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Written by: Rahmanhadiq
In the previous explanation of the essays entitled "Qur'an and Earth Rotation", we have concluded that the Qur'an has explained about the Earth rotates on its axis, the Moon around the Earth for 12 cycles in a year while the sun still and rotating at a very distant than the distance of the earth and the moon. The next question is, Does the Earth and moon are also travel around the Sun or vice versa?, Is there any verses in the Qur'an explain or provide clues about the obit the Earth around the Sun? To answer the questions above, we should observe the phenomenon first movement of the Sun. First we will look at the sunset and sunrise during the year.
If we observe the sun's position, then every month there will be changes in the setting sun places. So also with the places where the raise of the Sun, will always move from month to month. In December, we will witness the Sun is at the farthest position towards the South, or the setting Sun is at most positions in the South. Then in the following months, the Sun shifted gradually toward the middle (equator), precisely in March (date 22), the Sun will be in the middle position. After that, the following month, the Sun continues to move toward the North. The most northern position of the Sun occurred in June (date 21). From the North at this position, the Sun moves back toward the center (equator), precisely in September (date 22), sun re-positioned at the middle (exactly the same as the position of the Sun on March 22 above). Then the sun was moving again towards the South, so the return on the position of the Month in December (date 22). So for a year, the rising and sinking position of the Sun, will occur three extreme positions or Parties. Ie two times are at the center position, once in south position and once in North position. Had we not been living at the time of design moderan today, if we still live in age where there is no system of dating, so of course we will be very difficult to determine where the Sun's position in the North, South or the Equator. If we return system which calendar` does not exist, then of course we can not determine the date on which the sun is extreme positions. Suppose we are still in ancient times, so for that we can only observe changes in the position of the Sun from the direction of the shadow of our bodies or our milestone of wood perpendicular to the ground. Let's just say we live in the Age of Abraham in Palestine or the Arab region (the area around the equator).
The position of shadows and sun
First we can observe directly from morning to evening is the short and length of our shadow. This is caused by a change in direction from the position of the sun from he rises to his sets. If we faced to the rising or setting sun, then we will see that for about six months , our shadow will leaning to the left and vice versa for the next six months will be skewed to the right. In a period of one year, we can see our shadow positions are counted two times in the middle, onetime right hand and one on the left. In this way the same thing when we watched the sun rise or sink position, as explained above in the modern era.
Qur’an and the Shadows
In the Qur'an, Allah several times sent people to observe and study these phenomena on the Sun's position. The easiest way of observing the sun's position is by studying the size of the image and change the location of the shadow of our body when exposed to sunlight, as is shown by Allah in the Qur'an at Al Furqaan 45 which reads;
“ Hast thou not turned thy vision to thy Lord?- How He doth prolong the shadow! If He willed, He could make it stationary! then do We make the sun its guide; (Q Al Fueqaan 26:45)”.
From the instructions above verse, we can take the lessons that the elongated and shortened shadow objects caused by Earth's rotation process of moving from West to East direction. Had Allah willed, He alone is able to generalize the size of that shadow. If this happens, it means that the Sun and Earth are at rest did not move so that sunlight strikes the Earth continuously, there will be no change of day andnight. If the shadow was created equally by God Almighty, the mean surface of the Earth is shaped plains did not move, do not form a ball and does not rotate. The meaning of guidance of God that had put in Al Furqaan 45 above, so that we observe, learn, understand and will conclude the greatness and the favors of God to man who is faithful and knowledgeable.
