VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES

FACULTY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHER EDUCATION

NGUYỄN THANH VÂN

IMPROVING FRESHMEN’S ENGLISH INTONATION THROUGH ENGLISH POP SONGS: AN ACTION RESEARCH AT ULIS-VNU

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF ARTS (TEFL)

Hanoi, May 2010

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Hanoi, May 2010

VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES
FACULTY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHER EDUCATION

NGUYỄN THANH VÂN

IMPROVING FRESHMEN’S ENGLISH INTONATION THROUGH ENGLISH POP SONGS: AN ACTION RESEARCH AT ULIS-VNU

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF ARTS (TEFL)

SUPERVISOR: PHẠM MINH TÂM, M.Ed.

Hanoi, May 2010

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ACCCEPTANCE

I hereby state that I: Nguyễn Thanh Vân, 061E3, being a candidate for the degree of Bachelor of Arts (TEFL) accept the requirements of the College relating to the retention and use of Bachelor‟s Graduation Paper deposited in the library.

In terms of these conditions, I agree that the origin of my paper deposited in the library should be accessible for the purposes of study and research, in accordance with the normal conditions established by the librarian for the care, loan or reproduction of the paper.

Signature

May, 2010

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS On completing this graduation paper, I would like to send my deepest and most sincere gratitude to many people for their invaluable help during the conduct of the research. First and foremost, I would like to send my heartfelt gratitude towards my supervisor Mrs. Phạm Minh Tâm, M.Ed for her constructive and timely feedbacks as well as her constant and unfailing support which were decisive factors to the completion of the study. Additionally, I would like to show my deepest gratitude towards Mrs. Lương Quỳnh Trang, M.Ed and Mrs. Nguyễn Thị Anh Thư, PhD. for their valuable advice and guide in the methodology of the research. Furthermore, I would love to thank all the teachers who have taught me pronunciation and research methodology. I would also like to say the sincerest thanks to Mr. Andrew Larson, English teacher at the University of FPT Greenwich and those first- year students ULIS mainstream English majors who have enthusiastically participated in the study. Their participation has been crucial to the completion of the research. I would also love to thank Mr. Lục Hoàng Long, staff of FPT Software Center for his crucial help with Information Technology and his spiritual support throughout the research process. On a personal note, I express my truly gratitude to my family and friends who emotionally and spiritually comforted me through the challenging time of conducting the research. The study could not have been completed without their continual encouragement.

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ABSTRACT In the context of globalization and English becomes the dominant language all around the world, the number of students learning English as their second or foreign language has witnessed a rapid increase. Despite the increase in number of learners and the development of teaching and learning condition, it seems that teachers and learners of English have not paid enough attention to supra-segmental aspects of English language. The process of teaching those aspects is mainly sole lecturing or explaining from teachers. This is such a pity because these aspects, with their natural links to speaking and listening, play a more decisive role in successful communication than any segmental aspects of language. Intonation, a basic factor among these aspects, is no exception. With a great interest in English songs and an inspiration to introduce a fresh and relaxing way of teaching intonation, the researcher has decided to conduct the study in order to find out the most effective techniques and songs for intonation teaching from students‟ perspectives as well as possible improvement in students‟ intonation when learning in this way. In form of an action research, the study is a continuous process of techniques applying, effect verifying and lesson improving to explore and discover the most effective techniques and essential features of songs to use. The results from the study are fairly positive with a considerable progress in students‟ intonation (30%) accompanied by many interesting and constructive ideas on how to choose songs and employ them to teach intonation. The findings from the study are hopefully of benefit not only for learners interested in intonation area but also for teachers by provoking a desire for more positive teaching methods and providing them with some fundamental ideas to develop new techniques of teaching intonation.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLES OF CONTENTS

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS…………………………………………………i ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………ii TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………………………iii LISTS OF TABLES, FIGURES AND ABBREVIATIONS………………..vii CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION .................................................................... 1 1.1. Rationale for the study and research problem statement ......................... 1 1.2. Research aims and research questions .................................................... 3 1.3. Significance of the study ........................................................................ 3 1.4. Scope of the study .................................................................................. 4 1.5. Methodology .......................................................................................... 4 1.5.1. Research Design .............................................................................. 4 1.5.2. Sampling .......................................................................................... 4 1.5.3. Methods of Data Collection ............................................................. 5 1.5.4. Methods of Data Analysis ................................................................ 5 1.6. Organization .......................................................................................... 5 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW .......................................................... 7 2.1. Intonation ............................................................................................... 7 2.1.1 Definitions ........................................................................................ 7 2.1.2. Elements of English intonation ........................................................ 8 2.1.3 Importance of intonation in English .................................................. 9 2.2. English intonation teaching ...................................................................11

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2.2.1 Features of intonation teaching process ............................................11 2.2.2 Approaches to intonation teaching ...................................................12 2.2.3 Techniques in teaching intonation ....................................................14 2.3. English pop songs .................................................................................18 2.3.1. Definitions ......................................................................................18 2.3.2. Features of English pop songs .........................................................19 2.3.3. The use of English pop songs in ELT ..............................................20 2.4. Conclusion ............................................................................................21 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY ...................................................................22 3.1. Introduction ........................................................................................22 3.2. Research questions .............................................................................22 3.3. Selection of Methodology ...................................................................22 3.4. Selection of subjects .............................................................................24 3.4.1. Population .......................................................................................24 3.4.2. Sampling .........................................................................................24 3.4.3. Participants .....................................................................................25 3.5. Research instruments ............................................................................25 3.5.1. Pre-test and post test .......................................................................26 3.5.2. Intonation courses ...........................................................................27 3.5.3. Interviews .......................................................................................29 3.6. Procedure of data collection ..................................................................30 3.6.1 Cycle 1 .............................................................................................30 3.6.1.1. Preparation ................................................................................30 3.6.1.2. Pre-test ......................................................................................31 3.6.1.3. Interviews .................................................................................31 3.6.1.4. Post- test ...................................................................................32 3.6.2. Cycle 2 ............................................................................................32
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3.6.2.1. Preparation ................................................................................32 3.6.2.2. Pre-test, Post test and Interviews ...............................................32 3.7. Procedure of data analysis .....................................................................32 3.7.1 Data from pre-test and post test ........................................................33 3.7.2 Data from the interviews ..................................................................36 3.8. Conclusion ............................................................................................38 CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ...............................................39 4.1. Findings ................................................................................................39 4.1.1. Research question 1 ........................................................................39 4.1.1.1. Results ......................................................................................39 4.1.1.2 Discussion..................................................................................43 4.1.2. Research question 2: .......................................................................44 4.1.2.1. The Recommended lessons for intonation teaching ...................44 4.1.2.2. Features of a favorable lesson ...................................................45 4.1.2.3 Effective techniques for intonation teaching ..............................46 4.1.2.4. Conclusion ................................................................................49 4.1.3. Research question 3 ........................................................................50 4.1.3.1. Features of song melody ...........................................................51 4.1.3.2. Features of song lyric ................................................................53 4.1.3.3. Conclusion ................................................................................54 4.2. Implications ..........................................................................................55 4.3. Application ...........................................................................................55 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION ........................................................................56 5.1. Summary of findings .............................................................................56 5.2. Limitations ............................................................................................57 5.3. Suggestions for further studies ..............................................................57 REFERENCES………………………………………………………………..59
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APPENDIXES………………………………………………………………...65 Appendix 1: Test of intonation…………………..……………………….65 Appendix 2: Interview scheme used in intonation course-Cycle 1……....67 Appendix 3: Interview scheme used in intonation course-Cycle 2………68 Appendix 4-10: Songs and lesson plans used for intonation courses…….69 Appendix 11: Summary of students‟ answers in the interviews- Lesson..101 Appendix 12: Summary of students‟ answers in the interviews- Song…104 Appendix 13-16: Samples of interview transcription………………..….106

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LIST OF TABLES
TABLES PAGE

Table 1: Grammar and intonation (Kelly, 2000, p.89)…………..…………13 Table 2: Intonation choices in discourse approach………………………...14 Table 3: Syllabus of intonation courses………………….……………….. 27 Table 4: Model comparison of two ToBI transcriptions………………..…35 Table 5: Average percentage of improvement_Dung………….…………..36 Table 6: Improvement in Dung‟s intonation…………..…………………...39 Table 7: Improvement in Hanh‟s intonation…….…………………………40 Table 8: Improvement in Thanh‟s intonation………………………………40 Table 9: Improvement in Mai‟s intonation……...…………………….…... 40 Table 10: Improvement in Thiet‟s intonation……………………….……...41 Table 11: Improvement in Tu Anh‟s intonation………………..………......41 Table 12: Improvement in Trang‟s intonation…………………………......42 Table 13: Improvement in Binh‟s intonation…………………………........42 Table 14: Participants‟ attitude towards lessons in cycle 1…………...…...44 Table 15: Participants‟ attitude towards lessons in cycle 2……………… ..44 Table 16: Students‟ interest in songs……… . ……………………………..50 Table 17: Marks given by students to the songs……….……………..……51
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LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURES PAGE

Figure 1: Circle of difficulties in intonation teaching…………………...…12 Figure 2: Procedure of lesson plan conduction………………………...…..28 Figure 3: Structure of interviews…………………………………………...30 Figure 4: Pitch contours-Pretest-Dung-Utterance 1………………………..33 Figure 5: Pitch contours with ToBI transcription-Pretest-Dung-Utterance 1……………………………………..34 Figure 6: Pitch contours with ToBI transcription- Native speaker-Utterance 1…………………………………...35 Figure 7: Percentage of improvement……………..………………….……43 Figure 8: Effectiveness of teaching techniques perceived by students….....47 Figure 9: Students‟ most favorite activities in lessons……………………..48

ABBREVIATIONS ULIS, VNU: University of Languages and International Studies Vietnam National University, Hanoi ELT : English Language Teaching

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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1. Rationale for the study and research problem statement In the context of educational development when more and more positive teaching and studying methods are in demand, the necessity of exploring new methods with relaxing as well as effective sources of teaching materials has become a matter of course to educators. The use of music in developing linguistic skills has become a trend since it was stated in Maess and Koelsch‟s study in 2001. After a wide range of complicated experiments and studies, neurologists have come to the conclusion that musical and language processing occur in the same area of the brain and there are probably parallels in how musical and linguistic syntax are processed (Maess and Koelsch, 2001, as cited in Kristen, 2001). Many others linguistic educators and teachers have also conducted various studies and reached the conclusion that music is one of the best sources for language learning and teaching. Among various genres of music, pop songswith normal rhythm and similarity to speech- are the best for teaching language. This point has been emphasized by Kisito (2005), an experienced teacher of English as well as the webmaster of est-galaxy.com, a well-known website in teaching English for Japanese, and Murphey (1992), to name but a few. In terms of linguistic skills, many Vietnamese students share their difficulties when studying abroad in some forums like vietphd.org, a forum for Vietnamese people who are studying PhD abroad to share their ideas and experiences. One strange situation is that although their English pronunciation can be considered better than Indian students, they are often misunderstood or asked to repeat their utterances by their professors and classmates while it is not the case for those from India. After a certain
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period of time, they realize that Indian students‟ superiority to them is certainly not word pronunciation but word stress and sentence intonation, which results in their effect to professors and classmates‟ understanding (translated, Ericsson and Klmn (2008) in the discussion “Teaching Assistant with Limited English Speaking”). Although these are just some cases through personal experience, they deserve more consideration from teachers and learners of English. Cook (2000), in his preface for the book American Accent Training, has also stated that “If you speak fairly quickly and with strong intonation, you will be understood more easily”. This is based on the fact that English is an intonation language, the language which uses pitch to convey ideas or concepts. Through my own experience of studying English intonation in Phonetics and Speaking classes, it can be said that students at the University of Languages and International Studies- Vietnam National University (ULIS, VNU) are not really aware of the importance of intonation in English communication. Additionally, their intonation practicing is somehow “cosmetic” and not sufficient enough for them to have a good command of English intonation. To be more specific, the first- year students at ULIS, VNU only have a maximum of two periods in Speaking lesson to intonation for the whole semester, which is just a very quick introduction on English intonation compared to its complexity and importance. All these aforementioned factors, together with the article “Listen to Songs and Film Dialogues to Improve Your Intonation Skills” written by the authors in qwetrystudios.com, have provoked a desire for the researcher to conduct a study on the effective ways in exploiting English pop songs to improve English intonation for the first -year students at ULIS-VNU.

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It is obvious that such a study cannot be successful without explicit data on participants‟ intonation skill and a suitable condition for them to study and develop the skill. The lack of setting for learning and teaching intonation at ULIS-VNU, as mentioned above, makes it reasonable and essential for the study to be conducted in form of an action research. In sum, with strong interest in the topic and belief in methodology from, the researcher has been attracted to the conduction of the study “Improving freshmen’s intonation through English pop songs: An action research at ULIS, VNU” 1.2. Research aims and research questions The particular aims of this study are to reach the specific data on the improvement in participants‟ intonation, to analyze the effectiveness of some techniques used in the research process and supply some criteria to choose relevant songs for this purpose. In sum, the research seeks answers to the following questions: 1. To what extent does the use of English pop songs in intonation teaching process improve ULIS freshmen‟s intonation? 2. What techniques are the most effective to teach intonation with English pop songs to the freshmen at ULIS, VNU as perceived by these freshmen? 3. What are the essential features of English pop songs that can help to improve ULIS freshmen‟s intonation as perceived by the participants? 1.3. Significance of the study The first contribution the study aims at is an overview of fundamental knowledge of intonation and intonation teaching process, especially the exploitation of English pop songs in the teaching process.

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It is also expected that this study may provide a source of reference for teachers and researchers in linguistic and pedagogical areas. 1.4. Scope of the study Due to a small scale as well as time limit, this research will only focus on a limited target population and a certain aspect of intonation. In terms of intonation aspects, the study only put a focus on pitch variation, the key factor of intonation. The small scale of the study also creates the necessity for participants in the study to be restricted to the number of 5 first- year students at ULIS, VNU for each cycle. From now to the end of this paper, these first-year students at ULIS, VNU are simply referred as “the students” or “the participants”. 1.5. Methodology 1.5.1. Research Design The study is conducted in the form of an action research to answer the first main question. The action research will be implemented with two cycles, and each cycle is a course on English intonation. Each course consists of 7 classes, 60 minutes each, with the lesson plans designed by the researcher. Intonations tests are taken by the participants at the beginning and at the end of the course to see the differences. Deep- end interviews will also be used at the end of each class to get the demands and the feedback of the participants towards certain aspects of the teaching procedure. 1.5.2. Sampling As the subject of the study is the freshmen‟s intonation and their perceptions of this skill through a period of time with the addition of English pop songs, the participants will be chosen from first- year students at ULIS,

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VNU. Due to the time limit and big work-load for the researcher, it is necessary that the study will be conducted with convenient sampling. 1.5.3. Methods of Data Collection To answer the first question, data will be collected with the use of PRAAT, an effective computer program for linguistics uses. First, the participant‟s speech will be recorded with an MP4 player. All the speech, then, will be opened in PRAAT program, transformed and stored in the form of speech diagrams. One semi-structure interview schedule will also be used to get the answer of the other two research questions. 1.5.4. Methods of Data Analysis The first method of data analysis is quantitative method to get descriptive statistics about participants‟ intonation changes with the use of PRAAT, which helps to answer the first research question. The second method of data analysis will be theme analysis method, applied on the answers of participants in the deep- end interviews with the researcher. The data helps to answer the other two research questions. 1.6. Organization The study totally consists of five chapters, namely Introduction, Literature Review, Methodology, Results and discussions and Conclusion with the major contents as follows: Chapter 2 provides the background on the study, including the definitions and the features of some determinant terms such as intonation, intonation teaching process and English pop songs. Besides, this chapter gives a brief review of some major approaches and techniques for teaching intonation as well as using English songs in English Language Teaching (ELT).
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Chapter 3 demonstrates the research methods applied in the study with details on how and why these methods were implemented in the research. Chapter 4 presents the data collected from careful interviews as well as the pre-test and post-test throughout the research. In order to ensure the clarity and conciseness of the paper, the raw data are filtered and demonstrated briefly in forms of tables and charts. It also demonstrates the results and discussion of the study, which answer the three research questions, and then suggests the application of these results in reality. Chapter 5 summarizes the main issues covered in the paper, presents the limitations of the study and some suggestions for further studies in the research area. Following this chapter are the References and Appendixes for the whole research.

