VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGE AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES

FACULTY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHER EDUCATION

ĐỖ THỊ LAN ANH

USING MOVIES AND VIDEOS TO TEACH ENGLISH VOCABULARY TO THE 10TH FORM STUDENTS.

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL RULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF ARTS (TEFL)

Hanoi, May – 2010
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VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGE AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES
FACULTY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHER EDUCATION

ĐỖ THỊ LAN ANH

USING MOVIES AND VIDEOS TO TEACH ENGLISH VOCABULARY TO THE 10TH FORM STUDENTS.

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL RULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF ARTS (TEFL)

SUPERVISOR: TRẦN HIỀN LAN, MA

Hanoi, May 2010
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DECLARATION I hereby state that I: Do Thi Lan Anh- group 061E5, being a

candidate for the degree of Bachelor of Arts (TEFL) accept the requirements of the College relating to the retention and use of Bachelor’s Graduation Paper deposited in the library. In terms of these conditions, I agree that the origin of my paper deposited in the library should be accessible for the purposes of study and research, in accordance with the normal conditions established by the librarian for the care, loan and reproduction of the paper.

Hanoi, May 2010

Do Thi Lan Anh

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This study is the result of the researcher‟s experiences in English language learning and teaching as well as the great support and encouragement from teachers, friends and family. I would like to express my sincere thanks to many people who help me to complete my graduation paper. First and foremost, I owe a debt of gratitude towards my supervisor, Mrs. Tran Hien Lan for her invaluable help and useful corrections. She gives me helpful advice and guidance, without which this study would not have been possibly completed. I am very grateful to all teachers from 3 high schools in Hanoi and 100 grade 10 students at Thang Long high school for their enthusiastic participations. Without them, the methodology of this study could not be completed. I also would like to give my thanks to all the teachers in Faculty of English Teacher Education for giving me opportunity to carry out this research. My special thanks also go to my friends as well as my roommates for their encouragement, their supportive help and advice for the whole time of conducting the study. Last but not least, I would like to show my gratitude to my family for their spiritual and material supports and endless encouragements, which are really important in giving me confidence and optimism to fulfill this research.
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ABSTRACT
It is undeniable that vocabulary has been considered the crucial component of learning a foreign language. Techniques for teaching and learning vocabulary are, therefore, the matter of concern in many studies. However, current teachers‟ methods of teaching vocabulary seem not to be so effective that the quality is far from being satisfactory. Although the application of movies and videos is considered one of the effective ways to teach vocabulary, they have not been popularly and appropriately used at Hanoi high schools. It is, therefore, essential to get teachers and students familiarized with this relaxing but useful technique. This research intends to examine the use of movies and videos to teach vocabulary to the 10th form students. More specifically, the researcher strived to investigate the current situation of teaching and learning vocabulary at Hanoi high schools, the specific use of movies and videos and propose some recommendations for wider exploitation of this method. Based on the theoretical framework, a survey was conducted with the participants of 100 grade 10 students and 10 teachers at Hanoi high schools. Questionnaire and oral interview were employed as useful instruments for data collection. The result of this study indicated that the quality of teaching and learning vocabulary was not really good. Besides, teachers have not made use of movies and videos in teaching though they are supposed to help retain students‟ motivation, lengthen students‟ memory and better their pronunciation. Furthermore, each technique still has some limitations so this study also provides some suggestions for teachers to partly deal with them.
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CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENT Acknowledgements Abstract List of figures and tables CHAPTER1: INTRODUCTION 1.1. Statement of the problem and the rationale for the study 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 1.5. Aims and objective of the study Significance of the study Scope of the study Organization PAGE

1 2 3 3 4 5 5 5 7 9

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW I. Introduction II. Content 2.1. An overview of vocabulary 2.1.1. Definition of vocabulary 2.1.2. Roles of vocabulary 2.1.3. Classification of vocabulary 2.2. Overview of movies and videos 2.2.1. Defining term 2.2.2. Advantages of using movies and videos in teaching vocabulary 2.3. Related Studies 2.4. Summary CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY
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10 14 15

3.1. Participants 3.2. Data collection instrument 3.3. Procedure of data collection 3.4. Procedure of data analysis 3.5. Summary CHAPTER4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1. Research question 1: Current situation of teaching and learning vocabulary at high school in Hanoi. 4.1.1. Collected data from students 4.1.2. Collected data from teachers 4.2. Research question 2: The use of movies and videos in teaching vocabulary and its benefit. 4.2.1. Collected data from students 4.2.2. Collected data from Teachers 4.3. Research question 3: Difficulties in using movies and videos to teach vocabulary. 4.4. Summary CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION
5.1. Major findings of the research

16 18 19 21 22

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23 31 35

35 41 44

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47 48 50 51
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5.2. Pedagogical implications and suggestions 5.3. Suggestions for further studies 5.4. Limitation of this research. 5.5. Contribution of the research. REFERENCE APPENDICES
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List of table and Figures:
Table 1
A summary of the geographical locations of 3 Hanoi high schools

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Table 4.2 Table4.3 Table 4.4 Table 4.5

Student’s opinion on the importance of learning vocabulary 24 Students’ having difficulties in learning vocabulary Students’ ability to use their vocabulary Teachers’ opinion about the importance of teaching vocabulary

25 28 32

Table 4.6 Table 4.7 Table 4.8 Chart 4.1 Chart 4.2 Chart 4.3 Chart 4.4 Chart 4.5 Chart 4.6 Chart 4.7

The amount of time for teaching vocabulary Teachers’ assessment on their students’ vocabulary Frequency of using movies and videos to teach vocabulary Time for learning vocabulary Students’ vocabulary Teachers’ current vocabulary teaching methods Students’ preference teaching techniques Teachers’ vocabulary teaching techniques Use of movies and videos in learning vocabulary The necessity of teaching and learning vocabulary through movies and videos

32 33 42 25 27 29 31 34 36 37

Chart 4.8 Chart 4.9:

Frequency of using movies and videos in teaching vocabulary 38 Effects of using movies and videos on class atmosphere

39 40

Chart 4.10 Students’ perception of the effects of using
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movies and videos on their vocabulary learning

Chart 4.11 Effect of using movies and videos on teaching vocabulary Chart 4.12 Difficulties in using movies and videos to teach
from students’ view

43 45

Chart 4.13 Difficulties in using movies and videos to teach
from teachers’ view

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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
I, Statement of the problem and rationale for the study. Vocabulary is an important element in second language acquisition. By having rich vocabulary, students can improve their listening, speaking, reading and writing abilities; not only in the way they comprehend but also in the way they produce language. Nassaji (2004) found that ESL (English as a Second Language) learners who have wider vocabulary knowledge could make more effective use of certain types of lexical inferencing strategies than their weaker counterparts. August, Carlo, Dressler & Snow (2005) also pointed out that English language learners who experienced slow vocabulary development were less able to comprehend texts at the grade level than their peers were. With these points mentioned above, it is undeniable that vocabulary plays a very important role in the language acquisition. It requires students to spend much time choosing or searching for the effective techniques of learning. Although most teachers and students acknowledge the importance of vocabulary acquisition, several teachers do not often mention or discuss the importance of vocabulary learning in class. In addition, English language teaching at Vietnamese schools, especially at high schools, favors a teachercentered and grammar- translation method, which do not motivate students enough to learn it. Moreover, the goal of language teaching is for students‟ communicative competence, so the quality of teaching and learning vocabulary is far from being satisfaction. After learning English for many years, students can only read and understand short and simple texts and they
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find it difficult and feel unconfident to reproduce their vocabulary to communicate with foreigners. There are various ways to teach and learn English vocabulary, in which using visual aids, especially movies or videos, is considered one of the most useful and effective way to teach and to learn English vocabulary. Using videos makes students draw attention to the lesson, arouse their interest in it and create the good learning atmosphere during the lesson. Moreover, through movies or videos with sound and picture, learners can enjoy themselves, release stress and have an open mind to learn and perceive words. Besides, learners can benefit a lot from widening communication expressions and phrases. However, several teachers, even the experienced ones, do not take full advantages of them when teaching vocabulary. Some of them often complain that it would take much time to find the relevant movies or videos for the lessons. Besides, in the videos and movies, there may be some redundant new words, so they have to spend much time explaining them. In consideration of all the difficulties met by teachers and students, this study” Using movies and videos to teach English vocabulary to the 10th form students” is conducted. II, Aim and objectives of the study This study aims at raising teachers and students‟ awareness of the importance of vocabulary in English teaching and learning and the need of using videos to teach English vocabulary. In addition, the purpose of this study is also to investigate the current vocabulary-teaching situation to the

