referred to as productivity, can be
measured by costs per unit, service calls per unit of time, or turnover per employee. However, in strategic
management efficiency has to do with goals: becoming number one in the industry, globalization, leading
technology, or customer satisfaction. So, evaluation of efficiency is often subjective and debatable.

EXAMPLE: Shouldice Hospital was much more efficient than its industry and is an example of the highest operational
efficiency. At the beginning of World War II, Dr. Earle Shouldice developed a surgical technique for repairing hernias
that was superior to all other known treatments. By the war's end, two hundred civilians had contacted the doctor and
were awaiting surgery upon his being discharged from the army. Because of the scarcity of hospital beds, he started
his own hospital. Initially, a 36-bed capacity was created in Thornhill, a suburb of Toronto. After some years of
planning, a large wing was added to increase capacity to 89 beds. Dr. Shouldice died in 1965. Under the leadership of
Dr. Nicholas Obney, the volume of activity continued to rise, reaching a total of 6,850 operations in 1982.
All the patients' rooms at the hospital were semiprivate, containing two beds. Patients with similar
jobs, backgrounds, or interests were assigned to the same room wherever possible. During their stay,
patients were encouraged to explore the premises and make new friends. Every square foot of the hospital
was carpeted to reduce the hospital feeling and the possibility of a fall. Carpeting also gave the place a
smell other than that of disinfectant. Parents accompanying children for an operation stayed free of charge
because the hospital saved more in nursing costs than it spent for the parent's room and board. The
nursing staff consisted of 22 full-time and 19 part-time members. Minimal patient needs for physical
assistance allowed Shouldice to operate with a much lower nurse-to-patient ratio than the typical hospital.
The hospital employed 12 full-time surgeons, 7 part-time assistant surgeons, and one anesthetist. The
operating load typically varied from 30 to 36 operations per day, resulting in each surgeon performing
three or four operations per day.
Unless a patient asked for a specific doctor, cases were assigned to give doctors a nonroutine
operation several times a week. More complex procedures were assigned to more senior and experienced
members of the staff. Dr. Obney commented that experience was most important and that the surgeons at
Shouldice each performed 600 or more hernia operations per year, compared with 20 to 25 for the typical
general surgeon. Training in the Shouldice technique was important because the procedure could not be
changed. It was done through direct supervision by one or more of the senior surgeons. The rotation of
teams and frequent consultations enabled an ongoing opportunity to evaluate performance and take
corrective action. (Source: "Shouldice Hospital," 1983, Harvard Business School Case Services Order
Number 9-683-068.)

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Effectiveness is even harder to evaluate. First, real organizational goals have to be identified; then the
goal set should be evaluated. Should it be normatively evaluated? Based on whose norms? What
alternatives exist? The concept of fit was introduced to bypass these unanswerable questions.
Fit is one of the most important concepts in strategic management. It may be fit between an
organization and its environment, between strategy and structure, between the organization’s structure
and its environment, between strategic process and control; price and quality; resources and strategy;
skills and technology; operations and marketing; research and development and marketing; finance and
manpower. It may also be fit between organizational strategy and specific decisions, between decisions
and actions. Whatever the parameters are, the better the fit, the higher the organizational performance.
Total fit results in the highest performance. The search for fit among so many entities clearly resembles
the pursuit of harmony in various areas and cultures. Thus, organizational performance is the heart of
strategic management, and strategic management is the art of compatibility.

Environmental Analysis and Corporate Planning was a short-lived area of specialization in the
doctoral program at the Harvard Business School. Professor John Glover, the chair of the area, and my
dissertation advisor, put a lot of emphasis on data collection and analysis. He looked for meanings and
patterns in huge databanks. Like several other humble doctoral candidates specializing in Environmental
Analysis and Corporate Planning rather than the popular Business Policy area of specialization, I chose it
mainly because of Professor Glover. He was fascinated with ecology, and believed that organizations,
though manmade and not naturally organic, exist only if they achieve fit with their environments. He was
disparaging about monopolies and very large organizations, which he called dinosaurs that molded
environments to fit their needs. He acknowledged that every organization, however small, affects its
environment, and lectured compatibility and fit with the environment. When invited to his home outside
Boston, we would accompany him on his walks in the beautiful surrounding woods, between cocktails and
dinner. Wearing heavy shoes and led by a huge dog, Professor Glover would stop at the edge of a small
pond to contemplate the wonders of change, evolution, and fit.