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CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
To begin with the study, it is essential to know clearly about the key concepts of the study as well as the research site. In this chapter, three main concepts “intonation”, “intonation teaching” and “English pop songs” will be presented in an overview of their definitions and uses in ELT. 2.1. Intonation Intonation is one important aspect of every language. Therefore, defining the term “intonation” in general, “English intonation” in particular and its elements has always been a controversial matter for linguists all over the world. In this paper, the term “intonation” would be used to refer to “English intonation” only. 2.1.1 Definitions First and foremost, it is worth defining the fundamental aspect of the research- intonation. Generally defined, Al-Sibai (2004) considered intonation as “it is not what you said, it is how you said it” (p.1) at the very beginning of the study Intonation: A Suprasegmental Aspect of the English Language. This idea was repeated in Sabbadini (2006) in her article “Intonation” on the website http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/ Another general definition of intonation is “intonation is the music language”. This idea was emphasized by Baker and Goldstein (2008, p.14), in their book Pronunciation Pairs: An Introduction to the Sounds of English, and by many other linguists in the forum http://linguisticsinc.org/intonation.htm. Other linguists and researchers offered more specific definitions of intonation. O‟Connor & Arnold (1961), in their book Intonation of Colloquial English, gave the definition “when we talk about English
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intonation, we mean the pitch patterns of spoken English, the pitch tunes of melodies, the musical features of English”. Despite the differences in word choice, Bradford (1992), Cruttenden (1986), Kelly (2000), Tench (1981) and many other linguists also defined intonation as the changes of pitch pattern in utterances. In sum, it was widely recognized among linguists that intonation dealt with pitch variations in utterances. 2.1.2. Elements of English intonation Due to the differences in definitions, linguists and researches offered different elements of English intonation. Nguyen H.N. (2003), in her graduation paper English Tunes in Communication, stated that dealing with intonation meant dealing with three main elements: stress, rhythm and tone groups. However, this idea was not supported by other studies as these elements were of intonation teaching rather than of intonation itself. Cruttenden (1986, p.35) assumed that intonation had three main elements at three layers: intonation units (parts of a stream of speech), tonic status (a stressed syllable of an important word) and tones of intonation units (the pitch chosen for a certain intonation unit). These elements, more or less, corresponded to tone units, tonic syllable and tunes mentioned in O‟Connor and Arnold (1961). Differently, Pierrehumbert (1980) emphasized the importance of pitch movement in perceiving intonation and considered three elements of pitch accents , (i.e. tones at main words and getting stressed, marked with *), phrasal tones (i.e. tones linking the main phrase and the boundary, marked with -) and boundary tones (i.e. tones at the end of the phrase, marked with %). The accents or tones were restricted to only 2 basic ones: high (H) or low (L). Her idea was then developed by Beckman, Hirschberg and
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Shattuck-Hufnagel (2005), adding pauses as an important element of intonation, to form a system of intonation transcription named Tones and Break Indices (ToBI). Among all of these ideas about the elements of intonation, the researcher of this study was really convinced by Pierrehumbert‟s because it had been recognized and developed into a world-wide system of transcription by other linguists. That was the reason why ToBI was chosen to be one standard for data analysis procedure in this study. 2.1.3 Importance of intonation in English The importance of intonation in English communication has been emphasized over and over in many studies. It was stated by Cook (2000) in his preface of the book American Accent Training that the speech with high speed but strong intonation was easily understood. Gilbert (1993) also claimed that “…time spent helping students concentrate on rhythm and the major intonational road signs is more important than any other efforts to improve their pronunciation” (p.43). The important role of English intonation has also been observed by a number of other linguists. Roach (1983) demonstrated four important functions of intonation in English as follows: - Attitudinal function: helps speakers express their attitude and adds special kind of meaning to spoken language. - Accentual function: helps to produce sense of emphasis or prominence to the important word or syllable in speaker‟s intention. - Grammatical function: helps listeners recognize the grammatical and syntactic structure of the utterance. - Discourse function: signals to the listeners what is considered new or shared or what kind of answer is expected.
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Vaissiere (2004) made the point clearer by introducing 7 ranges of intonational functions: Syntactic, Informational, Interactive, Modal, Attitudinal, Emotional and Other (speaker‟s identity, sex, age, and so on). Actually, the Attitudinal (attitude towards the speech and listener) and Emotional (speaker‟s arousal) in Vaissiere‟s study could be combined to make the Attitudinal function in Roach‟s idea. The Informational function in Vaissiere‟s corresponded to the Discourse function in Roach‟s and Vaissiere‟s Syntactic function was included in Roach‟s Grammatical function. In agreement with those ideas, the author(s) of the article “Teaching Intonation and Stress Pattern” at http://www.btinternet.com/ added one more function of English intonation in communication: turn-taking. It was stated in the article that rising and falling could be used as a signal to keep the floor or give the floor to another person to talk: “Remain at a high pitch if you want to continue talking. A fall shows completion” (The Importance of Intonation in Social Interaction section, para.1) The importance of intonation lies not only in the benefits of suitable intonation to the communication but also in the bad effects it brings when used inappropriately. Because intonation is perceived unconsciously (Kelly, 2000, p.86 and Al-Sibai, 2004, p.2), native speakers are often unable to recognize this kind of mistake in non-native speakers‟ utterances and consider the novice speakers‟ inappropriate intonation as deliberate (O‟Connor, 1998, p. 108 and Al-Sibai, 2004, p.2). This will certainly lead to misunderstanding and communication break-down. This point was stressed again when in Hewings (1995, p. 251) clarified in his review “Tone Choice in the English Intonation of Non-Native Speakers” with the contention that:

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We often react more violently to . . . intonational meanings than to . . . lexical ones; if a man's tone of voice belies his words, we immediately assume that the intonation more faithfully reflects his true linguistic intentions.

In conclusion, intonation is such an important and sensitive aspect of English language that the appropriate or inappropriate choice of it may determine the success or failure of communication. 2.2. English intonation teaching 2.2.1 Features of intonation teaching process The intonation teaching process can be characterized by complexity and difficulty. The complexity of the teaching process originated from the unconscious perception of native speakers about intonation. Kelly (2000) described the teaching of intonation as “examine the nature of these unconscious processes (perceive, understand and use intonation), bring them to the surface and show how we believe they work” (p.86, notes in parentheses added by the myself). In other words, the teaching of intonation consisted of three main phases: careful examination and study on the nature of intonation acquisition, transformation of the nature into clear and understandable pieces of information and presentation of the information to students. Each of the phase itself has contained many problems. As stated in Vaissiere (2004), it was difficult to study intonation due to the lack of clear definitions, unified approaches and standardized methods. In addition, the values that linguistics and teachers often use for intonation such as pitch level/ movement or prominence (loudness or stress) are just relative: one speaker‟s „mid‟ pitch could be another‟s „low‟ pitch. This example was demonstrated in Ranalli (2002) to state that values do vary from speaker to speaker and from one situation to another. Moreover, there were problems
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with the transformation and presentation of the information as these processes consisted of "lengthy explanatory input for very little performance output on the part of the student" (Currie & Yule, 1991, p.271). The difficulty in intonation teaching process is an indispensible consequence of its complexity. Roach (1991, p.11) claimed that "the complexity of the total set of sequential and prosodic components of intonation ... makes it a very difficult thing to teach". The difficulty of this part has made teachers less confident to teach it in classrooms (Sabbadini, 2006) and hence, led to a vicious circle:
No confidence

Dificulties

Ignorance in classrooms

Less skills+ Students' unawareness

Figure 1 : Circle of difficulties in intonation teaching 2.2.2 Approaches to intonation teaching Different ideas in the perception and functions of intonation are the determinants that create different approaches in teaching intonation. Traditionally, researchers dealt with intonation, first and foremost, in grammatical or attitudinal approaches. Researchers with grammatical approach tended to show connections between intonation patterns and a particular type of grammatical structure. It can be seen from Kelly (2000)
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and Littlejohn and Hicks (1998) that in grammatical approach, intonation teaching process put a focus on presenting and explaining the intonation in isolated sentences of a certain type of sentences. Here are the clear examples of grammatical approach in Kelly (2000):
Grammatical structure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Information questions (asked for the first time) Questions (expecting a yes/no answer) Statements Imperatives Question tags (expecting confirmation) Question tags (show less certainty) Lists of items Intonation pattern Falling Rising Falling Falling Falling Rising Rising, rising and finally falling

Table 1: Grammar and intonation (Kelly, 2000:89) This approach has been criticized by Bradford (1998) and McCarthy (1991) as there is no one-to-one relationship between sentence-type and tone of intonation. Another tradition approach to teaching intonation was attitudinal approach. This approach considered how intonation changed in accordance with speaker‟s attitude (Kelly, 2000, p. 95). However, this approach got criticism from many researchers like Kelly (2000) or McCarthy (1991) because there were too many things to be conveyed. Kelly (2000, p.96) pointed out that the same intonation pattern could be used to express different attitude (falling tone for a matter of fact or sense of relief). McCarthy (1991, p.107) gave another argument that almost any emotion can be expressed by any tone contour as displaying a particular attitude or emotion. However, both of these researchers agreed that the links between attitudes and intonation should be applied in teaching and practicing a particular set of utterances.
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Recently, linguistics have been more interested in an approach developed by Brazil (1995) named interactive approach or discourse approach. In this approach, speech was viewed as a target status of shared understanding that both speaker and listener manage to reach; intonation was considered not only used by speaker but also by listener (Cauldwell and Allen, 1997). This approach could be summarized as in the following table:
System Prominence Tone Key Termination Choices prominent/non-prominent syllables rise-fall, fall, level, rise, fall-rise high, mid, low high, mid, low

Table 2: Intonation choices in discourse approach (Brazil, 1995 cited in Higuchi, 2000) With the three approaches above, researchers and teachers have developed different methods and techniques in teaching intonation, which would be presented in the next part of this paper. 2.2.3 Techniques in teaching intonation It is necessary to re-emphasize that teaching intonation is not an easy task for teachers of English language. For those who are native speakers of English, as mentioned above, they often perceive intonation subconsciously and are unaware of intonation difficulties of non-native speakers. Thus, it is difficult for these native speakers to teach intonation. Consequently, without the help from native teachers, non-native teachers will find it more difficult to teach intonation as the theoretical basis for their teaching process is limited. Perhaps, due the difficulties of intonation teaching process, there have been few official researches on this area. However, a number of teachers all around the world have paid more and more attention to this area and shared their ideas for techniques in teaching intonation. This part aims at demonstrating some of the main techniques mentioned.
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Sabbadini (2006), a teacher in British Council- Cameroon, shared some of her techniques in teaching intonation as follow: - Modeling: teachers provide models for the learners and it is noticeable that teachers should “exaggerate” their intonation for students to acquire easily. - Imitating: after giving models, teachers may ask students to imitate their intonation by humming only. - Comparing two examples of the same phrase: this can be done by two ways. In a receptive way, teachers may let students listen to the two examples recorded or spoken by teachers themselves. In a productive way, teachers may ask students to practice two sentences in pairs, two minutes as the robots without intonation and another two minutes with their normal speaking. With reference to Kelly (2000), Sabbadini (2006) also suggested some particular activities to teach intonation from different approaches. - From grammatical approaches, Sabbadini (2006) offered an activity of using falling/rising tunes to convey their certainty about classmates‟ jobs (the jobs were assigned to each student by the teacher). This activity was similar to the one in Kelly (2000) in which each student received a piece of paper with his/her nationality and the level of certainty about some other mates‟ nationalities. Their task is to use falling/rising intonation to ask the other about their nationalities. With this approach, Scrivener, in his article “Skill: Teaching English Intonation” suggested that the teacher model the intonation of every sample sentence when teaching a grammar point. - From attitudinal approach, Sabbadini (2006) provided a sample lesson. In recognition stage, the teacher and students brain-stormed some attitude
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such as “interested, uninterested, enthusiastic, surprised”. Then, the teacher spoke a certain word, “banana” for example, with different intonation and asked students to guess the attitude conveyed. In production stage, the teacher assigned students with particular attitude as “Miss Happy, Mr. Grumpsy or Miss Frightened” to speak some given words or phrases. A similar activity was introduced by Counihan (1998) when he asked his students to present different ways of saying “Hello” to a lovely sixmonth-old baby, to a strict teacher, to a long lost friend. This activity could be repeated with other structures, other situations and attitudes. Greeting and thanking to a particular person with different attitudes was also a technique for students‟ drill in Kelly (2000). In his lesson, Kelly provided students with a selection of role cards stating their previous relations with Mr. Johnson and asked them to say “Good morning, Mr. Johnson” in their proper ways. For students at higher level, Scrivener let his students work in groups of three with some situation like “Two people think the third one is a thief” or “Today is one person‟s birthday”. Each student would only speak the words/phrases written in their paper and simultaneously express their attitude to others. - From discourse approach, Sabbadini (2006) let students look at a scripted dialogue between a waiter and two customers in a restaurant and focus on the waiter‟s intonation in new or shared information. This approach was also used to form the lesson in Kelly (2000) when he provided students with different example intonation of the same phrase and explain the discourses.

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Beside techniques particularly related to an approach as above, Scrivener also offered some other integrated activities for intonation teaching. The first integrated activity he mentioned was marking text- letting students look at a script, listen to the dialogue, mark the stressed syllables and draw arrows to intonation patterns. The idea of using arrows and visual markers for intonation has been shared by almost every teacher and researcher in this area. This idea has been emphasized in Al-Sibai (2004), Kelly (2000), O‟Connor and Arnold (1961), Sabbadini (2006), Stibbard (1996), to name but a few. Another technique emphasized by all teachers and researchers in this area was practice. According to Kelly (2000) and Sabbadini (2006), for students‟ benefits, practice rather than theory must be the focus in classrooms. Authors of the article “Listen to Songs and Film Dialogues to Improve Your Intonation Skills” at http://www.qwertystudios.com also put a stress on practice when stating that “ While teaching intonation it's necessary to remember that the best way to achieve quick result is constant practicing”. An interesting and innovative technique in teaching intonation is the use of jazz chant. This is a course developed by Carolyn Graham with the use of jazz music‟s melody and rhythm to teach American rhythm and intonation. The written document of this technique, Graham‟s book Jazz Chant published in 1978 was described as an amusing way of teaching and learning English. All of the techniques above were helpful and crucial for teachers of English intonation to develop a range of interesting and effective lessons.

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2.3. English pop songs 2.3.1. Definitions According to Cambridge Advanced Learner Dictionary, song is “a usually short piece of music with words which are sung”. It can also be defined as “ a short musical composition with words” from the website of Princeton University, USA http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn Pop song, or the song of pop music, is defined by Hatch and Millward (1987) in their book From Blues to Rock: An Analytical History of Pop Music as “a piece of music that have popular appeal”. A similar definition of pop song is also given by Oxford Dictionary of Music as “concerts appealing to a wide audience”. However, it is essential to understand more deeply about pop music in order to understand the term „pop song‟. As defined at the website http://en.wikipedia.org, Pop music is a piece of music usually recorded for commercial purpose, oriented towards a youth market, usually consisting of relatively short and simple love songs and utilizing technological innovations to produce new variations on existing themes. It is also crucial to distinguish between pop music and popular music: pop music is a specific genre of music related to alternative rock „n roll while popular music is a term used for all kind of music appealing to popular tastes (Allen, 2004). In general, pop music is a genre of music popular to the youth but also appealing to most of the audiences. This clear understanding of English pop songs will help deduct the important features of this genre.

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2.3.2. Features of English pop songs It is possible to say that the most important feature of English pop songs is the pleasure to audiences. Lamb (2010) emphasized that “the audience pleasure in listening to the song is the primary goal”. This feature leads to a decisive advantage of English pop songs: as the majority of listeners enjoy the songs, the exploitation of these songs for other purposes, like teaching or learning, will more likely receive motivation and support and achieve good results. English pop songs are also described in Shuker (2001, p.8-10) and Warner (2003, p.3) with many features as follows: - The lyrics focus on simple themes like love and romantic relationships - The songs are short, usually about two and a half minutes to three and a half minutes. - The songs consist of verse and repeated chorus - The beat of the song is simple and strong, which is relatively easy to perceive. Murphey (1992) , after conducting an analysis of a number of pop songs, has found many features beneficial to language learners: - They contain common and short words, including many personal pronouns. According to his estimation, 94% of the songs had a first person, I, referent and are written at about a fifth-grade level - The language is similar to normal conversations with 25% of imperatives and questions - Time and place are usually imprecise (except for some folk ballads); - The lyrics are often sung at a slower rate than usual and are there are more pauses between utterances

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With all of these important characteristics as mentioned above, English pop songs seem to be beneficial and suitable materials for teaching English language. 2.3.3. The use of English pop songs in ELT As stated in the previous part of this paper, English pop songs seems to be a useful material for English language learning and teaching process. In the effort to employ an effective but interesting and joyful material in teaching process, many teachers of English have tried using songs in their classrooms. Those include Kristen Lems from the USA, Futonge Kisito from Japan, Larry Lynch from Colombia, to name but a few. Lems (1996) exploited songs in most of her classroom activities for adult learners: listening for the song lyrics, recognize the song stress, rhythm and intonation, practice singing to improve pronunciation, teaching vocabulary and introducing cultural aspects. Kisito (2005) put his high interest in using English songs to teach listening. He suggested some activities for listening lesson such as fill in the blanks, identify two words with the same rhyme. He also had similar ideas to Lems (2001) that English pop songs can be used to teach grammar, vocabulary or distinguish singers‟ accent (especially between American and British accent). Songs were also said to be a “wonderful material to teach rhythm and intonation” by Cakir (1999). In his journal “Musical Activities for Young Learners of ESL”, Cakir provided a wide range of interesting ELT activities based on some given songs. All of the above studies are persuasive evidences that English pop songs can be an effective material for teaching English language in general and English intonation in particular.
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2.4. Conclusion From the literature review above, it is remarkable that intonation is a difficult but provoking and interesting area to study. To enthusiastic teachers of English, the importance of intonation in the language requires a deeper and more careful study to solve the contemporary problems. Despite the significance of intonation and the benefits English pop songs may bring to the intonation classrooms, there have been no official studies on using English pop songs to teach intonation yet. This situation remains a gap in the development of ELT methodology. In conclusion, with the basis of theory and methodology on intonation teaching process and the use of English pop songs for English-as-ForeignLanguage classrooms, it is promising that this study will filing the existing gap in the research area.

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CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY
3.1. Introduction In the previous chapter, the background and the focus of the study have been justified through a brief review of the literature. This succeeding chapter will demonstrate the methodology applied in the study by discussing in detail the participants, the instruments and the procedure of data collection which all aimed at achieving the major targets of the present study. It should also be noted that the discussion of data analysis procedure will be delayed until the next chapter. 3.2. Research questions The targets of this study are the specific data on the improvement in participants‟ intonation and the suggestions to choose the effective techniques and relevant songs for intonation teaching. These targets can be summarized into the answers to three major questions: 1. To what extent does the use of English pop songs in intonation teaching process improve ULIS freshmen‟s intonation? 2. What techniques are the most effective to teach intonation with English pop songs to the freshmen at ULIS, VNU as perceived by these freshmen? 3. What are the essential features of English pop songs that can help to improve ULIS freshmen‟s intonation? 3.3. Selection of Methodology Before dealing with the specific steps in the research procedure, it is necessary to explain the selection of the methodology because good understanding of action research is indispensible for a deep understanding and analysis of the research.

