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Principles of Environmental Management
1.1 Status of environment
Environment is rapidly changing as a result of human and geological influences resulting in chaos and hazards. This raises the need for a study of environmental management, which not only attempt to conserve and protect, but utilise environmental resources with the best available scientific methods and technologies. Environmental management began as a response to major problems like air pollution, water pollution and soil erosion. It is clear that all the environment problems around us are linked to these three basic damaging activities. However, we cannot conserve as we like and the rising populations demand that more and more resources are to be utilised if these people are to be provided the basic necessities of life. 1.2 The traditional environmental management The traditional environmental management is based on the reduction of environmental impacts. Establishment of Strict Natural Reserves, Protected Forests and Grassland, Sanctuaries etc was the aim of this first stage of environmental management. However this phase has to mature into a more organised way of managing the environment if we are to feed the rising populations and provide employment. 1.3 The new environmental management The new environmental management treats environment as a multi faceted resource with enormous capacity to provide many types of items from a single unit of the resource. Here the resource is blended in to the systems of economic development, where each and every product can acquire a value. For example, a tree was treated as sources of wood or crop or a unit in the protection of water source in the old system of environmental management system. Today a tree is part of a harvest system which produces wood, wood chips, compost raw material, preserve water and soil. Then a tree is treated as an object to interfere with and looked after according to the principles of forest harvesting. Within the technology of forest harvesting tree is checked for disease regularly, cleaned to avoid fungi formation, broken or damaged parts or branches of the tree (by wind, rain and
animal action) are removed and cut at the prime maturity level to obtain the best wood or wood chips for paper industry. In addition concepts of environmental change and change of environment are also considered as important in the study of new environmental management. Environmental change is the process of changing environment through human activities with the use of technology, social and political ideology. For example the ancient civilisation of Sri Lanka was based on the concept of irrigation and a strong monarchical rule, which arranged the environment to suit the sustainability of a hydraulic civilisation. Since the arrival of western colonists, the environment of Sri Lanka was changed to suit the cultivation of tree crops and spices. We are still in this environment and begun to introduce an unplanned urban and rural settlement expansion. Therefore our environment is becoming more and more polluted, dangerous and chaotic to live. Change of environment is the change of living environment by migration for the purpose of living and economic activity. Migration to farm settlements, urban areas and emigration results in change of environment. Again if these activities are not planned properly, the new environment is subjected to pollution, becoming dangerous and chaotic to live. When emigration is not conducted in a proper manner the emigrants are subjected to many legal and social difficulties. The holistic view of the environment is utilised in the new concept of environmental management, where value of economic activity is weighed on the basis of its long-term sustainability within the environment. Therefore the new concept is constantly linked to agriculture, industry, investment, monetary policy, livelihoods and economic planning. This enables the environment manager to begin at the point of investment and end at sustainable control (Figure 1.1).
Figure 1.1, Flow of activity of the new environmental management system
Investment programme Environmental – natural and societal resources Sustainability
Economic, social and institutional policies
Government agencies and other resources users 1.4 Theoretical background to principles of environmental management Environmental management is required to organise and utilise the environmental resource with optimum benefits to the populace. In the process of this organisation and utilisation system two major principles are to be followed.
1. Understand the dynamics of natural and societal systems of resource utilisation and the effect of degradation on them 2. Understand the causes of the degradation and management systems best suitable for control, recovery and rehabilitation natural and human
Understand the dynamics of natural and societal systems of resource utilisation and the effect of degradation on them This is the primary task of environmental manager because without a proper understanding of the dynamics of natural and societal systems of resources utilisation and the effect of degradation on them the manager cannot provide the direction required for the progress of the users. Firstly there is the presence of ever changing nature of value of natural and societal resources based on the technology available. It is now clear that the traditional measures of national income have a very limited relationship to the well being of people. This is primarily a result of not accounting from the depletion of non-renewable resources and degradation of renewable resources. For example unless net capital formation is higher than the natural resource depletion the economy and well being of the people are degraded. This is exactly the situation almost all the poor countries of the world including Sri Lanka.
There are two major forces in action in a given environment in the formation of economic and social activities: Physical systems and societal systems. These two systems should operate on a highly complementary state if there is success in the programme of environmental management. The physical systems operate on the principles of natural sciences and form many types of resources consist of material and energy. For example amount of water available in a given country is of utmost importance to its development. The amount of water available in a given country is related to its rainfall, runoff and storage. This amount of water changes over space and time. For example in Sri Lanka, its ancient civilisation depended on a total forest cover of the highlands, which enabled them to receive large quantities of spring water to the rivers flowing across the plain. At that time there was slightly higher rainfall in Sri Lanka, runoff was low due to thick forest cover and storage was high due to non-clearance of upper catchment forests and well designed settlement plan. Since the movement of civilisation to the wet zone, gradually the highland forests were destroyed and today Sri Lanka is an area of constant water shortages. This is due to inability of the present environmental managers to understand the true dynamics of the water supply system of Sri Lanka. The designs of the countries where problem of water is minimised indicate that the holistic view they have incorporated into their environmental planning has yielded expected results. These planning systems utilise the value of upper catchment conservation and settlement planning as an integral part of conservation of water. Modern settlement utilise massive quantities of water and water supply in them cannot be maintained well without recycling of water. 1.4.2 Understand the causes of the degradation and management systems best suited for control, recovery and rehabilitation - natural and human Once the change is properly identified the environmental manager has to investigate the causes of the degradation systems and the management systems best suited for control, recovery and rehabilitation. Principal cause of degradation is the process of human development based on development ideology. Two major development ideologies have been used since the industrial revolution to develop human environment with the utilisation of natural resources.
1. Modernism or modernisation 2. Alternative development 1.5 Modernism or Modernisation The modern development theory is known by various names like modernisation, neo-classical approach, and development perspective and as neo-colonialism in the political arena of some developing countries. The most commonly used term is the modernisation. The modernisation theory is based on the Keynesian ideology, which paved way for a new idea of the role of the government in managing the economy (Preston 1996, 154). Keynes was of the belief that government borrowings can finance expenditures, which in turn would generate more revenue and these additional revenues and higher tax returns from increased revenue can be used for the repayment of borrowings. Therefore, the modernisation theory believed in authoritative intervention, through the use of economic growth models and aid mechanisms. The modern development theory is based on the experiences of the western world and its economics, sociology, political and scientific views and the poor countries were to follow this method for their development. Many on the basis of a structural and dynamic programme, with stages and categories, explained this theory. Rostow (1960), presented a model based on five stages, which are to be experienced by all societies in the transformation of their economy from undeveloped to develop. It assumes that the increased production leads to growth and that the redistribution of capital will occur in the process of growth. The capital accumulation, growth of labour force and scientific and technological advancement are woven into the process of development through five major stages given in this theory. This theory remained a pre-eminent theory of modernisation in the early 1960s (Preston, 1996). The major criticism against Rostow's theory was that it was principally an economic programme, which did not consider the historical aspect of the development process in the developing countries or their colonial type relationship with the western developed nations. Firstly, the newly independent developing countries were not able to guide themselves towards their economic goals due to social and political problems associated with the formation of new states as given in Hettne, (1990). Hettne (1990) was of the view that development is a national goal that cannot be separated from
other political goals and has to be treated as equal to political goals. Secondly, the inability of the new states to identify their priorities of development as well as high levels of official corruption did not enable the capital accumulation, scientific development or growth of a skilled labour force. Lund (1993) is of the view that after independence colonies were unsuccessful in economic improvement and local elite was busy keeping themselves in power, fighting neighbours or suppressing rebellions. Crew and Harrison (1998) and Dube (1988) identify the Eurocentric nature of the modernisation paradigm, as a major factor for its failure in the developing countries. Crew and Harrison, (1998) indicate that rationality, the search for objective truth, and a movement towards modernity was expected in the ideology but not practised in the developing nations. Therefore, the criticisms of the modernisation paradigm have been extended to include its heavy dependence on economic theory and the failure to understand the complex social situations. However, the modernisation remained a powerful tool in development planning in the developing countries well into the late 1970s, mainly because its utilisation by the international development agencies and funding authorities. There was no serious discussion of the modernisation theory until the early 1970s and environmental degradation was becoming a problem, because role of spatial variables and geographical contexts were not considered important Lund ( 1993). She reiterates the validity of the cultural and historic factors of development in a discussion of the newly industrialised countries of Asia and relates this development to a pre-modern or modern phenomenon in the Rostowian sense. A continuation of this process of change into the 1970s is related to the rapid growth of Sri Lanka and Bangladesh, which was curtailed by the recession in the west in the 1980s. The crisis faced by the modernisation theory led to the formulation of some alternative perspectives of development. Though these approaches have some change in the secondary strategies, they still believed in the transformation of societies, international exploitation and domination. The intention was to make a more service oriented development and aid redistribution of wealth. Within this framework, there was a struggle in the poor nations and some tried to establish socialist societies, while others worked towards national capitalism. The dependency school formulated the underdevelopment theory through the writings of many radical researchers, which
contained the elements of Marxist language, mode of analysis and ideological and theoretical projects (Aina, 1993). This wing was headed by Andre Gunder Frank, Samir Amin, Walter Rodney and a host of others, and which has been called the underdevelopment theory, which is Neo-Marxist in formation. (Aina, 1993). A parallel to the theory of under-development, the problems of modernisation were discussed in the structural Marxism originating from the French school of Marxist studies. This theory explained the importance of class relations in the development and gave a strong critique of capitalism and explained the process of development with the use of impeccable logic and convincing inter-linkage. These two variants managed to introduce alternatives to the modernisation on social transformation, production and political organisation and became popular in the undeveloped world as it gave a deep critique of capitalism, colonisation and neo-colonial imperialism. Frank (1966:31) presents the best overview of this group of theories, which studies the overall exploitation of the satellite states by the central powerful industrial states. His view was that the industrialised countries have become rich through the exploitation of the poor countries. It is pertinent to look at Myrdal (1970), who brought forward the concept of circular cumulative causation, which became popular through the notion of vicious cycle of poverty. He regarded the development as a social process and stressed that the power structures of the developing world have to be changed either by evolution or revolution as a prerequisite for development. He further explained that this should be followed by changes in orientation on the part of the developed world. However, the modernisation paradigm survived in the developing world as a major instrument in the process of development from its beginnings to 1980s and the influences of theories of underdevelopment and Marxist alternatives were not capable of making a marked impact. This is a result of the strong presence of nationalism, ethnicity and corruption in the developing world , which were more easily accommodated within the modernist capitalist philosophy (Aina, 1993). Giddens (1991) claims that the inability of the theories of underdevelopment to consider cultural and political factors in detail may have led to their weaknesses. According to Lund (1993), the renewal of interest in the modernist thinking was initiated by the rise of a few newly industrialised countries in the East Asian region. These countries have used joint ventures with multi-national or trans-national companies and have built an export oriented industrial base, which led to the transformation of the economy . A similar rapid growth was noticed in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka in the early 1980s. However, it should be noted that this rapid growth and
diversification was mostly associated with the financial and tariff support given by the industrialised countries. 1.6 Alternative development The continuing poverty of the developing world led to a rethinking of the validity of the modernist and dependency theories and a search for a better alternative of development discourse. The Cocoyoc conference in 1974 discussed the idea of sustainable development and the international foundation for development alternatives (IFAD) recommended the establishment of a humanist model of development (Friedmann, 1992) Following the above attempt, in the 1980s, along with ecological crisis and poverty, which threatened not only the developing world, but also the developed world, many world gatherings were convened to find a serious alternative to the current development strategy. The need for a paradigm, which can focus on the ways of improving the productivity of poor through social, economic and political empowerment, became vital. Therefore, the alternative development approach became action oriented based on humanistic and post-structuralism methods. The alternative development therefore, brought forward practises like provision of basic needs, informal sector utilisation and redistribution of wealth. This is a result of the recognition of the importance and dignity of the ordinary people over the institutionalised systems. However, the response to this ideology was slow, because most of the developing nations were either holding onto neo-Marxist theories of development or embroiled in corruption and regional conflicts. Lund (1993), indicates that the alternative development was not utilised well because it was too optimistic, and not capable of providing rapid solutions to development problems. The difficulty to see the clarity of the many faces of the initial alternative development paradigm, resulted in the establishment of the notions of empowerment, sustainability and participation. As Friedman (1992) explains, the people in their pursuit of life and livelihood needs to acquire three kinds of power: social, political, and psychological. This is conducted by the households, which are production centred and public. In the discussion of the politics of alternative development and the existing power imbalances in the world today, Friedmann (1992) indicates that the capacity of the alternative development to depend on the local social, political and psychological situations. The participatory strategy in development can also be discussed within the alternative development, because the development within it demands for citizen participation (Friedman, 1992). The origin of the participatory strategy can be traced back to the late 1960s and early