Apart from the short length of the shadow, there still lessons or instructions that can be learned from the information verses at the top? Does God still give additional clues about the shadows? Is there any relationship between the pattern of shadows and the position of the Sun?. Apparently God is still giving a chance for people to think for analyzing the instructions on the letter Qur'an An Nahl verse 48 which reads;
Do they not look at Allah's creation, (even) among (inanimate) things,- How their (very) shadows turn round, from the right and the left, prostrating themselves to Allah, and that in the humblest manner? (Q An Nahl 16 :48) “. Back God gives clues hidden in the above verses of Qur’an for the content of our analysis. From the description above verse, we can observe that the position of the long shadow not only short but always turned to the left or to the right (if we are facing to the west or east). If we observe more carefully, then the height of its image on the left or right would never be higher than the high object is exposed to sunlight (assuming we are in the equatorial region in the Arab region where Abraham lived)). Maximum size of the long shadow of the object on the left or the right is approximately half the height of objects. Had the same high image objects with a high maximal objects, then this means, the direction of maximum sun north or south will form at 45 degrees. But the maximum observed by us, the average is approximately half the height of things. This means that the sun shining on it is approximately 22.5 degrees. So we can conclude that the position of the Sun is at the maximum is 22.5 degrees North, and the maximum to the south also is 22.5 degrees. Let's just say we live in ancient times but we've adopted a set of degree arc in the modern era, which is only to facilitate interpretation in translating the position of the sun without using sophisticated equipment.
Mystery In The Cave
Indeed, we are somewhat difficult to determine more precisely the position of the sun when Calculation method of this reflection. Obviously there's more other simple method to our established if we lived in antiquity. The question is: Is God in the Qur’an still provides another clue to us to analyze the position of the Sun? We hope to be able to determine more precisely and more accurately about how sun angle is at maximum position in both the north and south. Apparently God is the Most Compassionate and Merciful, He gives additional instructions again
to complete the determination of the Sun's position better. Such information contained in Al Kahf verse 17 which reads;
“ Thou wouldst have seen the sun, when it rose, declining to the right from their Cave, and when it set, turning away from them to the left, while they lay in the open space in the midst of the Cave. Such are among the Signs of Allah: He whom Allah, guides is rightly guided; but he whom Allah leaves to stray,- for him wilt thou find no protector to lead him to the Right Way (Q Al Kahf 18:17)”. To analyze the information above verse, it's good when we learn the story of this paragraph scaled back by the LORD. Previously God, in al-Kahf verse, tells the story of several young men who fled from the pursuit of the unbelievers who will not follow the religion of pagans who worship idols. As a result, young children are being chased and sought to kill. These young children fled the hill where there is a cave which has a large enough room. Then they went into a cave with a dog to hide and save themselves from the pursuit of those who disbelieve. Once in cave, they immediately closed the entrance to an unknown hiding place. It turned out that in cave there are two holes or gaps that can be penetrated by the rays of the sun. Both cracks were located at opposite positions inside the spacious cave. Cracks which one is on the wall next to Sunrise cave, where the gap is always accessible to the sun every time after dawn. While the other gaps where the sun sets, where the gap will always be entered reflecting sunlight just before the sun was sinking. In the story, God tells us that the youths were made to sleep by God for 309 years so the body has become a skeleton. Then Allah revived them. After they were revived, among them ask each other, how long will you sleep here? They all answered "a new half-day or at most a day! That they do not know, if they were dead for 309 years in cave. If there were people who saw, of course they are scared to watch the human skeleton and the skeleton of a dog lying in the cave. That God gives life and evoke the human skeleton fossils when the time of Judgement, which we will never know how long Allah kill us in the tomb, before the coming of Judgement Day. This verse also provides guidance and information that they were not interrogation by the angels after they die, meaning that the
natural punishment of the grave was undoubtedly the truth, because such information is not found in the Qur'an but only a Hadist that is not obvious truth source. Then among the youth who is living it wants to prove how long they sleep, because they were astonished to see the carcass of a dog which they brought back in front of the mouth of the cave. Finally, with misgiving, one from the young man went out of cave to buy food with their silver, all to make sure how long they are asleep in cave. Apparently the young man witnessed an astounding sight. It was when he came to cave, he never look at the houses around cave that, even now there is a house built just above the cave which they occupy. The more astonished young man, then he spends the money that he hold the silver in exchange for food to a merchant. But the boy was surprised, when the merchant is not willing to accept the coins are not worth it. Traders said that a dime is an old currency is no longer valid. Dime was only valid for about five generation ago. How surprised the young man heard the story of these traders, but feeling happy because he had brought him to chase the enemy to kill him is not there anymore. Now times have changed, the kingdom has been led by a wise king, worship of God and its people more secure and prosperous. The young man realized that he had slept for centuries. Go back to the young man in the cave to meet his friends, carrying food that has been exchanged with dime ancient money as a memento for this merchant. Of course, God's instructions to the letter of al-Kahf verse 17 above is not intended to youth within the cave, because they fell asleep immediately after entering the cave and they do not pay attention and learn the directions from the position of the Sun that illuminates the slit inside the cave. The above paragraph, of course addressed to the people of the next generation of the Prophet Muhammad, that is for those who read and understand the Qur'an as a guide to study. Now let us try to observe the phenomenon of change in the position of the Sun in Goa where the boy had been asleep for 309 years;
M5 and M6 position is the position of the sun when it was on a plane (equator), M1 and M3 is the maximum of the sun's position in the north, while M2 and M4 is the position of the Sun when it is at a maximum in the southern state. Points A and B, each of which is the point light shadows on the cave wall while he was on the East and West, while points C and D, respectively, are the point of the sun shadow on the cave wall to the east and west. We'll get sunshine are two times in a horizontal plane that is, two times at point P and twice at point O within a period of a year, but only once taking points A, B, C and D. Angles of a triangle equal to APO BOP is approximately 22.5 degrees.