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Action research, as defined in Cohen and Manion (1994, p.186) is “small- scale intervention in the functioning of the real world and a close examination of the effects of such an intervention”. In other words, Hopkins (1985, p. 32) and Ebbutt (1985, p.156) defined it as the combination of action and research in which a person attempted to understand, improve and reform practice. Carr and Kemmis (1986, p.162) presented a different point when regarding action research as a form of “self-reflective inquiry”. From these definitions, researchers suggested some main features of an action research as follows: Combination of action and research - Intervention to solve real problems in the real word - Close and careful examination of the effect of the intervention - Self- reflection of the participants on their changes, or in another words, the researcher is also a participant Some other characteristics of action research were also stated by Hult and Lennung (1980) and McKernan (1991) as: - Aiming at improving the quality of human actions - Being on an on-going cycle process, i.e. the feedback from data collected can be used to improve the next steps in the research. - Being formative, i.e. the research may witness the alteration in definition, aims and methodology - Contributing to a science of education - Being collaborative, i.e. the research involves all contribution to improve the understanding and action These features were reflected in this study. First, the aim of the study was to improve the current situation of English intonation teaching. Second, the study would contribute to the science of language education. Third, the
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study included the researcher‟s intervention on other participants‟ intonation competence. Forth, the study was formed with several uncertainties and suspicions, thus, it needed the alteration and improvement from within the research process. Finally, the answer to the research question needed answering as participants reflected on their own improvement, interest and emotion during the research. In conclusion, action research is a good choice for this study on account of the suitability in target, design and characteristics of the study. 3.4. Selection of subjects 3.4.1. Population The target population of this research was the first-year students at ULIS, VNU. These students have spent at least seven years of their high school studying English, passed the entrance exam to become mainstream English majors at ULIS,VNU- a well-known university for English Language Education- and been taught by teachers at ULIS,VNU for half a year. These experiences were strong evidences for their solid background on English vocabulary and structures, which helped the process of learning intonation and giving feedback on ELT matters easier and more reliable. 3.4.2. Sampling Firstly, as the subject of the study was the freshmen‟s intonation and their perceptions of this skill through a period of time with the addition of English pop songs, the participants were be chosen from first- year students at ULIS, VNU. Because of time limit and big work-load for the researcher at B.A. graduation paper, it was necessary that the study be conducted with convenient sampling. At the beginning of the first cycle, the researcher made contact with Thuong from class 091E3, a student being tutored privately by the researcher. An appointment was made for the researcher to have some
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talks with students from class 091E8 at ULIS, VNU to choose 10 participants, explain the process of the research and ask for their permission to use their real names, private information and sayings for the study. All participants and the researcher had come to the unity that written agreements would not be necessary. Afterwards, the two cycles were implemented gradually with five students in each cycle. Secondly, it was worth stating that all the tests and interviews taken by participants were used for the study. Thus, if any participant could not attend the intonation course regularly, the information from him/her would not be used for the discussion of the study because it could not ensure the reliability of the study. This regulation, unfortunately, decreased the number of participants in the first cycle down to 4. 3.4.3. Participants It was a coincidence that all the participants of the research were female students at ULIS, VNU. These young girls were active and enthusiastic students who had strong inspiration on learning communicative English, especially improving their pronunciation and intonation. They also had similar results in English language for the first semester at the university. Moreover, they had the common interests of young female students: funny activities for studying and popular songs for entertainment. 3.5. Research instruments As a main feature of action research, the study was implemented with two cycles. Within each cycle, the main research instruments used were intonation test, intonation course and interviews. These instruments were fully employed and simultaneously to ensure the most valid and reliable data.
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3.5.1. Pre-test and post test To answer the first research question about ULIS freshmen‟s improvement in intonation and to analyze results of an action research, it was essential to find the criteria for evaluation. The participants‟ competence of English intonation would be examined at the beginning and at the end of the course through an intonation test (see Appendix 1). This test consisted of six popular sentences of different grammatical structures and in different situations. The participants‟ task was speaking out loud the utterances with their most natural intonation. Their speeches were recorded with an MP3 player for further analysis. It was important to state that the content of pre-test and post-test were absolutely the same. The test was constructed by the researcher with reference to reliable sources such as the book How to Teach Pronunciation by Gerald Kelly (2000) or the research ESL Pronunciation Practice for Question Intonation by Eric (2007). It was then sent for comments from experts in intonation like Mrs. Nguyen Thi Anh Thu, PhD on Phonetics from Queensland University, Australia, the co-author of several articles in Elsevier Journal of Phonetics. After all, the intonation test was formed and consistently used along the whole research. The criteria for the evaluation of the test result underwent a range of complicated steps. With the consideration that the best criteria for intonation evaluation was native speakers‟ one, the researcher had chosen the audio files of the utterances spoken by a native speaker, Mr. Andrew Larson, teachers of English in FPT Greenwich University. In order to ensure the validity of the intonation pattern, the recordings were compared to those in the CDs of the books above and achieve the same result. The accuracy of students‟ intonation would be assessed by the similarities between their
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utterances and those of the native speaker in form of pitch contours and ToBI transcription. The assessment (transcription and comparison) were all done by the researcher. 3.5.2. Intonation courses The most emphasized feature of action researches, which was mentioned in the section “Selection of Methodology”, was the process of the researcher‟s intervention. With the objectives of this study, the intervention process should be designed to raise participants‟ awareness, improve their English intonation and create a favorable condition for them to reflect on the effective songs and teaching techniques for intonation. The intonation courses, consequently, were established to meet the above demands. Due to a small scale of a Bachelor -of -Art research with limits on time and experience, the course in each cycle just consisted of 7 classes with the researcher as the teacher and other participants as students. The syllabus of the each course could be briefly demonstrated as in the following table:
Week 1 Time Monday Thursday 2 Monday Thursday 3 Monday Thursday 4 Monday Lesson 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Song Hello(Lionel Richie) Content(s) of lesson Rising tone in greetings and Y/N questions You can get it if you - Falling tone in statements really want (Jimmy - Intonation in a lists Cliff) Donna, Donna (Julie Rising and falling tones in WHRoger) questions The day you went - Interchange of falling and rising away (M2M) tones in WH-questions Eyes on me (Faye - Rise-fall tone in exclamations Wong) - Intonation in alternative questions A little time (The Falling and rising tones in tag Beautiful South) questions Do you know where Intonation patterns in combined you going to (Janice) questions + Do you know what you want (M2M)

Table 3: Syllabus of intonation courses
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The total of 7 lesson plans (see Appendix 4-10) were prepared by the researcher before the courses with reference from the intonation practice books and articles together with advices from teachers and experts on pronunciation and intonation teaching. The contents of the lessons in the courses were based on eight model lessons suggested in chapter Intonation of the book How to Teach Pronunciation by Gerald Kelly (2000). Here are the normal steps in the construction of the lesson plan:

Preparing activities+ explanation Checking melodies+ selecting songs

Selecting relevant lyrics
Selecting teaching points Collecting songs from suggestions

Figure 2: Procedure of lesson plan construction - Firstly, a range of English pop songs were chosen based on the suggestions from Lems (1996, 18), teachers in http://www.eslhq.com/forums/eslforums/teaching-esl/ and researcher‟s own assumptions and interest. These songs were carefully burned into the CDs for cassette use later on. - Secondly, the intonation patterns taught in each lesson were chosen with grammatical approach, i.e. linked one intonation pattern with a certain type of sentence. - Thirdly, the lyrics of all the songs were scanned by the researcher to find out those with the needed grammar structures.

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- Fourthly, the melody of the songs chosen from the previous step was checked to see whether the intonation in the grammar structure was suitable with the content of the lesson. Only the most suitable song(s) would be selected for the lesson. - Fifthly, the research decided how to introduce the intonation patterns with the song(s), prepared explanations for any questions about intonation which might popped up at the class (normally related to attitudes or discourses) and formed the practice activities based on the techniques mentioned in the section “Techniques in teaching intonation” above. The data collected after the first cycle were used to developed better lesson plans for the second cycle (see Appendix 4-10). 3.5.3. Interviews So as to answer the second and third research question, semi-structure interviews were exploited right after each lesson for two main reasons. The first reason was the effectiveness in data supplementation of this instrument. Interactions in an interview, as claimed in Nunan (1992) could be “incredibly rich” and the data could be “extraordinary evidence about life” that might not be gained in a questionnaire. Moreover, since the interviews were all semi-structured, they “are particularly useful for getting the story behind a participant‟s experiences. The interviewer can pursue in-depth information around the topic” (McNamara, 1999). In this case, the participants would have the chance to express their ideas freely according to their experience and feeling about the lessons; therefore, data collected were valid and constructive, which helped the researchers fully address the two research questions. In the study, the interview schedule (see Appendix 2) offered six questions. The first three questions were about participants‟ feeling and
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comments about the overall lesson. The other three questions explored their attitudes and emotions towards the songs used in each lesson. Through the experiences in cycle 1, the interview scheme was re-constructed to offer easier and deeper reflection on the techniques. (see Appendix 3) In short, the structure of the interviews could be demonstrated with the graph below:

Techniques Songs

Describe

Give marks Describe lyric

Effective activities
Effective or not

Most effective & interesting

Desribe melody

Give marks

Figure 3: Structure of interviews To sum up, the data collection instruments – intonation pretest and post test, intonation course and in-depth interviews - were used to serve the aims of the research. Such combination was expected to collect valid and reliable data, which created strong support and basis for the findings and discussion section. 3.6. Procedure of data collection 3.6.1 Cycle 1 3.6.1.1. Preparation The first phase was the preparation for the data collection instruments, which consisted of constructing intonation test, writing lesson plans and designing interview schedule. The second phase was the researcher‟s contact with participants in the study. The contact was implemented with persuading participants about the benefits of the study, explaining their main tasks, arranging a suitable
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schedule for all participants and asking for their permission to publish some of their basic information in the research paper. After careful consideration, all participants and the researcher agreed that there would be no need for a written agreement on these private matters. Besides, pilot interviews were also conducted with two voluntary respondents, the result of which was taken into great consideration to produce the final drafts. Moreover, a record of model utterances spoken by a native speaker , Mr. Andrew Larson, had been prepared. These model utterances, as mentioned in the previous section, would serve as the standard to evaluate participants‟ intonation 3.6.1.2. Pre-test The pre-test of cycle 1 was conducted on February 22 nd , 2010 at room 103, A2 building, ULIS-VNU. Four participants had 10 minutes to explore the situation. After that, each participant read aloud the utterances which were recorded by the researcher‟s MP3 player. 3.6.1.3. Interviews During the intonation courses, the frequent interviews were conducted between the researcher and participants. Right after each class, each participant spent 15 minutes responding interviews with the researcher. The contents of the interview were noted at the same time by the researcher. In order to assure the validity of students‟ evaluation across the whole course, starting from the second class, the interview also asked for any changes in participants‟ ideas when comparing the recent lesson with the previous ones.

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3.6.1.4. Post- test The post test of cycle 1 was conducted on March 22nd , 2010 at room 103, A2 building, ULIS-VNU. The same procedure as in the pretest was implemented. 3.6.2. Cycle 2 3.6.2.1. Preparation With the data collected from the first cycle, the researcher decided to make some changes in the lesson plans and interview scheme. Specifically, explanations of song lyrics were added to lesson 3 and the clarification of the fast rhythm (related to the stressed-time feature of English) was added to lesson 6. The interview scheme was also changed in that the third question about effective activities in each lesson was no longer an open-ended question. It was reformed into a list of activities and students‟ comment on the effectiveness of each activity. This reformation was made to assure that no activities or ideas about the songs were missed in the interview. 3.6.2.2. Pre-test, Post test and Interviews The same procedure of pre-test, post test and interviews as those in the first cycle were used. The pretest was on March 25th and the post test was on April 25th . 3.7. Procedure of data analysis Initially, the raw data were classified according to the three research questions. Specifically, the data from pre-test and post test were used to answer the first research questions. The answer for the second question of the research paper was found through the analysis of data from question 1, 2 and 3 in the interviews. Finally, the responses to the last three questions of

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the interviews were processed to find out the key to the third research question. 3.7.1 Data from pre-test and post test To begin with the demonstration data analysis procedure, it is worth re-stating that the study put the only focus on the main element of intonation- pitch variation. Thus, all the analysis of data below was merely based on pitch variations and pitch contours only. The data collected from the pre-test and post-test were treated in a pretty long and complicated process. Firstly, all the recordings from the test were converted from audio file (*.WAV) into pieces of audio file (*.MP3) with the use of the program Easy Audio Cutter.exe. Secondly, each utterance was opened in the program PRAAT.exe. PRAAT was a specialized program for linguistic use, developed by Paul Boersma and David Weenink from the Institute of Phonetic Sciences (University of Amsterdam). This program helped transfer the audio files into pitch contours as an example below:

Figure 4: Pitch contour - Pretest- Dung- Utterance 1
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Thirdly, with a view to restoring and analyzing these intonation contours with the most effective and reliable form of information, the combination of audio files and pitch contours were transcribed into ToBI system- an intonation transcription system developed by Pierrehumbert (1980) and Mary Beckham- as mentioned in the section 2.1.2 “Elements of intonation” . This system of transcription consists of three main sets of symbol: H (high) and L (low) for tones; * (stressed), % (boundary) and – (linking) for tones; range of 0-4 indices for gradually perceptual strength of breaks (0 for clitic boundary and 4 for strong perceptual breaks). The transcription in this study was processed with the application of ToBI TextGrid into PRAAT program and the manual transcription on PRAAT afterwards. Within this study, the researcher only explored the pitch ranges; hence, only tones were treated in the analysis. One example of process above was the following image:

Figure 5: Pitch contour and ToBI transcription - Pretest- Dung- Utterance 1

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The same process was also implemented to the native speaker‟s utterances to get an example result as follows:

Figure 6: Pitch contour and ToBI transcription - Native Speaker- Utterance 1 Fourthly, each ToBI transcription of participant‟s utterance was compared to that of the native speaker‟s to analyze the similarity between them. The similarity was illustrated by a fraction: the number of matching tones between the two transcriptions divided by the total number of tones in the native speaker‟s. Figure 8 below would illustrate this process clearly:
You need Native Speaker Dung L* a pen, L+ H* H-H% a pencil and some H* paper !H* L-L% Total: 9 Match: 2 Similarity:

L* H-H% !H*

L*

H*

H* L-L%

L

!H*

H* L-L% 𝟐

𝟗

Table 4: Model comparison of two ToBI transcriptions Fifthly, the two results of each speaker‟s utterances in pretest test and post test were compared to see how much their intonation had improved.
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The comparison was between the fraction in post test and the fraction in pretest, as in the formula below: Improvement (fraction) = Post test (fraction) – Pretest (fraction) For example, the similarity between Dung‟s intonation and the native speaker‟s was
2 9 6 9

in the pretest and
6 9

in the post test. Then, her

improvement would be

-

2 9

=

4 9

In order to provide a unified type of statistic for all utterances while assuring the accuracy of statistic, the fractions of improvement would be changed into percentage statistics (omitting the decimal parts). In the example in Table 5, index for Dung‟s improvement would be
4 9

× 100% = 44%

Finally, the improvement of each participant was illustrated by the average percentage of improvement in all utterances. Thus, Dung‟s general improvement could be illustrated as in the figure follow: Utterance 1 2 3 4 5 6 Pretest 2/9 4/6 2/5 3/6 1/3 1/4 Post test 6/9 5/6 4/5 4/6 1/3 2/4 Improvement in fraction Improvement (post test- pretest) percentage 4/9 44% 1/6 17% 2/5 40% 1/6 17% 0/3 0% 1/4 25% 𝟒𝟒
%+𝟏𝟕%+𝟒𝟎%+𝟏𝟕%+𝟎%+𝟐𝟓% 𝟔

Average percentage of improvement =

24%

Table 5: Average percentage of improvement_ Dung 3.7.2 Data from the interviews To make the data analysis process more efficient and easy to follow, data were summarized into tables and charts to facilitate the synthesis, comparison and generalization of data. Column charts and graphs were

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principally used to analyze and compare numeric figures, while tables were preferably applied for further details in interviews. Finally, most typical quotations from the interviews are frequently cited when necessary to illustrate the analysis of data. The various types of data collected from the interviews created a necessity for the researcher to implement different methods in the analysis process. Firstly, participants‟ responses to the questions of “like or dislike” were treated with qualitative analysis and used to classify lessons and songs into two main categories: Recommended and Ignored. With high expectation on the lessons the songs, the researcher found out two important points: - When a student replied “So so” when asked “Do you like it?”, the answer should be treated as “No”. - A song or lesson would not be recommended if it could not get the interest from 70% of the students‟ answers in class. Therefore, any song or lesson getting the “like” percentage less than 70% should not be further used to answer the researcher questions. However, it was essential to notice that the ignored lessons and songs in cycle 1 received improvements in teaching techniques in cycle 2. Thus, the status of “Recommended” or “Ignored” could be different between two cycles. In this case, the songs would be recommended in combination with the techniques. Secondly, the adjectives mentioned about songs and lessons in the “Recommended” list would be analyzed with theme analysis method to get the codes or main themes for the answers of the last two research questions. A noticeable point in this process was that the songs would be used despite

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low appreciation from students‟, as long as the lessons were considered successful. Finally, the marks given to each song and lesson by participants were averaged so that the features and techniques could be demonstrated in the sequence of effectiveness to students. 3.8. Conclusion All in all, the chapter has justified the methodology applied in this paper by clarifying these following aspects: (1) The two groups of participants involved in the process of data collection, namely the Vietnamese and American white-collar workers. (2) The three instruments “intonation test”, “intonation course and “interviews” employed to collect necessary data (3) The process of data collection depicted in three major phases (4) The two different processes of data analysis applied to seek answer for the three research questions After all the matters of methodology have been demonstrated, the next chapter would present the results of the research and discuss the findings in the following chapter.