1970s in rural development work (Aina, 1993). This has been mainly in operation in micro-scale projects and exhibit some difference to empowerment. The alternative development has not indicated that it is capable of the establishment of a better process of development and the developing world is still immersed in poverty or getting poorer than before. There are many debates on the nature of the development paradigm needed for the two worlds, developed and developing. The modern development has had major negative impacts on the environment and on existing social structures. Many livelihoods have been seriously affected by excessive use of forests, water systems, and fisheries. Urban areas in developing countries suffer from serious pollution and congestion in transportation, poor quality water, and solid waste disposal problems. By 1990 it was clear that if this damage is not checked properly it may retard development of these areas. Then the occurrence of massive destruction through increased intensity of cyclones, landslides and droughts resulting from El Nino effect between 1990 and 2000 prompted the World Organisations to take note of effects of global warming resulting from the process of development in the highly industrialised countries of the world. World Bank President James Wolfensohn and chief economist Joseph Stiglitz acknowledged in 1999 that these issues are crucial to address if global development has to bring any meaning to livelihoods of millions in the developing world which rested outside the centalised government control. Richard Norgaard, identifies a fundamental error in the modernisation thinking which prevented us from identifying environmental concerns. 1.7. Sustainable Development Sustainability or sustainable environment was introduced as a part of modern development, because living environment was threatened by the rapid industrial and social transformation as a result of the process of modernisation. Further, the developing countries were not achieving their desired development objectives due to problems associated with governance and resource management. Economically sustainable system is a system which to produce goods and services without being heavily indebted and not causing environmental damage. In here environmental sustainability is to maintain natural resources at a level where they are not threatened with serious damage which cannot be remedied with the use of available technology. A social sustainability is achieved through the
operation of a free and fair government and social institutions where equity of all is honoured. The basic principle of sustainability is that there should be a collective responsibility between man and his environment. Society has to engage in scientific methods of environmental resource utilisation, which will not damage environment, but sustain it in a condition suitable for reuse, reclaim and reprocess. The question is how best society can follow this principle? The examples taken from the developed countries indicate that they have not necessarily followed the principles of sustainability in the process of development in their programmes of development. Between 1964 and 1974, their were two massive droughts in the areas bordering tropical hot deserts and for the first time in recorded history monsoon began to fail more often than before. This is the time immediately after open air nuclear testing in the deserts of Sahara, Australia, Soviet Union and USA. Further earlier testing was conducted in the Ocean areas of Bikini, Kergulan and Christmass and many other Pacific and Indian Ocean atolls ( coral reef islands) in the 1960s. Mercury poisoning at Minamata bay in Japan (Justus, 1998) Thalidomite cases, increases in lung cancer, high rates of heart failures began to question the value of utilisation of modern resource utilisation methods in developed countries. THE MINAMATA TRAGEDY (http://www.members.tripod.com/~Sandra_Justus/MercuryPoisoningR eport.html) In 1907 the Chisso Corporation built a factory in the small fishing village of Minamata, Japan along the shore of Minamata Bay. Fish populations began to decline in 1925, by 1950 fish began to float to the surface, shellfish and other aquatic organisms began to perish. Cats were the first land animals to show signs of distress, in 1952 they began having convulsions, whirling in violent circles, slobbering, becoming disoriented and throwing themselves into the sea. By 1953 dogs, pigs, birds and other animals started exhibiting the same strange behavior. Virtually no cats to be found in Minamata, Japan as of 1958. A little girl age five years and eleven months old; who had been very bright suddenly showed signs of brain damage, and started having the same symptoms as the Minamata cats in 1956; this is the first documented case of human mercury contamination. Soon after her diagnosis, many more children began to demonstrate symptoms of the strange disease; babies were born with it and eventually adults started to show the same symptoms. The Chisso Corporation was finally linked as the source of the disease because of their dumping of mercury into Minamata Bay and its contributory waters. Chisso began dumping mercury into the waters
beginning in the 1930's and continued to dump through out most of the 1960's. Chisso denied all allegations for as long as they possibly could. The poisoning became known as Minamata Disease, and its victims rallied together and took the Chisso Corporation to court to sue for damages. It wasn't until March 20, 1973 that the victims triumphed and won their case. As of 1992 the number of people officially diagnosed as having Minamata disease totaled 2,252 people; 1,043 were dead and another 12,127 people were waiting to be tested. As recently as March of 1997, the number of people still waiting to be tested was 1,968. Efforts were made to restore the bay; in 1974 a three-mile long net was placed around the bay to contain contaminated fish. After 53 years of being considered deadly waters, in 1998 the bay was declared safe again. Chisso finally took responsibility and have made their final payments. Thalidomite cases Thalidomide is a drug that was sold during the late 1950s and 1960s as a sleeping aid and to pregnant women as an antiemetic to combat morning sickness and other symptoms. It was later (1960–61) found to be teratogenic in fetal development, most visibly as a cause of amelia or phocomelia, especially if taken during the first 25 to 50 days of pregnancy. Around 15,000 children were affected by thalidomide, of whom about 12,000 in 46 countries were born with birth defects, with only 8,000 of them surviving past the first year of life. Most of these survivors are still alive, nearly all with disabilities caused by the drug http://www.tartan-terror.co.uk/forum/viewtopic.php Atmospheric and underground nuclear tests From 1945 to 1963 the U.S.A. conducted an extensive campaign of atmospheric nuclear tests, grouped into roughly 20 test "series." After 1963 when the Limited Test Ban Treaty was signed testing for the U.S., Soviet Union, and Great Britain moved underground. France continued atmospheric testing until 1974 and China did so until 1980. http://www.nrdc.org/nuclear/nudb/datab22.asp
Ozone hole The first global agreement to restrict CFCs came with the signing of the Montreal Protocol in 1987 ultimately aiming to reduce them by half by the year 2000. Two revisions of this agreement have been made in the light of advances in scientific understanding, the latest being in 1992. Agreement has been reached on the control of industrial production of many halocarbons until the year 2030. The main CFCs
will not be produced by any of the signatories after the end of 1995, except for a limited amount for essential uses, such as for medical sprays. The countries of the European Community have adopted even stricter measures than are required under the Montreal Protocol agreements. Recognising their responsibility to the global environment they have agreed to halt production of the main CFCs from the beginning of 1995. Tighter deadlines for use of the other ozone-depleting compounds are also being adopted. It was anticipated that these limitations would lead to a recovery of the ozone layer within 50 years of 2000; the World Meteorological Organisation estimated 2045 (WMO reports #25, #37), but recent investigations suggest the problem is perhaps on a much larger scale than anticipated. http://www.atm.ch.cam.ac.uk/tour/part1.html Drought 1964/1974 Severe Desertification caused by Man The impact of desertification and its causes in north Kordofan were described in several reports during the 1970's following the 1964-74 Sahelian drought. For example: "It is evident that the desert southern boundary has shifted south by an average of about 90-100 km in the last 17 years...in several areas, particularly in northern Kordofan in the Hamrat El Wuz and Kheiran areas, sand encroachment has moved rapidly ahead of the southern boundary of the desert and loose sand is accumulating over the formerly consolidated sandy (and locally clay) soils...Shallow sand encroachment appears to have killed nearly all vegetation except the trees Acacia tortilis and Balanites aegyptica and a small number of dune adapted shrubs as far south as 15 N in the Hamrat El Wuz area. Immediately south of this area mobile dunes are moving southwards with the prevailing wind and are becoming an increasingly serious threat to the agricultural land and several villages in the Bashiri and Bara areas of the Kheiran region. The sand dunes are being augmented by the very large area of drifting sand further north near Hamrat El Wuz."). This is a commonly accepted description of desertification in Kordofan reproduced e.g. by Refs. 7-9. It was even stated by Ref. 10 that: "Surveys have shown that the desert had advanced 90-100 km within a 17 years period and is currently advancing at the rate of 5 to 6 km per year". http://www.ciesin.org/docs/002-178/002-178.html In the 1980s the observed changes in the Ozone layer and the occurrence of El Ninio was connected to global warming. The global
warming was discovered to be an important event in climatic change as ozone holes were discovered in Antarctica in the 1990s. By 1995 the relationship between global climatic change and local weather systems were fully understood and serious warnings were issued on increased intensity of thunderstorms and cyclones, increased stagnation of depressional rain and change of direction of major rain bearing winds like, South West Monsoon, North East Monsoon and Sub Polar Westerlies. However the developed industrial nations have not been able to substantially reduce their emissions and chemical releases and they have not signed most of the documents prepared by international conferences on environment and environment protection. Prospects for South West Monsoon 2003 : What the IMD statement does not tell us The Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) in its 16 April forecast of the 2003 South West (SW) monsoon has sent out somewhat confusing signals. It says that “for the country as a whole (the SW monsoon) is likely to be 96 per cent of the Long Period Average (LPA) with a model error of + 5 per cent.” It further states that there is “21 per cent probability of drought (rainfall less than 90 per cent of LPA) and 39 per cent probability of below normal rainfall (90 to 97 per cent of LPA)”. Which amounts to saying that there is 60 per cent probability of “drought” or “below normal” rainfall. Remember however that the IMD has made major changes in definition, starting 2003. Previously, rainfall of 91 per cent and above of LPA was considered “normal”. Thus the “normal” SW monsoon in 1999, 2000 and 2001 brought precipitation of 96, 92 and 92 per cent of LPA respectively. And kharif 2001 harvest was a record. By the new definition however, all of these three years would have to be reclassified as “below normal”. We also know that in previous years a “normal” (by the earlier standards) monsoon did not preclude select regions from receiving rainfall that was much below average. When the regions affected are relatively arid and rain-dependant, such as Rajasthan and Gujarat, drought-like conditions develop there, notwithstanding good rains in the rest of the country. The only conclusion that one can reasonably draw from IMD‟s nimble foot-stepping, is that in the worse case (if not the worst case), average precipitation during SW monsoon 2003 would be 96–5=91 per cent of LPA. That would have been just “normal” by yesteryear‟s standard, indicating that some regions may get scarce rains, although on the whole things are satisfactory. If the negative variation is geographically skewed, and the skew is loaded against the
more arid parts of the country, unrelieved drought conditions in Rajasthan, Gujarat and other arid regions would be further compounded.
Sub-polar westerlies The most pronounced anomalies have occurred since the winter of 1989 (Hurrell 1995a; Walsh et al. 1996; Thompson and Wallace 1998; Watanabe and Nitta 1999) when record positive values of an index of the NAO have been recorded. Moreover, the trend in the NAO accounts for several remarkable changes recently in the climate and weather over the middle and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, as well as in marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Among these changes are: Strengthened subpolar westerlies from the surface to the lower stratosphere (Thompson et al. 1999). Milder winters in Europe downstream across Asia juxtaposed against more severe winters over eastern Canada and the northwest Atlantic (Hurrell 1995a; Wallace et al. 1995; Hurrell 1996; Shabbar et al. 1997; Thompson and Wallace 1998). Pronounced regional changes in precipitation patterns (Hurrell 1995a; Hurrell and van Loon 1997; Dai et al. 1997) resulting in the advance of some northern European glaciers (Hagen 1995; Sigurdsson and Jonsson 1995) and the retreat of Alpine glaciers (Frank 1997). Changes in sea-ice cover in both the Labrador and Greenland Seas as well as over the Arctic (Chapman and Walsh 1993; Maslanik et al.1996; Cavalieri et al. 1997; Parkinson et al. 1998; McPhee et al. 1998; Deser et al. 1999). Pronounced decreases in mean sea level pressure (SLP) over the Arctic (Walsh et al. 1996). _ Changes in the physical properties of Arctic sea water (Sy et al. 1997; Morison et al. 1998; McPhee et al. 1998; Dickson 1999; Dickson et al. 1999a,b). Changes in the intensity of convection in the Labrador and the Greenland-Iceland Seas (Dickson et al. 1996; Houghton 1996) which in turn influence the strength and character of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. _
Stratospheric cooling over the polar cap (Randel and Wu 1999), and total column ozone losses poleward of 40oN (Randel and Wu 1999; Thompson et al. 1999). Changes in storm activity and the shifts in the Atlantic storm track (Hurrell 1995b), changes in within season variability such as blocking (Nakamura 1996). Trend in North Atlantic surface wave heights (Kushnir et al. 1997). _ Changes in the production of zooplankton and the distribution of fish (e.g., Fromentin and Planque 1996). Changes in the length of the growing season over Europe (Post and Stenseth 1999), and changes in the population dynamical processes of several terrestrial species (Post et al. 1999; Stenseth et al. 1999). All these appear to be strongly related to the recent trend in the NAO. http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/NAO/
The new development paradigm forwarded by the developed countries have demonstrated that though they have problems of reducing pollution, they are willing to invest in pollution reduction in the areas where new development is taking place. They have initiated trade-off of pollution with developing countries. These trade-offs have led to providing aid and loan facilities to developing world to limit the use of their rain forest, Savanna grassland, wetlands and other biotic resources. This is a fruitful arrangement because of the four following reasons among many others 1. Developing countries have not shown any ability to live without the support of the developed ( case of disaster, solving conflict, poverty alleviation all have to be supported by developed – for example Sri Lanka receives heavy social support from developed countries in relation to disaster, solving conflict and poverty alleviation and there is evidence that assistance received is not utilised properly). 2. Developed countries have to produce more and more to supply its ever increasing consumption due to increasing wealth in them. The argument is that the developed world has to accumulate wealth not only for the service of their own
countries, but for the provision of facilities to the developing poor countries in case of emergencies and development planning. Developed countries have to support the developing in their various types of emergencies and therefore developed have to gather financial resources and make investments in the developing countries to make their poor live without being subjected to famine. 3. Developing countries have no operational freedom for majority of its citizens due to institutional corruption and conflict. In here the developed countries have to provide developing countries with financial and material support to maintain operational freedom ( establishment of human rights and provision of refugee positions). There is an another view on the effect of policies of the developed world on the activities of the developing world based on dependency theory, which states that the developed world organisation forces developing countries to depend on developed. Frank (1966) presents the best overview of this group of theories, which studies the overall exploitation of the satellite states by the central powerful industrial states. His view was that the industrialised countries have become rich through the exploitation of the poor countries. The dependency school formulated the underdevelopment theory through the writings of many radical researchers, which contained the elements of Marxist language, mode of analysis and ideological and theoretical projects (Aina, 1993). This wing was headed by Andre Gunder Frank, Samir Amin, Walter Rodney and a host of others, and which has been called the underdevelopment theory, which is Neo-Marxist in formation. (Aina, 1993). This dependency is further increased by the facility available in the financial institutions of the developed world to deposit finances from undisclosed sources of the developing world, which allows the corrupt of the developing world. This matter relates heavily to illegal exploitation of valuable resources in the developing world. Oil in Nigeria, Gems in Sri Lanka, Sex Trade in many south Asian countries, illegal Arms Trade, Money Laundering, Drug Trafficking have taken hold primarily due to ability of the people involved in these activities to invest through the financial institutions in the western developed world. Most of these activities are also supported by a few powerful elements of the developed world. The investigations conducted by Federal Bureau of Investigation (USA) and Scotland Yard (UK) indicate these underground connections continue through the use of relaxed human rights conditions in the developed world. All these activities threaten sustainability in all the areas of the globe. Then a question can be put forward for analysis?