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10th form students in Hanoi. Moreover, this paper also provides some recommendations for effective application. Research questions: 1. What is the current situation of teaching and learning vocabulary at Vietnam high schools? 2. What are the benefits of using movies and videos in teaching vocabulary at Vietnam high schools? 3. What are the difficulties of using movies and videos in teaching English vocabulary at Vietnam high schools? III, Significance of the study The master of all English skills, especially the ability to communicate in English, is significant for the successes in one‟s life. However, after learning English for many years, students still have difficulties in enriching their vocabularies and communicating in the real life. Working as a teacher requires a good command of vocabulary, the effective ways of teaching it including using videos. Therefore, after this study has been completed its findings will help to improve students‟ vocabulary. Besides, this paper is hoped to be a beneficial reference for not only teachers and students but also for those who have the same problem with teaching vocabulary. IV, Scope of the study There is a variety of ways of teaching English vocabulary but using videos is one of the most effective and interesting ones. Within the limitation of a graduation paper, this study focuses only on investigating the recent situation of teaching vocabulary to Grade 10 students in Hanoi, whose levels
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of English proficiency ranges from elementary to intermediate ones. In addition, some pedagogical implications are recommended with the expectation to be served as beneficial reference for teachers. V, Organization The study consists of five main parts: the introduction, chapter I: Literature review, chapter II: Methodology, chapter III: results and discussion, and the conclusion. The introduction mentions all the academic routines required for graduation paper, namely Rationale, Aims, Significance, Scope and the organization of the study. Chapter 2, named “Literature Review”, explores some basic knowledge of English vocabulary and the advantages of using video and movies in teaching it. Chapter 3 entitled “Methodology” mentions the investigation the current situation use of using movies and video in teaching vocabulary to the 10th form students. Besides, the background information of the subjects of the research, the instruments used to collect data and procedures of data collection as well as data analysis are made clear. Chapter 4, “Result and discussion” presents, analyzes and discusses the findings that the researcher found out from the data collected according to the three research questions. The last part, “Conclusion”, summarizes what have been mentioned in the previous parts, introduces some limitations of the research, pedagogical implications of using movies and video to teach vocabulary and provides
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suggestions

for

further

studies

as

well.

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CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
I, Introduction One of the most important things to help learners to communicate successfully is knowledge of vocabulary. The richer vocabulary we have, the better we can communicate. Hence, in order not to fail on the way of teaching and learning vocabulary, teachers and students must try their best to find out an appropriate method for themselves. Using visual aids, especially movies and video, is a good way to teach vocabulary and really important, necessary for the new method of teaching and learning. This chapter aims at providing some theoretical background of the study with two sections. The first one is some basic knowledge of vocabulary and the second discusses the matter of using movies and video. II, Content 2.1. An overview of vocabulary

2.1.1. Definition of vocabulary As among the three dimensions of language, vocabulary, grammar and phonology, vocabulary stands out as the primacy forming the ground for the development of other skills. Vocabulary seems to be a simple and familiar concept to understand clearly, however it is really hard to give its exact definition. Broadly defined, vocabulary is knowledge of words and words meaning. This definition offer vocabulary‟s meaning on the whole, however, vocabulary is more complex than this definition suggests. In the popular and more precise way, Oxford Advanced Learner‟s Dictionary Online has applied a meaning of vocabulary as follow:
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1. All the words that a person knows or uses 2. All the words in a particular language 3. The words that people use when they are talking about a particular subject 4. A list of words with their meanings especially in a book or learning a foreign language. As far as we concerned, the definition of vocabulary should be the one that comprises all these features. Yet up till now, there has been no definition that describes fully the characteristics of vocabulary. Each linguist and scholar, in his special field, has tried to find out their suitable way to answer the question: “what is vocabulary?”. According to Pyle and Alges ( 1970, p 96) “ vocabulary is the focus language with its sound and meaning interlock to allow us to communicate with one another and it is words that we arrange together to make sentences, conversation, discourses of all kinds. ” . Besides, in terms of methodology concepts of vocabulary: “a word is a basic unit of a language denoting concept, things and phenomena in society” (GHP, 1998, p 58). Also in terms of methodology, Penny Ur offer more clear and specific definition of vocabulary by saying that: “Vocabulary can be defined, roughly, as the words we teach in the foreign language. However, a new item of vocabulary may be more than a single word: for example, post office and mother-in law, which are made up of two or three words but express a single idea. There are also multi-word idioms such as call it a day, where
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the meaning of the phrase cannot be deduced from an analysis of the component words. A useful convention is to cover all such cases by talking ‘items’ rather than ‘words” (1996, p. 60).”. By this way, he defines that vocabulary is bigger than just the meaning of words. It covers a huge aspect of language and is the medium to express idea. To sum up, there are various ways to define the concept “vocabulary”. Nevertheless, it is in favor that vocabulary is a total number of words existed in language, including single words to express idea as well as multi- word idioms which can be understood in the contexts. 2.1.2. Roles of vocabulary It is undeniable that vocabulary, like grammar and phonetics, plays an important role in mastering a foreign language. According to Wilkins (1972): without grammar, very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary, nothing can be conveyed. Besides, Harmer (1992) shared the same idea that: “If language structures make up the skeleton of language, then it is vocabulary that provides the vital organs and the flesh. An ability to manipulate grammatical structures does not have any potential for expressing meaning unless words are used”. Concerning about the significance of vocabulary, Mc Carthy stated, “Without words to express a wide range of meanings, communication in the second language can not happen in any meaningful way”. By these statements, it can be concluded that vocabulary is the decisive component of all uses of language. Therefore, if the learners have a wide range of vocabulary, they will have more confidence to communicate with others and vice versa. They can meet many difficulties to express themselves
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and communicate

with others.

Additionally, vocabulary as a means of communication, without words or vocabulary, how we can think and communicate with others. Vocabulary makes much effect on other English skills: writing, speaking, listening and reading. John Langan supported that: “A good command of many words will make you a better writer, speaker, listener and reader. Studies have shown that students with a strong vocabulary and students who work to improve limited vocabulary are more successful in school. In addition, one research school study found that a good vocabulary, more than any other factors, was common to people enjoying successful careers. To make it short, vocabulary is considered a vital part of effective communication; therefore, teaching vocabulary is necessary. I. S. P. Nation offered that: “Giving attention to vocabulary is unavoidable. Even the most formal or communicationdirected approaches to language teaching must deal with needed vocabulary in one way or another.” Such above- mentioned studies support the importance of teaching vocabulary, however, some scholars have opposite opinions. Harris and Snow (2004) suggest that attempting to teach vocabulary is ineffective and the time spent on vocabulary teaching and learning is often “time… wasted” ( Harris and Snow, 2004, 58). This idea is so badly misleading for both teacher and learners. In face, vocabulary teaching must be directly contradicted and should be regarded as an essential part of progress in a foreign language. In conclusion, vocabulary is the backbone of any language. It not only enables students to decode message while listening or reading but also helps them improve their speaking and writing.
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2.1.3. Classification of vocabulary There are various ways to classify the kinds of vocabulary. In the first place, in terms of semantics (meaning of the words), it is classified into Notional words and Functional words. The former, whose meanings are lexical, has certain terminal meaning and server as members of the sentence such as subjects, attributes, adverbials. Notional words are nouns, pronouns, adjectives, numerals, verbs, adverbs; they name objects, actions, quality and so on. Whereas, functional words have grammatical meaning, they only have meanings in relation to other words. They play structural roles and show the relationship between words or between other parts of the sentences, or help to build various tenses, voices and moods, etc. Functional words are articles, prepositions, conjunctions, interjections, and so forth. Moreover, according to Doff (1988), vocabulary can be classified into active vocabulary and passive vocabulary in terms of methodology. The active vocabulary mentions words, which learners can understand, pronounce correctly without context and use effectively in speaking and writing. On the other hand, the passive vocabulary is the words that are encountered or understood in context such as in reading or listening but they are not used in speaking or writing. Another category to classify vocabulary is in terms of communicative language teaching. Learner‟s vocabulary is divided into receptive and productive vocabulary (Nguyen Bang and Nguyen Ba Ngoc, 2002, p. 36). The receptive vocabulary refers to learner‟s understanding of vocabulary when he hears or reads it. In other words, it is words learners achieve while hearing, listening or reading. Productive vocabulary denotes the understanding of words or phrases in verbal or written scenarios (Belisle,
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2007). It means that productive vocabulary is what learners can use effectively in communication to express their idea. 2.2. Overview of movies and videos. 2.2.1. Defining term There are different ways of defining the term “Video” in language teaching. In the most popular way, Longman dictionary of Contemporary English has applied the meaning of the term “video” as “a copy of a film or television program, or a series of events recorded on videotape” or “a process of recording or showing television programs, films, real events etc on videotape”. In other way, movies and videos are briefly known as one kind of visual aids. They are visible with both sound and pictures. In fact, video is a useful means of communication as well as a powerful vehicle of information and effective aid in language teaching and learning. “Movies” is defined as a film shown in a cinema or on television. There are several kinds of movies such as silent movies, movies with subtitle, and movies without subtitle. In this thesis, movies with subtitle are preferred. 2.2.2 Advantages of using movies and videos in teaching vocabulary. As mentioned above, video and movies provide not only sound but also vision therefore, learners have chance to listen and see the moving pictures at the same time. Learners would find it more interesting so video and movies help to draw the attention and capture the interest of learners. The benefit of using them in teaching and learning is undeniable. Followings are some advantages of using videos and movies to teach vocabulary.