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CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1. Findings 4.1.1. Research question 1: To what extent does the use of English pop songs in teaching improve ULIS freshmen’s intonation? 4.1.1.1. Results As stated in the previous chapter of Methodology, the ULIS freshmen‟s improvement in intonation was studied carefully to produce the most reliable statistics. In the first cycle, the improvements in students‟ intonation were pretty positive. Utterance Pretest Post test Improvement in fraction (post test- pretest) 4/9 1/6 2/5 1/6 0/3 1/4 Improvement percentage 44% 17% 40% 17% 0% 25% 24%

1 2/9 6/9 2 4/6 5/6 3 2/5 4/5 4 3/6 4/6 5 1/3 1/3 6 1/4 2/4 Average percentage of improvement Table 6: Improvement in Dung’s intonation

As demonstrated in the table, Dung‟s intonation had the average improvement percentage of 24%, with the remarkable increase in accuracy for utterance 1 and utterance 3. There was a similarity in the utterances with rapid improvement between the participants. The table below about Hanh‟s intonation improvement also showed a sharp increase in her accuracy for utterance 1 and 3. Moreover, both of the two students had little improvements in utterance 2 and utterance 5.

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Utterance

Pretest

Post test

1 3/9 6/9 2 3/6 3/6 3 2/5 4/5 4 3/6 4/6 5 1/3 1/3 6 2/4 3/4 Average percentage of improvement Table 7 : Improvement in Hanh’s intonation

Improvement in fraction (post test- pretest) 3/9 0/6 2/5 1/6 0/3 1/4

Improvement percentage 33% 0% 40% 17% 0% 25% 19%

The similar progress could also be seen in Thanh‟s intonation, as illustrated in the following table: Utterance Pretest Post test Improvement in fraction Improvement (post test- pretest) percentage 1 2/9 7/9 5/9 56% 2 3/6 5/6 2/6 33% 3 2/5 4/5 2/5 40% 4 3/6 3/6 0/6 0% 5 1/3 1/3 0/3 0% 6 0/4 1/4 1/4 25% Average percentage of improvement 26% Table 8: Improvement in Thanh’s intonation The only student with different improvement from the others was Mai. Although her average improvement percentage was similar (25%), her progress in utterance 3 and utterance 5 was in converse: Utterance Pretest Post test Improvement in fraction Improvement (post test- pretest) percentage 1 3/9 6/9 3/9 33% 2 3/6 3/6 0/6 0% 3 2/5 3/5 1/5 20% 4 3/6 3/6 0/6 0% 5 0/3 2/3 2/3 67% 6 0/4 2/4 2/4 50% Average percentage of improvement 25% Table 9 : Improvement in Mai’s intonation

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In average, the first cycle witnessed an increase of 23% in students‟ accuracy on intonation. In the second cycle the results were more and more positive. The highest progress percentage was up to 40%, found in Thiet‟s intonation: Utterance Pretest Post test Improvement in fraction (post test- pretest) 4/9 2/6 3/5 1/6 1/3 2/4 Improvement percentage 44% 33% 60% 17% 33% 50% 40%

1 2/9 6/9 2 2/6 4/6 3 1/5 4/5 4 4/6 5/6 5 1/3 2/3 6 2/4 4/4 Average percentage of improvement Table 10 : Improvement in Thiet’s intonation

Another record-breaker together with Thiet was Thuong. It was not difficult to recognize a great similarity in their improvements with the sharp increases in utterance 1, 3 and 6. The improvement in intonation accuracy for utterance 6, in contrary to the first cycle, was really popular among students since other two students, Trang and Tu Anh, also had good improvements on it. Tu Anh had the best improvements in utterance 6, with 75% Utterance Pretest Post test Improvement in fraction (post test- pretest) 5/9 2/6 1/5 1/6 1/3 3/4 Improvement percentage 56% 33% 20% 17% 33% 75% 39%

1 1/9 6/9 2 2/6 4/6 3 3/5 4/5 4 4/6 5/6 5 1/3 2/3 6 0/4 3/4 Average percentage of improvement Table 11 : Improvement in Tu Anh’s intonation

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Despite the lower improvement percentage, Trang still had the similar progress in utterance 6 to Tu Anh: Utterance Pretest Post test Improvement in fraction (post test- pretest) 2/9 1/6 2/5 0/6 0/3 3/4 Improvement percentage 22% 17% 40% 0% 0% 75% 26%

1 1/9 3/9 2 2/6 3/6 3 1/5 3/5 4 2/6 2/6 5 1/3 1/3 6 0/4 3/4 Average percentage of improvement Table 12: Improvement in Trang’s intonation

The last student, Binh, seemed to develop in a different trend from other peers in the same cycle, with high improvements in utterance 2, 3 and 4 but no progress in utterance 6: Utterance Pretest Post test Improvement in fraction (post test- pretest) 2/9 3/6 3/5 2/6 1/3 0/4 Improvement percentage 22% 50% 60% 33% 33% 0% 33%

1 2/9 4/9 2 2/6 4/6 3 1/5 4/5 4 1/6 3/6 5 0/3 1/3 6 1/4 1/4 Average percentage of improvement Table 13: Improvement in Binh’s intonation students‟ intonation.

In average, the second cycle witnessed a 26%- improvement in For both of the cycles, the average improvement in participant‟s intonation could be identified easily from the chart below:

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Percentage of improvement
45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Dung Hạnh Mai Thanh Bình Thiết Thương Trang Tú Anh

Cycle 1
Percentage of improvement

Cycle 2

Figure 7: Percentage of improvement As demonstrated from in the chart, participants in cycle 1 improved more than 20% in the accuracy of intonation. The second cycle even witnessed a better improvement in participants‟ intonation with the highest percentage of 40% and the lowest of 26%. From the two cycles, the average percentage of participants‟ improvement was 30%, which could be considered a success for the scale and the length of the course. 4.1.1.2 Discussion It was clear from the data above that the use of English pop songs in teaching has brought certain improvement to ULIS freshmen‟s intonation. It was also noticeable that the participants‟ intonation has improved much better in cycle 2 than in cycle 1 (in average, 23% for cycle 1 and 36% for cycle 2). The difference between the two cycle, perhaps, thank to the improvements made for the lesson plans in cycle 2 as well as the researcher‟s experience and confidence.

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4.1.2. Research question 2: What techniques are the most effective to teach intonation with English pop songs to the freshmen at ULIS, VNU as perceived by these freshmen? The answers to this question lied in the reflection on highly appreciated lessons and the techniques suggested in these lessons. In order the get the most effective and correct answers, it was important that the data were process step by step as follows: 4.1.2.1. The Recommended lessons for intonation teaching It could be seen from the chart below that participants in the first cycle were not interested in the lesson 5 as none of them liked this lesson.
Lesson 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Dung Yes So so Yes Yes No Yes Yes Hạnh Yes Yes Yes Yes, very So so Yes Yes Mai Yes Yes Yes Yes So so Yes Yes Thanh Yes Yes Yes Yes So so Yes, very Yes Percentage appreciation 100% 75% 100% 100% 0% 100% 100% of

Table 14: Participant’s attitude towards lessons in cycle 1 However, lesson 5 got the appreciation from all students in the second cycle. Lesson 2, in contrast, got a lower mark in the second cycle.
Lesson 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Bình Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Thương Yes So so Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Thiết Yes So so Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Trang Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Tú Anh Yes So so Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Percentage appreciation 100% 40% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% of

Table 15: Participant’s attitude towards lessons in cycle 2 When taken into consideration across both of the cycle, lesson 5 and lesson 2 got the same average mark of 55% , which was lower than the
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required mark stated in the previous chapter (70%). Thus, these two lessons would not be used for later analysis. This result was reinforced when the researcher studied the marks given by students to each lesson, which showed that lesson 2 and lesson 5 only got the average mark of 7.9 while all other lessons got more than 8.6. In sum, the Recommended list for further study would include lesson 1, 3, 4, 6 and 7. 4.1.2.2. Features of a favorable lesson The basic desire of this research was to explore a joyful way of learning and teaching intonation; thus, whether or not learners were interested in the lesson was the major concern of the research. As the previous section has identified the favorable lessons from learners‟ perspectives, this section would continue with the main features of these lessons. A careful study of all participants‟ description about the lessons above has brought about some key features for a lesson to be favorable. From the adjectives used by participants, their answers could be coded into three main categories of freshness, joyfulness and effectiveness  Joyfulness: this term was used to refer to any positive or high emotions experienced by students during the lesson. When being asked to describe the lessons, the majority of answers, accounting for 88% of participants‟ responses, contained at least an adjective to describe the joyfulness of the lesson. The most frequent expressions used by these students were “interesting” and “exciting”. Some students expressed higher emotional level towards the lessons with adjectives like “attractive”, “great”, or “wonderful”. The adjective “funny” was sometimes used by participants as an expression for their joy with the lesson.
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 Effectiveness: in the scope of this study, effectiveness referred to any positive impressions and effects on participants‟ authentic communication in English. This characteristic also received considerable concerns from students as 68% of their responses contained the words “effective” or “useful”. Other expressions like “impressive” or “practical” were also mentioned in the descriptions of lessons.  Freshness: the general meaning of this term, as used in this paper, referred to the fact that students found the information and activities in lessons new. This success determinant of lessons lied in 39% of students‟ answers in the form of the words “new”, “surprising” and even „strange”. These key factors in participants‟ perceptions of good lessons would work as the guide-channel for the researcher to analyze the useful techniques to teach intonation, as discussed in the next section. 4.1.2.3 Effective techniques for intonation teaching After collecting all the lessons which were recommended by students as effective and interesting for their intonation learning in the previous steps, the researcher made further investigation into each lesson plan, each teaching technique used in the lesson and students‟ reflection on each technique. The chart below summarized students‟ ideas about the effectiveness of the main techniques:

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Percentage of effectiveness
120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Song listening Eliciting+ disussion Practice Visual display Explanation Singing

Percentage of effectiveness

Figure 8: Effectiveness of teaching techniques perceived by students As shown in the chart, the techniques of eliciting knowledge from students and their discussion, displaying intonation patterns visually on the board and explaining the theoretical contents achieved a stably and continuously good effect as they were mentioned in 100% of students‟ answers. The activities of listening to the song (techniques used for icebreaking and introductory purposes) and practicing were also appreciated in most of the answers (98%). The final major activities for reinforcing students‟ knowledge and practicing intonation- singing along- got the most criticism and suspicion for their effectiveness with only 83% of approval. However, the effectiveness of each technique did not correspond to students‟ interest in it. When being asked to combine the effectiveness and joyfulness of each activity and select their most favorite activity for each lesson, students provided the votes as totalized in the chart below:
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Frequency of student's votes
Song listening 2% Singing 18%

Explanation 3%

Eliciting+ disussion 22%

Practice 55%

Figure 9: Students’ most favorite activities in lessons Specifically, although practice did not get the absolute value for effectiveness, this kind of activity was considered the most favorite with 55% of the responses. “Although the song is not interesting and the information is not new, I still liked the lesson very much because we have chances to practice” was the frequent comment for lesson 6 and lesson 7. A deeper look into students‟ perception of practice activities showed that they felt more involved and interested in tasks which contained less control from the teachers. Further interviews about lesson 6 and lesson 7 reached a common comment of “ I feel more excited and involved when the practice tasks give me a chance to express our intonation in our own words. It is more challenging but interesting”. Similarly, the activity of singing along the songs received a high rate of votes (18%) despite their position for the most criticized and suspected technique in effectiveness.

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Conversely, activities with high appreciation for their effectiveness such as song listening (98%), theory explaining (100%) and visual intonation displaying (100%) were hardly voted as the most effective and interesting activity of the lesson. The percentages of votes for all these three activities were all less than 3%. The only technique to have correlative results in effectiveness and students‟ interest was eliciting students‟ knowledge and discussion, with the value of 100% for effectiveness and 22% of votes to be the most favorite activities. 4.1.2.4. Conclusion With all the data demonstrated and interpreted above, the effective techniques and activities to teach intonation with English pop songs have been found as follows: - Using songs as the main material for ice-breaking , lesson introduction and students‟ discussion - Eliciting students‟ knowledge by drawing their attention to sentences and melodies of the songs, letting them interpreting the intonation, the situation and reasons for the choices of the intonation and discussing the answers with other mates. - Presenting the theory by summarizing students queries or conflicts, explaining the origin of their difficulties and giving correction - Demonstrating the key contents of the intonation lesson on the board with simple visual tools like arrows - Using songs as a source for students to practice their intonation: encourage them to sing along the flow of the songs - Delivering practice tasks

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4.1.3. Research question 3: What are the essential features of English pop songs that can help to improve ULIS freshmen’s intonation as perceived by these freshmen? First and foremost, it was worth re-stating that the Recommended list of lessons did not include lesson 2 and lesson 5; hence, the songs in these two lessons would not be used to answer the third research question. However, songs in other lessons would still be used even when they received low marks from students. The only changes in the process of these songs would be the connection between the unfavorable features of the songs and the techniques used to minimize these disadvantages. Then, in order the explore the most essential features of songs used for intonation teaching, it was crucial to analyze the songs in the sequences of appreciation. With reference from the table below, it was clearly that the features of songs in lesson 1 and lesson 4 be studied first because they were really successful from students‟ perspectives (on average for both cycles, 100% students liked the song in lesson 1 and 90% liked that in lesson 4). Other songs in lessons 3, 6 and 7 would be used as a means to check and reinforce these features.
Cycle 1 Songs 1 3 4 6 7 Dung Yes A bit So so No Yes Hạnh Yes Yes Yes, very So so So so Mai Yes Yes Yes So so Yes Thanh Yes So so Yes Yes Yes Average 100% 50% 75% 25% 75% Bình Yes Yes Yes, very Yes Yes Thương Yes Yes Yes A bit So so Cycle 2 Thiết Yes Yes Yes Trang Yes Yes Yes Tú Anh Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Average 100% 100% 100% 60% 80%

So so So so Yes Yes

Table 16: Students’ interest in songs
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From the table above, it was also necessary to study more about the techniques used in lesson 3 and lesson 6 as the changes in teaching techniques had brought considerably increase in students‟ interest: from 50% to 100% in lesson 3 and from 25% to 50% in lesson 6. In order to check the relative statistic above, another step on absolute marks given to lessons was implemented:
Cycle 1 Songs 1 3 4 6 7 Dung Hạnh 9 8 8 7 8.5 9 8.5 9.5 7 7.75 Mai 9 8.75 9.5 8 8.75 Thanh 9.5 8.5 8.5 9 9 Bình 9.5 8.5 9.5 8 8.5 Thương 9.5 9 9.5 8 8 Cycle 2 Thiết 10 9 9 7 8 Trang Tú Anh 9 8 9 7.5 8.5 9.5 9 9.5 8 8.5 9.3 8.6 9.1 7.7 8.4 Average

Table 17: Marks given by students to the songs With the data on marks, the importance and success of lesson 1 and lesson 4 were reinforced. Simultaneously, the innovation in lesson 3 and lesson 6 was proved. In other words, it was reasonable that the process of song analysis would be implemented in the sequences mentioned above. It was also worth noticing that, the features of English pop songs used for intonation teaching would be interpreted in two main aspects: melody and lyric, as defined clearly in the interview schemes. 4.1.3.1. Features of song melody The interpretation of comments about the songs “Hello” in lesson 1 and “The day you went away” in lesson 4 has brought about some main features of these songs: speed, gentleness and impression.  Speed: Although the two songs had different speed, Hello was rather slow while “The day you went away” was a bit fast, they could be both
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considered to have a medium speed. When a song have a fast speed, like the song “A little time” in lesson 6, it was likely to receive negative feedback from students. “ When the song is too fast, I cannot catch the words and cannot sing along. It is very discouraged”, a student said. Additionally, the high speed of the melody often prevented students from paying attention to the lyrics. This point was proved as 8 out of 9 participants said they did not care about the lyric of the song “A little time”. A song with too slow melody would also be discouraged, as stated in participants‟ comments on the song “Eyes on me” in lesson 5. However, the problem with the fast speed of songs was not unsolvable. In lesson 6 of the second cycle, students‟ discouragement with the fast melody of “A little time” had been eliminated by explaining that the speed was similar to normal speaking speed in English and that they would only catch some main words in a native speaker‟ utterance, by guiding students to pay only attention to the main intonation pattern of the lesson and spending more time for practice. When applying these techniques, the difficulties with high speed would become a challenge and motivation for students to try, as said by a student “After the explanation, I feel like I can deal with this difficult song. This makes me motivated and happy.”  Gentleness: an important feature that most of the appreciated songs had in common was the gentle melody. The adjectives like “gentle”, “relaxing”, “sweet” or “peaceful” were repeated again and again in participants‟ answers during the interviews.  Impression: Participants‟ answers about song melody also offered another important feature: their strong impression on the melody. Although students‟ tastes of music might differ, they often have positive
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feeling to the melody that brought impression of “familiar” or “easy to listen” The combination of the features above would make an English pop song suitable and effective in teaching intonation. 4.1.3.2. Features of song lyric It appeared in the participants‟ responses that song lyrics played a secondary role in determining students‟ interest in a song, after song melody. This fact was firstly shown in the statistic that only 32% of the answers were “ I don‟t care about the song lyric” or “ When I listen to a song, I only pay attention to the melody”. Some participants clarified that “Only when I really like the song melody do I pay attention to the lyric”. However, the exploration of students‟ comments on song lyrics still offered some important features for a song to be relevant and effective to teach them. The first code for features of song lyric was meaningfulness. This was the term mentioned in 37% of the answers about song lyrics. In this study, the meaningfulness of a song lyric was understood as the positive effects on people‟s behaviors. It could be the educational and valuable lesson “No pain, no gain” in the song “Donna, Donna” (Lesson 3), some philosophical sentences in the song “The day you went away” often lesson 4 (for example, “Why do we never know what we‟ve got till it‟s gone?”) or simply the noble love expressed in the song “Hello” (Lesson 1). The meaningfulness of a song lyric, as stated by most students, would make them “want to listen more”, “want to understand more”, “want to practice more to sing like this” and “become more interested in the whole lesson”. The second feature of song lyrics which could be coded from the interviews were romance. This was the feature that accounted for 44% of the answers about song lyrics. It should be noted that the 2 most appreciated
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songs, “Hello” and “The day you went away”, were about the romance (or in another word, love). This situation, perhaps, originated from that two important facts in the subjects of this study: firstly, the pop songs were mainly about love or romantic relationships and secondly, all participants in this study were first-year students of ULIS-VNU who were all young and in favor of romance. The last feature of song lyrics to be mentioned in the interviews was new vocabulary. This feature was rather contradictory in terms of effectiveness to the lessons. On the one hand, a range of new vocabulary appearing in one song might discourage learners as they could not understand the song well. In a learner‟s words, “I think this is over my level. I can‟t learn anything about the use of intonation in this song because I just don‟t understand!”. This kind of discouragement and prejudice may bring negative effects to the process of teaching and learning intonation. On the other hand, the new vocabulary might motivate students in that they could learn more. The adding of lyric explanation in lesson 3 proved to be really necessary and effective. One student expressed their feeling as “afraid” at the beginning and then “excited” as “It‟s like I can deal with such difficult vocabulary”. 4.1.3.3. Conclusion The essential features of an English pop song, which are to teach intonation to freshmen at ULIS-VNU, can be summarized as follows: - The song melody should have a medium speed and be gentle, easy to listen and sing along as well as familiar to the students - The song lyrics should be meaningful with educational lesson about life or romance. It should also contain a certain amount of new vocabulary.
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Although these features are essential, it is possible for some chosen songs to violate one of these features. The disadvantages of the missing feature can be minimized with suitable techniques to encourage students and shift the focus of the lesson to another activity. 4.2. Implications This study has been conducted with a strong desire of the researcher that it would attract more concerns from linguists, pedagogues, especially teachers and learners of English to intonation and the use of English songs in classrooms. Hopefully, this would help to raise Vietnamese teachers‟ and learners‟ awareness on the importance of intonation in English language and open up a new trend of teaching and learning in Vietnam: a trend of more concentration on intonation as well as exploitation of relaxing materials for learning process. 4.3. Application All the findings of this study together with the research instruments (including data, intonation test, lesson plans on intonation courses) can be used as the materials for intonation teaching process or as a source of reference for further studies in the future. Specifically, the lessons plans and the songs used in the research can be merely employed in teaching intonation to students at ULIS,VNU. This can also be used for any other groups of population with small changes in process and tasks to meet the demand of those learners. Furthermore, the information in this study can be used as data or suggestions for later studies on intonation, intonation teaching or application of English pop songs in ELT.