Is there a true sustainability in human development? Can humans develop without damaging environment? Can environmental protection bring stability to environment? The answer to three above questions is NO. Why? The concept of environmental change provide the answer, which is that the ever changing environment will change on the changes created by Geological change –continuous and cannot be controlled ( Seneviratne, 2006a) Climatic change- continuous and cannot be changed ( Seneviratne, 2006a) Human development change – continuous, but can be controlled to maintain sustainability ( countries like Switzerland, Norway, Singapore and Malaysia have successfully mixed human development change and sustainable development of environment) Natural disaster – continuous, but can be controlled to maintain sustainability (developed world) Human disaster - continuous, but can be controlled to maintain sustainability (developed world) Testing of new materials and processes - continuous, but can be controlled to maintain sustainability (beginning) Then how to reach a stage of sustainability which will not damage environment unduly and limit progress? This path is decided by the following factors Level of available technology – level of available technology decides the ability to learn, experiment and control environment keeping sustainable level of resource exploitation. For example in the ancient kingdom of Sri Lanka there was a system of environmental management which was sufficient enough to maintain the civilisation in a time of massive foreign invasion and a drought of less than 3 years. This is because the area was managed well by a well constructed environmental management plan, which was supported by strict legislation. The sustainability level of that civilisation was decided on its technological capacity to face a foreign invasion and drought. Today, the sustainable level of the present civilisation in North central Province is decided on the supply of trans basin water transfer due to change of environment and effect of drought is felt more due to poor water management system. Further, continuing destruction of forests and shrub land has forced the area to be subjected to loss of water resources, lowering of water levels, loss of biodiversity and wev (reservoir) destruction. Basic needs
Human needs are immensely important to the establishment of sustainable development because it is the need which decides the type and amount of resources required for development. Humans require products and services for their various needs and these are supplied through the market. Market situations are decided by supply and demand factors and governed by the system of trading conducted in an economic environment. There is a movement to request for consumption control in the developing countries which indicate that sustainable development is threatened not only by poverty in the developing world but also by over consumption in the developed world.
SYDNEY, Australia -- A meeting in Sydney of six Asia-Pacific nations to address climate change issues has concluded with member countries seeking to balance continued economic growth with the need to cut greenhouse emissions.The inaugural two-day meeting of the the Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate issued a communique Thursday outlining its strategies.This included a declaration stressing the importance of fossil fuels -- oil, gas and coal --and their continued use through the 21st century. "Coal and gas are and will remain critical fuels for all six partner economies," the communique said. Reductions in greenhouse gases must be achieved without hindering economic growth, it said. However, the summit also concluded renewable energy and nuclear power would be an increasing share of global energy supplies. The meeting of ministers and business leaders from the United States, Australia, Japan, China, India and South Korea, agreed to promote the use of proven and emerging clean-energy technologies. Under the plan, eight task forces will identify research and innovation in key industries and develop action plans.Also Thursday, the United States said it would contribute $52 million towards the administration of the new climate grouping.James Connaughton, chairman of the White House Council on Environmental Quality, told Australian Associated Press that U.S. President George W. Bush would seek $52 million in Washington's 2007 budget to manage the partnership's work. Earlier, Australian Prime Minister John Howard earmarked Aust. $100 million ($75 million) over five years for funding the development of clean energy technologies.This included Aust. $25 million specifically for renewable energy projects.Environment group Greenpeace attacked the pledges Thursday, describing them as inadequate. 1.8 Developed world and environmental management Developed world has managed to achieve the required level of economic stability and growth ustilising modernisation, because they have managed to establish an efficient trade and banking link to the globalised world. In addition they have become powerful states where disturbing social and political ideologies are controlled and allow the supremacy of rule of law to operate. Then the ills of the developing world can be linked to corrupt social and
political operations where principles management are not followed and adhered.
Chapter 2 Modelling in Environmental Management Modelling in environmental management is attempted here within the domain of new perspective of environmental management where its relevance to economic development is considered paramount. Meaningful economic development is the aim of all human processes and this study is aimed at discussing the process in the developing world. Developing world is characterised by rapidly increasing population, increasing indebtness, conflict and poverty. The development scientists believe that the programme of sustainable development is the most probabilistic way of achieving the required level of environmental management in the developing world. This is because the poor countries have become heavily dependent on their natural resource base as they have no free access to industrial production due to low technological status and have to depend on the developed world for investments and aid. Further, these countries have already being ravaged by many natural disasters originating from global warming and many conflicts and wars resulting from the
extreme ideologies related to ethnicity and religion. The modelling presented in this book is based on scientific concepts of environmental management and economic development and they may be in constant conflict with the reader‟s environment in a developing world. The basic principles in Modelling The cost of natural resource degradation, the cause of natural resource degradation, and policy interventions are the major variables used in the construction of modelling. Marginal opportunity cost of resource depletion and the effects of discount rates, irreversible effects and future generations are also utilised in the model construction.
What is a model A model is a description of a system, theory, or phenomenon that indicate its known or inferred properties, which can be used for further study of its characteristics. Earth is composed of its matter in from of gases, fluid and solids. Atmosphere is composed of a gaseous envelope. The surface is mainly a product of solids, where about 70 percent of it is covered in a fluid. In this environment many life forms appear and these life forms utilise the gaseous, fluid and solid environment for their existence. In the struggle for existence life forms and matter are in constant struggle. Environmental management is the science of finding the best possible way to make a non-damaging interface between natural entities and human forms of life. Society is a composition of people with many different expectations and requirements and environment must be used for the benefit of people without damaging it. Economic value of environment Modelling in environmental management begins with the introduction of economic value to environment. This is because the resources of the earth have reached a critical level and users have to aim at reaching an agreement on what can people do in the environment at what cost to the environment? It is becoming increasingly difficult to live without alteration to natural systems of air, water and land have acquired their own value in environment. Then we have to decide the level of environmental quality, which is acceptable on the basis of risks involved and attempt to adjust our market behaviour to that quality level. This form of approach will sustain our livelihoods and help us to develop as a society.
Economics present the concept of market place. Market place is created by the behaviour of consumers and firms on the basis of their requirements from environmental resources, both natural and human. Consumers need products to satisfy their life requirements and firms produce it and sell it to the consumer. In the construction of products there is a system of production, which require raw materials, energy and technology. Acquiring the raw materials, energy and technology is involved in the utilisation of environmental resources. In the utilisation of resources resource depletion and pollution occur. Therefore the basic process of economic activity creates a status where environmental problems are born.
For example the requirement for rice in Sri Lanka increases with the rise in its population. Rising population demands more and more rice to be supplied to the market. The farmers have to produce more and more rice to supply the demand of the market place and use various types of chemical fertilizers, weed killers and insecticides. The use of these chemical products affect environment and some of the residue from the use of chemicals remain in the land, water and air systems of the environment and pollute the environment. The basic model of Economic activity – the circular flow model This is a basic model which study the real and monetary flows of economic activity through the factor market and the output market. Figure 2.1 – Circular Flow Model
Output market Demand for goods and services Expenditures Households Income Supply of resources Factor market Costs
Supply of goo Revenues
In this model real flow or non-monetary flow runs in a counterclockwise direction between the two markets sectors of households (consumers) and firms (producers of products required by households). Households supply resources or factors of production (raw materials,
labour, knowledge, investment finance) to the factor market. The firms demand these factors from the factor market. The products and commodities are supplied to the out put market (sales units) by the firms and the out put market supplies the products to the households. The money flow is operated in the clockwise direction. When households supply resources or factors of production to the factor market, the factor market pays the household for those services and the household receives an income. The cost of this payment comes from the firms through the payment by firms to acquire goods and services from the factor market. Then households require the goods produced by firms and they buy it from the output market by incurring expenditure. This expenditure by the households is returned to firms as revenue. The volume of flow in this model is affected by factors like population increase, technological discoveries, skill development and rise in investment capacity. The environmental hazards like drought, flood, earthquake and landslides can temporarily reduce the flow. Increase in population and technological development will increase the amount of goods required and the types of products manufactured. For example the increase in population will extend the area cultivated and agricultural raw materials produced. In turn this increase of agricultural raw materials will require additional processing, packaging and distribution systems. If the increased population has found new mineral raw material then production of industrial products will increase. If we take one commodity like petroleum, the increased use of petroleum resulting from the increase of motor vehicles has resulted in massive air pollution. Then, if left uncontrolled the flow in this model will increase until the environment is faced with serious degradation and then the flow will begin to reduce as hazards bring damage to production capacity of the firms or buying capacity of the households. For example the Tsunami disaster led to a complete destruction of production and trade worth of about 30 to 40 billion rupees in the regions affected in Sri Lanka. The recovery of the flow to the standard before the Tsunami may take about 10 to 20 year period. The effect of carbon monoxide pollution from vehicle exhausts in Sri Lanka has resulted in a rapid increase of respiratory ailments in Sri Lanka over the last 10 to 15 years. Need for a new model The failure of the circular flow model led to the formation of amore applicable model to explain economic activity in a more meaningful way. Economics and value of environment is in cooperated into this
new model. In this model the connection between natural resources and economics are more intensively examined. The material balance model This model has an added sector call nature in addition to four major sectors in the circular flow model. Nature in this model is studied within the realm of natural resource economics. The flow of materials from nature to households and flow of residuals from households and firms to nature is taken into consideration within this model. In this analysis, the resources are identified as renewable natural resources and non-renewable natural resources. This renewable and non-renewable classification of resources are not a clear cut division of resources as some of the renewable resources sometimes take a very long period of time to renew themselves, which is felt as they are almost non-renewable. For example the tree varieties, which take very long periods to mature, like Palu and Weera is not renewable within a life time of a planning period or a human being. Some parts of the non-renewable resources can be reutilised with the development of new technologies like use of melted down old cars to make new cars. This applies also to residuals as some residuals are life long and others are short-lived. Some of the residuals have an assimilative capacity and effects not only the current living environment, but environment of many centuries ahead. However all the residuals except for nuclear waste is capable of recycling and directed towards reuse or regeneration. Recycling is not fully capable of preventing the formation of residuals and finally all products add some form of residual to nature. The time scale of the material balance model is not unlimited and based on the concept of ever changing knowledge and technological capacity. This model believes that man is capable of finding some answers to many problems, which will enable him to survive longer than many people think. Scientific environment of the model is based on first and second laws of thermodynamics. 1. first law – matter and energy can neither be created nor destroyed 2. second law – capacity to convert matter and energy in nature is not boundless
The first law looks supreme, but in reality once humans have used an environmental resource it will produce waste. This waste can be recycled but the product originating from recycling will also produce waste. Waste is always produced and it can be completely recycled only through bacterial decomposition, but the process of using bacteria in complete recycling is only at its juvenile stages. Therefore for many years to come the production of recycled or reusable goods is only a temporary solution to waste. Example: plastics are normally not easy to recycle and remain as waste in the environment for thousands of years, but the production of biodegradable plastics are expected to reduce the amount of waste. However the time required to convert the total world plastics production into bio-degradable plastics cannot be achieved in the near future. Then the plastics we have used from the 1980s to may be to 2020 will remain in the environment as waste, making it an everlasting problem. The capacity to convert matter and energy in nature is not boundless with special reference to number of consumers. The rapid increase in the population will continue and as estimates show the world population will overrun its resource capacity by 2030. however, the unbalanced resource distribution has already constructed resource imbalances in the area known as developing world, where a part of the population is always exposed to hazards and live in poverty. Example: There is enough land in Sri Lanka to construct housing in hazard free or low hazard probability areas. However, lack of scientific settlement planning and private sector real estate bargaining process has pushed about 10 to 12 percent of the poorest of the population into marginal land, where many forms of natural and societal hazards are present. Then where is the answer? Answer is in environmental management. The principles of modern management system indicate that decision making, organising, staffing, planning, controlling, communicating and directing are the seven major functions used to describe the job of management. All these functions are closely interrelated , however it is useful to treat each as a separate process for the purpose of clarity. In the background of modern management emphasis is always given to the development of management thought and ethical and environmental foundation of management. Functions in the
management process involves decision making. Organising and staffing, planning and strategic management, leadership, communicating and controlling and managing information.