Since it is the core of strategic management, all other concepts presented in this book are related
to organizational performance. Three of them - strategic resources, strategic actors and strategic actions,
are discussed here. Strategic actions are the manifestation of strategy in the real world, the world of
doing. Most of the action in the organizational world is operations: routine, repetitious, programmable
activities that are part of operations management, not strategic management. Strategic actions are
different. New investments, local or foreign, divestments and liquidations of existing operations, entries
into new markets or fields, acquisitions, takeovers, mergers, and joint ventures, are but a few of the
possible strategic actions. These are not day-to-day activities. Strategic actions are usually decided upon
at the topmost level of the organization, involve significant portions of the organization’s resources, affect
the organization for long time spans and are difficult to undo. Though strategic actions should, of course,
be controlled to ensure implementation and evaluated to provide feedback, they are the last phase of
strategic management. Previous, higher level phases of strategic management reach culmination in this
phase. However, since real-life good strategic management flows in directions, bottom up and top down,
strategic actions may trigger or initiate this process, rather than terminate it.

Strategic actions are initiated by strategic actors and require resources. Indeed, an important
school of strategy is the resource-base theory. Resources are competitive weapons and a basis for the
organization's strategy. According to the resource-base approach, competitive advantage is sustainable
only if it is based on assets, competency, process, skill, or knowledge that are exploited by the
organization, durable, relatively rare, and costly to imitate. Often called core competencies, or distinctive
capabilities these are the things organizations do very well, better than competitors do. The result, of
course, is a higher level of performance.

The resource level is determined by the state and availability of the organization’s physical resources.
Important categories of resources include:
Capital, money (in all forms), Energy,
Information, Machinery,
Buildings, Land,
Raw material, and Human resources.

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The following is an elaboration of the last two categories of resources:
Raw material: the term feedstock encompasses the advantage the organization has in acquiring raw
materials - or components or sub-systems - of high quality, with fast delivery time, and at cheap prices,
due to good relationships with suppliers, or high bargaining power over these suppliers. Raw materials
costs are compared to the costs of other competitors.

Human resources: skilled labor and management talent, management experience, skills, know-how, and
competence. The quality of human resources available to the organization is measured in terms of
employee qualifications, experience, formal education, training, and their efficient and effective use of
equipment. The caliber of personnel also consists of values and structure that are consistent with
organization strategy.

Organizational resources also include the ability of the organization to raise relatively large amounts of
financial resources for long-term investments, either through reserves, debt, or owners' equity, at a
minimum price. Liquid resources, like capital, may be converted to other resources, depending on their
availability in the environment. However, even when available, such conversion requires considerable
periods of time, for example, in training new employees or delivering raw materials. Thus, money or credit
cannot substitute, in the short term, for other resources.
Eliezer Wolfberg emigrated to Eretz Israel (the Land of Israel), then part of the Turkish Ottoman
Empire, because of his twelve year old son, Ben-Zion, my grandfather. Young Ben-Zion had a dream and
decided to celebrate his thirteenth birthday, Bar Mitzvah, in the Holy Land. According to Jewish tradition a
boy reaches manhood when thirteen. In the early seventies of the nineteenth century he sailed alone from
Odessa, Ukraine to Jerusalem. His family followed, to become one of the founding families of a new
settlement in central Israel, Hadera. Eliezer Wolfberg opened a bakery, but the harsh life in the new
country was too tough for him. His bakery faced fierce competition, and his health deteriorated. He was a
very observant orthodox Jew, and was annoyed when the young kids in the new settlement played tricks
and allow themselves some liberties. He also never let himself be photographed. The upper parts of the
walls of the Founders Museum at Hadera (Cha’an) are all covered with the patriarchs’ pictures. Although
his name is up there, no picture of Eliezer Wolfberg was ever found. He died young, and his only son had
to provide for his wife and two daughters. They had to move to another settlement, Petach Tikva, where
Ben-Zion found work as a foreman for the Baron Rothschild’s newly planted citrus groves. I was born in
Petach Tikva.