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In the first place, video and movies are motivators. They help to motivate learners and maintain their interest, attention during the lesson. In classroom where the teacher keeps talking all the times and has nothing to attract learners‟ attention, learners will get bored and tired. By using video and movies, teacher will not have to talk much and encourage students to talk more, which results in more learners‟ participation. Besides, video is a combination of sound, colorful pictures and human- video interactions, which is quite different from traditional classes with text- books, cassettes in bad quality and non- native speakers. Video and movies are more effective than traditional printed textbooks. What students can see from the textbooks are only dead words and sentences. Students would become more excited to experience this new way of teaching and learning. They would be more eager to try to understand the new language and remember them for long time. Learning with videos with chance to be acquainted with the native voice, which makes students not feel so isolated from the real world and they absorb the new language without being aware of this. When watching videos, students would not aware that they are learning so they feel free from pressure and stressful situation in traditional language classes. They learn the language incidentally and as a result, they gain success. There are a series of studies by Guildea, Miller and Wurtenberg (1990) which provide support for video use. According to them, the learners who saw video pictures were able to produce a higher percentage of acceptable sentences using the most difficult target words than were the learner who read only the narratives or those who read both the narratives and definitions. In the words of the researchers, “Pictures (video) improve sentence production for many words” ( Gildea, 1990).
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In addition, as educators, our goal of course is to get students engaged in learning. Video can help us do this work effectively. According to Lori Grinffin, curriculum Director, Library Video Company, “video is clearly an instructional medium that generates excitement. Using sight and sound, video is the perfect medium for students.”, learners would feel really excited in learning by watching videos. Since there are lots of videos which are designed for foreign language purposes, they can combine learning with entertainment such as watching films, cartoon. Besides, students have a lot of fun; they would find English learning far more interesting. In the next place, videos and movies help to create the good language environment. By watching videos or movies, students have chance to listen to the native speakers with standard pronunciation, accent, intonation and stress. At the same time, students will achieve new words as well as their correct use. Learners still feel shy to ask teachers because they can be blamed on not paying attention to the lesson. By watching them, students can understand clearly the reason why in this situation we use this word not others. Furthermore, the ability to stop, start and rewind video can be invaluable. Whenever students feel the words difficult, teacher can stop and rewind it until they are clear. Therefore, learners will find it far easier to understand difficult and new structures or expressions as well as know the way to pronounce words at the same time. Teachers can give more explanation if necessary. Some research shows the fact that five minutes of a short sequence taken from a video is equal to forty- five minutes learning with traditional books. Video is considered as a powerful medium because of the wide sense of the term such as it presents the language in the full context, which helps
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students know how to use language correctly. Students would find it easier to remember the new vocabulary as well as the use of them as they are put in specific context. Moreover, they know how to pronounce the words more precisely. In addition, learners would find studying more interesting because they do not have to listen to one voice all the time; instead, they could watch and listen at the same time. Among many kinds of visual aids, video and movies are recognized as the two most effective methods of teaching and learning. In comparison with other visual aids such as pictures and flashcards, which only provide the image or audiocassettes that present new vocabulary through sound, video is absolutely better. Videos and movies provide both sound and moving pictures, which both interests and motivates learners. Video can be compared with radio or television, it is certainly more preferable. It is clear that in the video learners can achieve advantages in learning through both radio and television. By watching videos and movies, the learners do not just hear the language but see the context in which it is used. Besides, with TV sometimes we can not select the program that is appropriate to learners‟ level as well as the content of the lesson but we can do this with video. Further more, the source of video and movies is not limited, almost any video can be used to teach English, especially vocabulary such as commercial films, TV program and so on. In short, video and movies are effective aids, which help to facilitate teaching and learning process. It is a very flexible medium. Especially, video has been used in language teaching in many countries. According to a recent teacher survey, 94% of classroom teachers had effectively used video during the course of an academic year (Lori Griffin). 2.3. Related Studies:
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There are a variety of techniques for teachers to teach vocabulary to students such as visual aids, English explanations, listening to English songs, games or movies and videos in English. It has been proved that movies and videos in English offer learners the potential benefit of images linked to the language being used and learned. According to Paivio (1971, 1986, cited in Milton, 2008) dual- coding, “which is where the coding of memories is in both iconic and propositional form,” is an aid to retention and recall. It helps to explain why watching movies and videos facilitates the vocabulary learning process. In terms of research concerning about the benefit of using movies and videos for learning languages, Cees M. Koolstra and Jonannes. W.J. Beentjes (1999) argue that movies or subtitle programs provides a rich context for foreign language acquisition. In another research ( unpublished one cited in Milton, 2008), a DVD of Xena Warrior Princess with English audio and Greek subtitles was taken as an example to check single learners‟ vocabulary uptake from a movies with sub- titles . At first, the learners were pre- tested to identify the number of known and unknown words. Then they watched the film and were tested once a week for 4 weeks. Surprisingly, the findings is the known words increased from 0 to 41 out of the total number of 100 words being tested. Moreover, not only children but also adults find movies and videos enjoyable. Those, who have bad vocabulary, can learn some more new vocabulary unconsciously, for those who happen to have large vocabulary can still benefit from watching movies and videos. Vocabulary learning is an essential element of learning of a foreign language. Long and Richard (2007) regard it as “the core component of all the language skills” and failure to gain an adequate vocabulary can have
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catastrophic consequences for communication, far more than with other elements of the foreign language such as its grammar. Despite its importance, there is still little agreement on how best to teach vocabulary in general and on how to use movies and videos in teaching and learning vocabulary in particular. The researcher have realized the large benefit of watching movies and videos and would like to take step on investigating the current application of this technique in teaching vocabulary to the 10th form students at high school. 2.4. Summary This chapter has dealt with the theoretical background of the study with the basic but necessary knowledge of English vocabulary and using movies and videos for teaching vocabulary. In order to find out the current situation of teaching vocabulary as well as the application of movies and videos for teaching vocabulary at high schools in Hanoi, a survey was conducted; which would be reported in the chapter 3.

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CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY
The literature on the research topic was briefly reviewed for the theoretical basis of the study. To continue, this chapter presents the practical side of this study, the author‟s research on how movies and videos are used and how useful they are for English vocabulary teaching at some high school. The participants, the instrument as well as the procedure of data collection and analysis are discussed in detail in this chapter. 3.1. Participants.

In order to undertake this study, the author conducted the survey to both teachers of English and grade 10 students at high school in Hanoi. 3.1.1. Teachers of English The teachers the researchers got here have vital role in designing and facilitating the activities in their language classrooms. Therefore, ten grade10 teachers at Thang Long, Nguyen Gia Thieu and Lomonxop high schools involved in the data collection process to report the factual situations of English teaching and learning at their school as well as to share their valuable experience related to the topic. The choice of schools was made to ensure that they should come from across the city rather than the same district. This diversity is illustrated in table 1 below

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High schools

Number teachers

of Location (district in Hanoi) Hai Ba Trug Tu Liem Long Bien

Thang Long Lomonoxop Nguyen Gia Thieu

5 2 3

Table1: A summary of the geographical locations of 3 Hanoi high schools Most of the teachers in the survey were female aged from 30 to 48. Their teaching experience widely ranged from 8 to 24 years. Each teacher taught at least 3 to 4 classes, i.e. 12 to 15 periods of English per week. Furthermore, the main teaching material is the three- year course book. Moreover, the Communicative Language Teaching method is used by majority of the teachers here. 3.1.2. Grade 10 students. The second subject of this survey was the limited number of 100 students in the 10th form at Thang Long high school in Hanoi, where the researcher did practicum. They were both male and female at the age of sixteen years old. They are in 3 groups 10A12, 10A8 and 10A5 from the mainstream. Some of them have been learning for 4 to 10 years, and some for 8 or 9 years. It is notable that among 100 students, 47 students preferred English as the main subject when they get the entrance exam to the university whereas 53 students only considered English as a high school subject. Their main purpose of learning was not only to get the good results in written tests but
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also to have good competence of spoken language. During their English lessons, they had chance to work in pairs, groups and to take part in activities such as discussion or games. In addition, the learning facilities such as reference books, tapes, cassettes or overhead projector were available there. However, the classes were so large, often from 40 to 50 students. 3.2. Data collection instrument

To obtain a sufficient collection of reliable and valid data, two method instruments were fully employed, including questionnaire and interview. 3.2.1. Questionnaire. Using questionnaires is the main use for collecting data. Questions were short and focused; it is an effective and quick way to obtain a huge amount of information especially to a large number of respondents in a short time. Moreover, if the questionnaire is well conducted, the data can be easily collected and analyzed. Two questionnaires were used, one for the teachers and another for grade 10 students. Questionnaires for teachers were written in English and the other for students were written in Vietnamese to make it easy for them to answer and to avoid possible misunderstandings as well as the inaccuracy of the outcomes. Teachers‟ questionnaire consisted of eleven questions, which was started with a brief introduction and concise explanation of the research. So was the students‟ questionnaire, which consisted of 15 questions. On the following pages of two questionnaires, there was a combination of both open-ended and close-ended questions to facilitate the data collation and
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analysis, as well as the comprehensive collection of information (Nunan, 1989, cited in Hoang & Nguyen, 2006, p.21). These questions helped to give the answers to the 3 research questions mentioned above. The first part including two questions (question1 and 2) shows teachers‟ and students‟ attitudes towards vocabulary. The second part focuses on the current situation of teaching vocabulary and problems in teaching it. The last part of the survey questionnaires show the information about their experiences and opinions about using movies and videos as well as their thoughts in applying this technique in teaching vocabulary to the 10th form students. 3.2.2. Semi-structured interview Interview proved to be more practical and helpful, therefore, the researcher also used a semi- structured interview to get fresh ideas and ways of approaching this technique. Some 10-15 minute interviews focusing on the questionnaires were conducted with the teacher with permission and five students, who had already watched movies and videos for entertainment and for learning vocabulary. These interviews aimed at checking the validity and reliability of the information collected from questionnaire and exploring personal attitudes around the topic. 3.3. Procedure of data collection.