Modern environmental management as we have discussed earlier is an integrated science, which has utlised the concepts of change and knowledge of management. Then the environmental management is the optimum long term management of the elements and factors of environment. This type of management is not new as all the ancient and medieval civilisations have had a system of environmental management to construct their habitats. For example the ancient civilisation of Sri Lanka had an environmental management supported by high level of technology in resource exploitation and conservation. There is evidence that this management system of the ancient civilisation was based upon an advanced system of human resource management, which provided the best craftsmanship and governance to the civilisation. When there was a scarcity of local human resources the rulers were not hesitant to import human resources from other neighbouring civilisations. For example in the construction of statues and creating designs the local craftsmen were either trained in traditions of the time or worked with foreign craftsmen to construct works of art. Samadhi statue, Sigiri frescoes and many types of temple paintings indicate the influence of neighbouring civilisations. The success and the long lasting value of these products indicate that the leaders of the ancient civilisation were capable of evolving and operating a system of management to run an efficient and profitable society. It confirms that the „ universal rule of management has no time related limit‟ and the failure is a result of not adhereing to the principles of management. Value of Samadhi Statue Historical value – unlimited Aesthetic value - unlimited Economic value – cannot be valued, but by counting the number of visitors to the site yearly and estimating that about 1/50 th of their expenses of coming to Anuradhapura is spent on visiting the Samadhi Statue we can arrive at following figures: Number of visitors to the Samadhi Statue and their financial contribution to the general income of the nation Table 2.1 Environmental value of Samadhi statue
Number of visitors (mean value for a year) 300,000
Expenditure Total of each expenditure visitor on economy to arrive at the site (estimated) 5.00 rupees for local tourist 25.00 rupees for international tourist
Total Maintenance addition to cost (year) the economy (year)
Profit or contribution to the national economy (year)
Rs. 1,500,000.00 Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. 9,000,000.00 2,000,000.00 7,000,000.00 7,500,000.00
Information in the above table is not easy to explain with the existing system of inefficient environmental management in Sri Lanka as present day financial management is not geared towards proper accounting. For example at present the income generated from the tourism in Anuradhapura is not properly collected, invested and utilised for further development of the area. Therefore the present status do not correspond with the words optimum, long term, elements and factors have to be defined correctly if we are to achieve an acceptable level of management or more commonly termed sustainable environmental management. Optimum – Optimum within environmental management refers to the state of affairs where the resources are used within carefully planned limits with reference to the capacity of available resources. Therefore „optimum‟, has a changing value from one place to another depending on the economic and technological capacity of the unit of State. For example, the regional modifications to the scenic beauty of Switzerland is possible and it has enhanced the level of beauty and increased the economic capacity of the region through the increase of income from tourism, with the use of electric railway and development of local craft industries. Parallel to these activities forest harvesting, and preservation of springs, stabilisation of ice sheets and reduction of actual human pressure of walking on ground along the mountain paths by the provision of mountain trams are included into this plan. Between 1990 and 2003 many more areas have been opened as tourist friendly areas in Switzerland and profits from tourism has risen sharply. Sri Lanka has a great potential for all types of tourism, but the country has not produced a comprehensive scientific plan of utilisation of
resources, in route planning, transport facilities, communication facilities, accommodation facilities etc. This is a result of lack of national plan which indicate the optimum and maximum capabilities of environment in a given place. Most of the modern equipment is available and trained scientific people are available, but the tourist industry in Sri Lanka is based on the notion that it does not require a sound scientific base to develop. This has resulted in over expenditure and wastage of resources and the optimum utilisation is hindered. For example the area in and around Horton Plains and World‟ End is a resource with a great potential for tourism. However the slow grinding walk on the land of prime value has begun to destroy its value as a Strict nature Reserve. The rate of erosion of the foot path is about 2 millimeters a year since 1990 (field measurements were conducted by the author in three selected sample sites) the foot paths have already removed about 20 million cubic meters of soil from the foot paths since 1990. About 14 percent of the total foot path length has already become footpath gullies. Long-term can be defined in many ways but with reference to environment the average time limit of long term for environment is 25 to 50 years. This is the time span required for an adequate forest growth or improvement of water storage. The construction of roads, drains and other infrastructure are also linked to time spans of this magnitude. The countries where environmental management is at an advance level, the forest and water resource planning are linked to similar time limits. It is clear now that in our ancient civilisation long term plans were in force in relation to water and forestry. Wev construction was either postponed or delayed and repair and strengthening of existing systems were evident in some periods while aggressive Wev building was pursued in other periods. 8,9 and 10 centuries were the climax of the Anuradhapura civilisation, but the level of construction of irrigation structures was low in comparison to its early period. This came as an understanding of the pressure on water sources and until the steady shift towards Polonnaruwa began there were no new constructions. Further it is clear that there was a complete understanding on the resource strength and optimum population in this civilisation. The population was trained and sometime controlled through advice or law to follow the conditions required for optimum use. Investigating deep into the selective harvesting of trees during the period of ancient civilisation it is clear that ultra modern concept of forest harvesting was employed by the authorities of the kingdom. This is a long term
plan for forest maintenance and it helped to provide the large quantities of timber required in the development. The following abstracts found and provided by Dr. A. Lagamuwa, Head of Department, Humanities, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka indicate the management system of the ancient kingdom of Rajarata. Total environment: with reference to the environment in and around the settlement “In every settlement it is prohibited to cut timber, kill animals, erect new construction and pollute water within a circumference of 60 feet. It is designated as an intermediate zone between the settlement and forest” The value of above imposition was to keep a stable organic environment with a balance of living beings (which is not kept today). This was possible as the settlement of the kingdom was designed and structured in association with the environment. Similar environmental laws are in force in the highly developed western world and in countries like Malaysia and Singapore where all human acts including planning of settlement is also conducted according to strict environmental requirements. “ in the 3rd century BC, it was prohibited to slaughter animals within a circumference of 25 miles of Anuradhapura city ” “In 12 th century AD, it was prohibited to slaughter animals, fishing and cut timber within a circumference of 35 kilometers of Polonnaruwa city ” the above two edicts were aimed at preventing water pollution, spread of disease and securing a religious environment. The following of above edicts were possible because there was an advanced level of environmental planning in the system of governance. The breaking of environmental law and edicts demanded heavy punishment. The illegal felling of trees were punished by hard labour related to tank building and restoration. These actions were punishable by a fine or manual work. “ illegal cutting of trees were punished by a fine or cutting and repairing an area equal to about 48 cubic meters of weva”. Mihinthale Pillar Inscription, King Mihindu IV.
“ the palm, coconut, tamrind and Mee trees on Mihinthala hill should not be cut or removed. The persons including the royal servants who break this law should be punished by a fine and the income collected should be given to the temple” Mihinthala Pillar Inscription, King Sena II, AD 853-887. The technology of water management was the core of the success of the kingdom. “ The sluice of Tissa weva should be closed nine days after harvest in the fields of Isurumuniya and allow it to fill again. Then the remaining water can be released first to the temple and surrounding area and any excess water should be released to Malwathu Ela. In addtion the land belonging to the temple should not be taken over by anyone.” Wessagiriya Inscription, Mihindu IV, 956-973. “ 2 Aka (an older currency) was fined for flooding of paddy fields (over use of water), before ploughing (there was a set standard for ploughing). If ploughing was not done correctly the person at fault was fined with one Kalang of gold. If the ploughing was not done as prescribed the person at fault was fined 5 kalangs of gold.” ( the detailed activities, edicts and laws are given in Appendix 1 in Sinhala)
Defining and understanding of the elements and factors of the environment is essential to the survival of humans. The mistakes made in these two areas have led to the destruction of civilisations in the past. Mistakes originated from two major areas: over exploitation and war. Overexploitation resulted from the inability to reach a balance between the increase in population and amount of resources in a given environment. For example detailed investigation into the water resources and storage in the North central province reveals that any population over 6 million will have to be supported from inter-basin water transfer. The construction of long distance canals in the middle and latter part of the ancient civilisation indicate that there was a pressure on water requirement of the civilisation. Further expansion of habitat towards the forest boundary in the latter part of the civilisation led to loss of springs and wetlands, which may have resulted in loss of environmental balance in the whole system.
Elements and factors Elements and factors of the environment supply the matter and construct processes of the environment. Elements range from laws of thermodynamics to human resource management. Processes vary from a gully in the farmland to a Mega Tsunami. Therefore among this wide array of elements and factors many can be set as controlled variables by locating your environment in a given set of optimum levels of operations. Then some can argue that this new concept of environmental management is closer to a management in a business organisation. Though it appears that the environment cannot be managed as a business, a closer look at the ancient and modern civilisations it becomes clear that where there is a proper environmental management system constructed to obtain optimum results, there was steady development of the human society. Then we can summarise the process of environmental management five major principles as given below. However it should be noted that the following presentation is used only as a guide and specially applicable to societies where there is no proper environmental management in practise. It should be noted that these principles have to continually upgraded with refernce to environmental change and change of environment in a given or selected environment. Environmental management Principle 1 – commitment and policy – an organisation should construct its environment policy and make sure that it is committed to its implementation
Key areas- leaders should adhere to policy/ audit present performance/ set overall sense of direction Principle 2 – planning - An organisation should formulate a plan to fulfill its environmental policy
Key areas- Identifying environmental issues and evaluating their impact on the environment/ desired environmental outcomes/ Developing environmental management programs for all staff to implement
Principle 3 – implementation – organisation need to develop the capabilities and support to achive its goals Key areas- resources (human, Accountability/responsibility physical and financial)/
Principle 4 - measurement and evaluation
Key areas - system for measuring and monitoring ongoing performance/ records are maintained/ Undertake EMS audits
An organisation should review and continually improve its EMS/ review. Key areas - Ensure continual improvement.
Sustainabiltiy Sustainability means the ability to use without damage or limiting damage to sustain a given resource, natural and societal. This is the core concept of development in the study and research in environmental change and change of environment. Further is has become the basis of democratisation of the developing world and all aid programmes originating from the developed world is aimed towards sustainability. Principles of sustainability as applied to environmental management Sustainable development is a system of development and a scientific technique to use environment without creating accountable damage. Sustainability is based on a given set of moral standards of the society in which it operates and market forces are not the final controllers of development.