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CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION
This section is the last part of the research. It is going to give a brief summary of the research findings and cite the limitations of the research. Besides, suggestions for future research and further implications are also included. 5.1. Summary of findings The present study explores a new way of teaching English intonation with the use of English pop songs. Moreover, in the form of an action research using both qualitative and quantitative methods, the study comes up with the answers to the three research questions. First, it is shown according to the data collected that this way of intonation teaching has brought certain improvements to ULIS freshmen‟s intonation. Second, there are some effective techniques that should be used to teach intonation through English pop songs. Specifically, they are: - Using songs as the main material for ice-breaking , lesson introduction and students‟ discussion - Eliciting students‟ knowledge by letting them concentrate on analyzing the intonation of some certain phrases in the song, guessing the situation and reasons for the choices of the intonation and discussing the answers. - Presenting the theory by summarizing students queries or conflicts, explaining the origin of their difficulties and giving correction - Using simple visual tools like arrows to demonstrate the key contents of the intonation lesson on the board - Using songs as a source for students to practice their intonation: encourage them to sing along the flow of the songs
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- Providing abundant practice tasks with a large amount of autonomy for students Finally, the selection of English pop songs for the purpose of teaching intonation should be processed with consideration about speed, gentleness and familiar impression of the melody as well as the meaningfulness, romance and amount of new vocabulary in the lyric. 5.2. Limitations Due to time limit, shortage of standardized materials and methods to evaluate intonation, the researcher‟s little experience in conducting a research and unexpected objective problems, it is inevitable that the study has revealed several limitations as follows: In terms of methodology, the pre-test and post test used to analyze the results of the action research was only self-designed and self-processed without any official recognition, which made the results not absolutely reliable. In terms of theory, the intonation tests and intonations course just put a sole concentration on pitch variations; thus, the result can not represent the intonation improvement in the broadest sense. Besides, some interviews were conducted in a short time, which may have brought about possible affective factors on the attitude and perception differences among the participants. Also, due to the scope of the research, this study could only be conducted with a small population of participants, thus, the result might not be representative enough, which should be improved in further research. 5.3. Suggestions for further studies Due to the various constraints of the project, there are still many undiscovered sub-areas which provide a ground for further studies.
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Firstly, the study is in form of an action research, which cannot control effects from other factors on participants‟ improvement. With a view to getting more valid data, another study in form of an experimental research should be of interest. Moreover, the study merely focuses on pitch variable which may leave an option for other researchers to investigate other elements of intonation. Later, when all elements have been investigated, there would be a need for an exploitation of new the methods and techniques to teach intonation with all the essential aspects. Lastly, doing research on a larger number of participants or other groups of participants with different characteristics is highly suggested as it will help to find out more reliable and interesting data.

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Pop. Oxford Dictionary of Music. Retrieved January 14th from the World Wide Web http://books.google.com.vn/books?id=y0b0_CQATAIC&pg=PA571&lpg=P A571&dq=Pop.+Oxford+Dictionary+of+Music.&source=bl&ots=bVcAEH2 8 Ranalli, J.M. (2002). Discourse intonation: To teach or not to teach. Birmingham: University of Birmingham. Roach, P. (1983). English phonetics and phonology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Sabbadin, M.J. (2006). Intonation. Retrieved October 9th, 2009 from the World Wide Web http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/ Scrivener, J. (?) Skills: Teaching English intonation. Retrieved February 12th , 2010 from the World Wide Web http://www.onestopenglish.com/ Shuker, R. (2001). Understanding popular music . London: Routledge Song. Cambridge Advanced Learner Dictionary Online. Retrieved January 14 th, 2010 from the World Wide Web http://dictionary.cambridge.org/ Song. Retrieved November 26th, 2009 from website of Princeton University, USA http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn
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Teaching intonation and stress pattern. Retrieved February 20th , 2010 from the World Wide Web http://www.btinternet.com/~ted.power/esl0108.html Tench, P. (1981). Pronunciation skills. London: Macmillan Press. Vaissiere, J. (2004). Perception of Intonation. A Handbook of Speech Perception,10,236 . Warner, T. (2003). Pop Music: Technology and Creativity: Trevor Horn and the Digital Revolution. Retrieved January 15th from the World Wide Web http://wapedia.mobi/en/Pop_Music

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APPENDIX 1
TEST OF INTONATION (PRE-TEST AND POST- TEST) You are going to deal with some situations in which the sayings have been prepared for you. Imagine you are in these situations and speak the utterances with your natural intonation. 1. You are a teacher at Language Link and your students are from 5 to 8 eight years old. Today, you are going to play a small game. Before playing the game, you instruct them to prepare the necessary objects: “You need a pen, a pencil and some paper.”

2. You are at the train station to see off your close friend. You don‟t remember the departure time, so you ask him/her: “Your train leaves at six, doesn’t it?”

3. Your younger sister borrowed your walkman for 2 weeks and now she comes into our room to return it. You are busy with the assignment, so you say to her without turning around: “Put it on the table”

4. This is your first time to London. You need to deposit some money but you don‟t know how to get to the bank. You catch a man on the street and ask him: “Do you know where the bank is, please?”

5. You don‟t have a watch or a clock around. In order to know the time, you ask your roommate: “What time is it?”

6. You are a teacher at a high school. You are teaching the lesson when a student opens the door and asks for permission to come in the class. He is 30 minutes late. You ask him: “What time is it?” 65

References for the test
Utterance 1: Gerald Kelly (2000). Intonation. How to teach Pronunciation (pp.101). Longman Publisher. Utterance 2: Gerald Kelly (2000). Intonation. How to teach Pronunciation (pp.89). Longman Publisher. Utterance 3: Gerald Kelly (2000). Intonation. How to teach Pronunciation (pp.89). Longman Publisher. Utterance 4: Gerald Kelly (2000). Intonation. How to teach Pronunciation (pp.105). Longman Publisher. Utterance 5+6: Eric (2007). ESL Pronunciation Practice for Question Intonation. Retrieved January 9th, 2010 from the World Wide Web http://teachers-call.com/2007/08/esl-pronunciation-practice-for-questions.html

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APENDIX 2: Cycle 1
INTERVIEW SCHEME- Lesson 1. So, we have just finish the lesson today. Do you like it? Can you use some specific adjectives to describe it? 2. In comparison to the previous lesson, which one do you prefer? If you can give a mark from 1 to 10 for this lesson, which mark will you give? 3. Now, let‟s talk about the activities in this lesson. Which activities in this lesson do you consider interesting and effective? Specifically, which activity do you think is the most effective and interesting?

4.

Do you like the song? Can you use some adjectives or phrases to describe the melody of the song? Do you think the melody of the song is effective for the lesson? Can you use some adjectives or phrases to describe the lyric of the song? Do you think the lyric of the song is effective for the lesson?

5. If you can give a mark from 1 to 10 for this song, which mark will you give? 6. Is there any idea about this interview or the previous interview that you want to change?

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APPENDIX 3: Cycle 2
INTERVIEW SCHEME- Lesson 1. So, we have just finish the lesson today. Do you like it? Can you use some specific adjectives to describe it? 2. In comparison to the previous lesson, which one do you prefer? If you can give a mark from 1 to 10 for this lesson, which mark will you give? 3. Now, let‟s talk about the activities in this lesson. The first activity of the lesson today is…………….. Do you think it is effective? The second activity of the lesson today is…………….. Do you think it is effective? The second activity of the lesson today is…………….. Do you think it is effective?

Specifically, which activity do you think is the most effective and interesting? 4. Do you like the song? Can you use some adjectives or phrases to describe the melody of the song? Do you think the melody of the song is effective for the lesson? Can you use some adjectives or phrases to describe the lyric of the song? Do you think the lyric of the song is effective for the lesson? 5. If you can give a mark from 1 to 10 for this song, which mark will you give? 6. Is there any idea about this interview or the previous interview that you want to change?

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APPENDIX 4_A: Song for lesson 1

Hello
Lionel Richie

I've been alone with you, inside my mind. And in my dreams I've kissed your lips, a thousand times. I sometimes see you pass outside my door. Hello! Is it me you're looking for? I can see it in your eyes, i can see it in your smile. You're all I've ever wanted and my arms are open wide. cause you know just what to say and you know just what to do And I want to tell you so much.... I love you. I long to see the sunlight in your hair And tell you time and time again, how much I care. Sometimes I feel my heart will overflow. Hello! I've just got to let you know Cause I wonder where you are, and I wonder what you do Are you somewhere feeling lonely, or is someone loving you!?. Tell me how to win your heart, for I haven't got a clue. But let me start by saying... I love you.

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APPENDIX 4- B: Lesson plan 1
The song “Hello” and the rising tunes 1. Class description: 5 first-year students, Faculty of English Language Teacher Education, ULIS-VNU 2. Time: 60 mins 3. Objectives: After the lesson, Ss will be able to + Understand the pitch range in rising tunes + Understand the use of rising tunes in greeting 4. Assumed knowledge: Ss have already got knowledge about intonation and known some vocabulary items in the songs 5. Anticipated problems: It may be time, so teacher should prepare the way to shorten down practice part Ss may not have enough vocabulary about song lyric or intonation pattern => T should prepare explanation or use Vietnamese to explain to difficult terms 6. Teaching aids: CDs, cassette, handouts 7. Procedure: Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Teaching techniques 1. Warm-up 1. Warm-up *Aims: make Ss familiar with the *Aims: make Ss familiar with the song and raise their interest for song and raise their interest for the lesson the lesson - Let Ss listen to the song for the - Let Ss listen to the song for the - Ice-breaking first time. first time. with songs - Ask them whether they have - Ask them whether they have heard the song before, what the heard the song before, what the title of the song is and who the title of the song is and who the singer is => the song “Hello” by singer is => the song “Hello” by Lionel Richie. Lionel Richie. 2. Main-activities 2. Main-activities - Deliver the handouts containing - Deliver the handouts containing - Using songs as the lyric of the song the lyric of the song the material to - Let Ss look at the lyric and listen - Let Ss look at the lyric and listen learn to the song again to the song again 2.1 Intonation in greeting 2.1 Intonation in greeting - Let Ss pay attention to the word - Let Ss pay attention to the word “Hello” “Hello” - Ask 3 of them to sing the word - Ask 3 of them to sing the word again again - Play the CD around the piece of - Play the CD around the piece of - Eliciting Ss‟ song containing the word “Hello” song containing the word “Hello” knowledge - Ask Ss: - Ask Ss: + Which tune is used in this + Which tune is used in this utterance? utterance? - Eliciting class + How do you often say this + How do you often say this discussion utterance of greeting? utterance of greeting? + Is it different in this song? + Is it different in this song?
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+ Can you imagine in which situation the rising tune is used like this? - Explain the different intonation patterns of greeting used with different purposes + Normally, the glide-up is used for greeting and goodbye + The take-off is used when the speaker is not sure about the existence of the other people or want to draw attention 2.2. Intonation in interrogative questions - Let Ss pay attention to the Yes/No questions in the lyric + Is this me you’re looking for? + Are you somewhere feeling lonely or is someone loving you? - Let Ss listen to the song again to identify the intonation of these sentences - Write the two sentences on the board - Ask Ss about the intonation of the sentences and draw the tune shapes on the board, under each sentence Is this me you’re looking for? Are you somewhere feeling lonely or is someone loving you? - Explain the use of rising tunes in Yes/No questions - Let Ss listen to the song again and sing along 2.3. Practice - Write 2 sentences on the board: + Are you American? + Is this your first time to Vietnam?

+ Can you imagine in which situation the rising tune is used like this? - Explain the different intonation patterns of greeting used with different purposes + Normally, the glide-up is used for greeting and goodbye + The take-off is used when the speaker is not sure about the existence of the other people or want to draw attention 2.2. Intonation in interrogative questions - Let Ss pay attention to the Yes/No questions in the lyric + Is this me you’re looking for? + Are you somewhere feeling lonely or is someone loving you? - Let Ss listen to the song again to identify the intonation of these sentences - Write the two sentences on the board - Ask Ss about the intonation of the sentences and draw the tune shapes on the board, under each sentence Is this me you’re looking for? Are you somewhere feeling lonely or is someone loving you? - Explain the use of rising tunes in Yes/No questions - Let Ss listen to the song again and sing along 2.3. Practice - Write 2 sentences on the board: + Are you American? + Is this your first time to Vietnam? Explanation of lesson points

-

Eliciting Ss‟ knowledge

-

Eliciting class discussion

-

Visual display

-

Explanation of lesson points Using songs as a material to practice Practice with authentic utterances

-

-

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- Ask Ss which intonation pattern they will use - Let Ss practice individually in 1 minute and practice in pairs for 2 mins - Call each S to stand up and speak the utterances out loud - Ask other Ss to give comment on their peers‟ intonation - Consolidate Ss‟ feedback and give T‟s feedback

- Ask Ss which intonation pattern they will use - Let Ss practice individually in 1 minute and practice in pairs for 2 mins - Call each S to stand up and speak the utterances out loud - Ask other Ss to give comment on their peers‟ intonation - Consolidate Ss‟ feedback and give T‟s feedback

-

Giving feedback

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APPENDIX 5_A: Song for lesson 2
You Can Get It If You Really Want Jimmy Cliff You can get it if you really want You can get it if you really want You can get it if you really want But you must try, try and try Try and try, you'll succeed at last Rome was not built in a day Opposition will come your way But the hotter the battle you see It's the sweeter the victory, now You can get it if you really want You can get it if you really want You can get it if you really want But you must try, try and try Try and try, you'll succeed at last Persecution you must bear Win or lose you've got to get your share Got your mind set on a dream You can get it, though harder them seem now You can get it if you really want You can get it if you really want You can get it if you really want But you must try, try and try Try and try, you'll succeed at last You can get it if you really want - I know it You can get it if you really want - though I show it You can get it if you really want - so don't give up now