The process of data collection could be put into three major phases as follows. Phase1:

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The first phase was the preparation for the data collection including the designing of two questionnaires. All personal information of the participants was ensured to be kept confidential. Besides, thanks to the invaluable supervision from my supervisor and friends, the survey questionnaires were much improved and carefully designed. Phase 2: The second phase was conducted with high school teachers. As suggested by Oppenheim (1992, cited in Hoang & Nguyen, 2006, p.33),„authority figures‟ can have a major impacts on the respondents‟ willingness to respond, several important contacts were asked by the researcher for a good reference. Therefore, an advance notice was made to each teacher via telephone or directly to explain the purpose of the research and to invite participation. After having the permission, the researcher made an appointment with the teachers. The researcher explained why the information was being collected and how it would be used. Then, the teachers were asked to spend more time reading the questionnaires and filling in the questionnaire. Next, following the questionnaire was the small talks between the researcher and the interviewees to get an insight view into their attitudes. Phase 3: The next phase was conducted with the 10 th form students in classrooms. With the permission of the teachers of English and the former teachers, the survey questionnaires were given to these students at break time. Before completing the questionnaires, students were briefly explained about the research topic and the reason why the information was being
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collected. In the process of fulfilling the questionnaire, their further questions were answered to clarify their misunderstanding and minimize their confusion. Then, some semi- interviews with 5 students who had previously used movies and videos to learning vocabulary were conducted after their class.

3.4.

Procedure of data analysis

3.4.1. Data analysis methods. General speaking, the data analysis in this study was implemented according to the concept- based analysis, there has a framework (which is the set aims and research question), counting on which were the tasks of categorization, classification and final analysis. The data received from the close- ended questions in the questionnaires was quantified, calculated and transferred into numerical form. In order to see the over all evaluation, the participants‟ choices and rating were synthesized and analyzed to gain a composite score. Data collected mainly from open- ended questions and interviews allowed the researcher to gain insight into the participants‟ perceptions, attitude, motivations and suggestions. All the same ideas would be grouped together to be compared.

3.4.2. Data analysis procedures. As mentioned from the beginning, the survey questionnaire and interviews were conducted on the purpose of finding answers to the research
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questions. After all the data was gathered, it was transformed and classified according to the three research questions. From the data analysis, a large amount of statistics obtained form the questionnaire was transformed into tables and charts, which reassured the clear-cut format and facilitate the analytical task as well as help readers understand comparison and synthesis. 3.5. Summary

This chapter has presented the methodology applied in this research. The two groups of participants involved in the process of data collection were the teachers from three high schools in Hanoi and the grade 10 students at Thang Long high school. Next, the two instruments, the three phases of data collection and data analysis were also justified in this chapter.

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CHAPTER4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In the previous chapter, the methodology applied in this study has been presented with descriptions and justification of the selection of subjects, the instruments and the process of data collection as well as data analysis. In this chapter, all collected data will be analyzed and discussed to reveal the answers to each research question relatively.
4.1. Research question 1: Current situations of teaching and learning vocabulary at high school in Hanoi. As it is revealed from the questionnaire as well as the interview, the current situations of teaching and learning at high school in Hanoi could be categorized into four main categories as follows:  The attitude of the students and teachers towards vocabulary  Students‟ assessments on their own vocabulary and teachers‟ assessments on their students‟ vocabulary  Teachers‟ current vocabulary teaching methods  Students‟ preference techniques of teaching vocabulary 4.1.1. Collected data from the students  Attitude towards vocabulary Students‟ attitude toward vocabulary could be revealed in the tables and the pie chart below including their opinions on the importance of

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learning vocabulary, how much time they spend on learning vocabulary and the difficulties they have when learning it. Very important Important Not important at all

Students (percentage)

72%

18%

0

Table4. 2. Student’s opinion on the importance of learning vocabulary As can be seen from the table, students are all aware of the importance of learning vocabulary. 72% of students think that learning vocabulary play an important part in learning language, 18 % of them find it very important and none of them consider it unimportant at all. To have an insight to this matter, students were interviewed about the reason why they considered vocabulary or learning vocabulary important. Most of them said that the more they know, the more chance they get high marks in their tests. Besides, some students supposed rich command of vocabulary could help them practice all four skills. For instance, with a good knowledge of vocabulary, they felt more confident to communicate with others as well as they had more choices of words for their writing. Furthermore, all of them claimed that it would be impossible to communicate without vocabulary. From the table, it is clear that students all know the importance of vocabulary as well as learning vocabulary. However, as can be seen from the pie chart below, majority of the students (84%) only spent less than 1 hour to learn vocabulary, less than one sixth of students (15%) spent between 1hour

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and 2 hours to learn vocabulary and only two students spent more than two hours to learn.

To get an insight to this matter, interviewed students said that they were still not hard- working enough. Besides, some of them still had some difficulties in learning. With the data collection from question 2 in the questionnaire, the research drew the table below with some figures showing they had difficulties in learning vocabulary or not. Never Students (percentage) 3% sometimes 39% Usually 58%

Table 4.3: Students’ having difficulties in learning vocabulary. The table indicates that 58% of the students usually have difficulties in learning vocabulary. Besides, about 39% of them sometimes have difficulties and only 3 students are confident to claim that they have no difficulties. When being asked to specify their difficulties, each student felt free to show their idea about this issue. They all had their own ideas, which
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could be summarized into some main ones. Generally speaking, most of them found that it was so difficult to remember all the words with both pronunciation and spelling or writing. Some students specified that there were so many words learnt but they had not many chances to use them, hence, they forgot them easily. Others supposed that in English, with only one word, it has so many meanings, forms, and it could be used in different situations, different contexts. In addition, they could not distinguish this word with others so they misunderstood or were confused when using their vocabularies. Furthermore, minority of them said that it was really difficult for them to learn some words in their unlike fields. Students‟ difficulties in learning vocabulary are so various. In brief, a large proportion of the surveyed students have awareness of the importance of vocabulary in learning a foreign language as well as the necessity of learning vocabulary. However, they have to cope with many difficulties to get a good command of vocabulary and their time for learning vocabulary is not much.  Students’ assessment on their own vocabulary Although, all the students understand the importance of vocabulary as well as learning vocabulary, they do not spend much time on it and they still have so many troubles in learning. With these disadvantageous things, how excellent the students‟ vocabulary is put into account. The pie chart below would summarize the results from the question 4.

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2

poor good fair

46
47

excellent

5

Chart4.2: Students' vocabulary
For question 4, the largest number (47%) of the students said that their English vocabulary was poor. Smaller percentage (46%) claimed that their vocabulary was fair. The number of the students who had good knowledge of vocabulary is only 5 out of 100 students. Only two students felt confident with their excellent knowledge of vocabulary. In short, majority of students supposed that their own vocabulary was not good enough. With their limited vocabulary, how students used their knowledge of vocabulary should be taken into consideration. The table below shows that the majority of the students (86%) sometimes used their vocabulary to discuss with their friends about some subjects or topics. The smaller percentage (9%) said that they were unconfident to talk or discuss with their friends in English, it seemed that they never used what they had learnt. The minority of them (5%) assumed that they could use their learnt vocabulary competently.