The question is: "What is the meaning of the angle is 22.5 degrees and what is the meaning of the sun are two times in Horinzontal position (equatorial area) is? Certainly God did not make the clues were in vain. What conclusions can we draw from this phenomenon changes the position of the sun? Are there verses in the Qur'an that describe the positions of the sun which is always changing-fox the rising and sinking? And whether in the Qur'an there is also a description that describes the position of the sun are two (2) times are on the horizontal plane (the equator), both in the east or the west? Is the purpose of God against man to think the signs that his creation? Why God does not just deliver it with the blunt words that can be firmly accepted by scientists centuries now? For that let us examine the verses of the Qur'an that give clues about the ever-changing position of the sun-rising and sinking of the fox. This description contained in the letter Al Ma'aarij paragraph 40 which reads;
“ Now I do call to witness the Lord of all points in the East and the West that We can certainly- ( Q Al Ma’aaruj 70:40} “.
Description section of this letter of Al Ma'aarij strengthened by the letter Ash Shaaffaat verse 5, which reads;
“ Lord of the heavens and of the earth and all between them, and Lord of every point at the rising of the sun! (Q Ash Shaaffaat 37:5) .”
The above paragraph is an indication that the sun has risen, and places the sink at different positions, according to the results of our observations above. Even if we look further, it turns out the moon, the stars rise and sink in accordance with changes in the direction of the sun's position. A reality that corresponds to the evidence with an explanation of scripture. It means that the Qur'an explanation consistent with the results of science observations. The rising of the sun are two times in the horizontal plane, whether the Qur'an explain and illustrate as well? For that let us read the description of God in the letter Ar Rahman verse 17 as a guide, which reads;
"God who kept two times where the sun rises and God also maintains the two place setting (Surat Ar-Rahman 55:17)." It turned out that the style language of the Qur'an are special and complex, revealing that God Almighty will have to explain about the position of the sun which is two times the area of horizontal (equatorial). And this is a meaningful indication given by God so that we can understand in his blessing. So True God Almighty with all His Word. Subhanallah! We have proved scientifically and also from the Qur'an that details the position of the sun is always changing, maximally to the north and south. The question is: What is the meaning of the sun moving to the north and south? Is this caused by Earth's position that moves up and down towards the Sun? Before answering the questions above, we should seek answers to the question: "Is the Earth rotating on its axis is also doing the motion to orbiting the Sun? Are there verses in the Al Quran that can give clues that the Earth circled the sun?