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APPENDIX 5-B: Lesson plan 2
The song “You can get it if you really want” and the falling tune 1. Class description: 5 first-year students, Faculty of English Language Teacher Education, ULIS-VNU 2. Time: 60 mins 3. Objectives: After the lesson, Ss will be able to + Reinforce knowledge about rising tune + Understand the pitch range in falling tunes + Understand the combination of rising tunes and falling tunes 4. Assumed knowledge: Ss have already got knowledge about intonation and known some vocabulary items in the songs 5. Anticipated problems: It may be lack of time, so teacher should prepare the way to shorten down practice part Ss may not have enough vocabulary about song lyric or intonation pattern => T should prepare explanation or use Vietnamese to explain to difficult terms 6. Teaching aids: CDs, cassette, handouts 7. Procedure: Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Teaching Techniques 1. Warm-up 1. Warm-up *Aims: make Ss familiar with the *Aims: make Ss familiar with the song and raise their interest or song and raise their interest or curiosity for the lesson curiosity for the lesson - Ice-breaking - Deliver the handouts containing - Deliver the handouts containing with songs the lyric of the song “You can get the lyric of the song “You can get it if you really want” it if you really want” - Let Ss look through the song - Let Ss look through the song lyrics and ask them whether they lyrics and ask them whether they know the song or not. know the song or not. If anybody knows, encourage If anybody knows, encourage him/her to sing for the whole the him/her to sing for the whole the class class If nobody knows, let Ss draw the If nobody knows, let Ss draw the purpose of the song based on the purpose of the song based on the content and guess how the melody content and guess how the melody of the song will be like (quick or of the song will be like (quick or slow, high or low tone, etc.) slow, high or low tone, etc.) T can help Ss with some questions T can help Ss with some questions - Eliciting Ss‟ like: like: knowledge: + What is the purpose of this + What is the purpose of this links between song? Which kind of response does song? Which kind of response does melody and the composer want from the the composer want from the purpose hearers? hearers? + With this kind of purpose, which + With this kind of purpose, which tone do you often choose to speak tone do you often choose to speak or sing? Is it high or low? Is it fast or sing? Is it high or low? Is it fast
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or slow? - Play the CD once for Ss to see if their mate‟s singing/ their guess is correct 2. Main-activities - Let Ss look at the song lyric and listen to the song again. T encourage them to sing along 2.1.The falling tune in statements - Write the main and repeated sentence on the board You can get it if you really want - Ask Ss to recall their memories and tell what the intonation in this sentence is like T can help Ss by asking them step by step + What are the important words in this sentence? + How is the intonation in each word? Is it high or low? Is it on the rise or on the fall? - Underline the key words as Ss say and draw the tune shape of the sentence on the board You can get it if you really want - Let Ss listen to the piece of song again and check the intonation in the sentence above - Ask Ss to give the - Explain the intonation patterns used in a list The intonation pattern used in a normal statement usually falling. 2.2. Intonation in a list - Write the a list on the board But you must try, try and try, try and try - Ask Ss to recall their memories and tell what the intonation in this sentence is like T can help Ss by asking them step by step + What are the important words in

or slow? - Play the CD once for Ss to see if their mate‟s singing/ their guess is correct 2. Main-activities - Let Ss look at the song lyric and listen to the song again. T encourage them to sing along 2.1.The falling tune in statements - Write the main and repeated sentence on the board You can get it if you really want - Ask Ss to recall their memories and tell what the intonation in this sentence is like T can help Ss by asking them step by step + What are the important words in this sentence? + How is the intonation in each word? Is it high or low? Is it on the rise or on the fall? - Underline the key words as Ss say and draw the tune shape of the sentence on the board You can get it if you really want - Let Ss listen to the piece of song again and check the intonation in the sentence above - Ask Ss to give the - Explain the intonation patterns used in a list The intonation pattern used in a normal statement usually falling. 2.2. Intonation in a list - Write the a list on the board But you must try, try and try, try and try - Ask Ss to recall their memories and tell what the intonation in this sentence is like T can help Ss by asking them step by step + What are the important words in

-

Using songs as the material to learn

-

Eliciting Ss‟ knowledge

-

Visual display

-

Eliciting class discussion Explanation of lesson points

-

-

Visual display

-

Eliciting Ss‟ knowledge

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this sentence? + How is the intonation in each word? Is it high or low? Is it on the rise or on the fall? - Underline the key words as Ss say and draw the tune shape of the sentence on the board But you must try, try and try, try and try - Let Ss listen to the piece of song again and check the intonation in the sentence above - Ask Ss to discuss and suggest the intonation pattern for a list - Explain the intonation patterns used in a list + For the initial items in a list ,the rising tone is used + For the last item of a list, the falling tone is used Then , normally, the intonation pattern in a list is rising, rising and finally falling - Let Ss listen to the song again and sing along 2.3. Practice - Ask each student to think of 2 sentences: one normal statement and one sentence containing a list in 3 minutes - Let Ss choose the appropriate intonation pattern for their sentences and practice individually in 2 minute - Call each S to stand up and speak the utterances out loud - Ask other Ss to give comment on their peers‟ intonation - Consolidate Ss‟ feedback and give T‟s feedback

this sentence? + How is the intonation in each word? Is it high or low? Is it on the rise or on the fall? - Underline the key words as Ss say and draw the tune shape of the sentence on the board But you must try, try and try, try and try - Let Ss listen to the piece of song again and check the intonation in the sentence above - Ask Ss to discuss and suggest the intonation pattern for a list - Explain the intonation patterns used in a list + For the initial items in a list ,the rising tone is used + For the last item of a list, the falling tone is used Then , normally, the intonation pattern in a list is rising, rising and finally falling - Let Ss listen to the song again and sing along 2.3. Practice - Ask each student to think of 2 sentences: one normal statement and one sentence containing a list in 3 minutes - Let Ss choose the appropriate intonation pattern for their sentences and practice individually in 2 minute - Call each S to stand up and speak the utterances out loud - Ask other Ss to give comment on their peers‟ intonation - Consolidate Ss‟ feedback and give T‟s feedback

-

Visual display

-

Eliciting class discussion

-

Explanation of lesson points

-

Using songs as a material to practice Practice with authentic utterances

-

-

Giving feedback

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APPENDIX 6_A: Song for lesson 3

Donna Donna
Julie Roger On a waggon bound for market there`s a calf with a mournful eye. High above him there`s a swallow, winging swiftly through the sky. How the winds are laughing, they laugh with all their might. Laugh and laugh the whole day through, and half the summer`s night. Chorus: Donna, Donna, Donna, Donna; Donna, Donna, Donna, Don. Donna, Donna, Donna, Donna; Donna, Donna, Donna, Don. "Stop complaining!? said the farmer, Who told you a calf to be ? Why don`t you have wings to fly with, like the swallow so proud and free?? *Chorus* Calves are easily bound and slaughtered, never knowing the reason why. But whoever treasures freedom, like the swallow has learned to fly. *Chorus*

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APPENDIX 6-B: Lesson plan 3
The song “Donna, Donna” with the interchange of falling & rising tone 1. Class description: 5 first-year students, Faculty of English Language Teacher Education, ULIS-VNU 2. Time: 60 mins 3. Objectives: After the lesson, Ss will be able to + Reinforce knowledge about falling tone in statement + Understand the interchange of rising and falling tones in WH-questions 4. Assumed knowledge: Ss have already got knowledge about intonation and known some vocabulary items in the songs 5. Anticipated problems: It may be lack of time, so teacher should prepare the way to shorten down practice part Ss may not have enough vocabulary about song lyric or intonation pattern => T should prepare explanation or use Vietnamese to explain to difficult terms 6. Teaching aids: CDs, cassette, handouts 7. Procedure: Teacher Teaching Techniques 1. Warm-up 1. Warm-up *Aims: make Ss familiar with the *Aims: make Ss familiar with the - Ice-breaking song and raise their interest or song and raise their interest or with songs curiosity for the lesson curiosity for the lesson - Deliver the handouts containing the - Deliver the handouts containing lyric of the song “Donna, Donna” the lyric of the song “Donna, - Let Ss look through the song lyrics Donna” and ask them whether they know the - Let Ss look through the song lyrics song or not. and ask them whether they know the If anybody knows, encourage song or not. him/her to sing for the whole the class If anybody knows, encourage If nobody knows, play the CD once him/her to sing for the whole the and let Ss guess the genre of the song class T can help Ss with some questions If nobody knows, play the CD once like: and let Ss guess the genre of the + How is the melody of the song like? song - Eliciting Ss‟ +What is your feeling when you T can help Ss with some questions knowledge: listening to this song? like: links between + Normally, which kind of music + How is the melody of the song melody and brings you this feeling? like? purpose +What is your feeling when you listening to this song? + Normally, which kind of music brings you this feeling? - Explain the main content and the lesson implied in this song: “No pain, no gain”

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2. Main-activities - Let Ss look through the song lyric and find out all types of sentences. - Ask Ss to recall their memories about the previous lesson and suggest the general use of intonation pattern in the learnt type of sentences - Let Ss look at the song lyric and listen to the song again. T encourage them to sing along 2.1.The falling tune in WHquestions - Write the important sentence on the board +Who told you a calf to be? +Why don’t you have wings to fly with like the swallow so proud and free? - Ask Ss to recall their memories and tell what the intonation in this sentence is like T can help Ss by asking them step by step + What are the important words in this sentence? + How is the intonation in each word? Is it high or low? Is it on the rise or on the fall? - Underline the key words as Ss say and draw the tune shape of the sentence on the board according to Ss‟ suggestion +Who told you a calf to be? +Why don’t you have wings to fly with like the swallow so proud and free? - Let Ss listen to the piece of song again and check the intonation in the sentence above - Together with Ss, correct the

2. Main-activities - Let Ss look through the song lyric and find out all types of sentences. - Ask Ss to recall their memories about the previous lesson and suggest the general use of intonation pattern in the learnt type of sentences - Let Ss look at the song lyric and listen to the song again. T encourage them to sing along 2.1.The falling tune in WHquestions - Write the important sentence on the board +Who told you a calf to be? +Why don’t you have wings to fly with like the swallow so proud and free? - Ask Ss to recall their memories and tell what the intonation in this sentence is like T can help Ss by asking them step by step + What are the important words in this sentence? + How is the intonation in each word? Is it high or low? Is it on the rise or on the fall? - Underline the key words as Ss say and draw the tune shape of the sentence on the board according to Ss‟ suggestion +Who told you a calf to be? +Why don’t you have wings to fly with like the swallow so proud and free? - Let Ss listen to the piece of song again and check the intonation in the sentence above - Together with Ss, correct the

- Revision

- Using songs as the material to learn

- Eliciting Ss‟ knowledge

- Visual display

- Eliciting class discussion

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intonation on the board - Explain the intonation patterns used in a list In WH-questions, the most common tone is falling. Depending on the purpose of the questions, the stress may be put on the WH words or not + If the questions aim at information, the WH words are stressed and falling tones are used + If the questions do not aim at information, WH words are unstressed and other tones would be used. 2.2. Intonation in imperative sentences - Write the an imperative sentence on the board Stop complaining - Ask Ss to recall their memories and tell what the intonation in this sentence is like T can help Ss by asking them step by step +How many syllables are there in the sentence? What are they? +What are the differences in the pitch of these syllable words? Which is the highest? Which is the lowest? - Underline the key words as Ss say and draw the tune shape of the sentence on the board Stop complaining - Ask Ss to analyze the common tones used in imperative sentences => falling tones - Let Ss listen again to the whole song and sing along

intonation on the board - Explain the intonation patterns used in a list In WH-questions, the most common tone is falling. Depending on the purpose of the questions, the stress may be put on the WH words or not + If the questions aim at information, the WH words are stressed and falling tones are used + If the questions do not aim at information, WH words are unstressed and other tones would be used. - Explanation of lesson points

2.2. Intonation in imperative sentences - Visual display - Write the an imperative sentence on the board Stop complaining - Ask Ss to recall their memories and tell what the intonation in this sentence is like T can help Ss by asking them step - Eliciting Ss‟ by step knowledge +How many syllables are there in the sentence? What are they? +What are the differences in the pitch of these syllable words? Which is the highest? Which is the lowest? - Underline the key words as Ss say and draw the tune shape of the sentence on the board - Visual display Stop complaining - Ask Ss to analyze the common tones used in imperative sentences => falling tones - Let Ss listen again to the whole song and sing along - Eliciting Ss‟ knowledge - Using songs as a material to practice

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2.3. Practice - Write 4 sentences on the board: + What did you do last night? + Don’t ever do it again. + Sit down, please. + Who told you to do this? - Ask Ss to imagine the situations in which they would use these utterances and choose an appropriate intonation patterns - Let Ss practice individually in 5 minutes - Call each S to stand up and speak the utterances out loud with explanation about their situations - Ask other Ss to give comment on their peers‟ intonation - Consolidate Ss‟ feedback and give T‟s feedback

2.3. Practice - Write 4 sentences on the board: - Practice with authentic + What did you do last night? utterances + Don’t ever do it again. + Sit down, please. + Who told you to do this? - Ask Ss to imagine the situations in which they would use these utterances and choose an appropriate - Giving feedback intonation patterns - Let Ss practice individually in 5 minutes - Call each S to stand up and speak the utterances out loud with explanation about their situations - Ask other Ss to give comment on their peers‟ intonation - Consolidate Ss‟ feedback and give T‟s feedback

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APPENDIX 7_A: Song for lesson 4
The Day You Went Away M2M Well I wonder could it be When I was dreaming 'bout you baby You were dreaming of me Call me crazy, call me blind To still be suffering stupidly after all of this time Did I lose my love to someone better? And does she love you like I do? I do, you know I really really do *Chorus* Well hey, so much I need to say Been lonely since the day The day you went away So sad but true For me there's only you Been crying since the day The day you went away I remember date and time September twenty second Sunday twenty five after nine In the doorway with your case No longer shouting at each other There were tears on our faces And we were letting go of something special Something we'll never have again I know, I guess I really really know (Chorus) Did I lose my love to someone better? And does she love you like I do? I do, you know I really really do (Chorus) Why do we never know what we've got 'til it's gone? How could I carry on The day you went away? Cause I've been missing you so much I have to say Been crying since the day The day you went away
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APPENDIX 7-B: Lesson plan 4
The song “The day you went away” with the interchange of falling & rising tones 1. Class description: 5 first-year students, Faculty of English Language Teacher Education, ULIS-VNU 2. Time: 60 mins 3. Objectives: After the lesson, Ss will be able to + Reinforce knowledge about intonation pattern in all kinds of sentences that they have learnt + Understand more situation which create the interchange of rising and falling tones in WH-questions 4. Assumed knowledge: Ss have already got knowledge about intonation and known some vocabulary items in the songs 5. Anticipated problems: It may be lack of time, so teacher should prepare the way to shorten down practice part Ss may not have enough vocabulary about song lyric or intonation pattern => T should prepare explanation or use Vietnamese to explain to difficult terms 6. Teaching aids: CDs, cassette, handouts Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Teaching techniques 1. Warm-up 1. Warm-up *Aims: make Ss familiar with the *Aims: make Ss familiar with the - Ice-breaking song and raise their interest for the song and raise their interest for the with songs lesson lesson - Play the intro part of the song - Play the intro part of the song - Ask Ss whether they have heard the - Ask Ss whether they have heard song before, what the title of the the song before, what the title of the song is and who the singer is => the song is and who the singer is => the song “The day you went away” by song “The day you went away” by M2M. M2M. 2. Main-activities 2. Main-activities - Deliver the handouts containing the - Deliver the handouts containing - Using songs lyric of the song the lyric of the song as the - Let Ss look through the song lyric - Let Ss look through the song lyric material to and find out all types of sentences. and find out all types of sentences. learn Statement: I do, you know I really Statement: I do, you know I really really do. really do. Imperative: Call me crazy, call me Imperative: Call me crazy, call me blind blind Y/N question: Did I lose my love to Y/N question: Did I lose my love to someone better? someone better? - Ask Ss to recall their memories - Ask Ss to recall their memories - Revision about the previous lesson and about the previous lesson and suggest the general use of intonation suggest the general use of intonation pattern in the learnt type of pattern in the learnt type of sentences sentences
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2.1Falling tone in Yes/No questions - Let Ss pay attention to the sentences And does she love you like I do? - Ask Ss to analyze the intonation in the sentence + What is the common tone used in this kind of sentence? +Which tune is used in this sentence? + What is the difference between them? + Can you imagine in which situation the falling tune is used like this? - Explain the different intonation patterns of greeting used with different purposes + Normally, the rising tone is used for Yes/No questions to get the answer of Yes or No + The falling tone would be used for Yes/No questions if they do not aim at any answer. The questions are used as a statement of confirmation 2.2. Rising tone in WH-questions - Write the sentence on the board and let Ss pay attention to the questions in the lyric: How could I carry on, the day you went away? - Let Ss listen to the song again to identify the intonation of the sentence - Ask Ss about the intonation of the sentence and draw the arrow of pitch change on the board How could I carry on, the day you went away? - Ask Ss: + What is the normal tone for WH

2.1Falling tone in Yes/No questions - Let Ss pay attention to the sentences And does she love you like I do? - Ask Ss to analyze the intonation in the sentence + What is the common tone used in this kind of sentence? +Which tune is used in this sentence? + What is the difference between them? + Can you imagine in which situation the falling tune is used like this? - Explain the different intonation patterns of greeting used with different purposes + Normally, the rising tone is used for Yes/No questions to get the answer of Yes or No + The falling tone would be used for Yes/No questions if they do not aim at any answer. The questions are used as a statement of confirmation 2.2. Rising tone in WH-questions - Write the sentence on the board and let Ss pay attention to the questions in the lyric: How could I carry on, the day you went away? - Let Ss listen to the song again to identify the intonation of the sentence - Ask Ss about the intonation of the sentence and draw the arrow of pitch change on the board How could I carry on, the day you went away? - Ask Ss: + What is the normal tone for WH

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Eliciting Ss‟ knowledge

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Eliciting class discussion

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Explanation of lesson points

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Eliciting Ss‟ knowledge liciting class discussion

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Visual display

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questions? + When is the rising tone used? + Does this question aim at an answer? If yes, why does it have rising tone? -Explain the point: Intonation can be affected by speaker‟s attitude and emotion. The extreme emotion can often be shown by rising tone - Let Ss listen to the song again and sing along 2.3. Practice - Write 3 sentences on the board: + Did I tell you about that? + Did he inform you about the test? + What will you do in this situation? - Ask Ss to imagine the situations in which they would use these utterances and choose an appropriate intonation patterns - Let Ss practice individually in 5 minutes - Call each S to stand up and speak the utterances out loud with explanation about their situations - Ask other Ss to give comment on their peers‟ intonation - Consolidate Ss‟ feedback and give T‟s feedback

questions? + When is the rising tone used? + Does this question aim at an answer? If yes, why does it have rising tone? -Explain the point: Intonation can be affected by speaker‟s attitude and emotion. The extreme emotion can often be shown by rising tone - Let Ss listen to the song again and sing along 2.3. Practice - Write 3 sentences on the board: + Did I tell you about that? + Did he inform you about the test? + What will you do in this situation? - Ask Ss to imagine the situations in which they would use these utterances and choose an appropriate intonation patterns - Let Ss practice individually in 5 minutes - Call each S to stand up and speak the utterances out loud with explanation about their situations - Ask other Ss to give comment on their peers‟ intonation - Consolidate Ss‟ feedback and give T‟s feedback

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Explanation of lesson points Using songs as a material to practice Practice with authentic utterances

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Giving feedback

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APPENDIX 8-A: Song for lesson 5 Eyes On Me
Faye Wong Games: Final Fantasy VIII