The failure of sustainability
However the success so far has been very limited in the developing countries as the principles of sustainability is difficult to practise due to socio-political corruption present in them. This type of corruption originate from lack of application of morality and associated rule of law in a given society. This is because the environment is total and it cannot be operated successfully when even one of its parts is nonoperational. Modelling the marketing process Environment is a product and a service. Origin of all the products used by man is in the environment. From water, soil, mineral to artificial products are a part of the environment around us. For example water originates from rain and the distilled water used in car batteries are a product of the laboratory process to manufacture a special type of water. Petroleum is a natural mineral and it s by products range from tar to sweetners used in baking. Then in the modelling the marketing process in the study of environment has to go beyond the general modelling in business management and cover all fields of production and services. However, the principles of marketing is the primary guide in this study. It is possible to identify 4 major marketing concepts 1. 2. 3. 4. customer orientationm integrated effort viability profitability
1. Customer orientation A good knowledge of the consumer needs and wants is required in all marketing action, product and service. Product and service planning and development require a deeper understanding of the consumer needs and wants. In here the general marketing concept should include the damaging effect of customer needs and wants in the production of goods and services, which have to be controlled through advice and legal support. Use of plastics is easy and cheap, but the waste problem created by polythene waste has resulted in serious environmental pollution. A survey conducted and a publication made on polythene indicates that it is lack of proper waste collection system, which leads to this situation in our urban areas. A large bureaucracy and political interference is the major cause of inefficiency in the governance of our urban centres in Sri Lanka, as they consume a larger portion of the finances collected
through taxation. Further existence of illegal tax collection prevents the collection of proper taxes and loss of revenue to the local authorities. The general corruption of the nation is estimated at about 71% as at 2006 August, which leads to all these problems. A survey conducted in 2001 revealed that though all types of urban councils in Sri Lanka has complained of lack of finances, an audit showed otherwise (SIDA/Sarec). Therefore corruption and morality plays an important part in inability to attend to customer needs and wants than real income in a developing nation like Sri Lanka. For example venison meat is a delicacy every one likes to eat, but the availability of deer is limited and unless deer is bread in large quantities it is impossible to lift the ban on sale of deer meat. Though breeding deer has a great future in the dry zone of Sri Lanka, religious factors control animal breeding. This has enabled the farmers in Thailand to have a lucrative business in producing venison in large quantities which has helped to lift their economic status. Sometimes the religious belief is a controlling factor in satisfying customer demand. Illegal felling valuable timber like ebony, satin wood and halmilla is a constant reminder that there is a great demand for those types of timber. However, the elite of Sri Lanka has no problem in getting the required supply from the rapidly depleting resource. However, so far Sri Lanka has no plan of cultivating and managing these types of plantations on the principles used by the kings of our ancient civilisation. In developed countries the customer is oriented to be environment friendly through pricing and legal support systems. For example the rare products of environment are extremely expensive and these products are supplied to the market through licensing. Diamonds, gems, ivory and fur used for clothing are highly controlled though licensing and the defaulters are punished. However, the corruption in developing countries manages to produce and export these commodities to an illegal market in the developed countries of the world. This type of corruption affects the case of gem industry in Sri Lanka and it is estimated Sri Lanka looses about 10 to 20 billion rupees worth of income and the environmental damage caused by unscientific mining of gems in Sri Lanka can be estimated to be about another 5 to 6 billion rupees. The loss of valuable timber is also connected to this corrupt practises where, the non utilisation of modern scientific forestry has resulted in
forcing valuable timber like ebony, satin wood and halmilla (Berrya cordifolia) to be endangered species. This is also applicable to antelopes, deer and leopard in Sri Lanka. Integrated effort Integrating the marketing functions with those of production, distribution and finance is essential to any organisation. The environmental products carry their code of production and distribution. The existing financial management systems required to be more environment friendly in dealing with environmental products. The best case of integrated effort and its successes and failures can be found in the plantation industry in Sri Lanka. The best-managed plantations in Sri Lanka are the plantations where best human resource management practises are in practise. This type of management prevents frequent work stoppages and production failures, in an industry where unionism plays an important role. It is the belief of many that unionism is linked to political arena, most of the time the union leaders search for reasons to disrupt the sanity of plantations. As some researchers believe the unions may be connected to many types of destabilisation programme secretly conducted by elements of the international destabilising agencies (Www.spur.asn.au.). The rapid depletion of flora and fauna resources in Sri Lanka is also a result of lack integrated effort from the organisations involved in the development as political and elitist interference is considered to be greater than the legality. The case of sand extraction is one of the best examples of this lack of integration, where the nation has not attempted to provide a scientific answer to satisfy sand requirement. Seneviratne ( 1975), indicate the technique for identifying basic resources of Sri Lanka on village basis, but this type of research was not yet adhered to in Sri Lanka. Viability The long run survival and growth of environmental product through understanding and loyalty of the customers is very important to all the business organisations and it is also equally important to nations. Only scientific management best achieves the survival of business and national environment. The customers have to be guided through information and legal system to support an environmentally friendly approach if the business and nation has to progress in a sustainable way. Profitability The primary goal of any business is to be profitable, but the nation has to be welfarist in its approach to business. Marketing of produce there
for require more than profitability under national market organisation. The environmental products should be green friendly and it has to be promoted all the time and producers who are not green friendly have to be directed to be so within the stipulated time. As non-profit organisations the state has to be extremely careful in financial management. As given in inscriptions financial management was maintained at a supreme level in the ancient kingdom of Sri Lanka, with the use of strict regulations and edicts given in inscriptions. “ Collect proper taxes from timber, but should not over tax”, Kondawattawan Pillar Inscription, King Dappula, 924 –935 AD. “ People who have killed water buffalo, cattle and goats should be killed. If these were stolen the thieves should be caught, marked with hot iron in their arm pit and banished from the area. If the thieves do not surrender they should be controlled with force using weapons. Who will not follow the king‟s order should forced to stand on heated foot wear‟ Wewelketiya Inscription, King Mihindu, IV, 956 -972.
Solutions to environmental problems Economic solutions At present, economic solutions to environmental problems have to be considered within the space of sustainability and globalisation as these two economic systems control the utilisation and exploitation of environmental resources. Investigations into the way in which the solutions can be provided require a detailed knowledge of the two economic systems. Globalisation Globalisation can be defined in many ways and in the study of environmental management, globalisation can be defined as “the process of interdependence, integration and interaction between economic and social systems, which affect the methodology of the utilisation of environmental resources”. Globalisation has guided to evaluate environmental resources from a harvesting perspective of the modern world. This is because, the old protective approach has failed and the social systems have not found any other alternative. This is true specially of the developing world where growth of population and poverty exist in parallel due to non-adhenrence to scientific systems of environmental management employed in them. The western international monetary institutions which dictate terms to the developing countries stress on free flow of goods and investments, free international capital flows and diffusion of modern technology within globalisation. Globalisation enters the environment of a country
through its industrial, financial, political and cultural systems and therefore it soaks through every part of resource environment: natural and societal. Industrial globalisation is operated by the multinationals have both advantages and disadvantages to the local economy. The employment generated by garment, outsourcing and security services in Sri Lanka is largely due to installation of new industries within the globalised system of financial investments. However, local soap, weaving and cool drink industry of Sri Lanka was completely destroyed by the intrusion of multinational companies between 1970 and 1990. The value of agriculture in the economy was reduced to the lowest level since the civilisation began in Sri Lanka and now the service industries dominate the national economy. Associated with this transformation all natural resources and human resources are subjected to heavy exploitation with destruction of ethical standards in most of the businesses. Corruption in income tax and VAT payments has forced the country to depend heavily on foreign loans and aid, though money in circulation has doubled between 1990 and 2000. The natural resources have suffered the biggest damage as the corrupt economic system has infiltrated into forest, wild life and water resources through illegal activities. An average of 4 incidents of environmental destruction is reported daily in the news media. Financial, political, informational and cultural globalisation has not affected the resource environment much, but all these areas have been affected by corruption in taxation and expenditure control. Therefore the economy of Sri Lanka has become highly unstable in which all types of environmental resources are threatened and poverty has increased between 1990 and 2005. Sustainability (Sustainability was discussed earlier)
Chapter 3 Economic Solutions to environmental problems Economics is the social science which studies the production, distribution and consumption of commodities. Though economics is a social science it has not involved with the effect of economic policy on environment until recently. This is because the classical economy was born in a time where resources were controlled by a privileged few or dictators. The evolution of democratic governance led to formation of alternative approaches brought forward the views on wealth, welfare and ecology into economics thinking. Environmental management utilises concepts from ecological and welfare economics to support its studies on solutions to environmental problems. In association with this approach environmental economics has been utilised by environmental managers to provide solutions to environmental problems which are difficult to solve by conventional means. However, it should be remembered the application of these principles are always guided by the ethical conduct of the governing authority. Environmental economics is used today to study the solution to environmental problems. Environmental economics is a field which studies economic effects of local, national and global environmental policies as environmental policies affect the economic value or activity in the area where certain economic policies are in practise. Within the normal development process certain externalities (extrenal to economics) are not taken into account in pricing a product. In all the developing countries and within the multinational companies which operate in the developing world this type of neglect is visible. For example unscientific sand extraction in Sri Lanka, and its effect is not taken into account in the issuance of licences to extract sand. However, the issuance has to be approved by the respective authrority responsible for the enforcement of systems of extarction. Gem depsoits which will be submerged by the constructyion of storage reservoirs are not extracted in a scientific way in Sri lanka. However, at the time of construction of the reservoir or during a dry period after construction many illegal mining systems operate in and around the resevoir. The following calculations indicate the importance of use of externalities Situation 1 – prices in 1000s of rupees Price of sand – 10 Cost of repair of environment damage or use of scientific mining – 4 Profit – 4
Here the balance in the environment can be achieved by – raising the price of sand by 2 units and reducing profit by 2, which will stabilise the situation on a long term basis. However, use of scientific mining systems in full can reduce cost further. Open recreation are without entry fee will lead to higher rates of environmental degradation as given in Garrett Hardin's tragedy of Commons. This situation is clearly visible in the developing countries today as there is no organised system in the use of open areas for recreation. All the river banks, tank bunds and waterfall sites are seriously polluted with waste due to this free entry system in operation. For example prime forest areas of Samanala Range and Horton Plains are being destroyed rapidly due to this free access system. Soil erosion and vegetation destruction are the two most damaging activities which occur in thes two prime natural areas in Sri Lanka due to overuse. These areas should be restricted to research and students of high learning and a cable car service has to be installed if the serious destruction to these prime wild areas is to be stopped. Author has witnessed about 60 to 70 centimeter deep removal of soil from the path in the lower and middle part of Samanala climb between 1960 and 2000 and drop of moistrue levels by about 30 percent between 1990 and 2000 in Horton Plains, since the construction of a highway beyong Pattipola. The loss of water and addition of sediments to the reservoirs below has reached disastrous level and only in the seasons of excessive high rainfall the reservoirs are capable of providing expected hydro power capacity. Average annual loss of income due to hydro-power problem is about 30 to 40 billion rupees and about 25 percent of the loss is a result of uncontrolled entry into these wilderness. In the developed countries (Switzerland, Norway) where natural scenery is utilised to make a large contribution to the economy and hydro power generation the above mentioned systems are in operation with success. These are called market failures in economic terminology, where there is an inefficient economic result is obtained from a resource. The inefficiency results in polution or reduction of the capability of the environment to support the potential of the area. This type of thinking has led to study the well-being of the economy and people. Property rights, tarrifs and taxes, quotas and regulations are used in the traditional environmental economics to provide solutions. Property rights can be exchanged or traded to prevent environmental damage. The payment of the damage can either come from the party which is affected or the initiator. For example the responsibility for the damage caused by sand extraction in Sri lanka can be born by the local authorities, who will pay the affected as they have issued the permits for extaraction or the people who will suffer damage can help the contractors to carry out scientific extraction. This is possible only if
the transaction costs are not high and the number of aprties involved are limited. Tarrifs can be imposed on the goods produced by polluters to discourage damage to environment. In here a level of acceptable pollution has to be found through scientific inquirey as “no pollution production is not possible and the environment has the capability of absorbing a certain amount of pollution from each and every itme without causing environmental damage”. Tarriffs and taxes do not work well in the developing countries as most of the pollution produced in these countries originate from inefficient operational systems in agriculture, transport, industry and communications. This inefficiency beging with the use of non-scientific methods in development and failure in stabilising economic development. Further, influnce of multi-nationals on the political and administartive systems of developing countries lead to development of a nonchalent attitude towards pollution caused by the friends of the politics and administration. For example businesses of illegal timber, gem mining and sand extraction which are the three most damaging environmental problems in Sri Lanka results mainly as these activities are supported by corrupt governance. However in a place like Singapore, or Malaysia the value of their environmental resources have increased in the last 10 years due to implementation of many taxes and tarriffs. Quotas were introduced by regional and national environmental governing systems to exchange environmental values between nations. This has been used by the developed nations to exchange their dirty scores to good scores of the developing countries. For example major industrial nations pay poor developing countries to reserve forest reserves in exchange for carbon dioxide emmissions. Developing countries are a willing partner in this programme as they receive aid financing through this scheme. However, developing countries have not seriously utilised this facility to develop their forest reserves due to corruption in their development programmes. It is clear from the evidences obtained on the workings of this quaota system within SARC region that the official corruption results in diverting these payments to areas not related to forest development or conservation. Regulastions are considered to be the old method in environmental management as explained by new theories of environmental economics. However the new theorists have forgotten the fact that under modernity hevy punishment for pollution was enforced in 60s which guided the populace of developing countries to adapt to new realities. A visit any city in the developed world will inform the visitor of the heavy fines for improper waste disposal, with notices posted every few meters. Author has experienced the respect for
environmental legistlation in the developed world while living in them for a period of about 7 years. The most recent trend is to use the concept of environmental harvesting which incooperate the concept of environmental change. The concepts of environmental change and change of environment both accommodate the holistic view of environment and its immense capacity to recover through the application of scientific knowledge. This concept further allows factors like population pressure, technology and futuristic culture to be absorbed into providing solutions to environmental problems. Further, this concept utilises all aveneues available to recycle waste and reduce consumption of energy. For example the forests in Norway utilises the concept of harvesting and these forests produce, timber, chip wood for pulp and fire wood, many types of berries and provide waste for compost. The forest floor is designed and kept clean of weeds and shrubs which are invasive or not required for the sustenance of the forest. Timber – use high technology to grow better trees/ use satellite technology to remove disease affected trees and treat diseases, identify weak trees etc/ use specialised machinery to cut and remove timber without damage to land –slop-drainage thus saving environment reducing time and cost Chipwood – all usable parts of the wood is chipped on location or in selected locations/ use of chip wood for heating cabins during winter reduce electricity demand by about 3 to 4 percent (this amount is equal to about 10 percent of total annual electricity demand of Sri Lanka) thus saving economic resources Berries- berry picking is a traditional way of life during autumn in Norway/ forest may be privately owned but you can enter with permission and pluck any amount for consumption/ operation of registered sales only prevents any one selling these items. Compost- All waste is processed and use as fertiliser, which reduces the cost of importation of chemical fertilisers and reduces the cost of maintenance of forest All these activities result in 1. Norway becoming one of the major timber producers in the world 2. Norway timber becoming highly competitive as production cost is reduced 3. Protection of people‟s right to enter forest and pick berries 4. No illegal market in forest products
There is evidence to show that a similar system was in operation in the ancient kingdom of Sri Lanka, wher valuable timber was cultivated and forest was scientifically maintained with the use of proper legislation.