Strategic actors are the participants in the strategic process, such as the board of directors, the
chief executive officer, the executive team, middle-level management and organizational staff.
EXAMPLE: The 118-year-old Mellon Bank Corp. was confronted with the possibility of being a takeover
target. The stock had dropped so low that the holding company, with $34 billion in assets, could have
been snapped up for $1 billion. The new CEO of Mellon took action to deter the threat. The greatest
change was in the executive suite, where only one of the previous seven-member team remained (Vice-
Chairman G. T. Farrell, valued for his rapport with customers). In assembling the new team, Mr. Cahouet
hired two former colleagues from San Francisco's Crocker National Bank and installed Chase Manhattan's
vice-president, A.P. Terracciano, as chief operating officer. (Source: Business Week, 1987, "Mellon's
Turnaround Man Is Racing the Clock," September 14, p. 53.)
The topmost level of an organization at which strategy is created sets the organization's goals and decides
on its investments and the deployment of its resources. Although, as we discuss later in this book, many
other forces have an impact on strategy, it is the mandate of top management to make strategy.
Successful or not, strategy is defined by top management. Strategy does not happen; it is explicitly or
implicitly made. It is the result of the interplay of power within the organization’s dominant coalition.
In very few organizations, because of past decisions, inertia is so great and momentum so strong that
current actors have no control over the organization's strategy and have to continue implementing the
existing strategy, whether it is correct or not. In most organizations, strategy is constantly being
evaluated, modified, and sometimes even changed radically. Those involved in strategic management are
the organization’s strategic actors. In most cases they are the top managers of the organization. Many
external and internal factors, discussed later, affect the organization strategy; by commission or omission,
it is made by the strategic actors. Be it a formal planning effort, an ad hoc disjointed decision, or an
ignored opportunity, the result is a strategy formulated and implemented by the organization’s top
management. Thus, a strategy of an organization is highly dependent on the strategic actors.

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In organizations, be they public or private, Japanese, European, or American, most decisions are
taken only after extensive deliberation. Although it is sometimes possible for strategic actors to go counter
to the consensus of their organization, this is not a viable long-term position. Strategic actors out of tune
with the people in their organization either leave the organization or the organization undergoes massive
personnel turnover. The concept of group involvement in decisions applies to strategy making, since the
outcome of the strategic process is a major decision taken by the organization.

Although most business organizations are hierarchical, strategy making in an environment involving
choices among alternatives and assessment of risks is usually a shared process. Face-to-face meetings
among members of the strategy-making team are an essential element of reaching a consensus. The team
may be involved in deciding on a strategy or in a strategy-related task such as creating a short list of
acceptable alternatives or creating a recommendation for approval at a higher level. The following
activities and processes characterize group meetings:
The meetings are a joint activity, engaged in by a group of people of equal or near equal status. The
activity is intellectual in nature. The product depends in an essential way on the knowledge, opinions, and
judgments of the participants. Differences in opinion are settled either by fiat by the highest-ranking
person present or, more often, by negotiation or arbitration. The results lead to a strategy for the
organization.
Another way of looking at strategy-making meetings is in terms of what groups do. Specifically, groups
Retrieve (or generate) information, Share information among members,
Make assumptions about the future, Use information and assumptions to reach a consensus or
and decision.

Top managers assess the organization’s performance, gather information, apply their expertise, and make
decisions. Thus, they perform an essential role in strategic management based on their knowledge, skills,
experience, formal education, perceived information, values, and relative power. One way of changing an
organization’s strategy is to change its strategic actors. In crises, when a turnaround strategy is required,
the entire top management is sometimes replaced.