Whenever sang my songs on the stage on my own Whenever said my words wishing they would be heard I saw you smiling at me, was it real or just my fantasy? You'd always be there in the corner of this tiny little bar My last night here for you same old songs just once more My last night here with you, maybe yes, maybe no I kind of liked it your way how you shyly placed your eyes on me Oh did you ever know that I had mine on me? Darling so there you are with that look on your face As if you're never hurt, as if you're never down Shall I be the one for you who pinches of you softly but sure? If frown is shown then I will know that you are no dreamer So let me come to you close as I wanna be Close enough for me to feel your heart beating fast And stay there as I whisper: "how I loved your peaceful eyes on me Did you ever know that I had mine on me? And darling so share with me, your love if you have enough Your tears if you're holding back, or pain if that's what it is How can I let you know I'm more than the dress and the voice? Just reach me out, then you will know that you are not dreaming And darling so there you are with that look on your face As if you're never hurt, as if you are never down Shall I be the one for you a pinches of you softly but sure? If frown is shown then I will know that you are no dreamer

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APPENDIX 8-B: Lesson plan 5
The song “Eyes on me” with the rise-fall tone 1. Class description: 5 first-year students, Faculty of English Language Teacher Education, ULIS-VNU 2. Time: 60 mins 3. Objectives: After the lesson, Ss will be able to + Reinforce knowledge about intonation pattern in all kinds of sentences that they have learnt + Understand more about the use of intonation is WH questions + Understand the intonation pattern used in exclamations and alternative questions 4. Assumed knowledge: Ss have already got knowledge about intonation and known some vocabulary items in the songs 5. Anticipated problems: It may be lack of time, so teacher should prepare the way to shorten down practice part 6. Teaching aids: CDs, cassette, handouts Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Teaching techniques 1. Warm-up 1. Warm-up *Aims: make Ss familiar with the *Aims: make Ss familiar with the - Ice-breaking song and raise their interest for the song and raise their interest for the with songs lesson lesson - Let Ss listen to the song for the first - Deliver the lyrics of the song “Eyes time. on me” by Faye Wong in the game - Ask them whether they have heard Final Fantasy VIII. the song before, what the title of the - Ask them whether they have heard song is and who the singer is => the the song before, what the title of the song “Eyes on me” by Faye Wong in song is and who the singer is the game Final Fantasy VIII. - Let Ss listen for the first time and find out the mistakes in the song lyric. - Ask Ss to point out the mistakes and correction - Let Ss listen again and check 2. Main-activities - Deliver the handouts containing the lyric of the song - Let Ss look through the song lyric and find out all types of sentences. Statement: You’d always be there in the corner of this tiny little bar Imperative: So let me come to you close as I wanna be 2. Main-activities - Deliver the handouts containing the lyric of the song - Let Ss look through the song lyric and find out all types of sentences. Statement: You’d always be there in the corner of this tiny little bar Imperative: So let me come to you close as I wanna be - Using songs as the material to learn

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- Ask Ss to recall their memories about the previous lesson and suggest the general use of intonation pattern in the learnt type of sentences 2.1Rise-fall tone in Yes/No questions - Let Ss pay attention to the sentences Did you ever know that I had mine on you? - Ask Ss to analyze the intonation in the sentence +Which tune is used in this sentence? + What is the difference between the intonation in this sentence and the normal intonation in this type of sentence ? + Do you see anything special in the structure of this sentence? - Draw the arrow of pitch change on the board in accordance to Ss‟ suggestion. After that, correct the tone: Did you ever know that I had mine on you? - Explain the different intonation patterns of greeting used with different purposes + When Y/N questions consist of subordinate clauses, the tone may rise in the main clause and fall in the subordinate clause 2.2. Rising and falling tones in alternatives questions - Write the sentence on the board and let Ss pay attention to the questions in the lyric: Was it real or just my fantasy? - Let Ss listen to the song again to identify the intonation of the sentence - Ask Ss about the intonation of the sentence and draw the arrow of pitch change on the board

- Ask Ss to recall their memories about the previous lesson and suggest the general use of intonation pattern in the learnt type of sentences 2.1Rise-fall tone in Yes/No questions - Let Ss pay attention to the sentences Did you ever know that I had mine on you? - Ask Ss to analyze the intonation in the sentence +Which tune is used in this sentence? + What is the difference between the intonation in this sentence and the normal intonation in this type of sentence ? + Do you see anything special in the structure of this sentence? - Draw the arrow of pitch change on the board in accordance to Ss‟ suggestion. After that, correct the tone: Did you ever know that I had mine on you? - Explain the different intonation patterns of greeting used with different purposes + When Y/N questions consist of subordinate clauses, the tone may rise in the main clause and fall in the subordinate clause 2.2. Rising and falling tones in alternatives questions - Write the sentence on the board and let Ss pay attention to the questions in the lyric: Was it real or just my fantasy? - Let Ss listen to the song again to identify the intonation of the sentence - Ask Ss about the intonation of the sentence and draw the arrow of pitch change on the board

- Revision

- Eliciting Ss‟ knowledge

- Eliciting class discussion

- Visual display

- Explanation of lesson points

- Visual display
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Was it real or just my fantasy? - Ask Ss: +Which tune is used in this sentence? + What is the difference between the intonation in this sentence and the normal intonation in this type of sentence ? + Do you see anything special in the structure of this sentence? -Explain the point: When Y/N questions consist “OR”, they are call alternative questions and the list of options is treated similarly to other kinds of lists; i.e. rising, rising and finally falling. 2.3. Rise-fall tone in WH- question - Write the sentence on the board and let Ss pay attention to the questions in the lyric: How can I let you know I’m more than the dress and the voice? - Let Ss listen to the song again to identify the intonation of the sentence - Ask Ss about the intonation of the sentence and draw the arrow of pitch change on the board How can I let you know I’m more than the dress and the voice? - Ask Ss: +Which tune is used in this sentence? + What is the difference between the intonation in this sentence and the normal intonation in this type of sentences? + Do you see anything special in the structure of this sentence? -Explain the point: The rise-fall tone can be used in WH questions to

Was it real or just my fantasy? - Ask Ss: +Which tune is used in this sentence? + What is the difference between the intonation in this sentence and the normal intonation in this type of sentence ? + Do you see anything special in the structure of this sentence? -Explain the point: When Y/N questions consist “OR”, they are call alternative questions and the list of options is treated similarly to other kinds of lists; i.e. rising, rising and finally falling. 2.3. Rise-fall tone in WH- question - Write the sentence on the board and let Ss pay attention to the questions in the lyric: How can I let you know I’m more than the dress and the voice? - Let Ss listen to the song again to identify the intonation of the sentence - Ask Ss about the intonation of the sentence and draw the arrow of pitch change on the board How can I let you know I’m more than the dress and the voice? - Ask Ss: +Which tune is used in this sentence? + What is the difference between the intonation in this sentence and the normal intonation in this type of sentences? + Do you see anything special in the structure of this sentence? -Explain the point: The rise-fall tone can be used in WH questions to - Eliciting Ss‟ knowledge

- Eliciting class discussion - Explanation of lesson points

- Eliciting Ss‟ knowledge

- Visual display

- Eliciting class discussion - Eliciting Ss‟ knowledge

- Explanation of lesson points

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convey strong agreement and statement, requiring confirmation rather than answer. 2.4 Rise-fall tone in exclamations - Write the sentence on the board and let Ss pay attention to the questions in the lyric: How I loved you peaceful eyes on me! - Let Ss listen to the song again to identify the intonation of the sentence - Ask Ss about the intonation of the sentence and draw the arrow of pitch change on the board How I loved you peaceful eyes on me! - Ask Ss: +Which tune is used in this sentence? + What kind of sentence is it? -Explain the point: The rise-fall tone is often used in exclamations, with peak of voice at adjectives, adverbs or verbs that show emotions. - Let Ss listen to the song again and sing along 2.5. Practice - Write 3 sentences on the board: + How beautiful she is! + You want beef, chicken or pork? + What an awful day! + You will need a dress, a hat and a pair of shoes. - Ask Ss to imagine the situations in which they would use these utterances and choose an appropriate intonation patterns - Let Ss practice individually in 5 minutes

convey strong agreement and statement, requiring confirmation rather than answer. 2.4 Rise-fall tone in exclamations - Write the sentence on the board and let Ss pay attention to the questions in the lyric: How I loved you peaceful eyes on me! - Let Ss listen to the song again to identify the intonation of the sentence - Ask Ss about the intonation of the sentence and draw the arrow of pitch change on the board How I loved you peaceful eyes on me! - Ask Ss: +Which tune is used in this sentence? + What kind of sentence is it? -Explain the point: The rise-fall tone is often used in exclamations, with peak of voice at adjectives, adverbs or verbs that show emotions. - Let Ss listen to the song again and sing along 2.5. Practice - Write 3 sentences on the board: + How beautiful she is! + You want beef, chicken or pork? + What an awful day! + You will need a dress, a hat and a pair of shoes. - Ask Ss to imagine the situations in which they would use these utterances and choose an appropriate intonation patterns - Let Ss practice individually in 5 minutes - Eliciting class discussion - Eliciting Ss‟ knowledge - Explanation of lesson points - Using songs as a practice material - Eliciting Ss‟ knowledge

- Visual display

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Practice with authentic utterances

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Giving feedback

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- Call each S to stand up and speak the utterances out loud with explanation about their situations - Ask other Ss to give comment on their peers‟ intonation - Consolidate Ss‟ feedback and give T‟s feedback

- Call each S to stand up and speak the utterances out loud with explanation about their situations - Ask other Ss to give comment on their peers‟ intonation - Consolidate Ss‟ feedback and give T‟s feedback

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APPENDIX 9_A: Song for lesson 6 A little time
The Beautiful South I need a little time to think it over I need a little space just on my own I need a little time to find my freedom I need a little... Funny how quick the milk turns sour Isn't it, isn't it? Your face has been looking like that for hours Hasn't it, hasn't it? Promises, promises turn to dust Wedding bells just turn to rust Trust into mistrust I need a little room to find myself I need a little space to work it out I need a little room all alone I need a little... You need a little room for your big head Don't you, don't you? You need a little space for a thousand beds Won't you, won't you? Lips that promise - fear the worst Tongue so sharp - the bubble burst Just into unjust I've had a little time to find the truth Now I've had a little room to check what's wrong I've had a little time and I still love you I've had a little... You had a little time and you had a little fun Didn't you, didn't you? While you had yours do you think I had none Do you, do you? The Freedom that you wanted bad is yours for good I hope you're glad Sad into unsad I had a little time to think it over Had a little room to work it out I found a little courage to call it off
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APPENDIX 9-B: Lesson plan 6
The song “A little time” with intonation in question tags Class description: 5 first-year students, Faculty of English Language Teacher Education, ULIS-VNU 2. Time: 60 mins 3. Objectives: After the lesson, Ss will be able to + Reinforce knowledge about intonation in other types of sentences + Understand the different use of rising and falling tones in question tags 4. Assumed knowledge: Ss have already got knowledge about intonation and known some vocabulary items in the songs 5. Anticipated problems: It may be lack of time, so teacher should prepare the way to shorten down practice part Ss may not have enough vocabulary about song lyric or intonation pattern => T should prepare explanation or use Vietnamese to explain to difficult terms 6. Teaching aids: CDs, cassette, handouts 7. Procedure: Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Teaching Techniques 1. Warm-up 1. Warm-up *Aims: make Ss familiar with the *Aims: make Ss familiar with the - Ice-breaking song and raise their interest or song and raise their interest or with songs curiosity for the lesson curiosity for the lesson - Deliver the handouts containing the - Deliver the handouts containing the lyric of the song “A little time” by the lyric of the song “A little time” by the band The Beautiful South. band The Beautiful South. - Let Ss look through the song lyrics - Let Ss look through the song lyrics and ask them whether they know the and ask them whether they know the song or not. song or not. If anybody knows, encourage If anybody knows, encourage him/her to sing for the whole the class him/her to sing for the whole the class If nobody knows, play the CD once If nobody knows, play the CD once for them to get familiar with the for them to get familiar with the melody of the song melody of the song T can make Ss feel more relaxing with T can make Ss feel more relaxing with some questions like: some questions like: + How is the melody of the song like? + How is the melody of the song like? +What is your feeling when you +What is your feeling when you listening to this song? listening to this song? 1. 2. Main-activities 2. Main-activities - Give explanation about the speed of the song: this speed is normal in English speaking world=> hearers only catch some main words => focus on the intonation and the
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- Let Ss look through the song lyric and guess the content of the lesson today => tag questions - Let Ss look at the song lyric and listen to the song again. 2.1. Intonation in tag questions- main clause - Write the important sentence on the board Funny how quick the milk turn sour, isn’t it, isn’t it Your face has been looking like that for hours, hasn’t it, hasn’t it? - Tell Ss to pay attention to the main clause of the questions. + What kind of sentence are they? + What is the normal intonation for this type of sentence?  The intonation in main clauses of tag questions are treated the same as normal statements, i.e. falling 2.2.Intonation in tag questions- tag - Let Ss pay attention to the tags Isn’t it? Isn’t it? Hasn’t it? Hasn’t it? - Ask Ss to recall their memories and tell what the intonation in this phrase is like T can help Ss by asking them step by step + How is the intonation in each word? Is it high or low? + Which one is higher/ lower? - Underline the key words as Ss say and draw the tune shape of the sentence on the board according to Ss‟ suggestion

stressed words - Let Ss look through the song lyric and guess the content of the lesson today => tag questions - Let Ss look at the song lyric and listen to the song again to catch the words. 2.1. Intonation in tag questions- main clause - Write the important sentence on the board Funny how quick the milk turn sour, isn’t it, isn’t it Your face has been looking like that for hours, hasn’t it, hasn’t it? - Tell Ss to pay attention to the main clause of the questions. + What kind of sentence are they? + What is the normal intonation for this type of sentence?  The intonation in main clauses of tag questions are treated the same as normal statements, i.e. falling 2.2.Intonation in tag questions- tag - Let Ss pay attention to the tags Isn’t it? Isn’t it? Hasn’t it? Hasn’t it?

- Using songs as the material to learn

- Eliciting Ss‟ knowledge

- Explanation

- Using songs as the material to learn

- Ask Ss to recall their memories and tell what the intonation in this phrase is like T can help Ss by asking them step by step - Eliciting Ss‟ + How is the intonation in each word? knowledge Is it high or low? + Which one is higher/ lower? - Underline the key words as Ss say and draw the tune shape of the sentence on the board according to Ss‟ suggestion - Eliciting class
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- Let Ss listen to the piece of song again and check the intonation in the sentence above - Together with Ss, correct the intonation on the board Isn’t it? Isn’t it? Hasn’t it? Hasn’t it? - Explain : There are different tones chosen for the question tags. + If the questions aim at an answer of Yes or No(speaker don‟t know the answer), rising tone should be used + If the questions do not aim at information but confirmation and agreement, falling tone would be used. 2.3. Practice - Write 3 questions on the board: + What is your favorite food? + What is your favorite drink? + What is your favorite book? - Let Ss act as journalists to collect information about students‟ hobbies. Their task is to ask the other students about their hobbies and record the information in their mind WITHOUT NOTE-TAKING. Ss should also pay attention to their intonation in questions and answers during their interviews. - After 15 minutes, each S will have to stand in front of class and ask their classmates about their hobbies, based on his/her memories - From the presenter‟s intonation, other Ss in class have to identify whether the presenter is sure about the information or not. - Ss give feedback on other peers and their own intonation. - Consolidate Ss‟ feedback and give T‟s feedback

