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yOQrajrmuf acwfrSDr_eJ@ c&D;&SnfcsDwufyJGxJu yifhulrsm;

tykdif; (1)
r=umao;rSDu w&kwforRwusefpDrif;&J@ ukd,fpm;jyKr_ (3)ck (Three Represents) qkdwJh vufa&G;pifaqmif;
yg;rsm; xGufay:vmcJhygw,f? tJ'DokH;ckxJu “jynfoltrsm;pk&J@ tajccHtusKd;pD;yGm;”qkdwJhtcsufukd EkdifiHwuma&muf
w&kwfausmif;om;awGu “'Drkdua&pDESifhvGwfvyfr_” vkd@t"dy`g,fzGifhawmif;qkd=u+yD;
w&kwfEkdifiH&J@txl;a'opD;yGm;a&;ZkH awGeJ@ tjcm;jynfe,fujynfolvlxkawG vlwef;pm;uGm[vGef;aewm/
tpkd;&t&m&SdawG=um; aiGa&;a=u;a&; cspm;r_ awG/ t*wdvkdufpm;r_awGrsm;vm+yD; tpkd;&u
tcGifhxl;cHvlwef;pm;w&yfwnfaqmufcJhwmukd axmufjy=uygw,f? “qkd&S,fvpfpepfqkdwm wkdif;jynfxJrSmaewJh
jynfoltm;vkH;ukd qif;&Jiwfjywfr_uvGwfajrmufa&;” qkdwJh rlukd [pfa=uG;cJhwmr[kwfvm;? ckawmh
yDuif;eJ@&Sef[kdif;+rdK@awGay:rSm rufa':e,f,Ofaus;r_eJ@ tar&dum;u a,;vfwuUokdvfukd ausmif;wufcGifh&zkd@
tdrfrufrufaecsdefrSm wjcm;jynfe,fuv,form;awG qif;&JwGif;eufqlyltkH=uGae=uowJh?
1978 wkH;uyg? wdef@a&Smifzdef&J@ yDuif;aEGOD;c&D;pOft+yD; vlwef;pm;ukdtajccHwJha0g[m&awG/ wkdufyJG
awGukdzsufodrf;cJh+yD; t&if;&SifawG&J@ta&;ygr_ukd wdwdvif;vif;xkwfajymum olwkd@ukd uGefjrLepfygwD0ifawGtjzpf
vufcHcJhygw,f?
“t&if;&Sifvlwef;pm;ukd em;vnfoGm;+yD;wJhaemuf ukd,fwkd@u olwdk@eJ@ bm&efjzpfp&mta=umif;&Sdawmhvkd@
vJ/ ppfat;umvwkdufyJGawGwkef;uvkd vufeufukdifwkdufyJGawGudk ajrSmufhay;zkd@ rvkdawmhygbl;? ukd,fwkd@vkdcsifwJh
vGwfvyfwJhukefoG,fr_awG (Free Trade)vGwfvyfwJhpDyGm;a&;pepf ( Free Market Economic) wkd@uwqifh
ukd,fwkd@&J@ yg0gaysmh (Soft Power) awGukdwnfaqmufr,f? ukd,fwkd@&@J xkwfukefawGudk olwkd@aps;uGufxJrmS
xkd;azguf a&mif;cs=u,kHyJr[kwfvm;?”
tar&duefxdyfykdif;acgif;aqmifwOD;jzpfol (Charles Lewis)&J@pum;wcsKd@ukd owd,vkdufrdygw,f?
“wu,fawmh urBmrSmt}uD;qkH;rufa':e,fpm;aomufqkdif[m w&kwfjynfyDuif;+rdK@rSm&Sd+yD; tifwmeufuGef,ufawG
uwqifh w&kyfausmif;om;awG trsm;qkH;zwf&wJhpum;vkH;uawmh (April-15)wD,ifrif&ifjyif
ausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;r_eJ@ avbmwD &kyx f katmufu “vGwfajrmufr_” qkdwJhpum;vkH;awGjzpfygw,f”wJh?