Looking for Other Instructions
Before answering the questions above, let us discuss some Qur'anic verses that could provide clues about the circulation, the computation time and the relationship between Earth, moon, sun, planets and stars. In Surat al-An 'aam verse 96 reads;
"He rolled up (dawn) in the morning and made the night for rest, and (making) the sun and moon for calculation (of time). That the provisions of God the Almighty, the Knower (Q Al An'aam qs 6:96). " The above description of the Holy Qur'an instructs us that the calculation year shittim can also be made of differences of the sun's position and also on the basis of other forms of light. If we calculate the distance of time differences in the position where the setting sun from the north to the south, as we did in the cave above, then the number of day is approximately 183 days. And vice versa if we take the position of the sun from the center back to horizon (equator), it also is about 183 days. Then the sun position shift of one cycle, ie from north to south and back north, it takes approximately 366 days. One cycle of the Sun's position changes can also we used as the basis for calculating the number of days in a year. Apparently God does not limit us to use a calendar system, meaning that we can use AD or Hijri system. If we calculate carefully the differences in AD and the Hijri system, there are differences in the number of days in a year as many as 11 to 12 days. Number of days based on a count of 366 while the AD is the 354th day of Hijra Based. Hijri calendar system is based on the rotation of the moon around the Earth which is marked by changes in the forms of light. Whereas the AD dating system is based on the different places and sunset and sunrise, or based on different seasons, because the AD dating system is directly make a difference seasons. If the sun is most Southern, it occurs in the Northern winter, vice versa if the solar maximum in the North there will be winter in the South. Whereas in the equatorial region knows only two seasons namely the rainy season or summer. So indirectly CE calendar are useful for the areas that have four seasons (cold, hot, spring and autumn). While systems based on the calculation month calendar (Hijra) is more suited to the equator. The question that arises then is: does the sun's position changes mentioned above provide evidence that the Earth also rotates the sun? If the earth is also around the sun, then why the sun always seems to move north and south?
The clue is in the AL Quran
Let us try to read the guidance of Allah in the Qur'an in Surat al-Anbiya 'verse 33 which reads;
"And He has rotate night and day, and also creates the sun and moon. Each one of the them rounded in an orbit . (Qs al An Biyaa '21:33) " If we analyze clues from the paragraph above, there are three elements of God's creation, that is experiencing day and night rotation (the earth), the moon and sun. Two of the three
elements of God's creation is experienced by way of circulation which has been established by God in orbit. Of course that is the both element are the Earth and the Moon are together in orbit, while the third element is the sun. This meaning is that the Earth and Moon together orbit the Sun in an orbit. Sentences written in paragraph above "Each one of them", is the element of earth and the moon, where when the Moon is orbiting Earth, they jointly participate orbiting the Sun. Thus God in the Holy Qur'an has given instructions to us that the Earth around the sun. Depending on the method of proof then what will we use to watch and perform calculations more accurate. The best results depend on the method used, the precision tools and human capacity in the count and draw conclusions. These are problems of human technology in accordance with the times from time to time. To prove that the Earth around the sun, now better known as the revolution of Earth towards the Sun, so we are not able to change the based only moonlight, movement of the Sun's position in the North or the South. For that we need other guidelines to make conclusions from scientific evidence. For that, let us return to find clues that may still have God in the Holy Qur'an. Let us read the instructions on the letter of Al A'raaf paragraph 54 which reads;
“ He draweth the night as a veil over the day, each seeking the other in rapid succession: He created the sun, the moon, and the stars, (all) governed by laws under His command. Is it not His to create and to govern? Blessed be Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the worlds! ( qs
Al A’raaf 7:54)
From the description above verse, we get the additional instructions that the existence of stars that also make the circulation according to the provisions of God. So to prove the existence of Earth's revolution around the sun we need guidance from the movement of the stars. How the stars that can be used as clues to prove the existence of Earth's revolution?
If we read the caption on the letter the Koran verse Furqaan AL-61 which reads;
“ Blessed is He Who made constellations in the skies, and placed therein a Lamp and a Moon giving light; ( Q Al Fuqaan 25:61)”. The Star cluster-cluster hat meant by this paragraph is a collection of stars known as the Galaxy at this time. Including members of our solar stars, which join to form the constellation known as the Milky Way . Of Course , the description paragraph above have not been able to give additional instructions to prove the theory of revolution of the Earth. For that let us look again another the Holy Qur'anic verses contained in the letter Al Fushshilat verse 12 which reads;
“ And We adorned the lower heaven with lights, and (provided it) with guard. Such is the Decree of (Him) the Exalted in Might, Full of Knowledge ( QS Al Fushshilat 41:12). Description paragraph above can be made as additional instructions for observing the Earth's revolution against the sun. Paragraph 12 of surah Al Fushshilat above provides a clue to us that in the layer nearest the sky there are stars shining brightly. Bright shining star who will we take as the object is a star of East is often seen in the east when the sun had not risen or just before dawn. Eastern Star is often also called the Morning Star or a Star Walk, because these stars also appear in the west when the sun had sunk (sunset). Now Star has been given the name to Venus.