- Let Ss listen to the piece of song again and check the intonation in the sentence above - Together with Ss, correct the intonation on the board Isn’t it? Isn’t it? Hasn’t it? Hasn’t it? - Explain : There are different tones chosen for the question tags. + If the questions aim at an answer of Yes or No(speaker don‟t know the answer), rising tone should be used + If the questions do not aim at information but confirmation and agreement, falling tone would be used. 2.3. Practice - Write 3 questions on the board: + What is your favorite food? + What is your favorite drink? + What is your favorite book? - Let Ss act as journalists to collect information about students‟ hobbies. Their task is to ask the other students about their hobbies and record the information in their mind WITHOUT NOTE-TAKING. Ss should also pay attention to their intonation in questions and answers during their interviews. - After 15 minutes, each S will have to stand in front of class and ask their classmates about their hobbies, based on his/her memories - From the presenter‟s intonation, other Ss in class have to identify whether the presenter is sure about the information or not. - Ss give feedback on other peers and their own intonation. - Consolidate Ss‟ feedback and give T‟s feedback

discussion

- Visual display

- Explanation of lesson points

- Practice with authentic tasks

- Information gap

- Reivision

- Giving feedback

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APPENDIX 10_A: Songs for lesson 7
Do You Know Where You're Going To Janice Do you know where you're going to? Do you like the things that life is showing you? Where are you going to? Do you know? Do you get what you're hoping for When you look behind you there's no open door? What are you hoping for? Do you know? Once we were standing still in time Chasing the fantasies that filled our minds You know how I loved you But my spirit was free Laughin' at the questions that you once asked of me Do you know where you're going to? Do you like the things that life is showing you? Where are you going to? Do you know? Now looking back at all we've planned We let so many dreams just slip through our hands Why must we wait so long Before we'll see How sad the answers to those questions can be Do you know where you're going to? Do you like the things that life is showing you? Where are you going to? Do you know? Do you get what you're hoping for When you look behind you there's no open door? What are you hoping for? Do you know? Do You Know What You Want M2M Someone Who Treats You Right Stay With You Day And Night I Can Tell That's What You Need I Know Just What To Do I'll Take Good Care Of You Baby You Can Get That From Me #I Can Tell She's Not Treating You Right Every Time You Look At Me So Which One Will You Choose? You Look So Confused Tell Me The Truth Do You Know What You Want?# Chorus Do You Know What You Want? Do You Know What You Want? Love's So Hard To Find So Make Up Your Mind Do You Know What You Want? Oh Baby Can't You See One Minute You're With Me Next One You Are All Over Her She Talks Behind Your Back You Know I'll Stay On Track Something She Wouldn't For Sure How Can I Help You To Make Up Your Mind? Boy You're Running Out Of Time So Which One Will You Choose? You Look So Confused Tell Me The Truth Do You Know What You Want? *Chorus* $ Please Call Me And Say I Am The One You Need In Your Life The Game That You Play Ain't No Fun Please Answer Me Now Gotta Know What You Want $
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APPENDIX 10-B: Lesson plan 7
The songs “Do you know where you’re going to” and “Do you know what you want” with intonation in combined questions 1. Class description: 5 first-year students, Faculty of English Language Teacher Education, ULIS-VNU 2. Time: 60 mins 3. Objectives: After the lesson, Ss will be able to + Reinforce knowledge about intonation in other types of sentences + Understand the variations of pitch in combined questions 4. Assumed knowledge: Ss have already got knowledge about intonation and known some vocabulary items in the songs 5. Anticipated problems: It may be time left, so teacher should prepare more on the practice part 6. Teaching aids: CDs, cassette, handouts 7. Procedure: Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Teaching Techniques 1. Warm-up 1. Warm-up *Aims: make Ss familiar with the *Aims: make Ss familiar with the song and raise their interest or song and raise their interest or curiosity for the lesson curiosity for the lesson - Deliver the handouts containing the - Deliver the handouts containing the lyric of the two songs “Do you know lyric of the two songs “Do you know - Ice-breaking where you‟re going to” by Janice and where you‟re going to” by Janice and with songs “Do you know what you want” by “Do you know what you want” by M2M. M2M. - Let Ss look through the song lyrics - Let Ss look through the song lyrics and ask them whether they know the and ask them whether they know the song or not. song or not. If anybody knows, encourage If anybody knows, encourage him/her to sing for the whole the class him/her to sing for the whole the class If nobody knows, play the CD once If nobody knows, play the CD once for them to get familiar with the for them to get familiar with the melody of the song melody of the song 2. Main-activities 2.1. Revision on intonation in questions- Song “Do you know where you‟re going to” - Write 2 important sentences on the board Where are you going to? Do you know? - Tell Ss to pay attention to the two 2. Main-activities 2.1. Revision on intonation in questions- Song “Do you know where you‟re going to” - Using songs - Write 2 important sentences on the as the board material to learn Where are you going to? Do you know? - Tell Ss to pay attention to the two
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questions. + What kind of questions are they? + What is the normal intonation for each type of question? -Let Ss listen again to check whether the intonation of these two questions match their ideas. => Falling tone is often used for WH questions while rising tone is often used for Yes/No questions. 2.2.Intonation in combined questions - Let Ss pay attention to the questions in the song “Do you know where you‟re going to” Do you know where you’re going to? - Ask Ss to recall their memories and tell what the intonation in this question is like T can help Ss by asking them step by step +Which tone is used in this question? + What is the special feature of this question? - Underline the key words as Ss say and draw the tune shape of the sentence on the board according to Ss‟ suggestion - Let Ss listen to the piece of song again and check the intonation in the sentence above - Together with Ss, correct the intonation on the board Do you know where you’re going to?

questions. + What kind of questions are they? + What is the normal intonation for each type of question? -Let Ss listen again to check whether the intonation of these two questions match their ideas. => Falling tone is often used for WH questions while rising tone is often used for Yes/No questions. 2.2.Intonation in combined questions - Let Ss pay attention to the questions in the song “Do you know where you‟re going to” Do you know where you’re going to? - Ask Ss to recall their memories and tell what the intonation in this question is like T can help Ss by asking them step by step +Which tone is used in this question? + What is the special feature of this question?

- Eliciting Ss‟ knowledge and recall their memories

- Explanation

- Using songs as the material to learn

- Eliciting Ss‟ knowledge

- Underline the key words as Ss say and draw the tune shape of the sentence on the board according to Ss‟ suggestion - Let Ss listen to the piece of song again and check the intonation in the sentence above - Together with Ss, correct the intonation on the board - Visual display Do you know where you’re going to?

- Let Ss listen to the song “Do you know what you want” and pay attention to the questions Do you know what you want? - Ask Ss to identify the tone use in this question - Underline the key words as Ss say

- Let Ss listen to the song “Do you know what you want” and pay - Eliciting Ss‟ attention to the questions knowledge Do you know what you want? - Ask Ss to identify the tone use in this question - Underline the key words as Ss say
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and draw the tune shape of the sentence on the board according to Ss‟ suggestion - Let Ss listen to the piece of song again and check the intonation in the sentence above - Together with Ss, correct the intonation on the board Do you know where you’re going to?

and draw the tune shape of the sentence on the board according to Ss‟ suggestion - Let Ss listen to the piece of song again and check the intonation in the sentence above - Together with Ss, correct the - Visual intonation on the board display Do you know where you’re going to?

Ask Ss to compare the two patterns of intonation in these questions and guess what creates the differences. - Explain the intonation patterns used in combined questions. + If the questions aim at an answer of Yes or No, rising tone should be used + If the questions aim at information for WH- question, falling tone would be used - Introduce one more case of combined question in reality: Could you show me the way to the post office please?

Ask Ss to compare the two - Eliciting patterns of intonation in these class questions and guess what discussion creates the differences. - Explain the intonation patterns - Explanation used in combined questions. of lesson + If the questions aim at an answer of points Yes or No, rising tone should be used + If the questions aim at information for WH- question, falling tone would be used - Eliciting Ss‟ - Ask student to think about knowledge some combined questions that they may use in the real life =>Introduce combined question with politeness: Could you show me the way to the post office please? - Let Ss choose intonation - Let Ss choose intonation pattern pattern and speak aloud the and speak aloud the utterance. utterance.  Draw Ss‟ attention to the rise  Draw Ss‟ attention to the rise at “please” at “please” 2.3. Practice 2.3. Practice - Provide a situation for Ss: This is - Provide a situation for Ss: This is your first time to London and you your first time to London and you have - Practice have lost the city map. So, you have lost the city map. So, you have to ask a with to ask a pass-over on the street to pass-over on the street to show you the authentic show you the way. way. tasks - Write 6 places on the board: - Write 6 places on the board: Library Museum Library Museum Hospital US Embassy Hospital US Embassy Bank Nearest bus-stop Bank Nearest bus-stop
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-

-

- Each Ss have 3 minutes to prepare the questions to ask for the way to these places above. - After 3 minute, T calls a student to stand up and make questions with those places, tap at a word on the board and the student‟s duty is to utter the questions to know the way to that place. - Other Ss give feedback on other peers‟ intonation. - Consolidate Ss‟ feedback and give T‟s feedback

- Each Shave 3 minutes to prepare the questions to ask for the way to these places above. - After 3 minute, T would call a representative to come to the board, choose another student, tap at a word on the board and the student’s duty is to utter the questions to know the way to that place. - Other Ss give feedback on other peers‟ intonation. - Giving - Consolidate Ss‟ feedback and give feedback T‟s

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APPENDIX 11
Summary of students’ responses in interviews Q2+3. Adjectives to describe the lessons. Which activities do you like best?
Lesson 1 1 1 Name Thiet Thuong Hanh Answers Interesting, funny Impressive, attentive, enjoyable Interesting, informative, effective Surprising, interesting Interesting, new,exciting Great, interesting, funny Useful, interesting New, very interesting, good Relevant, interesting, smooth interesting, useful Useful, attentive interesting, useful Codes motivation Motivation, impression motivation, effectiveness, information abundance Freshness, motivation Freshness, motivation Motivation Effectiveness, motivation Freshness, motivation Unity, motivation motivation, effectiveness motivation, effectiveness motivation, effectiveness Techniques Sing Practice Elicit

1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4

Dung Trang Binh Mai Thanh Tu Anh Thiet Thuong Hanh Dung Trang Mai Tu Anh Thiet

Practice Elicit Practice Elicit & discuss Listen and sing Practice Sing listen Revision Practice Elicit Elicit & discuss Practice Listen and sing 101

Interesting, effective motivation, effectiveness Useful, interesting Useful, relevant Attractive, useful, interesting interesting, useful Motivation, effectiveness Effectiveness, unity Effectiveness, motivation motivation, effectiveness

along 4 4 Thuong Hanh interesting, effective Surprising, interesting, attractive, effective, informative, Informative, practical Useful, interesting, exciting Interesting, exciting, surprising Good, motivating, useful useful Wonderful, very interesting, useful Useful, funny New, useful Exciting, useful, eager, Useful, practical, interesting Effective, new Interesting, useful Surprising, strange New, interesting, useful New, interesting, effective Interesting, new Interesting, useful, informative motivation, effectiveness Freshness, motivation, effectiveness, information abundance information abundance, practicality Motivation, effectiveness Freshness, motivation Effectiveness, motivation Effectiveness Effectiveness, motivation motivation, effectiveness Freshness, effectiveness motivation, effectiveness Effectiveness, practicality, motivation Effectiveness, freshness Motivation, effectiveness Freshness Freshness, motivation, effectiveness Freshness, motivation, effectiveness Freshness, motivation Freshness, motivation, effectiveness Listen and sing along Sing along, practice

4 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7

Dung Trang Binh Mai Thanh Tu Anh Thiet Hanh Dung Trang Binh Mai Thanh Thiet Thuong Hanh Dung

Practice Explanation Elicit & discussion Practice Practice Listen and sing along practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Elicit & discussion Practice Practice, change the sequence of listening and 102

finding Qs 7 7 7 Trang Mai Binh New, useful, exciting New, interesting, useful Good, interesting, motivating, happy, a bit difficult Interesting, new, good, a bit difficult Useful, exciting, new Freshness, motivation, effectiveness Freshness, motivation, effectiveness motivation Elicit& discuss Practice Practice

7 7

Thanh Tu Anh

Freshness, motivation, Freshness, motivation, effectiveness

Practice Elicit, compare and discussion

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APPENDIX 12
Summary of students’ responses in interviews Q4+5. Adjectives to describe the song
Lesson 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 Name Thiet Thuong Hanh Dung Trang Binh Mai Thanh Tu Anh Thiet Thuong Hanh Dung Trang Mai Tu Anh THiet Thuong Melody Slow, emotional, romantic Attractive, deep, sweet, gentle, easy to catch, lyrical Gentle, interesting, slow, relaxing Lyrical, emotional, gentle Gentle, romantic Gentle, interesting Gentle, romantic Slow, gentle, deep emotion Slow, easy to listen Smooth, peaceful, a bit sleepy Smooth, relaxing, slow Slow, gentle, sweet, sleepy Sad, meaningful, interesting Gentle, easy to listen, relaxing Gentle, soft, sweet, relaxing Slow, gentle, soft Lively, fast, romantic Lively, alerted Lyric Romantic, similar to own state of mind Meaningful, noble love, relevant for lesson meaningful Don‟t‟ care romantic Meaningful=>love romantic Meaningful, romantic Beautiful wording, romantic Meaningful, may new words=> provoking Meaningful, may new words meaningful Meaningful, many new words Meaningful, educational=, curiosity meaningful meaningful Moving, romantic Moving, romantic 104

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7

Hanh Dung Trang Binh Mai Thanh Tu Anh Thiet Hanh Dung Trang Binh Mai Thanh Thiet Thuong Hanh Dung Trang

Rather fast, easy to listen Interesting, relaxing Fast, good, easy to sing Funny, a bit fast=> eager Fast, lively, good Fast, gentle, transparent Fast, funny, Too fast Too fast, difficult=>eager Too fast Too fast Good, lively, very fast Too fast=> discouraged Too fast, lively, exciting 1 Slow, 2 fast not impressive 1: slow, smooth, transparent 2: too fast Interesting, easy to compare, new Memorable, effective 1: slow, gentle. 2: fast Easy to compare 1: romantic, gentle 2: romantic, lively Easy to compare 1: relaxing, 2:fast=> easy to compare 1: gentle; 1: fast  difficult Funny, fast, contradict

suitable Don‟t care Easy to understand Meaningful, good Emotional, good Romantic, boring if listen too much romantic Don‟t care Don‟t care Don‟t care Don‟t care Don‟t care Don‟t care Meaningful, same emotion Don‟t care Don‟t care Don‟t care Don‟t‟ care Romantic, emotional

7

Mai

Romantic, excited

7 7 7

Binh Thanh Tu Anh

Meaningful, about love Meaningful, romantic, emotional romantic 105

APPENDIX 13: Cycle 1
INTERVIEW Lesson 1- Hanh 1. -So, we have just finish the lesson today. Do you like it? -Yes, I really enjoy it 2. -Can you use some specific adjectives to describe it? -It‟s interesting, informative and effective 3. -If you can give a mark from 1 to 10 for this lesson, which mark will you give? -I think I‟ll give it 8.5 4. -Now, let‟s talk about the activities in this lesson. Which activities in this lesson do you -I like all the activities. T hey‟re all interesting -Specifically, which activity do you think is the most effective and interesting? -Uhm, like the way you let us pay attention to the structures, catch the intonation and imagine the situation we often use the sentences and the intonation 5. - Do you like the song? -Yes, I have always like this song, it‟s so sweet. -So, you have known this song before? -Yes -Can you use some adjectives or phrases to describe the melody of the song? - It‟s gentle, slow, relaxing and very interesting - Do you think the melody of the song is effective for the lesson? - Yes, of course. It makes me excited, want to listen more and know more about the intonation - Can you use some adjectives or phrases to describe the lyric of the song? 106

consider interesting and effective?

- It‟s meaningful - Meaningful? What do you find meaningful in the song lyrics? - The noble love of the man to the woman. - Do you think the lyrics of the song are effective for the lesson? - Yes, it‟s really suitable for the lesson. 6. -If you can give a mark from 1 to 10 for this song, which mark will you give? - I‟ll give it 9 7. Is there any idea about this interview or the previous interview that you want to change?

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APENDIX 14: Cycle 1
INTERVIEW – Lesson 3- Mai 1. -So, we have just finish the lesson today. Do you like it? -Not really 2. -Can you use some specific adjectives to describe it? -It‟s informative and interesting 3. -If you can give a mark from 1 to 10 for this lesson, which mark will you give? -I think I‟ll give it 9 4. -Now, let‟s talk about the activities in this lesson. Which activities in this lesson do you -I like all the activities. -Specifically, which activity do you think is the most effective and interesting? -Uhm, like the way you let us pay attention to the structures, catch the intonation and imagine the situation we often use the sentences and the intonation 5. - Do you like the song? -Yes, it‟s so sweet. -So, you have known this song before? -No -Can you use some adjectives or phrases to describe the melody of the song? - It‟s gentle, slow, relaxing, makes me feel peaceful - Do you think the melody of the song is effective for the lesson? - Yes, of course. It makes me relaxed, so I feel easier to study - Can you use some adjectives or phrases to describe the lyric of the song? - It‟s too difficult with many new words 108

consider interesting and effective?

- Difficult? Do the new words affect you studying? - Yes, I feel rather nervous - Do you think the lyrics of the song are effective for the lesson? - Yes, it‟s really suitable for the lesson. 6. -If you can give a mark from 1 to 10 for this song, which mark will you give? - I‟ll give it 8.5 7. Is there any idea about this interview or the previous interview that you want to change?

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APENDIX 15: Cycle 1
INTERVIEW – Lesson 6- Thanh 1. -So, we have just finish the lesson today. Do you like it? -Yes 2. -Can you use some specific adjectives to describe it? -It‟s new and useful 3. -If you can give a mark from 1 to 10 for this lesson, which mark will you give? -I think I‟ll give it 7.5 4. -Now, let‟s talk about the activities in this lesson. Which activities in this lesson do you -I like all the activities. They‟re all effective - Specifically, which activity do you think is the most effective and interesting? -Uhm, I like practice the most 5. - Do you like the song? -So so. It‟s too fast and too difficult for me -Can you use some adjectives or phrases to describe the melody of the song? - It‟s too fast, too difficult, as I‟ve mentioned - Do you think the melody of the song is effective for the lesson? - Yes, of course. It makes me excited, want to listen more and know more about the intonation - Can you use some adjectives or phrases to describe the lyrics of the song? - Sorry, I don‟t pay attention to the lyrics - Why don‟t you pay attention to the the lyrics of the song? - I‟m too busy with catching the melody. 110

consider interesting and effective?

6. -If you can give a mark from 1 to 10 for this song, which mark will you give? - I‟ll give it 7 7. -Is there any idea about this interview or the previous interview that you want to change? -No

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APENDIX 16: Cycle 2
INTERVIEW SCHEME- Lesson 3- Trang 1. -So, we have just finish the lesson today. Do you like it? -Yes, I really enjoy it 2. -Can you use some specific adjectives to describe it? -It‟s interesting and useful 3. -If you can give a mark from 1 to 10 for this lesson, which mark will you give? -I think I‟ll give it 8 4. -Now, let‟s talk about the activities in this lesson. -The first activity of the lesson today is the discussion about the meaning of the song. Do you think it is effective? - Yes, it helps me understand the song more and feel less nervous. At first I was shocked to see so many new words - The second activity of the lesson today is revision. Do you think it is effective? - Of course. It helps me recall all the things I‟ve learnt - The third activity of the lesson today is my questions and your discussion on the intonation and the sentences in the songs. Do you think it is effective? - Yes. I think all the activities in this lesson are effective. - Specifically, which activity do you think is the most effective and interesting? -Uhm, like the way you elicit our knowledge from the song 5. - Do you like the song? -Yes, I have always like this song, it‟s so sweet. -So, you have known this song before? -Yes

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-Can you use some adjectives or phrases to describe the melody of the song? - It‟s gentle, slow, relaxing and peaceful - Do you think the melody of the song is effective for the lesson? - Yes, of course. It makes me excited, want to listen more and know more about the intonation - Can you use some adjectives or phrases to describe the lyric of the song? - It‟s meaningful, educational - Meaningful? What do you find meaningful in the song lyrics? - The lessons about our life - Do you think the lyrics of the song are effective for the lesson? - Yes, it‟s really suitable for the lesson. 6. -If you can give a mark from 1 to 10 for this song, which mark will you give? - I‟ll give it 9 7. Is there any idea about this interview or the previous interview that you want to change? I want to give mark 8.5 for the lesson.

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