Organizational design is the hub of strategic management: it is related to each element of strategic
management and includes organizational structure and processes. Processes such as control,
communication, compensation motivation, and capital allocation, and are integral parts of organizational
design, adding a dynamic dimension to the organizational structure.

One of the most important processes is the control process. Control is the use of mechanisms to
standardize behavior and to assess performance. Control is sometimes further divided into management
control and operational control, where management control relates to organization resources and
operational control to the specific tasks performed. Control focus on budgets, working capital cash
management, management practices and performance, production and inventory, research budgets and
schedule, marketing expenses and effectiveness, and personnel.

Thus, while money is an important basis of measurement in control processes, it is not the only one.
Others may include quantitative measurements such as output tonnage, reject percentage, yields, and
turnover, as well as qualitative measures such as quality, motivation, and ability.

Strategic process, a central issue here, is not included in design, and deserves an independent treatment.
Though processes are integral part of design, organizational structure, and the well-known organizational
chart, are often used as surrogates to convey organizational design, including its processes.
The organizational chart and its hierarchy is used to display the line of authority among strategic actors,
the span of control of strategic actors, and the relationships among various units in the organization. It
also points out the type of the structure, such as functional, divisional, or matrix. One of the questions that
have been debated by scholars of strategic management is whether strategy precedes or follows structure.
Since strategic management is a continuous process, which flows in directions, top down and bottom up,
this question is now less important. It is accepted that current structure affects strategy, and that
structure is the most important tool used by organizations to implement strategy.

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The environment in which the organization operates is one of the major determinants of its functioning.
The environment is the total outside forces that directly or indirectly influence, or may influence, any
organizational aspect (goals, structure, size, plans, procedures, operations, input, output, human relations,
and so on). From the ecological perspective, the natural selection mechanism is responsible for the rise,
success, and fall of organizations (Neo Darwinism). From the information, or uncertainty, perspective the
perceived uncertainty of environmental information affects organizations. From the resource perspective
the environment is viewed as a resource of scarce resources (inputs) which are sought after by a
population of organizations that compete for and share them.
However, the possible number of variables in the environment on which an organization may depend is
much larger. An organization may be dependent on the environment not only for the availability of input
and for the consumption of its output; the environment is also a source of constraints on its operations. An
organization may be dependent on its environment for new technology; its freedom of action may be
constrained by a whole gamut of governmental regulations on safety standards, taxation, and employment
of women or of minority groups. Moreover, it may also be dependent on the sociopolitical system for
legitimacy of its activities.
EXAMPLE: It is clear that governmental regulation influences an organization’s behavior. Not so clear is the
fact that an assumption the organization makes about impending regulation can be just as effective. In
1997, Toyota launched a new car. It wasn’t just a new model, it was a new concept: a hybrid car.
Equipped with both gasoline engine and electric motor, the new car was planned to decrease pollution
significantly. Analysts claim that Toyota is selling the car at half of the manufacturing cost. Although
Toyota insists that it isn’t losing money on the car, it is obvious that the car serve a purpose other than
earning money. The new car is a declaration that Toyota is making. Toyota predicts that vehicle
manufacturers will be forced through governmental regulation to decrease pollution caused by cars. Thus,
by investing today in green cars Toyota might find itself in a competitive position when measures
restricting air pollution are enacted. (Source: Business Week, 1997, "Toyota’s Green Machine," December
15, pp. 108-110.)
There were no four-corner intersections in old Petach Tikva. One of my mother’s uncles, a certified
surveyor; was responsible for the new settlement’s design. Being a very orthodox Jew he did not want
God to see a cross from above (very orthodox Jews use for a plus sign). All the intersections in old
Petach Tikva had only three corners. A smaller street would end when reaching a wider street. If it had to
be continued across the wider street, then another street would start a house or two up or down the wider
street. I guess pedestrians never complained, neither did the horses or the donkeys. But today’s young
drivers sometimes ignore the many stop signs at each three-corner intersection. There is a street named
after him in Petach Tikva. The street starts at a three-corner intersection and ends at a wider road, in a
three-corner intersection.