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Never

Sometimes about some matters

Use competently 5%

Students (percentage)

9%

86%

Table 4.4: Students’ ability to use their vocabulary When being asked more about this issue, some students supposed that most of them only used their vocabulary to discuss about some matters in the speaking lesson. Some others claimed that they were not confident with their knowledge, so they were shy to speak or discuss with others in English. They did not want their friends know how bad their knowledge was. In brief, most of the students did not feel satisfied with their own vocabulary; which could prevent them from communicating with others in English. All the students were aware of this problem and they wanted to enrich their vocabulary. They hoped the interesting vocabulary lessons would help them.  Teachers’ current vocabulary teaching methods As it is revealed from the questionnaires, movies and videos remain the most underexploited material in the teachers‟ vocabulary techniques. Their usual vocabulary teaching techniques can be summarized in the following chart, with the horizontal axis gives the number of respondents:

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Chart 4.3: Teachers’ current vocabulary teaching methods From the chart, it is clear that the main techniques their teachers of English use to teach vocabulary are Vietnamese translation with 93 % and English explanation in the simple way with 88%. Besides, 84% of the surveyed students revealed that their teachers gave more examples to illustrate the words‟ meaning. The forth-biggest number of the students (64%) admitted that their teachers presented the meaning of the English words in contexts. Movies and videos, which are believed to be less easily available, prove to be unfamiliar to the students with only 23%. When being asked about any other teaching techniques their teacher used, three students agreed that their teachers could use some games to introduce the new vocabulary and sometimes the new vocabulary could be presented by being given their synonyms and antonyms. Other three students said that, their
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teachers also applied the combination of these techniques to teach vocabulary.  Students’ preference techniques of teaching vocabulary. As mentioned above, teachers at high school applied different techniques of teaching vocabulary. In order to help students learn effectively, the techniques of teaching should meet their demand. Hence, students‟ assessment on these techniques and their preference techniques should be considered. The chart below indicates that the current popular teaching techniquetranslating new words into Vietnamese is represented by the nearly smallest number of students (63%). When being asked for the reason, students said that this technique made them feel bored and it was so ineffective. Whereas, the largest proportion (88%) of the students agreed that using English to define the meaning of the words or explaining new vocabulary in English interest them most. Besides, the technique – using movies and videos that is not commonly used in high school in Hanoi gained the slightly lower percentage (87%). Most of the students claimed that using movies and videos would make their lessons more interesting and motivating; they could learn the words more easily. Besides, 6 % of the students also suggested some other preferable techniques such as using body languages, games or the combination of all the techniques

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Chart 4. 4: Students’ preferable teaching techniques In short, all the students want an English learning environment, in which they have chance to perceive and practice English as much as possible instead of only jotting down the words as well as their meanings. Hence, a change in teaching vocabulary technique is highly appreciated to meet students‟ demands. Moreover, as can be seen from the chart, using videos and movies to teach vocabulary is also an interesting suggestion for teacher to have a motivating and effective vocabulary lesson. 4.1.2. Collected data from teachers.  Attitude toward vocabulary and teaching vocabulary. The findings from the table 4. 4 below show that all of the surveyed teachers recognized the important role of vocabulary as well as teaching
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vocabulary in a language lesson. Moreover, the majority (7 out of 10) of the teachers considered vocabulary important. The rest agreed that vocabulary is very important in learning English. All of them shared the same opinion with some researchers before that “without vocabulary, nothing can be conveyed” (Wilkin, 1972). Hence, they all agreed that teaching vocabulary was necessary to help students in their language learning. Very important Number of teachers 3 7 0 Important Not important at all

Table4.5 Teachers’ opinion about the importance of teaching vocabulary All the teachers supposed that teaching vocabulary played a vital part in the teaching process. The table below would indicate how much time they spent on teaching vocabulary.

10 mins Number of teachers 8

15 mins 2

>15 mins 0

Table 4.6: The amount of time for teaching vocabulary For this question, 8 out of 10 surveyed teachers spent about 10 minutes to teach vocabulary accounting for about more than 20% of the class hour. Only two teachers claimed that the time for teaching vocabulary was about 15 minutes. None of them spent more than 15 minutes for this section of the lesson. In fact, when being interviewed more about this
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question, most of the teachers said that the time for teaching vocabulary was not fixed exactly; it usually depended on the lesson. Besides, they often spent about 10 or 15 minutes at the beginning of their lessons- the stage preparing for the lesson teaching vocabulary. All of them said they could not teach vocabulary in more than 15 minutes because in each lesson there were so many parts that need covering. For the question2 in the teachers‟ questionnaire “Have you had any difficulties in teaching vocabulary?”, All 10 students said that sometimes they had some difficulties in teaching vocabulary. For example, some words are so abstract so it is so difficult to define them and explain them clearly for students to understand. To conclude, all teachers regard teaching vocabulary as a vital part in teaching but the time for this is still limited and they still have to encounter some difficulties.  Teachers’ assessment on their students’ vocabulary

Poor Teacher School 2 Nguyen Gia Thieu

Fair 8 - Thang Long - Lomonoxop - Nguyen Gia Thieu

Good 0

excellent 0

Table 4. 7: Teachers’ assessment on their students’ vocabulary
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The table above indicates that two teachers from Nguyen Gia Thieu high school thought that their students‟ vocabulary was not good enough. They could not use their vocabulary for discussing in their speaking lessons. They could not understand what the teachers said in English; therefore, the teachers had to make everything clear in Vietnamese equivalent. The rest of the teachers said that in general, their students‟ vocabulary was fair. For instance, they could practice their English when working in groups or in pairs with their friends in the speaking lessons. No teachers claimed that their students had a good command of vocabulary. All of them agreed that of course, there were some students had good knowledge of vocabulary but they only represented the small number in the large scale. It is clear that, the students‟ vocabulary cannot fully come up to the teacher‟s expectation.  Teachers’ current vocabulary teaching methods The results from the teachers‟ questionnaires and some small talks with them could be summarized in the following chart.

Chart 4. 5: Teachers' vocabulary teaching teachniques
using Movies and Videos to show …
using pictures, flashcards or real … presenting words' meaning in contexts 5 5

2 6

giving examples to illustrate words' … Explaining in English
translating into Vietnamese 0 2 4

8 10
6 8 10 12

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The figure from the chart could point out that all the teachers choose translating words into Vietnamese; especially teachers from Nguyen Gia Thieu high school preferred this technique as the main way of teaching vocabulary. Eight teachers from two other high schools are in favor of using English to define the English meaning and then they require the students to give the Vietnamese equivalent. Only two teachers used videos and movies in vocabulary lessons. Besides, they also named their difficulties in using this technique. It is a shame that Vietnamese translation is still the dominant technique of teaching vocabulary in some high schools in Hanoi and the effectiveness of using movies and videos has not yet fully exploited to have successful vocabulary lessons. All in all, this part has revealed the current situation of teaching and learning vocabulary at high school in Hanoi. All the teachers and students have been awareness of the importance of teaching and learning vocabulary in the process of learning a foreign language. However, the teaching techniques were not fully made use of to achieve effective learning lessons as well as to help students enrich their vocabulary. The technique- using movies and videos was an example, which was preferred much by the students but only a few teachers use this technique. What students perceived has not come up to the expectation of both teachers and students. 4.2. Research question 2: The use of movies and videos in teaching vocabulary and its benefit. 4.2.1. Collected data from students  The use of movies and videos in teaching vocabulary
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In the literature review, it was shown that using movies and videos could draw much benefit in teaching and learning vocabulary. The use of this technique at high school in Hanoi should be had an eye on. From the pie chart below, it is apparent that more than half students (55%) experienced in using this technique to learning English. The rest of them had never used this kind of technique in learning. However, when being asked for further information, most of the students who experienced this technique before supposed that they achieve language incidentally, not purposefully. They actually considered movies and videos as entertaining materials and vocabulary can be regarded a product from the process of watching.

Chart 4. 6: Use of movies and videos in learning vocabulary

45 Yes 55 Never

With regard to the necessity of using movies and videos in teaching new vocabulary, the students‟ opinion could be summarized in the following chart with the four- point scale.

46

It is obvious that majority of the students agreed that using movies and videos is necessary for their learning vocabulary. The smaller proportion (19%) claimed that it was very essential to use this technique. Whereas, only the small number of students considered that this technique was not necessary for their learning. Besides, some students (about 5) still wondered about the necessity of using this technique, they said that they had not used this technique before so they could not find it necessary or not. The reason why some students were still confused about this technique could be partly revealed on how frequency of this technique their teachers used. As indicated from the below pie chart, only two students affirm that this technique was usually used and 32 % of the students confirmed that their teachers sometimes used movies and videos to teach their vocabulary. Another 32% of the students suggested that their teachers had never exploited this technique. The highest number of them (34%) agreed that their teacher rarely applied this technique in teaching vocabulary. It means that the frequency of using movies and videos at high school in
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Hanoi is not high, as consequence, the effectiveness of this technique has not fully exploited.

 Benefit of using movies and videos in teaching vocabulary It is obvious from three questions above that most of the students were in favor of using movies and videos in the teaching vocabulary lessons and agreed that it was necessary to learning vocabulary through movies and videos. It is significant to exploit the effect of this technique on their learning as well as their classroom atmosphere. In terms of the advantages of using movies and videos to their learning, majority of the students (62%) supposed that it can give them much advantage on their learning. It was good news that none of them thought it would give them no benefit on their learning. The rest (38%) of the students had no idea about this because they had never experienced this technique before; it was really hard for them to decide it was advantageous or not.