1978 yDuif;aEGOD;c&D;pOfrSm trSefw&m;ukd tcsuftvufawGu&Smr,fqkd&if “yOPrajrmufacwfrSDr_”qkdwm
“vGwfajrmufr_” (Freedom) yJ jzpfw,fvkd@ a0usif;&SifvufrSwfa&;xkd;xm;wJhykdpwm}uD;wckudk w&kwfacgif;aqmif
awG xdef@vSef@w=um;}uKHcJhbl;ygw,f? wD,efrif&ifjyifausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;r_ukd oHcsyfumwyfawG/ aoewfusnfqHawG
eJ@ tajzay;vkdufwJhtcg/ Armjynfu tm%modrf;AkdvfcsKyfawGukd &ifcsi;ftyf}udKqkdvkduf=uwJhtcg “atmf --
w&kwfuGefjrLepfqkdwJhyk*~dKvfawG csefau&SdwfvufatmufrSmwke;f u cHpm;cJh&wJhb0awGukd arhoGm;+yDxifyg&J@”vkd@a'go
xGufcJh=uygw,f?
ukd,fusKd;pD;yGm;om=unfhwJh,ae@acwfedKifiHwumedlifiHa&;a&pD;eJ@tdrfeD;csif;EkdifiHawG=um;rSm
usaemfwkd@trsKd;om;tusKd;pD;yGm;ta=umif;awG;&if; w&kwfjynfrsKd;qufawG&J@ EkdifiHjcm;a&;&mrl0g'awGukd
t=urf;zsif;aqG;aEG;=unhf=uwmyg?

ckefaeaomyifhulrsm;ESifh csLtifvkdif;
tykdif; (2)
(Hakka) qkdwJh w&kwfa0g[m&u t*Fvdyfvkd (Jumping Spiders) ckefaeaomyifhulrsm;vkd@ac:+yD; vGefcJh wJh
ESpfaygif; (1700) ausmfavmufuwwnf;u (Hanan) eJ@ (Shanxi) (&SefpD)a'ouwqifh
w&kwfjynfawmifykdif;a'o awGeJ@EkdifiH&yfjcm;a'oawGukd a&G@ajymif;aexkdifcJh=uygw,f? 'DvlrsKd;EG,fpkawG[m
EkdifiH&yfjcm;w&kwfvlrsKd;awGtay:rSm v$rf;rkd;EkdifolawGjzpf=u+yD; w&kwf&kd;&mt,ltq&SdolawGtqkdt& olwkd@[m
awmfvSefa&;eJ@ EkdifiHa&;acgif;aqmifawG&J@ jrpfjzm;cH&mt&if;tjrpfvkd@ ,lqcJh=uw,f? w&kwfjynfol@orRwEkdifiH}uD;ukd
pD;yGm;a&;jyKjyifajymif;vGJr_ pwifvkyfcJhwJh wdef@a&Smifzdef (Dang Xiaopang) eJ@ puFmylEkdifiHa&;acgif;aqmif (Lee
Kuan Yew) vDuGrf,k wkd@[m tJ'DrsKd;EG,fpk awGuqif; oufvm olawGyg? w&kwfjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf
(PLA) ukdpwifxlaxmifchJol csLaw; (Zhu De,1896-1976 ) wD,efrif&ifjyifausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;r_ukd pwifapzkd@
ta=umif;t&mjzpfcJhol [la&mifyef; (Hu Yaobang) eJ@ a[mif aumifaoewfypfum;awGrSmeHrnf}uD;wJh (Chow
Yun Fan) usKHa,mifzwf wkd@[mckefae aomyifhulrsm;jzpf=uovkd ausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;r_ukd owfjzwfedrfESif;+yD;
rdrdtm%mwnf+rJa&;twGuf &ufpufzkd@0efr av;ol jynfolvlxktrkef;wD;qkH;vlawGjzpf=uwJh
ArmjynfuAkv d fae0if;(1913- 2002)/ wD,efrif&ifjyifvlowform; vDyif; (Li Peng) (0ef}uD;csKyf/
trsKd;om;vGwfawmf uGef*&ufOuUX)/ Akdvfoef;a&$ppftpkd;&eJ@ yvJeHyoifhol r=umao;cifu tm%modrf;cHvkduf&wJh
xkdif;0ef}uD;csKyfoef@&Sif&SDem0gx&m (Thasin Shinawatra) wkd@[mvnf; tJ'DrsKd;EG,fpkawGu qif;oufvmolawGyg?