Organizational strategy is created. There is a process involved in the making of a strategy.


Sometimes called strategy making, or strategy formulation and implementation, the emphasis is on a
process that results in a strategy.
EXAMPLE: Apple Computer, Inc., announced that it was launching an attack on IBM's position in the
personal computer business. The intent was to promote the Macintosh as the foremost office machine. As
announced, Apple's strategy included the following:
1. Introducing the Macintosh Office, including an inexpensive local-area communications network, a high-
speed laser printer, and linkups with IBM computers
2. Speeding up software development for the Macintosh
3. Signing up large customers, especially high-visibility corporate buyers
4. Improving dealer relations by replacing its entire network of manufacturer's representatives with its own
sales force
5. Forming strategic managements with such companies as Wang, AT&T, and Xerox.
(Source: Business Week, 1984, "Apple's New Crusade," November 26, pp. 405-407.)

Thus, a strategy is an article, and the process is the course of activities that creates the strategy.
What is the nature of this strategic process? Some view it as an analytical process, a structured formal
planning process.

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EXAMPLE : The General Electric Company (GE) was the tenth-largest industrial corporation in the United
States. GE's management system, and particularly its system of strategic planning, were highly regarded.
GE was one of the leaders in internal analysis. It was divided into SBUs, each of which employed
specialists in strategic planning. Both managers and planners were required to attend corporate strategy-
planning seminars. SBU managers were required to use a formal technique (called the 9-block summary)
to help them define and report their business plans. Among the subjects to be covered were
environmental assumptions, competitors, and strategy alternatives. Each SBU was required to prepare a
five-year strategic plan and a one-year operating plan. (Source: "G. E.", 1970, Harvard Business School
Case Services Order Number 9-381-174 Rev. 1970.)
Others view it as stylistic, political or cultural process. Viewed as a stylistic process, strategy is a
product of the style developed within the organization (“We don’t do things that way”). Viewed as a
political process, strategy is a product of the interplay of power among dominant coalitions (“I have the
complete support of top management”). Viewed as a cultural process, strategy is a product of the culture
in which the organization is embedded (“Decision making in Japanese and American organizations is
different”). Some point out that strategy is the product of a continuous historical process deeply rooted in
the establishment of the organization, yet others focus on the “quantum like” facets of its nature, viewing
it as a discontinuous process. Concurrent with today's school of “learning organization” is the approach to
strategy making as a learning process.
The real strategic process is a mixture of all the above approaches. It is the process whereby,
intentionally or unintentionally, the organization’s goals and the actions to be taken to achieve these goals
are decided. There could not have been a better setting for my first meeting with Professor Joseph Bower.
Between 1530 and 1700, Safed, located in the mountains of northern Israel, was an important center for
Jewish mysticism. During the first thirty years of modern Israel, the secular population of Safed grew
rapidly, many tourists visited the town for its beautiful seenery, and many new hotels were built to
accommodate the growing hospitality industry.
For several summers in the late sixties and early seventies, in the most unique of these newly built
hotels, the Top Executive School of the Faculty of Management, Tel Aviv University, conducted a three-
week top management seminar. Most of the participants in these seminars were, for the next three
decades, Israel’s top management. Most of the faculty conducting these seminars were visiting professors,
mainly from Harvard.
Professor Joseph Bower, who wrote the original Marks and Spencer case, studied by generations
of MBA students all over the world, was one of the visiting professors. Among his other contributions to
strategic management the most important are his work on the distinctive competence of the organization
and his deep insight into the resource allocation process within large organizations. Twenty-five years
later, the resource based and the core competency school built heavily on the strong foundations of the
distinctive competence approach developed at Harvard in the mid-sixties. Professor Bower’s three-phased
hierarchy of the process of planning and investment (or in this book terms, process of strategy and
actions) in large organizations, emphasized the different strategic actors, as well as organizational
design, and is a real holistic view of strategic management.
The global wave of religion and mysticism is clearly evident in Safed. In the last twenty years the
city has become a fortress of Jewish learning and home for many of the “reborn” religious. Gone is the
secular population and the luxury tourism. In are midnight visits to the assumed graves of righteous
persons (Tzaddik) and advanced courses on Kabbalah. Safed is again the capital of Jewish mysticism.
No serious organization today is without a vision statement. Vision is personal things, ideas and ideals
often unwritten, an emotional commitment. It is a personal selling on the part of the visionary. Vision is
the beginning of the is, it is the beginning of reality. A vision describes the aspirations for the future,
without specifying the means that will be used to achieve them. An effective vision that inspires is one that
asks for the best, most, greatest. Vision is the determination to win over a long period of time, a desired
leadership position and the criterion the organization will use to chart its progress. A vision is a level of
ambition, culture, long-term objectives and values. Vision is a dream, a picture of a relatively remote
future. A vision is a benchmark for what one hopes to achieve in the organization. In strategic
management a vision refers to the category of intentions that are broad, all-inclusive and forward thinking.
A written vision statement clarifies the sense of purpose and makes it communicable. When written,
vision statements are not only an ambition but also an active management process which includes
attention to the essence of winning, motivating people by communicating the value of the target,
enthusiasm, room for individual contributions, and a guide to resource allocation. To be effective, the
vision must be embedded in the organization’ culture. To translate vision into more directive texts
organizations have a form of mission statement. The behavior of the leaders espousing any particular
vision will define what is meant by the terms used in the mission statement.