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Next, as indicated from the below pie chart about the effect of this techniques on the classroom atmosphere, 74% of the students informed that their classroom atmosphere would be much more interesting and motivating. The smaller number of students (24) suggested that this technique could make their learning atmosphere interesting and motivating. Only 2% of them affirmed that it could only make a little change in their classroom atmosphere. It was so glad that none of them said it would not have any influence on their learning atmosphere in class.

Chart 4. 9. Effect of using movies and videos on the class atmosphere
20 24
very interesting and motivating interesting and motivating not very interesting and motivating not interesting and motivating at all

74

Moreover, although not all the students experienced learning vocabulary through movies and videos, many of them believed that using movies and video could help them learn vocabulary effectively. The following chart summarizes the results from the 13 th question in the questionnaire.

49

Others Students can be distracted from the lesson Students can pronounce more precisely Students are more interested in learning voabulary Students can remember the words in the long time
Students can remember the words easily
0

5
10

45 60 29 43
10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Chart 4.10: Students’ perception of the effects of using movies and videos on their vocabulary learning Quite a large proportion of the students affirmed that using movies and videos positively affected their motivation in learning vocabulary. About 60% of the students thought that movies and videos would help increase their interest in vocabulary learning while about 45% said that movies and videos assisted them to pronounce the new vocabulary more precisely. Smaller percentages 43% confirmed they could remember the words more easily and longer because they leave much impression on them. Moreover, another advantage of movies and videos is that they could aid the long- term memory if their teachers use movies and videos to teach new words, which is revealed by appropriately 29% of the students. The students went further to explain in the interview that movies and videos normally contain both sound and eye-catching visual aids as well as interesting
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content, which would help them not only better guess and grasp the meaning of new words but also more precisely pronounce the words. However, the small number of students (10%) supposed that they were not in favor of using movies and videos because movies and videos could distract them from the lesson. They would focus on or discuss about the films or videos rather than paying attention to the lessons. The smallest proportion (5%) said that they were not aware of these effects on their learning. Students shared their opinion more in the interview that they disliked movies and videos as they were time- consuming or using movies and videos would not make any changes in their learning. Four out of these students, as can be drawn from the question 8 in the questionnaire, have never been taught vocabulary through this technique. To make it short, although movies and videos have some weak points, their advantages overweigh their disadvantages. Most students reported positive effects in terms of better memory and greater motivation. Furthermore, movies and videos give students chances to get involved in the lesson and have better pronunciation. Only the small number of students held a negative view towards this technique. 4.2.2. Collected data from Teachers It can be revealed from the teachers‟ questionnaire and the interview that a half of the surveyed teachers had no idea when being asked the question “Do you think movies and videos are the useful technique should be used when you teach English vocabulary?”. The rest agreed that movies and videos are the useful technique to teach vocabulary. However, teachers went further in the interview that two out of these five teachers emphasized
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that movies and videos are the useful materials for teaching but not the best technique. Furthermore, for the question 7 in the questionnaire, all the teachers agreed that movies and videos could help their students learn vocabulary more effectively and sufficiently in terms of meaning, use and form. All the teachers elicited that movies and videos can provide students with both pictures and sound, new words could be provided in the real context. It means that students can achieve the words‟ form and use easier. Movies and videos were supposed to be the useful technique to help students learn vocabulary more effectively and sufficiently. Nonetheless, from the table below, it is apparent that movies and videos have not been used very often. Only three teachers informed that they sometimes taught vocabulary to their students through movies and videos. The half of them said that movies and videos were rarely used to teach vocabulary. Another two teachers said that they never used movies and videos in teaching vocabulary. It is a pity that none of them affirmed that they always or usually use these materials. Always frequency Number teachers Table 4.8: Frequency of using movies and videos to teach vocabulary Although movies and videos have not been used frequently, most of the teachers agreed that these materials would have much influence on their classroom atmosphere as well as advantage on their teaching vocabulary.
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Usually

Sometimes Rarely

Never

of 0

0

3

5

2

For question 9 in the questionnaire, all the teachers asserted that the classroom atmosphere would change. It would be interesting and motivating because movies and videos attract students‟ attention, lift their eyes from the book and they would participate more in the lesson. Furthermore, the effects of using movies and videos on the teachers‟ vocabulary teaching were demonstrated by the following chart.

The chart demonstrates that all 10 teachers in the survey remarked that using movies and videos in English would aid their students‟ pronunciation to be more precise. Moreover, 9 out of 10 teachers thought that their students could catch the meaning and form of words faster and more easily. The smaller proportion (8 out of 10 teachers) of them said that their lesson would be more interesting and motivating while seven teachers supposed that movies and videos would help them introduce their words easily. Yet, besides the benefit movies and videos bring to us, they still have
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some drawbacks, which teachers went further in the interview. They claimed that using movies and videos could cost them much of time (5%). In addition, 2 out of 10 teachers said that movies and videos could distracted their students from the lesson so they have to control the students more strictly to prevent them from discussing too much and make noise while they watching the movies or videos. It is good news that the number of teachers confirmed the drawback of using movies and videos is rather small. In summary, although movies and videos have not been used much to teach English vocabulary, both students and teachers could draw the benefit of using them in their teaching and learning vocabulary. As concerned above, using movies and videos have both negative and positive effects; yet, the former ones overweigh the later. This finding from both teachers and students suggests that educators and teachers at high schools in Hanoi should take more advantage of movies and videos to achieve effective vocabulary lessons. 4.3. Research question 3: Difficulties in using movies and videos to teach vocabulary. As analyzed and summarized in the previous part, movies and videos had both negative and positive effects on teaching and learning vocabulary. However, the advantage overweighs the draw back; the researcher wondered whether teachers could fail to use movies and videos. The question 15 in the students‟ questionnaire helps give response to this matter. Only 20% thought that their teacher would be successful in using this technique. About 80% of students said that their teachers might not succeed in using movies and videos to teach vocabulary. The causes of the teachers‟ failure or the
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difficulties the teachers have to cope with were shown in the following chart. The chart indicates that the highest proportion of the students (50%) claimed that the cause of their teachers‟ failure might result from the choice of inappropriate movies and videos. 41% added that another teachers‟ difficulty in using movies and videos was mishap which might occur at any time such as there is electricity cut off, technical problems and so on. They gave more detail in the interview that they had chance to study with modern facilities such as cassette, video, over project and so on; yet, these equipments did not always work properly. According to 21% of the students, in the films or videos, there were often many unnecessary or distracted scenes, which may cause the teachers‟ failure. Besides 4% informed that when students were so excited about the film, they would discuss with each other much, which made their classroom so noisy.

Chart 4.12. Difficultiesin using movies and videos to teach vocabulary from students' view
other distracted scenes
mishhap might occur Difficult to choose the suitable movies and videos

4 21
41 50

When the same matter was elicited from the teachers, they also agreed with the students‟ opinion. All 10 teachers claimed that it was difficult for them to make choice of the suitable movies and videos for their lessons and mishap might occur without their awareness in advance. All of these would
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make them lack confidence and have wrong attitudes towards using videos in vocabulary teaching. Besides, three teachers from Nguyen Gia Thieu high school informed that their school lacked necessary equipment. Four out of them asserted that there would be some unnecessary scenes, which distracted students from the lessons. Besides, teachers went further in the interview that some students were so lazy, their mind wandered and they did nothing at all during the vocabulary lesson but talk to their friends. Hereby, the teaching purposes would not be fulfilled.

Chart4. 13: Difficulties of using movies and videos from teachers' view
others
mishap distracted scenes lack of equipment 3 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 4

3 10

difficult choice of the suitable movies and videos

4.4.Summary In conclusion, this chapter has successively provided answers to each of the research questions via a thorough analysis and discussion basing on the collected data. Major findings as detailed above would be summarized in the conclusion as the final chapter of this research paper.