These Mystery start to solved
Some clues are given by God, now we should be able to solve the puzzle above. We should be able to conclude, we have to rack our brain to study the various natural phenomena. Humans is challenged by God to think it soften the afternoon, the night, perfect time to sleep, when standing or sitting accordance with the description of God in the letter of Ali Imran verses 190191;
“ Behold! in the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the alternation of night and day,there are indeed Signs for men of understanding,-190, Men who celebrate the praises of Allah, standing, sitting, and lying down on their sides, and contemplate the (wonders of) creation in the heavens and the earth, (With the thought): "Our Lord! not for naught Hast Thou created (all) this! Glory to Thee! Give us salvation from the penalty of the Fire. (QS Ali Imran 3: 190-191)”. If we have a telescope that is better equipped with light filters that can separate the light of the Sun and Stars light when during the day, then we will see that light at the surface of Venus is always changing just like when we watched the moonlight. At one point, Venus shining bright like the full moon, but on the other time dim glow like a crescent moon and even at one point does not glow at all. This shows that Venus just as the moon which does not produce light but reflect light rays from the Sun. If we observe changes in the form of light venus from time to time during the year, then the full moon venus distance to the next full moon venus takes varies depending on the time of observation and perspective to the earth-sun-venus. After connected the relationship of the light forms on the surface of Venus at any time and at the same time compare it with other forms of moonlight, and then describe any changes in the relative position between Earth-sun-Venus, the position of Earth-Moon-Sun, and also the position of Earth- Moon-Venus and the Sun, then we can take a conclusion that the Earth and Venus are both around the Sun. Where the Venus around the Sun during 220 days, while the Earth around the Sun during 366 days. These phenomena and concluded successfully studied by Galileo with homemade telescope in 1609 (ten centuries after theHoly Qur'an was revealed). But Galileo is too proud of his invention and then opposed the Catholic Church authorities. Galileo opposed the notion Geocentris adopted by the authority of the Catholic Church which states that the Earth was the center of the Universe. Galileo has done oppose, embarrass and humiliate the Church with his new theory "Heliocentris" which the concept that the sun as the center of the universe instead of Earth. Galileo was eventually sentenced to lifelong house arrest on charges of insult and defame the Church. But the theory of Gaolileo Heliocentri also did not last long, because it is now evident that the Sun is only valid as a center of the orbit of the solar system, not the universe.
This is what happened
Now let us to working through about the questions; Why the sun's position can be located in the north and south? And why is any change where the sun was followed by a change of seasons? If the earth's orbit around the sun to form a flat surface, while the direction of the earth's rotation axis is perpendicular to this flat surface, then it is unlikely places change sunrise and sunset. Because the sun will be shining on the earth from a horizontal direction so that the shadows will always be the same size throughout the year.
Revolution with perpendicular plane to the earth's rotation axis
But the reality is not so, where the sun looks like up and down to the north and south which is followed by some change in the direction of the shadows. We might assume that the earth was moving up and down during the orbit around the Sun. But that too did not happen probably because the rising of the sun as much as four times at the equator for a year rather than two times. Had the orbit of the earth plane but does not form a boat-shaped hull, where the second highest point at both ends, so too did not probably because it would cause the position of the Sun will be two times in the north or vice versa 2 times on the south side. So the most probable is that the position of the earth's rotation axis is not perpendicular to the sun, but forms an angle. Oblique angle from the axis of rotation of the earth to the sun is approximately equal magnitude with the observations that we do in the Cave above where the youth was dead asleep that, is about 22-25 degrees.