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EXAMPLE: Ben & Jerry’s was founded by Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield, two childhood friends from
Merrick, New York. After taking a correspondence course in ice-cream making, they got together $12,000
and opened an ice-cream shop at a Vermont gas station. The shop became popular for the premium ice-
cream it sold and soon grew into a $140 million firm. Ben & Jerry’s had a unique philosophy, articulated in
the company’s three-part mission, which distinguished it from other companies.
Product mission: to sell the finest quality products.
Social mission: to contribute to society and improve the life of the community.
Economic mission: to operate the company on a sound base.
Ben & Jerry’s carried out its mission in numerous ways. One of the most famous was ruling that the
highest salary should not be more than seven times the lowest salary paid. Ben & Jerry’s also chose
suppliers in light of its mission. For example the brownies used in the ice cream were bought from a
supplier that helped homeless people by housing them and teaching them a trade. In 1994, Ben & Jerry’s
sales did not increase and the stock price was falling. The company decided to replace Ben as CEO.
However, as the tight salary rules made it impossible to find a suitable manager, Ben & Jerry’s decided to
break the salary limit. Thus, the company was confronted by a dilemma: how to change without losing
sight of its mission. (Source: "Ben & Jerry’s Homemade Inc.: “Yo! I’m Your CEO!”," 1998, in Charles W.L.
Hill and Gareth R. Jones, strategic Management an Integrated Approach, Houghton Mifflin, pp. C144-
C159.)

Vision and mission are two different concepts. Some people think that a mission statement describes
what the organization is now and a vision statement describes what the organization would like to be.
There is a great difference. In general, a mission statement addresses issues more explicitly and can also
serve to identify what is unique about the organization. Mission is the active, the positive; it is the
operational side of vision. It puts into words not only what the organization is now but what it wants to
become. A vision becomes more tangible when it is expressed in the form of a mission statement. Mission
states and verbalizes the beliefs and the directives toward which a visionary manager wants to lead the
organization. Mission is an operationalization of vision.