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CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION
Previous chapters have thoroughly presented the introduction, the theory background – literature review, the implementation as well as the results of the research. Last but not least, this chapter includes the summarizing and evaluation on the outcomes of the whole research; the findings, contribution, limitation of the research and some pedagogical implications and recommendations for further studies. 5.1. Major findings of the research: On the basis of the theory, the exhaustive analysis and discussion of the data collected from teachers and students, direct interviews and my practicum, significant findings about the current vocabulary teaching and learning and the use of movies and videos in vocabulary teachings were revealed as follows: The study initially confirms that both teachers and students had positive attitudes towards vocabulary as well as vocabulary teaching and learning. The majority of them agreed that vocabulary played an important or even very important part in learning and teaching a foreign language. Furthermore, in order to achieve successful lesson, technique of teaching vocabulary should be paid much attention to. The data collected shows that teachers at high school in Hanoi have applied different vocabulary teaching techniques; however, these techniques seemed far from being satisfactory. Students‟ knowledge of vocabulary in general was not good, which could not satisfy both teachers and students. Most teachers used the traditional technique- translation directly or indirectly though it was not
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highly appreciated by the students. When introducing new words, teachers made modeling first then let students write them down in their notebooks and asked them to read the new words aloud. As a result, students were bored with being so passive in learning and they had few opportunities to use the newly- learnt items so they would easily and quickly forget them. It is necessary for teachers to make some changes in the methods of teaching vocabulary. Next, the researcher also got down to find the students‟ most preferable techniques. Although movies and videos were not taken as an official technique of teaching vocabulary, they appeared to be also the good choice for teaching. Findings from the questionnaire and interviews helped the researcher draw that movies and videos could be used to some extent. In the first place, students would find more interested and motivated because they would be attracted to interesting pictures, sound and the content. Besides, their long- term memory of learning through this technique are undeniable because students could remind the scene in which the words presented as well as the situation they were utilized. Last but not least, students could have more precise pronunciation; because they had chance to listen to different native speakers instead of non- native speaker. Although the positive effects movies and videos brings about were assumed by both teachers and students, teachers did not use them often. They claimed that movies and videos were somehow distracting and time- consuming to prepare or teach as well as some unexpected mishaps. In brief, using movies and videos is suggested to be a useful technique, which could meet students‟ need. Within the limitations of this research, it is recommended that teachers should find out how to limit the
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drawbacks and take fully advantages of this technique in order to attract students in learning. 5.2. Pedagogical implications and suggestions In the first place, the researcher would like to acknowledge the pedagogical suggestions on using movies and videos in vocabulary lessons. Teaching vocabulary through movies and videos, though have not been officially utilized, can be taken into consideration to be good way of improving current situation of teaching vocabulary. However, there existed a number of obstacles that were mentioned by the teachers and students but were not to be solved yet. They are thus open for solutions suggested by the researcher basing on the literature on the research topic. It was learnt from the survey that the mishap that might occur during the lesson was a considerable difficult to further studies on using movies and videos. It is undeniable that the unexpected mishaps occurs, they could ruin their lessons. However, the work could be good if teachers thought about these things beforehand. It is a recommendation that teacher should spend some time getting themselves to the videos and studying how to use it skillfully. When any minor technical problem occurs, they can repair it easily by themselves. It is necessary for teacher because it helps not only to give confidence but also to fully exploit this technique. In addition to that, a choice for suitable movies and videos was also mentioned one of the major difficulties confronted by the teacher. The resources of videos and movies are available on the Internet, moreover, teachers now as quite familiar with how to use the Internet. Specially, videos and movies for educational purpose should be more preferable.
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Moreover, many distracted scenes in the videos were also a trouble to the teachers. Undeniably, these scenes could get them far from the lessons and could not fulfill the teaching purposes. Strategic stopping is essential. The students do not need to see a whole film, nor a whole scene if it is not relevant. Therefore, the teachers should control what their students see and hear by planning how to exploit the film and knowing the exact counter position of irrelevant scenes to be omitted. Besides, teachers‟ management is quite important. The teacher should make students be aware that they are learning not entertaining. She should know how to control the class and guide the students in a correct way so that both her aims as well as the students‟ are fulfilled. Finally, because within the context of a videos and movies with viewing- visual aids, students can easily guess the meaning of new words or phrases by themselves. By this way, students will no longer be under constraint of boredom. In this place, teacher should take full advantage of using movies and videos that it could be rewound if necessary to stop and check the learnt- items immediately in class. However, concerning the limitation of distraction and time-consuming caused by them, teacher would be careful and critical enough to take or not to take what to use. 5.3. Suggestions for further studies Although movies and videos are widely utilized all over the world, they remain underexploited in Vietnam. Researches on this matter is still rare or unsystematic, hence, it is recommended that further studies should be conducted. For instance, those who wish to study more about the exploitation of movies and videos in teaching vocabulary to the 10 th form
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students in Hanoi should expand and vary the sampling of participants. Specially, teachers and students from different classrooms at various schools at different districts in Hanoi should be involved for better

representativeness. Larger samples mean that different techniques of teaching vocabulary as well as different points of view could be achieved to have an overall view on this matter. Moreover, other researchers should fully be employed more method instruments besides questionnaires and interviews. Class observation is strongly recommended to get insight this issue. In addition, this research examined around vocabulary teaching and the 10th form students in Hanoi, further research could expand this scope for other groups of students and even in wider scale throughout the country. This development is likely to help future studies to find out the solutions to take full advantage of using movies and videos in Vietnam. What is more, since the research mainly focused on the using of movies and videos in vocabulary teaching with both positive and negative effects of it, other researchers may wish to give evidence for the effectiveness of this technique in teaching. This may require studies which give comparisons the effects of this technique with other vocabulary teaching methods on different groups of students. It is expected that the results of such studies would be helpful in encouraging teachers to further exploit movies and videos in teaching. 5.4. Limitation of this research. In spite of great effort of the researcher, the limitation could be realized in this study due to time pressure and other unexpected factors.
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In the first place, the number of students participating in the study remained rather low in comparison with the large number of students in Hanoi. Moreover, the representativeness was not in the wide scale, they were all from some class of one school. Thus to fill this gap to some extent, data was collected from time to time from teachers. However, the number of these teachers was also limited. Although the representativeness of the teachers had been justified, they were from different schools with different locations in Hanoi; their responses could not represent for all the teachers in Hanoi. Since the researcher was fully aware of this limitation, almost the findings of this research on exploiting movies and videos in teaching vocabulary were regarded initial findings, which offered some suggestions for further research in the future. In the second place, another shortcoming of this research placed on the methodology. This research only employed questionnaire as the main method and interview. However, these methods still have some limitations, the implementation of triangulated data collection method of interviews, questionnaires and classroom observations would be better. Therefore, it could be admitted that there could be other interesting and useful findings overlooked in this study. Despite the aforementioned limitation, the researcher‟s serious work, justified data collection had well appeared the validity and reliability of the results. This study could be the reliable reference for further related studies. Nonetheless, these above shortcomings should be always taken into consideration when further studies are conducted in the future. 5.5. Contribution of the research.

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All in all, the research could be considerable useful for teachers, educationists as well as research working on the related studies. First of all, for the teachers, the study explore the current situation of teaching and learning vocabulary and another way for teaching vocabulary to the 10th form students in Hanoi rather than the tradition way, which is popularly employed. Therefore, the research first and foremost would help teachers to have a view their teaching vocabulary and how effective of their technique. Besides, teachers would be more aware of movies and videos as another useful technique, which can make their lesson more motivating and effective. With regard to educationists, the research made clear to them some major obstacles to further exploitation of movies and videos in the classroom. Hereby it could be considered a detailed proposal to take full advantage of movies and videos in language learning and teaching in Hanoi. Last but not least, as regards the researchers, those who happen to interest in this issue or langue teaching and learning could take this research for reference with reliable and useful information.

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REFERENCES
1. Mc CathyM (1992). Vocabulary. Oxford University Press. 2. Carter P & Mc Carthy (1988). Vocabulary and language teaching. 3. Morgan. J & Rinolucri. M. (1986) Vocabulary. London Oxford University Press. 4. Billows, F.L. The Techniques of Language Teaching. Longman 5. Virginia F. Allen. Techniques in Teaching Vocabulary 6. Cambridge Advance Learner’s Dictionary. Third edition. Cambridge University Press. 7. Cees M. Koolstra and Jonannes W. J. Beentjes (1999). Children's vocabulary acquisition in a foreign language through watching subtitled television programs at home. Educational Technology Research and Development, 47, (1). Springer Boston. 8. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (1995). Longman. 9. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary Online 10. Barry TOMALIN. Video, TV and radio in the English class. Macmillan publishers. 11. Allan, M (1986). Teaching English with video, Longman 12. Jack Lonergan. Video In Language Teaching. Cambridge University Press. 13. James Milton (2009). Vocabulary uptake from informal learning tasks, Language Learning Journal. 36: 2, p. 227- 237.
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London.