w&kwfjynfawmfvSefa&;umvtwGif; usqkH;oGm;whJ &Jabmf&JbufawG&J@ uav;awGukd awmfvSefa&;&J@
tmZm enfrsm;vkd@ac:cJh=uygw,f? tJ'Duav;awGxJu wcsdefrSmw&kwfjynf&J@ 0ef}uD;csKyfjzpfvmrJh vDyif;ukd
uav;r&SdwJh csLtifvkdif;wkd@vifr,m;u arG;pm;cJh=uwmyg? 'gayrJ@ wD,efrif&ifjyifta&;tcif;rSm
ausmif;olausmif;om; (2000) ausmfeJ@ jynfolvlxk (5000) ausmfukdowfjzwfzkd@ n$ef=um;ay;cJhol vDyif;
ukdolarG;pm;cJhwmygvm;vkd@ csLtifvkdif;odcJh &if olraocifcHpm;oGm;cJh&wJh uifqma&m*gxuf cHpm;&rSmtrSefygyJh?
bma=umifhvJqkdawmh w&kwfjynfawmfvSefa&; orkdif;ukdjyef=unfh&if csLtifvkdif;[m oHwrefa&;&mrSm uGsrf;usifovkd
&Jabmf&JbufawGtay:rSmvnf; El;nHhnifom pGmqufqHcJholjzpfvkd@yg? 'ga=umifhvnf;
,Ofaus;r_awmfvSefa&;umvrSm csLtifvkdif;eJ@ wdef@a&Smifzdefwkd@[m av;OD; *kd%f; (Gung of four)
&J@t"duypfrSwfjzpfcJhayrJh csLtifvkdif;&J@ =oZmwnf&Sdr_/ &kd;om;wnf=unfr_wkd@a=umifh av;OD;*kd%f;[m
csLtifvkdif;ukdxdvkd@r&cJhygbl;? “armfpDwkef;b0rSm }uD;us,fjrifhjrwfwJh awmfvSefa&;orkdif;&SdcJhovkd
tifrwefrSm;,Gif;wJh pD;yGm;a&;ykHaz:r_eJ@ twkduftcHawGukd &uf&ufpufpufESdyfuGyfcJhwJhorkdif;vnf; jynfhESufaeygw,f?
'guawmh (Great Leap Forward) a&S@okd@ckefysHausmfv$m;r_}uD;eJ@ (Culture Revolution) ,Ofaus;r_
awmfvSeaf &;( 1966-76) umvtwGi;f uyg? “armfpDwkef;u pufr_wkd;wufr_eJ@ v,f,mpkdufysKd;a&;wkd;wufr_wkd@[m
rsOf;+yKdifwck vkdwnf&Sdvm+yD; w&kyfjynfukdacwfrSDwkd;wufwJh pufr_EkdifiHukdckefausmfzkd@twGuf “a&S@okd@cek fysHausmv f $m;r_”
a=uG;a=umf oHukdpwifcJhwmyg? 'Dt,ltq[m qENapmvGef;wJh tdrrf uftrSm;wckjzpfwma=umifh vLavsmufcsD/
wdk@uvufrcHovdk/csLtifvkdif;wkd@uvnf;aqG;aEG;yGJawGwdkif;rSm qef@usifbufujiif;av@&Sdygw,f?”
wcgwHk;uuGefjrLepfygwDudkaxmufcHcJ@jyD;/ausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;r_@a}umif@jynfyudkxGufajy;vmum/
edKifiHwumpD;yGm;a&;bmom&yfav@vmaeolw&kwfausmif;om;wa,mufuol@&J@pmapmifwckrSma&;cJ@bl;ygw,f?
csLtifvkdif;wkd@,lqovkd armfpDwkef;&J@pDyGm;a&;pDrHudef;[m tcuftcJeJ@}uHKawG@&+yD; ratmifjrifwJ@aemuf ol&J@
EkdifiHa&;+ydKifzufjzpfwJh vla&SmufcsD (Lia Shoaqi) eJ@ wdef@a&Smifzdef wkd@&J@=oZmtm%me@J,SOf&if arS;rSdef vmwJhtcg
,Ofaus;r_awmfvSefa&; (1966-76) ukdpwifcJhwmyg? jyefvnfjyifqifa&;orm;vkd@ pGwfpGJcH&wJh vla&Smuf csDuawmh
(1969) axmifxJrSm aoqkH;oGm;cJhygw,f?