An organization’s mission is the purpose or reason for its existence. It states the organization’s reason for
being: basic purpose, the unique or distinctive features of the organization, principal customers, clients,
key market segments, goods and services, present and future, and the place of the organization within
society. A well-conceived mission statement defines the fundamental unique purpose that sets a
company’s operations in terms of products/services offered and markets served. It may also include the
organization’s philosophy about how it does business and treats its employees. By providing a sense of
strategic direction, mission statements direct attention toward certain goals and away from others. A
mission statement acknowledges responsibility to various stakeholders and establishes standards for
organizational performance. It promotes a sense of shared expectations in employees and communicates a
public image to important stakeholders groups. In times of crisis, a mission statement guides the
organization on a way that coincides with believes and ideas. The scope of a mission may be defined
narrowly or broadly.
A mission is a fundamental statement of an organizational strategy. Mission statements establish
boundaries to guide strategy formulation. An important role of a mission statement is to articulate the
linkage between the organization’s strategy and its underlying values. The concept of strategy merges
with that of mission and vision as the definition of where the organization wants to be in the future.
Whether it thinks so or not, any ongoing organization has a strategy. Even if the strategy is
undocumented, informal, or unplanned and even if the organization is unaware of, unconscious of, or flatly
denies it, a strategy exists. A strategy is created because a working organization can neither be totally
flexible nor turn around constantly. Location, premises, facilities, technology, employees, product lines,
target markets, supply and distribution channels (the dealers/agents and distribution locations the
organization maintains in order to supply demand, and bring the product to the customer, quickly and
efficiently), reputation, standards, and procedures, to name just a few, are chosen, created, and adhered
to for various lengths of time. The decisions and investments made in the past create organizational inertia
and momentum.

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Organizational inertia and momentum change over time. Few organizations are totally rigid from
startup to divestment. Most organizations modify and change; some are even revolutionized. However,
these are not daily changes. Over time, organizational inertia and momentum create a unique business
pattern of investments and activities. The essence of this pattern may be identified, analyzed, and
modified. This pattern has a name: strategy. Thus, even though it may be unplanned, unintentional, no
deliberate, or even misdirected, strategy exists. It exists because most managerial decisions are consistent
and logical. When defined and adopted consciously, a formal strategy can become a set of guidelines for
future activities.
The concept of strategy has evolved over time, though the basic concept has not changed. Early
definitions stated that strategy is the determination of the basic long-term goals and objectives of an
enterprise, and the adoption of courses of action and the allocation of resources necessary for carrying out
these goals. That is, strategy is the alignment of the goals and courses of action of an organization. As
strategy was studied further over the years, the important role of the organization's external environment
was better understood. The focus of strategy definition shifted, though it did not change. Strategy was
later defined as the basic characteristics of the match an organization achieves with its environment. Some
people began using the term policy, and these two terms are now used interchangeably. Although the
term strategy was borrowed from the military and the term policy from government, their use in business
is the same.

My mother’s father died before I was born, but I heard he was a very reverent and religious
person. Every Friday afternoon, before the Sabbath (according to the Jewish calendar days start at
sundown, not midnight) he used to ride his donkey to the main road leading into the new settlement.
Then, he would barricade the entrance with a heavy chain locked on both sides of the road to prohibit the
entrance of wagons (and cars later) on the Sabbath. Though it was still not yet Sabbath (when riding is
forbidden), on his way back home he used to walk, followed by the unleashed donkey. Asked about this,
he explained that though the sun had still not set, since he had already closed the entrance to the
settlement people might have thought that he was riding on the Sabbath.

This concludes the first, upward introductory round of the vertical road map of the worlds of
strategic management. Basic terms have been presented, and only important relationships have been
indicated. To reveal the intricate nature of strategic management and the total pattern, slower paced
cycles up and down the worlds of strategic management are required. But first, before descending to
strategic actions, and the real world of doing, a few more words on strategy. Strategy, vision, and
mission are the intellectual level of the strategic management world. Together they are a world in
themselves; the most highly discussed in this book. It is a majestic world, high above the world of action.
It exists only as intentions, some even call it strategic intent. When put into writing, intentions are clear
and communicable, but also more obligating.

Many divide an orderly, formal corporate-planning process into hierarchies of aims, goals,
objectives, policies, strategies, and programs: The organization reason to exist, what results to accomplish
and by when, plan to achieve the results, and broad guidelines for decision making. Both vision and
mission are highly instrumental in descending from intent to create and form strategic actions in a world
of uncertainty, and are included here as important intersections up and down the world of strategic
management. Except for vision and mission, strategy is treated as a single entity, undivided into
phases or stages.

END.

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