Chapter 4 Environmental Decision Making We make decisions every second of our lives and the development of a nation depends heavily on the type of decisions made by its rulers. Environmental decision making of today has to be made on the basis of the best available development strategy and the discussion it cannot be separately discussed. Though developing countries except for a few has no proper development strategy built into their development programmes, the discussion on environmental decision making has to be presented as a part of our education in this course. Present direction of development strategy is placed within theory of sustainability as environmental control is regarded as the most important part of development. Therefore the discussion on environmental decision making in this presentation is placed within the concept of “sustainability in a globalised environment”. In the collection of information on environmental decision making with use of models, monitoring and auditing has to be placed within sustainability. Further techniques of collecting information required for environmental decision making is also presented here. Three basic skills are required for environmental decision maker Cognitive skills Practical and or professional skills Key skills All activities require tools. All of us keep tools like knife, hammer and screw driver in our houses as they are the most required tools in the house. These tools are required to conduct the least problematic problems in the house. Further we all work with tools all the time to conduct work or repair to our living environment. Likewise, when we require to make decisions on the utilisation of environment we have to use various types of tools to understand the nature, capacity and problems of the environment which we intend to utilise. Cognitive skills This is the most valuable skill an environmental manager requires in decision making. Ability to Analyse problems Selecting irrelevant from relevant
Combined source material into composed presentation Present material within the existing scientific order Making judgements where a total base is not available using experience and knowledge Originality in handling and solving problems are a must for a decision maker. Practical and or professional skills These skills are developed from experiences gathered from the operating environment and the environment beyond where many products and services originate. The understanding on the following is most important Proper use of environment Preparation of appraisals on environment Systems development in environment where understanding the cyclic/non-cyclic operations of the environment Preparation of material for academic and professional use A very good understanding on legal issues and application of that knowledge on society and business Construction of an audit of a proper environmental organisation Key skills Communicability – environmental decision maker should be a good communicator with the ability to present in writing, electronic system and practical exhibition. Ability to present to specialist and non-specialist Excellent skills in numerical/quantitative/qualitative analysis on IT based systems
Environmental decision making – case study – Landslide Control Table 4.1.1 Cognitive skill Skill In Sri Lanka and many developing countries Analyse problems Good scientific evaluation possible Selecting irrelevant from Identify safe areas relevant as massive construction is too expensive Combined source Agronomic and material into composed people centred presentation system (like in the
In developed countries Good scientific evaluation possible Long-term massive control measures possible Constructed technological system –
ancient kingdom) Present material within Capacity to support the existing scientific locally available in order the University environmental management Making judgements Participatory where a total base is not information system available using is very useful experience and knowledge Originality in handling People Oriented and solving problems are Disaster a must for a decision Management maker System
Capacity to support and latest technology is available Technological knowledge is very useful
Hi-tech Disaster management system
Table 4.1.2 Practical and or professional skills Skill In Sri Lanka and In developed many developing countries countries Not yet begun Begun Not scientific Scientific
Proper use of environment Preparation of appraisals on environment Systems development in environment where understanding the cyclic/non-cyclic operations of the environment Preparation of material for academic and professional use A very good understanding on legal issues and application of that knowledge on society and business Construction of an audit of a proper environmental organisation
Available, but not properly utilised Yes, but the public sector does not respond
Available and constantly used Yes and followed strictly
Table 4.1.3 Key skills Skill In Sri Lanka In developed and many countries developing countries Free system in in operation
Communicability – environmental decision maker should be a good Controlled communicator with the ability to system present in writing, electronic operation system and practical exhibition.
Ability to present to specialist and non-specialist Limited ability due to political control Excellent skills in numerical/quantitative/qualitative Very good but analysis on IT based systems not utilised properly
High level of scientific ability Excellent
Chapter 5 Environment risk analysis
Origin of Environmental Risk Analysis
There are two major levels of operation in the environment depending on the impact on life. They are 1. good environment without risk 2. bad environment with risks However, in a globalised world of today there is no environment with a zero (0) risk, but any risk level less than 24 percent is termed very low and not life threatening. The risk level of environment changes from one phenomena to another. 24 percent risk is not acceptable in driving or piloting an aircraft, but acceptable in living on sloping land or flood plain. By 1960s the industrialized countries of the world have reached an advanced stage of development and began to evaluate the impact of industrial development on environment. This action was hastened through the occurrence of 1963-64 devastating drought and famine in Africa and India which killed about 20 to 30 million people. USA felt that the political destabilistion which can result from problems of food security may destabilize their friendly states in Africa and Asia as USSR is becoming a threat to USA in the battle for economic superiority. Within this context USA began establishment of environmental reglulatory system, which was to become the world standard today. This is mainly due to the realization that only scientific system of environmental management is able to limit environmental disasters in a rapidly growing economy and it is essential for it to become the super power of the world. Risk today is connected to all types of natural, societal and business environmental situations. Though business risk is considered in business management, business management has to receive answers to their risks from other natural sciences or social sciences (details of these risks are in Seneviratne, 2006a and Seneviratne 2007a). What is risk Risk can be simply defined as “the state of harmful pressure created between man and his living or working environment, which can either damage man or his living and working environment, creating hazard or develop into a disaster”.
Therefore risk can be of many types and come in many dimensions affecting many different things of life and property. However, the word “risk” denotes danger and any type of risk has some part of danger attached to it, but not necessarily result in loss. Facing natural disaster, loss of deposits of a bank, financial corruption, administrative inefficiency, having multiple sex partners, betting in horse racing, playing roulette, walking by the side of road, sitting under a tree and sleeping are all with certain amount of risk (Table 5.1) Table 5.1 risk, global and local risk level of some common systems (approximated using national, and global media data bases from BBC/CNN) Risk Flood Risk level world Once every 96 hours there is a flood in the world Once every 34 hours Once every 2 hours Once every 14 days Risk level –Sri Lanka Once every 112 days
Landslide Tornado Cyclone Earthquake
Loss of deposit of a bank/financial institution Financial corruption
Once every 90 days Once every 6 days Once every 200 days Once every 84 days Once every 115 days (tremors only) Once every 120 Once every seven days years Once a minute or Once a minute or more in developing more world 1 in a 100,000 1 in a 100,000 1 in a 100,000 Every 2 minutes Every three years Every 15 hours (not including sick) 1 in a 100,000 7 every day Every 4 years Every 105 hours (not including risk) One every 144 Average of 4 a minutes day Average of 51 for Average of 71 the developing without above world without risks – with above
Betting in horse racing Playing roulette Fatal Road accident Sitting under a tree Sleeping
War Life expectancy
above risks – with risks 62 years above risks 42 years
Describing the risk environment
Identify potential adverse effects of risks Likelihood of risk of an event, each effect Influence of population on environment – survival index Level of uncertainty in an environment Historical evolution of risk and trend of future
Identify potential adverse effects of risks Once the risk is identified in any environment (here after environment is used in the meaning of natural, societal and business environment) the first step is to identify the potential adverse effects of the risks. Identify potential adverse effects of risks. This process requires the use of mathematical and statistical models to calculate exact placement and time of risk. Risk levels can be easily calculated for all the hazards and disasters except for earthquakes, with the use of modern knowledge of risk analysis and disaster management. Identification of potential adverse effects of risks has to be conducted by the scientists involved in risk studies in the respective fields. The steps in this exercise are to collect Morphological information Process information of the event Table 5.2 Some morphological and process characteristics of risk Event Flood Morphology Deforestation / construction on flood plain/ poor drainage on flood plain/ Process Poor environmental planning/ lack of legislative support/ lack of insurance
Deforestation / construction on steep slope, unstable ground, poor road design Air mass collision/ growth of deep Cumulonimbus
support Application of principles of environmental control Cloud identification / local weather records and trained observer network through schools and universities Monitoring lava flow and plate movement Ethical failure Believe in Chance Believe in Chance
Earthquake/ Vulcanism Financial corruption Betting in horse racing Playing roulette Fatal Road accident Sitting under a tree Sleeping
Plate tectonics/ Inefficiency/ gluttony Sport/ Habit/ gluttony Sport/ Habit/ gluttony Poor road design/ poor traffic regulations
War Life expectancy
Poor enforcement/ social and political corruption Fall of fruit/ lightning Exposure to elements/ strike/ branch fall exposure to organic environment of the tree Rest / immobile Unsuspecting and unexpecting processes at work Ideology/ Conflict/ Battle/ terror/ carnage fanatism Nutrition / health Care and service environmental support
Likelihood of risk of an event, each effect Likelihood is the chance, odds or probability of an occurrence. Likelihood is the probability of an outcome and concept of risk is about probability of loss of a valuable resource, for example if the present illegal felling of valuable timber in Sri Lanka continues likelihood of loss of revenue to government in the next 10 years will be around 200 to 300 billion rupees. Loss of hydro power generation capacity due to same activity may be in the hundreds of billions of rupees. The increased cost of thermal power production will be also hundreds of billions of rupees. But with a proper environmental plan with an investment of about 50 to 60
billion rupees, forest rehabilitation can be achieved and hydro power generation can be stabilised. However these activities have to be supported by proper legislation. This likelihood of damage exists also in flood, landslide and traffic control in Sri Lanka, which is responsible for about a 100 to 150 billion rupee damage to economy annually. What is the likelihood landslide in the high mountains ( 500 meters above sea level) in Sri Lanka? Table 5.3 Likelihood of landslides (based on research 1966 to 2006) Likelihood of major landslides (damage over 100,000 rupees) in Sri Lanka/annual 12 to 15 Likelihood of major landslides (damage over 100,000 rupees) in Sri Lanka/ rainy season 12 to 15
Table 5.4 Likelihood of hazard Consequence High of hazard Severe High Over 75 percent Medium 5 to 24 Medium High Low Medium Negligible
Low 1 to 5
Negligible less than 1
Effectively zero - less 50 to 74 50 to 74 5 to 24 than 1percent percent percent percent High Medium Medium/low Effectively zero 50 to 74 5 to 24 1 to 24 percent less than 1percent Effectively Medium/low Low Low zero 1 to 24 1 to 5 1 to 5 Less than 1 percent Effectively Effectively Effectively Effectively less than less than less than less than 1percent 1percent 1percent 1percent zero
Influence of population on environment – survival capacity Survival of human beings depends on their capacity to face challenge of environment and survive. Modern development is a result of that struggle between environment and human knowledge. The developed world has managed to utilise knowledge to use any available physical and human resource with consent or by force to build its present standard of living. Colonisation, slave trade, exploitation of mineral and other resources of the poor countries, allowing corrupt people of the developing countries to deposit large quantities of financial resources in the financial institutions in the developed world, political destabilisation of developing countries through interference in their internal affairs, supporting certain destabilising systems of developing countries, waging war as they decide on the developing world and production of large quantities of arms in the world market are only a few tactical systems used by the developed world to stay rich and have a high living standard. The people of the developing world are poor and powerless making them highly vulnerable to hazards and disasters as their living environment is not scientifically organised. The capacity to survive in an environment can be calculated using a score (Seneviratne, 1986). Survival Capacity = Supports - Threats Supports are the environmental resources which can support human beings in their quest for life and development. For example, availability of water, fertile soils and lack of conflict are the three major categories of supports for the human society. The major threats are the natural and societal hazards and conflict. The list of supports and hazards in a specified environment has to be identified by the researcher through his/her understanding and experience on the study environment. The effect of each variable used has to be calculated on percentages or ratios. Following examples are extracted from Seneviratne (1986) and Seneviratne (2006b and 2007a and 2007b), which utilises the scale given in White (1976).
Table 5.5 Variables used and result for Bandarawela Town, Temple Road Variable Effect of the variable in percentages 75 and 50 to 74 25 to 49 1 to 24 over 35 50
Water availability Soil fertility and food support in the area Social support systems Normal/ Hazard Lack of water when required Hazard impactNatural Hazard impactSocietal
20 60 30
Survival Capacity = Supports - Threats Survival Capacity = Support (water availability + Soil fertility and food support + Social support system / Normal – Hazard) – Threats (lack of water when required+ hazard impact/natural+ Hazard impact / societal) Survival Capacity = 125 – 110 Survival Capacity = 15 The result of the final analysis has to be checked against Tables 5.6a or 5.6b depending on the nature of the answer. This has been applied to places in Sri Lanka, Nigeria and Norway and in about 200 places worldwide and the index shows much resilience against all types of climates and cultures.
