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Tutorial 15A: Normal Distribution and Sample Mean (Solutions)

10.9 + 12.1
1. For the probability to be maximum, μ = = 11.5
2
Then X ~ N(11.5, 2.25) and the greatest value of P(10.9 < X < 12.1) = 0.311

2. Let X = Time taken in minutes for a journey on route A,


and Y = Time taken in minutes for a journey on route B.
Then X ~ N(25, 52) and Y ~ N(30, 22).
(i) P(X > 32) = 0.0808

(ii) X − Y ~ N(25 − 30, 52 + 22) = N(−5, 29)


P(X > Y) = P( X − Y > 0 ) = 0.177
P(|X − Y| > 5) = P(X − Y > 5) + P(X − Y < −5) = 0.0317 + 0.5 = 0.532

(iii) Y1 + Y2 + Y3 + Y4 + Y5 ~ N(5(30), 5(22)) = N(150, 20)


P(Y1 + Y2 + Y3 + Y4 + Y5 < 160) = 0.987

3. Let X = Weight in grams of an orange and Y = Weight in grams of a pear.


By the Central Limit Theorem,
52 1 82 64
X ≈ N(107, ) = N(107, ) and Y ≈ N(110, ) = N(110, ) .
75 3 69 69
1 64 29
⇒ X − Y ~ N (107 − 110, + ) = N (−3, )
3 69 23
P( X > Y ) = P( X − Y > 0) = 0.00377

4. Let X = Lifespan of a brand A battery. Then X ~ N(μ, σ2).


(i) Given P(X < 60) = 0.01
60 − μ X −μ
⇒ P (Z < ) = 0.01 , where Z = ~ N(0,1)
σ σ
60 − μ
⇒ = −2.326
σ
⇒ −60 + μ = 2.326σ ……(1)
and P(X > 68) = 0.25
68 − μ X −μ
⇒ P (Z > ) = 0.25 , where Z = ~ N(0,1)
σ σ
68 − μ
⇒ 1 − P (Z < ) = 0.25
σ
68 − μ
⇒ P (Z < ) = 0.75
σ
68 − μ
⇒ = 0.674
σ

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⇒ 68 − μ = 0.674σ ……(2)
8
(1)+(2): 8 = 3σ ⇒ σ = = 2.67 (to 3 s.f.) (Shown)
3
8 ⎛8⎞
Substitute σ = into (1): μ = 60 + 2.326 ⎜ ⎟ = 66.2 (to 3 s.f.) (Shown)
3 ⎝3⎠
Let Y = Lifespan of a brand B battery. Then Y ~ N(65.7, 3.512).
(ii) P(the battery lasts for more than 66 hours)
8 10
= P(X > 66) + P(Y > 66)
18 18
= 0.494
2.67 2
(iii) X = average lifespan of 8 Brand A batteries. X ∼ N (66.2, )
8
3.512
Y = average lifespan of 10 Brand B batteries. Y ∼ N (65.7, )
10
⎛ 2.67 2 3.512 ⎞
X − Y ∼ N ⎜ 66.2 − 65.7, + ⎟ = N ( 0.5, 2.1231225 )
⎜ 8 10 ⎟
⎝ ⎠
( )
P X − Y ≤ 0.3 = P ( −0.3 ≤ X − Y ≤ 0.3)
= 0.1539232
≈ 0.154 (to 3 s.f)

5.(a) Given X ~ B(20, 0.2).


Then E(X) = 20(0.2) = 4 and Var(X) = 20(0.2)(0.8) = 3.2.
3.2
By the Central Limit Theorem, X ≈ N (4, ).
n
Given P( X < 4.354) ≈ 0.9
4.354 − 4 X −4
⇒ P (Z < ) ≈ 0.9 , where Z = ~ N(0,1)
3.2 3.2
n n
0.354 n
⇒ ≈ 1.282
3.2
⇒ n ≈ 42 (nearest integer)

⎛1⎞ 80
(b) By the Central Limit Theorem, S ≈ N (80 (1) ,80 ⎜ ⎟) = N(80, ).
⎝3⎠ 3
P(75 < S < 90) = 0.807

⎛ 97 ⎞ ⎛ 4463 ⎞ 2425 111575


(c) By the Central Limit Theorem, S ≈ N (100 ⎜ ⎟ ,100 ⎜ ⎟) = N( , ).
⎝ 96 ⎠ ⎝ 9216 ⎠ 24 2304
P(S < 99) = 0.385

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6. Let X = Mass of a melon and Y = Mass of a pumpkin.
Then X ~ N(0.8, 0.12) and Y ~ N(1.2, 0.22).
5 3

∑ X i ~ N(5(0.8), 5(0.12)) = N(4, 0.05),


i =1
∑Y
i =1
i ~ N(3(1.2), 3(0.22)) = N(3.6, 0.12)
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1.5 ∑ X i + 0.5 ∑ Yi ~ N(1.5(4) + 0.5(3.6), 1.52(0.05) + 0.52(0.12))
i =1 i =1
= N(7.8, 0.1425)
5 3
P(1.5 ∑ X i + 0.5 ∑ Yi > 8) = 0.298
i =1 i =1