14. Bibi Baxter. Using video to teach English. (Retrieved from the 10th February 2010 from the website: http://www.musicalenglishlessons.org/video/bean.htm) 15. Donna Hurst Tatsuki. Video in the Language Lab: Teaching Vocabulary. (Retrieved on the 20th February 2010 from the website: http://iteslj.org/Lessons/Tatsuki-VideoinLL.html) 16. Lori Griffin, Using videos in the classroom. (Retrieved on the 25th February 2010 from the website: http://www.libraryvideo.com/articles/article13.asp) 17. Online video for ELT (2008). (Retrieved on the 20th March 2010 from the website: http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/articles/online-video-elt)

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APPENDICES
PHIẾU ĐIỀU TRA BẠN NGHĨ THẾ NÀO VỀ VIỆC SỬ DỤNG PHIM VÀ VIDEO ĐỂ DẠY TỪ VỰNG Họ tên: ………………………………… Lớp: …………………… Giới tính: Nam/ Nữ

Em đã học tiếng Anh trong: ………… năm Phiếu điều tra này được soạn nhằm mục đích phục vục cho đề tài khóa luận về việc dạy từ vựng thông qua phim và video. Rất mong nhận được sự giúp đỡ của các bạn bằng việc trả lời những câu hỏi dưới đây một cách xác thực. tôi xin đảm bảo nội dung câu trả lời sẽ được đảm bảo và chỉ được phục vụ cho mục đích nghiên cứu. Mọi thông tin về người tham gia sẽ không được tiết lộ dưới bất kỳ hình thức nào. Xin chân thành cảm ơn.  Hướng dẫn: Hãy khoanh tròn lựa chọn của các em a, b, c hoặc d. 1. Các em nghĩ việc học từ vựng có quan trọng không? a. Rất quan trọng b. Quan trọng c. Không quan trọng 2. Các em có gặp khó khăn khi học từ vựng không? a. Hoàn toàn không b. Thỉnh thoảng c. Đương nhiên là có
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Những khó khăn là: ……………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………… 3. Mỗi ngày em dành bao nhiêu thời gian học từ vựng? a. Chưa đến 1 giờ b. Từ 1 giờ đến 2 giờ c. Nhiều hơn 2 giờ 4. Em nhận thấy vốn từ vựng của bạn hiện nay thế nào? a. Không tốt b. Tốt c. Cũng bình thường d. Rất tốt, rất tự tin

5. Em có thể sử dụng vốn từ vựng bạn đã học không? a. Không bao giờ b. Chỉ thỉnh thoảng trao đổi với bạn về một lĩnh vực nào đó c. Sử dụng thành thạo 6. Thầy cô giáo các em thường dạy từ vựng bằng cách nào? a. Dịch từ mới sang tiếng Việt b. Giải thích từ bằng tiếng Anh c. Đưa ví dụ minh họa d. Sử dụng phim ảnh và video e. Giới thiệu từ thông qua văn cảnh f. Sử dụng những giáo cụ trực quan (tranh ảnh, vật cụ thể,…) g. Các hình thức khác:

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……………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………… 7. Các em thích học từ vựng theo cách nào? a. Thầy cô giáo cung cấp nghĩa tiếng Việt b. Giải thích từ bằng tiếng Anh c. Có ví dụ minh họa d. Sử dụng phim và video e. Giới thiệu từ vựng trong văn cảnh f. Sử dụng giáo cụ trực quan (tranh ảnh,vật thực,…) g. Các hình thức khác: ……………………………………………………………………… 8. Em đã bao giờ học từ vựng thông qua phim và video chưa? a. Có b. chưa bao giờ

9. Em thấy viêc học từ mới thông qua phim và video có cần thiết không? a. Rất cần thiết b. Cần thiết c. Không cần thiêt d. Ý kiến khác: ……………………………………………………………………… 10. Thầy cô giáo em có thường xuyên sử dụng phim và video để dạy từ vựng không? a. Luôn luôn e. Hiếm khi b. thường xuyên d. chưa bao giờ.
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c. thỉnh thoảng

11. Theo em, sử dụng phim và video có mang lại lợi ích học tập nào không? a. Có b. không c. tùy từng trường hợp

12. Theo em, không khí lớp bạn có sôi nổi và thú vị hơn khi thầy cô sử dụng phim và video không? a. Đương nhiên sôi nổi,thú vị hơn nhiều b. Cũng chỉ thay đổi đôi chút thôi c. Không khí vẫn thế. 13. Sử dụng phim và video để dạy từ vựng ảnh hưởng đến vốn từ vựng của em: a. Nhớ từ dễ dàng và nhanh hơn b. Nhớ từ mới trong thời gian dài c. Hứng thú học từ vựng d. Hoc được cách phát âm chính xác hơn e. Ý kiến khác: .............................................................................................................. 14. Theo em, thầy cô giáo có gặp khó khăn khi sử dụng phim và video để dạy từ vựng không? a. Có b. Không

15. Theo em, giáo viên gặp khó khăn gì khi sử dụng phim và video để dạy từ vựng? a. Khó tìm phim và video phù hợp b. Thiếu trang thiết bị kỹ thuật c. Sự cố có thể xảy ra ( mất điện, lỗi kỹ thuât,…)
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d. Trong phim và video, có những đoạn không cần thiết e. Ý kiến khác ……………………………………………………………………… CẢM ƠN SỰ ỦNG HỘ VÀ THAM GIA NHIỆT TÌNH CỦA CÁC EM!

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Student Survey Questionnaire
This survey is designed on the purpose of getting necessary data for the study on using movies and videos to teach vocabulary to the 10 th form students. Your personal information will be kept strictly confidential. Please give your answers truthfully for a guaranteed success of the research. Thank you so much for your participation. __________________________________________ You are in group: You are:  Male Female Your age is: You have studied English for ……years Please tick your answer 1. What do you think about learning English vocabulary? a. Very important b. Important c. not very important d. not important at all

2. Have you had any difficulties in learning vocabulary? A. never B. sometimes C. Yes, of course

3. How much time do you spend on leaning vocabulary everyday? a. less than 1 hour b. from 1 hour to 2 hours c. more than 2 hours 4. How is your English vocabulary now? a. poor b. fair c. good d. excellent

5. Can you often use your vocabulary?
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a. never b. sometimes but only about some field c. yes, competently 6. Which techniques do your teachers use to teach vocabulary? a. translating new words into Vietnamese b. explaining the words in English c. giving examples to illustrate meaning d. using Movies and videos e. putting the words in contexts. f. using visual aids (pictures, flashcards, real objects, etc) g. others (please specify): ……………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… 7. What kind of techniques do you like most when learning English vocabulary? a. translating all the words into Vietnamese b. explaining the words in English c. giving examples to illustrate meaning d. using Movies and videos e. putting the words in contexts. f. using visual aids (pictures, flashcards, real objects, etc) g. others (please specify) ……………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………
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8. Have you ever learn vocabulary through movies and videos? a. Yes b. No

9. How necessary do you think movies and videos are in learning English vocabulary? a. very necessary b. necessary c. not very necessary d. not necessary at all

10. How often are you taught vocabulary through movies and videos? a. always d. rarely b. usually e. never c. sometimes

11. In your opinion, can watching movies and videos give you any learning benefits. a. yes b. no c. It depends

12. From your point of view, how interesting and motivating is your class when your teacher uses movies and videos? a. very interesting and motivating b. interesting and motivating c. not more interesting and motivating 13. What effects do movies and videos have on your vocabulary learning? a) You can remember the words easily b) You can remember the words for a long time c) You are interested in learning Vocabulary d) You can learn how to pronounce the words more precisely e) You are not in favor of movies and videos as they are rather distracting 14. Do you think that your teacher can fail to use movies and videos to teach vocabulary? a. Yes b. No
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15. In your opinion, what are the difficulties preventing teacher from making full use of movies and videos to teach vocabulary? a) Difficult to choose the suitable movies and videos b) Lack of equipment c) Distracted scenes d) Mishap might occur e) Others: ………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR ENTHUSIASTIC PARTICIPATION!

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Survey questionnaire for teachers This survey is designed on the purpose of getting necessary data for my study on using movies and videos to teach vocabulary to the 10th form students in Hanoi.. I would be very grateful if you could provide me with accurate information by answering this small questionnaire. Your personal information will be kept strictly confidential. Thank you so much for your kind cooperation! Name: ………………………………………… Address: ………………….. Cell phone: ………………. Year of teaching English:…… Please tick your answer 1. What do you think about teaching English vocabulary? a. Very important b. Important c. not important at all 2. Have you had any difficulties in teaching vocabulary? A. never B. sometimes C. Yes

Please specify difficulties: ……………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… 3. How much time of a lesson do you spend on teaching vocabulary? a. 10 mins b. 15 mins d. more than 15 mins

4. How is your students’ English vocabulary now?
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a. poor b. fair

c. good d. excellent

5. What kind of techniques do you often use to teach English vocabulary? a. translating all the words into Vietnamese b. explaining the words in English c. giving examples to illustrate meaning d. using Movies and videos e. putting the words in contexts. f. using visual aids (pictures, flashcards, real objects, etc) g. others (please specify): ……………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… 6. do you think movies and videos are the useful technique should be used when you teach English vocabulary? a. Yes b. No c. no idea

7. In your opinion, can movies and videos help your students learn vocabulary more effectively and sufficiently in terms of meaning, use and form? a. yes b. no c. No idea

8. How often do you teach vocabulary to your students through movies and videos? a. always d. rarely b. usually e. never c. sometimes

9. How interesting and motivating do you think your class is when you use movies and videos to teach vocabulary to them?
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a. interesting and motivating b. very interesting and motivating c. not very interesting and motivating d. not interesting and motivating at all 10. What effects do movies and videos have on your vocabulary teaching? a) You can introduce the words easily b) Your lessons are more interesting and motivating c) Your students can catch the meaning of the word faster and more easily d) Your students can learn how to pronounce the words more precisely. e) Your students can be distracted from the lesson f) You waste a lot of time 11. In your opinion, what are the difficulties when you use movies and videos to teach vocabulary? a) Difficult to choose the suitable movies or videos b) lack of equipments c) Many unnecessary scenes d) Mishap might occur ( electricity cut off, technical problem, etc) e) Others: ………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR CO- OPERATION!

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