Table 5.6 Quality of environment and survival capacity (explanation for positive values Quality of environment Survival capacity Very good with very low natural, societal and 75 and over health risks Good with annual occurrence of natural, societal 50 to 74 and health risks Moderate with bi-annual or more occurrence of 25 to 49 natural, societal and health risks Low with more than bi-annual occurrence of 1 to 24 natural, societal and health risks
Table 5.6 Quality of environment and survival capacity (explanation for negative values) Quality of environment Survival capacity Risky with more than bi-annual occurrence of - 1 to - 24 natural, societal and health risks Very risky with more than bi-annual occurrence of - 25 to – 49 natural, societal and health risks, specially for low income groups Extremely risky with normal life is difficult , - 50 to – 74 specially for low income groups – malnutrition present Dangerous to live with serious threat from - 74 or higher malnutrition and disease
Table 5.7 Survival capacity scores for some selected places in Sri Lanka (developing/ poor, Nigeria (developing) and Norway (developed). Site –Sri lanka Colombo Kandy Galle Kurunegala Mahakanadarawa Matale Matara Meegoda Maligathenna (Bandarawela) Mihinthale town Millawana Nalanda Site - Nigeria Gubio Magumeri Baga Maiduguri Jos Site – Norway Trondheim Lonsdale Oslo Bergen Survival Capacity 10 20 15 15 -35 -10 -25 50 55 -40 45 45 - 45 - 55 -35 -15 -10 60 45 35 25
The result indicates the level of quality of environment and the effect of risks on societal environment. The calculation of the survival capacity of these settlements was conducted using a detailed questionnaire which investigated their natural and societal environment in detail (Appendix 1). Variables of support and threat system in Table 5.5 were composite variables where many sub-variables were involved. Water availability was measured with the use of following subvariables during the survey. Water availability = ( drinking water quality + water for crops + water for domestic use + water for industrial use + seasonal availability + poor drainage). Water related diseases are the major threat to health in the developing world. Malaria, dengue, cholera, dysentery, schistosomiasis, onchorociasis, and other diarrhoeal diseases result from lack of clean drinking water and unsafe
bathing water. About 30 percent of the total hospital morbidity and about 40 percent of morbidity reported to private medical practitioners were related to interaction with water in 2000 ( Seneviratne, 2003). National data ( Ministry of Health, 2000) indicate that safe drinking water is available to 68.4 percent of the population, but about 68 percent of the sample used in this survey said that they have to boil or re-filter water before drinking indicating that only 32 percent were satisfied with the safe drinking water provided by the national system. All the conferences or meetings attended by the author since 1996 (including some in the Ministry of Health) provided bottled spring water for the participants. Poor drainage is given as the major factor responsible the high incidence of dengue, malaria and diarrhoeal diseases in our urban areas. Health data indicate that urban areas have the highest incidence of waste related diseases. For example lack of sufficient quantity of quality drinking water makes dry zone areas and towns in Sri Lanka more hazardous to live than the rest of the environment. The selected places in Nigeria show highly negative results due to poor drinking water status, presence of malaria and many other infectious diseases and extremely poor public social service system and heavy sociopolitical corruption. It is clear that heavy socio-political corruption makes many places in the developing world to have negative scores and most of the developed countries to have positive scores. Norway which is a country with very low levels of socio-political corruption and high social support level scores well though it is located in a harsh and cold environment. The survival capacity of any place on earth is not expected to rise above 75 percent as all places on the surface of the earth have some form of natural and societal hazards and any score of – 20 and above is acceptable as a limit for a fairly secure life.
Level of uncertainty in an environment Level of uncertainty is partially represented by the survival index and risk level but it is possible to derive an index of uncertainty with the help of survival index. The level of uncertainty rises with the reduction in survival capacity because the effect of threats leads to reduction of survivability. For example, in Colombo survival capacity is reduced by the collection of factors like poor drainage (dengue is a major threat) terrorism ( security problem), poor quality drinking water ( it is not safe to drink from tap due to contamination on the way to the tap) and poor law and order
situation (corruption) etc. all these above mentioned factors contribute to uncertainty as reliable data on these activities are rare and unreliable. Level of uncertainty = 100 - 10 Colombo level of uncertainty = 90 It is proven through observation and analysis of data that in Colombo the risk of poor drainage, poor quality drinking water and terrorism is close to a 50 / 50 chance. Kandy level of uncertainty = 100 – 20 = 80 In Kandy, the risk of landslide has a 65 percent chance, poor quality drinking water has a 55 percent chance and terrorism has a 40 percent chance. Threat of terrorism is lower in Kandy than in Colombo because the international community reacted strongly against the bombing of Dalada Maligawa than any other bombing. Maligathenna level of uncertainty = 100 – 55 = 45
Table 5.8 Survival capacity scores for some selected places in Sri Lanka (developing/ poor, Nigeria (developing) and Norway (developed). Site –Sri lanka Colombo Kandy Survival Capacity 10 20 Level of uncertainty 90 80
Galle Kurunegala Mahakanadarawa Matale Matara Meegoda Maligathenna (Bandarawela) Mihinthale town Millawana Nalanda Site - Nigeria Gubio Magumeri Baga Maiduguri Jos Site – Norway Trondheim Lonsdale Oslo Bergen
15 15 -35 -10 -25 50 55 -40 45 45 - 45 - 55 -35 -15 -10 60 45 35 55
85 85 135 110 125 50 45 140 55 55 145 155 135 115 110 40 55 65 45
Historical evolution of risk and trend of future Risk of built up environment has increased with the development of society from an aboriginal state to modern as the number of activities of the human being has increased with development. Risk analysis is becoming extremely important as the value of lost property and life increases with modern living systems. For example loss of life in an aboriginal society was evident as they had no social support systems of security and health as we know today. At present state expenditure on life in developed world is considered heavily valuable and any loss of life is a serious blow to their dignity and status. However, developing nations of the world loose much valuable human resources due to lack of national environmental management plans and enforcement of environmental regulations. For example crossing a river at high water is one of the major risks when good quality ropes and safety jackets were not available and today armies and hunters can cross any river without a serious
threat to their lives or property with the use of this safety equipment. However in the developing countries loss of life due to many natural and societal hazards is increasing as people take unnecessary risks as they are gaining more freedom with lessening of legal and social controls. Therefore evolution of risk and trend of future are influenced by historical evolution of technology, social freedom and attitudes. Media reports, comments made by geologists and academics on the occurrence of natural and societal disasters are used to present the following table which indicate the non-utilisation of available knowledge and readiness for future in a developing country.
Table 5.9 Risk and future trend for some selected risks in developing countries Risk Previous Public knowledge action Available Ignoranc e Individ ual action Unable Historical evolution 1950 to 1980 Moderate damage/ 1950 to 1980 200 billion rupees – visible disruption of livelihoods Heavy damage from large floods/ 1950 to 1980 400 billion rupees visible disruption of livelihoods Low damage due to low density and fairly high level of application of legislation - visible disruption of travel Low damage as there were very few dams Future trend 1981 to 2010 Weighted damage level
Heavy damage/ 4 400 billion rupee damage expected – serious disruption of livelihoods expected Very heavy damage from few large and 6 many flash floods 700 billion rupees serious disruption of livelihoods expected
Unable to do much
Very heavy due to high density and fairly low level of application of legislation - serious destruction of property and life expected
Soil erosion Available and sedimentati
Very heavy due to high rates of 4 sedimentation in reservoirs, damage expected between 2000 and 2010 due to loss of power generation and sedimentation is about 600 to 2000 billion rupees /year Low damage as there Very heavy due to high rates of erosion 6 were very few dams and sedimentation resulting from poor landscape planning leading to massive
on of waterways, access systems (roads and drainage systems) and burial or removal of vegetative matter
damage to all types of environment
Weighted damage is calculated on a 1 to 10 scale / 1 lowest and 10 is the highest. Equally calculated for both developing and developed countries.
Table 5.10, Utilisation of available knowledge and readiness for future in a developed country.
Previous Public knowledge action Available Careful planning
Individual Historical evolution action 1950 to 1980 Highly enabled Low damage noted but no visible disruption and immediate recovery Heavy damage from large floods/ heavy local damage but recovery immediate
Future trend 1981 to 2010
Heavy damage/ but under controlled system of recovery Heavy damage 2 from few large and many flash floods / but under controlled system of recovery Negligible 1
Weighted damage level 1
controlled Reservoir Available Negligible Highly problems controlled Soil erosion and Available Negligible Highly sedimentation controlled Weighted damage is calculated on a 1 to 10 scale / developing and developed countries.
Low damage as control Negligible 1 measures are in place Low damage as control Negligible 1 measures are in place 1 lowest and 10 is the highest. Equally calculated for both
Increased risk from natural and societal hazards and disasters were discussed in detail in relation to Sri Lanka by Seneviratne, 1975,1977, Siddhisena and Seneviratne, 2002, Seneviratne and Karunaratne, 2003 a, Seneviratne, 2003 b, 2006a and 2006b, which compares well with the increasing risk level of natural and societal hazards and disasters. Figure indicate the temporal development of hazard levels in Sri Lanka. Information released recently (Stefan Lovgren, 2005) indicate that climatic change refugees may rise to about 450 million by 2050 and the total property damage may be about 2000 to 4000 billion US Dollars. The rate of corruption in the developing world has also increased in the past two decades with addition of countries like Sri Lanka into heavily corrupted list of nations. Figure Graphical representation of loss of balance and disaster damage in developing countries (six selected land system set)
5 RAINFALL DROUGHT 3 FLOOD PEOPLE LITERACY 2 DISASTER DAMAGE
0 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 2010
Figure Graphical representation of loss of balance and disaster damage in developing countries (six selected social system set)
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 2010 PEOPLE ETHICS CONFLICT ETHNICITY LITERACY BELIEFS DISASTER DAMAGE
Therefore, natural and societal hazards and disasters are increasing at an alarming rate at present making world a more and more dangerous place to live. However, developed countries have managed to limit damages and destruction through use of environmental management principles in their development process.
Cost Benefit Analysis Basics of cost benefit analysis inform us of the benefit of a project in relation to its cost of inauguration. In business it is directly related to profit. In social projects the benefit may be qualitative and the financial benefit may be received long after its inauguration or the benefit will be transferred to another part of the economy. In the developed world transfer of benefit of social projects are monitored well to gain maximum returns, but in the developing world monitoring of social projects are poor and there is a net loss to the economy. This net loss leads to continuation of poverty and underdevelopment. The cost benefit of environmental management is also in the group of long term benefit systems though some microenvironmental systems will bring immediate benefits. Table show in brief the cost benefit relationship of environmental resources.
Activity Afforestation Wev (tank) repair Rural road construction
For example reforestation is the basic requirement of survival of mankind as it controls water availability and production of organic matter, but if it is not conducted on the modern principle of forest harvesting, rural populace will be not cooperative to the projects as we experience illegal extraction of forest resources in Sri Lanka. Therefore any successful 63
reforestation in Sri Lanka has to be operated in unison with the development of harvesting technology. In here the type of trees and shrubs used in reforestation has to be in accordance with the demand for timber and firewood of the locality and national requirement. Establishment of plantations and employment of regulation as we conduct today has not reaped the expected benefits and the cost of present system of reforestation cannot be justified. Wev or tank repair is one of the most common activities conducted in Sri Lanka today. Millions if not billions are spent on this programme of repairs to wev system by every elected government since independence. However, the wev system has not been able to provide the required service to the farming population because the environmental management system needed by the wev system isnot practiced. Therefore only one of the variables of the wev system is organized by repair and the cathcment stabilization is not conducted. Lack of catchment stabilization leads to constant supply of sediments to the system, reduce spring water capacity and increase overland flow which lead to rapid filling up of weva (tank). The success of the Wev system in the ancient kingdom was maintained by settlement and slope preservation technology employed by the kingdom, which we have not understood in present day development system in Sri Lanka. Therefore the benefit of wev (tank) restoration is felt only marginally on farming communities. Rural roads are in a state of chaos today with minimum of 5 media reports daily presenting reports on them. A survey conducted in 7 provinces in Sri Lanka covering 1754 kilometers indicates that the major causes of road destruction are mainly a result of lack of understanding of what is a road? A road is composed of two major units. 1. area for vehicular traffic 2. are for pedestrian traffic However, roads in Sri Lanka are rarely with these two items proportionately to the requirement. 84 percent of the time rural road surface is blocked by parked vehicles, construction material, conversing drivers, sediments, solid waste and waste water. 97 percent of the time rural roads have not provided space for pedestrians. 91 percent of the sampled mileage of rural roads has no proper drains. In addition the quality of rural road construction is poor and about86 percent of the interviewed were opinion that political and institutional corruption is responsible for the poor quality rural roads. “ I took the contract with good faith, but they did not pay me64
correctly, but as you know the member who is in-charge of the construction has bought new vehicle” was a response recorded during a survey in Central Province, where the road surface constructed by the contractor is of good quality (the road surface constructed by this contractor was under observation for 4 years and without any maintenance it has managed to stay fairly motorable until the authors last visit in December 2006 field class. 34 percent of rural road surfaces All the above examples indicate that cost benefit analysis in relation to environmental management rests on the concept of basic needs and sustainability. This demands that a societal approach, which can be constructed on the participatory model is more suited for any cost benefit analysis exercise in environmental management. Environmental cost benefit accounting is widely discussed in research since the arrival of basic needs concept and many types of methodologies are used in the analysis. There is no single methodology as the methodology has to change with changing nature of problems. In relation to products market based methods are useful when prices in the market can be based on cost of production and cost of changes in environmental quality. Services can follow the same method if they are conducted by private enterprise. However, services conducted by state authorities cannot be evaluated in the same way as cost of social services is a prime responsibility of a state.