Inclination angle of earth rotation From the observation that more carefully with tools more sophisticated today, shows that the angle of the earth's axis is 23.5 °. Given the oblique angle of the earth that we can understand why the position of the sun as if it always moves back and forth to the north and south. That is why there are two times the sun's position in the equatorial region as seen in the picture below;
The next question is: Where Toward movement of the Earth when around the Sun? How do the most simple way to wrap it up? To answer this question, again we use the guidance of Allah in Al Fushshilat paragraph 12 above, where God has graced (hold) Venus as "Nearest Star" a shining light. Consider at a time when "the nearest star" occur soften the dawn before sunrise or at about 4:00 in the morning. Continue to observe "Nearest Star" in a few days to several months later. Observe the positions of Venus to the Sun. At one time we are witnessing "Nearest Star" is away from the sun, but several next day he began to turn the direction to approach the Sun and finally disappeared behind the sun rays. It means "the nearest star" was moving toward the east. The question is why we have to observe when the time Dawn? Why not just at night? Of course the "Nearest Star" is cannot be observed with the naked eye in daylight hours or at the time of the Glorious Sun, because emit light in the "Nearby star" is less strong compared with the sun. Meanwhile we can not observe the nearest stars in the night time because he only noticeable when the dawn will dawn, except before and after sunset. This means also that the position of "Nearest Star" is located closer to the Sun than the Earth. Dawn is the moment of the most privileged to observe the stars, so that God in the Holy Qur'an provides guidance and are willing to swear by the dawn of this, as in the letter Al takwir verses 15-18 and in surat Al Fajr 1 which reads;
“ Really, I swear by the stars - that recede 15, Go straight, or hide 16; And the Night as it dissipates 17; And the Dawn as it breathes away the darkness;- ( Q Al Takwir 81:18)”
“ And by the Night when it passeth away 4;- In that there is an oath (which can be accepted) by those who understand? (QS Al Fajr 89: 4-5) “.
At the time of "Nearest Star" disappeared behind the sun soften after dawn, then wait a few days later and change the observation at the time the sun sinks (Sunset). "Nearest Star" will be seen again after the sunset prayer until reaching the time Isha prayers. Note that the "closest star" or Venus will be moving away and then approached the Sun again and eventually will appear as a black dot in front of the sun (if there is an eclipse of Venus). Finally, Venus will move across the Sun toward west. A few days and then continue again observed, but at the time of dawn. The same thing will repeat again as initial observations. Observe also the size of Venus when she approached the Sun at the time this evening. Where Venus will be larger than when the dawn of time, because in sunset, Venus is closer towards the Earth. This can be explained in the following figures;
So we can conclude that the "closest star" we call by the name "Venus" was always moving toward the east direction with the same direction of rotation of the earth around the sun , and the moon also orbits around the Earth at together. To facilitate understanding, let us imagine the incident when the congregation of Hajj pilgrimage was Tawaf around the Kaaba. While to study the direction of movement of the earth orbiting the sun and we certainly can not conclude from the direction of movement of Venus, but we must study the phenomenon in a way that other stars. For that, notice that the nearest star other in dawn at the northern part of the Earth, with the history of this star does not move to follow the sun (not the planet solar). Observe and mark the position of these stars using telescopes at the extreme positions in the months from December to March-June-September. Make a pattern of movement of the stars of the stars closest to him (as background). So we will menyasikan that the star image will move as follows;
From the above picture we can see that as if the star is moving toward the left (shown right), indicating that this motion direction of movement of the Earth toward the sun. So we can conclude that the Earth orbits the sun moves towards the left. To facilitate us, imagine the earth moves around the sun as we watched the Hajj pilgrims perform Tawaf around the Kaaba
worship. That the ordinance of God that can not be changed by anyone either against natural phenomena and to the laws already in His Provisions.
God's the Greatest Architect of the Universe
It turned out that only by turning the shaft angle of 23.5 degrees just Earth, God has been able to divide the seasons and weather in the entire hemisphere in a fair and equitable. Proved that God is "the architect" of the universe is very great. It seems simple, but results were incredible. Allah is very greatful , the Most Great God with all of His Creation. Though this information is already in the Holy Qur’an since 14 centuries ago, but only 14 centuries later proof. Indeed the human need for a long time to learn and understand the results of God's creation, but very little gratitude from the man who will favor that has been given by Allah. Hopefully this post can knock on our hearts to receive all the truths of God's revelations contained in the Holy Qur'an. Everything True of God Almighty with His Word.
Prepared and submitted by: Rahmanhadiq , Indonesia , Mei, 2010
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