7. Let X = Mass of coffee in a jar. Then X ~ N(203, 2.52).


(i) P(X ≥ 200) = 0.885

(ii) Given P(X > m) = 0.03


⇒ P(X ≤ m) = 0.97
⇒ m = 208

(iii) X1 + X2 ~ N(2(203), 2(2.52)) = N(406, 12.5)


P(400 < X1 + X2 < 405) = 0.344

__
2.52
(iv) C ~ N (203, ) = N(203, 0.3125)
20
__
Given P( C− 203 < a) = 0.95
__
⇒ P (− a < C− 203 < a) = 0.95
__
⇒ P (203 − a < C < 203 + a) = 0.95
__
1 − 0.95
⇒ P (C < 203 + a) = 0.95 + = 0.975
2
⇒ 203 + a = 204.096
⇒ a = 1.10

8. Let M = No. of hours per week spent in study by male students,


and F = No. of hours per week spent in study by female students.
Then M ~ N(28.4, 62) and F ~ N(31.3, 42).
(i) M1 + M2 ~ N(2(28.4), 2(62)) = N(56.8, 72)
P(M1 + M2 ≥ 54.5) = 0.607

(ii) F − M ~ N(31.3 − 28.4, 42 + 62) = N(2.9, 52)


P(F < M) = P(F − M < 0) = 0.344

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(iii) M1 + M2 + M3 − 3F ~ N(3(28.4) − 3(31.3), 3(62) + 32(42)) = N(−8.7, 252)
P(M1 + M2 + M3 > 3F) = P(M1 + M2 + M3 − 3F > 0) = 0.292

M 1 + M 2 + M 3 + M 4 + M 5 + M 6 + F1 + F2
(iv) T =
8
1 1 233
E(T ) = ⎡⎣6 ( E( M ) ) + 2 ( E( F ) ) ⎤⎦ = [ 6(28.4) + 2(31.3) ] = (Shown)
8 8 8
1 1 31
Var(T ) = 2 ⎡⎣6 ( Var( M ) ) + 2 ( Var( F ) ) ⎤⎦ = ⎡6 ( 62 ) + 2 ( 42 ) ⎤ =
8 64 ⎣ ⎦ 8 (Shown)
233 31
∴T ∼ N( , )
8 8
P(25 < T < 32) = 0.910

9. Let C = Mass in grams of a bar of chocolate,


and L = Mass in grams of a lollipop.

Then C ~ N(71, 72) and L ~ N(57, 52).

(i) L1 + L2 + L3 + L4 − 3C ~ N(4(57) − 3(71), 4(52) + 32(72)) = N(15, 541)


P(L1 + L2 + L3 + L4 − 3C < 10) = 0.415

(ii) X = C1 + C2 + C3 + C4 + C5 + L1 + L2
E(X) = 5 E(C) + 2 E(L) = 5(71) + 2(57) = 469 (Shown)
Var(X) = 5 Var(C) + 2 Var(L) = 5(72) + 2(52) = 295 (Shown)
∴ X ~ N(469, 295)

(iii) Y = C1 + C2 + C3 + L1 + L2 + L3 + L4 + L5
E(Y) = 3 E(C) + 5 E(L) = 3(71) + 5(57) = 498
Var(Y) = 3 Var(C) + 5 Var(L) = 3(72) + 5(52) = 272
∴ Y ~ N(498, 272)
X − Y ~ N(469 − 498, 295 + 272) = N(−29, 567)
P(|X − Y| < 10) = P(−10 < X − Y < 10) = 0.162

10. Let X = Weight in grams of a grade A apple. Then X ~ N(200, σ2).


(i) Given P(X > 214) = 0.12
214 − 200 X − 200
⇒ P (Z > ) = 0.12 , where Z = ~ N(0,1)
σ σ
14
⇒ P (Z ≤ ) = 0.88
σ
14
⇒ = 1.175
σ
⇒ σ = 12 (to 2 s.f.) (Shown)

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(ii) P(|X − 200| > 10)
= P(X − 200 > 10) + P(X − 200 < −10)
= P(X > 210) + P(X < 190)
= 0.405

Let Y = Weight in grams of a grade B apple. Then Y ~ N(160, 92).


(iii) Y1 + Y2 + Y3 + Y4 − (X1 + X2 + X3)
~ N(4(160) − 3(200), 4(92) + 3(122)) = N(40, 756)
P(Y1 + Y2 + Y3 + Y4 < X1 + X2 + X3)
= P(Y1 + Y2 + Y3 + Y4 − ( X1 + X2 + X3 ) < 0)
= 0.0728

92
(iv) Y ~ N (160, )
n
Given P( Y > 158) ≥ 0.95
158 − 160 Y − 160
⇒ P( Z > ) ≥ 0.95 , where Z = ~ N(0,1)
92 92
n n
2 n
⇒ P (Z > − ) ≥ 0.95
9
2 n
⇒ P (Z < ) ≥ 0.95
9
2 n
⇒ ≥ 1.645
9
⇒ n ≥ 54.797
∴Least integer value of n = 55.

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