,^faus;r_@awmfvSefa&;rwdkifyifumvta}umif;udk/pmwef;av;wapmiftjzpfausmif;rSmwifzdk@}udK;pm;cJ@wHk;u/
ArmjynfwHk;uzwfcJ@&wJ@pmtkyfawGeJ@tcsuftvufuGJaewJ@pmwrf;wcsdK@udk zwfcJ@&ygw,f? w&kwfynm&SifawG-
pma&;q&mawGa&;wJ@pmtkyfawGyg?enf;enfav;r#a0aqG;aEG;}unf@csifygw,f? “armf “u ‘yef;wdkif;yGif@ygap
ynm&Sdwdkif; jiif;ckef}uygap” vdk@a}uG;a}umfoH w&yfudk az:aqmifcJ@ayrJ@ wu,fvufawG@udk&ifqdkif&wmu
‘ygwDacgif;aqmifawG[m ,leDazmif;0wfxm;wJ@ &Jt&m&SdawGxuf bmrSrombl;” qdkwJ@a0zefr_@tygt0if
/uGefjrLepf0g &J@ tajccHoDtdk&Dudk ygwDau'gwcsdK@u
a0zefppfa}umvmcJ@ygw,f? 1956edk0ifbmvrSmawm@ ‘armf”[mpmayvGwfvyfr@Skudktxdrf;todrf;rJ@
v$wfay;xm;vdk@tusdK;quf tjzpfay:aygufvmwJ@ [efa*&D edkifiHuuGefjrLepftpdk;&
qef@usifa&;vlxkvSkyf&Sm;r_@*,ufudkpdk;&drfjyD;/ 1957 arv(8)&ufrSm “usaemfwdk@[m &eH@oif;wJ@yef;yGif@r_@eJ@
tqdyfjzpfedkifwJ@ rsdK;ap@}um;u t"dy`g,feSpcf w k dk@udk cGJjcm;od&ygr,f tJ 'D t&mawG[m uGejf rLepfygwD&J@
acgif;aqmifrSk@udk t EW &m,fjzpfedkifw,fvdk@” a}ujimvdkufjyD; ajcmufywft}umrSmawm@ ‘yef;aygif;w&myGif@ygap”
aqG;aEG;yGJawGudkydwfypfvdkufum/ twdkuftcH a0zefolwcsdK@ ao '%fay;cH&/ wcsdK@axmifeSpf&SnfawGcscH&/ wcsdK@
vlxkqDuynmoif,l&ef qdkwJ@ trdef@a}umif@ tvkyfpuf&HkawG /v,f,mpdkufcif;awGqD oGm;cJ@&ygw,f? 1957 rSmyJ
a&S@odk@ckefysHausmfv$m;a&; Great Leap Forword udkpwifcJ@um rdom;pk0ifawGudk ppfwyfvdktiftm;oHk;jyD;
armif;eSifcJ@ygw,f?tvkyfvkyfwJ@tcsdef[m &Snfv#m;jyD;/ tem;,l&wJ@tcsdefu wdkawmif;vGef;vSovdk
vlwdkif;[mpkaygif;xkwfvkyfrSk@tiftm;tpkta0;xJudk armif;eSifcH&wma}umif@ om;wuGJr,m;wuGJ jzpfjyD;
'kuQa&mufcJ@}u&ygw,f? Steel oHr%dxkwfvkyfrSk@vkyfief;[m pD;yGm;a&;wdk;wuf r_@&J@ wdkif;wm r_@
wckjzpfw,fqdkwJ@ ‘armf” &J@,lqcsufudk wcsdK@ acgif;aqmifawGu aus;vufa' orSm oHr%dxkwfvkyfr_@
trsm;}uD;rvdktyfbl;vdk@ aZmwuwufcJ@ }uygw,f?