Cost of Rs. production
Environmental Rs. cost per kilogramme
Loss to environment per 1 kilogramme Rs.
1 10.00 kilogramme of paddy ( with chemical inputs) Selling price 15.00 1 kilogramme of paddy ( with chemical inputs) Profit 5.00
Total environment cost
Cost of Rs. production
Environmental Rs. cost per kilogramme
Gain to environment per 1 kilogramme Rs.
1 12.00 kilogramme of paddy ( with organic matter) Selling price 15.00 1 kilogramme of paddy ( with organic matter) Profit 3.00
Total environment cost
For example the implementation of a scientific environmental
management plan of the ancient Rajarata civilisation has transformed the vegetation environment of North central province from a monsoon rain forest to monsoon parkland where a massive water storage –supply system redesigned the settlements and natural vegetation. Important tree varieties were helped through planting and forest harvesting was utilised to collect many types of forest products required for medicine and festivities. Today, non-utilisation of a scientific environmental planning has brought either lower benefits or no benefits from environmental utilisation and north central province is troubled by water shortages, water related diseases and poverty of population. Market based methods used to evaluate cost benefit in this region are being overshadowed by many environmental problems.
In other cases surrogate market values can be used to calculate environmental cost of a given project, when proper values are not available. Property values can be utilised to price productive lands in a landslide prone area and land which may be utilised for area allocated for reforestation.
Case of Kandeketiya -1998 slump which is still active and will continue for another 10 to 15 years.
Cost of Rs. housing of 20 low cost housing units 1978 value 600,000
Environmental cost of housing
Cost of Short term cracking and breaks 1994 to 1998 Undamaged 3,500,000.00 Landslide property damage (1998 value cost) (1998)
Total value 2,100,000.00 Total 7,000,000.00 of housing environment after the cost due to slide (with poor site addition of selection some (burial of recovered cultivated building land, loss of material) livelihoods, loss of soil, burial of soil, vegetation damage) Total 5,600,000.00 Total 8,434,000.00 Total loss for 2,834,000.00 selecting site If the 4,900,000.00 housing was constructed on a stable site (value at 1998) Note- this site was classified as a probable slump site, but the local authorities have allowed people to build on it due to social pressure.
Benefits received from protection or remediation of environmental resources cannot always be justified. Sometimes the cost to environment is always higher than the services provided by the natural capital. In this type of cases replacement cost approach can be used to evaluate the cost benefit.
Cost Economic value of forest (with good quality natural timber) Value of timber Profit Cost of Loss of organic 6,000,000.00 matter, fodder and springs Profit after Cost of Loss of organic matter, fodder and springs Cost of Replanting and 5,000,000.00 maintenance to next crop Profit after replacement Cost of replacement of 6,000,000.00 organic matter, fodder and springs over a period of 15 years Profit after total expenditure Value of new crop after 15 years with environment remediation
50,000,000.00 30,000,000.00 30,000,000.00
Cost of remediation
13,000,000.00 60,000,000.00 (reduction of value by environmental degradation reduce growth of forest) If decided to conduct environmental remediation at this level cost will be about 100,000,000.00
Profit after remediation
No profit only a loss
Contingent valuation methods are useful when price information is not available and competitive market is present. In here environment is not considered valuable and environmental degradation is not considered an important variable in development. All the developing and a few developed countries follow this type of model. Sri Lanka is noted for following this type of model and its natural resources are squandered by a few elites resulting in serious environmental degradation in all sectors of environment. With reference to forestry, sand extraction, clay extraction, soil erosion and sedimentation of rivers and reservoirs Sri Lanka has reached a point of no return by 2005. though there are about 14 to 20 organisations involved in environmental work Sri Lanka is yet to implement the programme of environmental recovery. Role of Benefit-Cost Analysis Benefit-cost analysis is a useful tool for assessing the economic effects of projects, policies or programs. The purpose is to provide a selection that would eliminate projects that are a hindrance to economic development. Randall (1991) lists two important issues relating to quality control: one, the principles are clearly specified for empirical benefit-cost analysis and are based on sound economic principles; and two, the benefit-cost analysis documents are available for public scrutiny to expose the improper use of theory and practice. The estimation of costs is relatively simple compared with estimating the benefits. Environmental costs must be accounted for in any cost benefit analysis. There is a serious lack of data available on the value of biodiversity, but it does not mean that we should forget the value of biodiversity Valuation techniques and the steps to be followed in monetising the benefits from biodiversity 1) methods based on actual market prices 2) methods based on surrogate market prices 3) methods based on simulated market prices.
It should be noted that most cost-benefit studies use partial analysis as opposed to a general equilibrium analysis. Two assumptions are made in these studies. 1. 2. prices of all inputs and outputs other than the good in question are held constant. resulting benefits do not lead to any changes in the real incomes.
General equilibrium analysis allows 1. for changes in both prices and incomes and takes
into account the
indirect effects of a policy. Coalescing Impacts over Time Benefit cost analysis is generally done in two stages First, the benefits and costs of a given activity is calculated for each year that it is effective. Second, an aggregate net present value is calculated by discounting future costs and benefits to present day value and then adding them up over the years studied. If the net present value is positive, that is present value benefits exceed present value costs, the policy makes economic sense. Discounting is done so that benefits and costs occurring at different times can be aggregated and expressed in composite form. There are two justifications for discounting 1. most consumers consider present day benefits to be more valuable than future. 2. resources invested now will increase productivity and wealth in the future.
The discount rate, r, is the premium they are willing to pay, expressed as a percentage over a specified period. Funds received today are worth, at the end of the first period, a total of (1+r) times the amount of funds. Equivalently, an amount of funds to be received at the end of the period are worth 1/(1+r) times that amount at the beginning of the period. While discounting is a common procedure, the issue of what is an appropriate discount rate to use for public projects can be debated. For policies or programs, particularly those having consequences lasting well beyond the typical 10 to 25 year life spans of most private sector investments, a lower "social discount rate" may be warranted. Treatment of inflation is another issue in the determination of a discount rate. The nominal rates observed in the market place include a component that reflects expected inflation. A real interest rate removes the inflation. Real discount rates between 3 and 8 percent are most often used in cost-benefit analysis in developed countries while in developing countries it can be as high as 10 or 12%. Often, rates used by government agencies or international organisations such as The World Bank are used as benchmarks. Finally, in a cost-benefit study, it is recommended to carry out a sensitivity analysis to see how net benefits are affected by different discount rates.
Chapter 6 Field techniques Field techniques in the understanding and testing the principles of environmental management Field techniques in environmental management are taken from the basic techniques available in natural and social sciences. Further, the student of environmental management has to utilise the physical resource evaluation and management assessment techniques available in many social sciences. The techniques provided here are aimed at giving a primary insight to the application of principles in major problems studied within the special degree in environmental management.
Aim is to find techniques to identify environmental damage and guide the specialist for detailed study. Natural Environmental studies The major hazards and disasters related to natural environment are related to materials and processes at the earth surface. Damages from landslides, floods, tornadoes, cyclones, earthquakes, and tsunamis are closely related to landform environment. Though, tornadoes and cyclones are of climatic origin their damage level has a relationship to land form and materials at the surface of the earth natural or constructed. For example damage from a cyclone is felt more in a sandy lowland than in a rocky beach front. Tornado in a rocky mountain area will not be damaging as in a plain with soft soils. This is because stronger materials reduce damage to land surface and buildings built on it. Further slope factor decides the stability of the buildings depending on the bed rock properties. For examples highest damage by landslides and creep in Sri Lanka is reported from where deep regolith (deeply weathered soils with rock debris is present) is present. Geomorphological map contain information on genesis, age and morphology of the land surface. Therefore it is a document with information on processes of past, and present land formation and evolution (Bennett, 1994; Bennett, and Boulton, 1993; Bennett and Boulton, 1993: Bennett, et.al 1998; Bromley, 1998; Lowe and Walker, 1998; Slaymaker and Spencer, 1998). Geomorphological mapping is a technique which can be used easily to identify level of risk of any natural hazard of a selected area. This is possible because it maps the materials and process of a physical unit of landform. This method was discovered in the developed world in the 1970s and they have compiled detailed maps of their countries which have formed massive data banks on environmental conditions. However, the developing countries have not utilised this technique and still struggle to identify and control many natural hazards within their boundaries. Mapping is conducted in three major stages.
Selection of the area from a 1:10,000 scale topographic map Stage 2 Field mapping of all material and process information during all the major seasons of the area. Advantages Geomorphlogical map shows the location of materials and processes. For example Figure shows a basic geomorphological map of Suwaddakanda catchment located along Mihinthale – Vauniya Raod around 83 rd Mile post (134th Kilometer mark). The symbols used simplified as printing facilities available to the author is limited. When printing facilities are readily available the international symbols and key can be tuilised in the map construction. Information for this map which covers an are of 2.1 square kilometres collected from a three day field work by two students (Jayantha Ranasinghe and Dilip Gamini Senannayake guided by the author). The detailed International Key for Geomorphological Mapping is available in the Department of Social Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka, Mihinthale. Stage 3 Production of the final map (See Map1) Symbols, letters and other systems for mapping are available from various sources (), but a simple system to identify the hazardous areas can be constructed using locally favourite symbols and letters. Societal Environmental Studies Societal environmental hazards and disasters are studied using various types of techniques with varying degree of statistical value. Questionnaire, group interview, informal interview, life history recordings and informal interviews are used widely today in collection of societal information. However the present trend is to use people oriented systems based on discourse, text and narrative analysis taken from sociology. Participatory system techniques like life history recordings, record keeping and compilation of spatial data into maps are also used. The major instrument in the study of environmental management in relation to its strength and weaknesses is the SWOT analysis. The SWOT Analysis is a simple tool that gives profound insights into any assessment. SWOT is shorthand for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. It is the first step in developing a strategy for the future. It will point out what needs to be done to maximize industry‟s strengths, minimize its weaknesses, take advantage of opportunities, and minimize or eliminate industry‟s threats. Strengths and Weaknesses are typically internal factors, whereas Opportunities and Threats are more typically external factors. It is an excellent tool to use in assessing your competitive position versus competition. This is a systematic identification of these factors and the strategy
that reflects the best match between them. It is based on the logic that an effective strategy maximizes a business‟s strengths and opportunities but at the same time minimize its weakness and threats. This simple assumption, if accurately applied, has powerful implications for successful choosing and designing effective strategy. The SWOT Analysis consists of an external scan and an internal assessment. The External Scanning Process is undertaken to identify the major threats and opportunities that face the organization or industry in the foreseeable future. The Internal Assessment Process is conducted to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the organization and its ability to respond to threats and take advantage of opportunities. To begin the analysis some basic decisions need to be made concerning who will be involved, what needs to be assessed, what the deliverables will be, and when it needs to be done by. The Action Plan tool can be very helpful in doing this. Also, Brainstorming and Affinity can be used to identify the external search areas. A large list of questions is provided to assist with the internal assessment? These questions can be revised to better support the purpose of the assessment and the time and resources available. Unrelated questions can be deleted and more appropriate ones can be added. Similarly, Analyzer should be able to fine tune the most critical areas in all four segments. Whereby SWOT analysis could be completed with precise decision of what would the next move going to be. Importantly, collection of data must do with utmost care. There should not be a room for repeat same identified area in different classification or under estimate the weight of any given factor. Lines up the facts are the most important and easily misguiding task of the SWOT analysis .However careful analytical skills rigorously demand in formulating strategy in the light of SWOT. SWOT can be conducted with the help of specially designed questionnaires, interviews and collection of life histories. Life history survey has proven to be a valuable tool in environmental degradation and destruction. Used carefully life history surveys can get a composite picture of the environment with reference to forest, water resources and animals. Further it gives information on level of contact between the natural environment and societal environment. Detailed surveys conducted by students of Rajarata University of Sri Lanka indicate that life history data is highly reliable and cover wide area of information. Further, there is a possibility of spatial comparisons between localities using this information.
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