‘a&S@odk@ckefysHausmfv$m;a&;” pufr_@edkifiHxlaxmifr_@ pDrHudef;[m usqHk;cJ@ovdk wjcm;wzufrSm
&moDOwkysufuyfa}umif@ v,form;awG&J@ tpma&qmiwfjywfrSk@ }uHKawG@cJ@&jyD; ynm&SifawG&J@ tqdkt& t J@'D
pDrHudef;umvrSm oef;(30)ausmfaoqHk;cJ@&w,fvdk@ azmfjy}uygw,f? 1960 rSmawm@ edkifiHawmft}uD;tuJ
&mxl;uaetem;,lzdk@ zdtm;ay;cHcJ@&jyD; vlavsmufcsD Liu Shao Chi udktpm;xdk;cJ@ygw,f? 'gayrJ@
“armf”[m tm%mudk pGef@v$wfzdk@ rqHk;jzwfcJ@ygbl;? 1964 rSm armfpDwkef;&J@ vufa&G;piftawG;tac:
aqmif;yg;rsm;teDa&mif pmtkyfav;udkxkwfa0cJ@jyD;/ 1966rSm w&kwfwyfeD
vli,fawG[m/vrf;rawGay:rSmxGufay:vmum tJ'DpmtkyfeDav;udkarG@,rf;jyD; ,Ofaus;r_@awmfvSefa&;udk
pwifygawm@w,f?“armf” &J@wwd,ajrmufrdef;rjzpfwJ@ Chian Chi’ng uOD;aqmifjyD;
ynmwwfpma&;q&mawG /tekynmonfawG ausmif;q&mawG[m vlwef;pm;&efoljzpfw,f
/awmfvSefwJ@tawG;tac: rJ@olawGjzpfw,f qdkwJ@a}uG;a}umfoHeJ@ AsL&dku&ufwpf awGudk owfjzwfa&;
vkyfief;pwifygawm@w,f?
(XmecsKyfudktajrmufeJ@xk}u/vpfb&,f0g'udkqef@usif}u/awmifrsm;.awmif/yifv,frsm;.ajrmufbufqDodk@--
pwJ@Armjynfupmtkyfrsm;udkrSwfrd}uygvdrf@r,f)
1969xd “armf” [m,Ofaus;rSk@awmfvSefa&; 'Da&udk xdrf;xm;edkifcJ@jyD; /wdkif;jynfacgif;aqmiftjzpf
jyefvnfae&m,lcJ@ygw,f? wyfeDawmf[m uGefjrLepfygwD&J@ acgif;aqmifr_@ &mxl;w0ufausmfausmfudk ae&m,lcJ@jyD;/
udk;}udrfajrmuf uGef*,ufuae “armf” &J@t&dkuft&mudkcHpm;rJ@oltjzpf vif;ajymif ( Lin Piao
)udkcef@tyfvsmxm;cJ@ygw,f? 'gayrJ@ vif;ajymif[m “armf” udkvkyf}uHowfjzwfzdk@ }uHpnfr_@rSm yg0ifcJ@w,fqdkwJ@
pHkprf;awG@&SdrSk@eJ@ twl ol@&J@*k%foduQm usqif;um 1971 rSmtifrwefxl;qef;wJ@ av,mOfysufusrSk@
eJ@aoqHk;cJ@ygw,f?

'gayrJh (1973) w&kyfjynfuGefjrLepfygwD&J@ q,f}udrfajrmuf uGef*&ufrSm wdef@a&Smifzdefukd ae&mjyefay;zdk@


csLtifvkdif;u w&m;0ifawmif;qkdcJhygw,f? (armf&J@b0rSm ol@awmfvSef a&;twGuf t,kH=unf&qkH;eJ@
tav;pm;qkH;olukdjyygqkd&if csLtifvkdif;ukd jy&ygvdrfhr,f?) csLtifvkdif;[m olvkdyJhjyifopfrSm uGefjrLepf0g'ukd
oif,lcJhwJh/ tm;vyfwJh&ufawGrSmvnf; w&kwfpm;aomufqkdifawGpD pm;yGJxkd;vkyf/ tcsuftjyKwfvkyf +yD;
EkdifiHwuma&mufw&kwfawGeJ@ atmufajcb0awGukd oif,laecJhol wdef@a&Smifzdeftay:rSm ,kH=unfr_wck&SdcJh w,f?
csLtifvkdif;&J@tdrfrufukd taumiftxnfaz:zkd@ vlwa,mufuvnf; wdef@a&Smifzdefjzpfaew,f vdk@
ygwDacgif;aqmifwcsdK@udk wdkifyifcJ@bl;ygw,f? 'ga=umifhvnf; oluifqma&m*gjzpfaepOfwav#mufvkH; wdef@a&Smifzdefukd
jyefac:zkd@ “armf”ukdem;cscJhwmr[kwfvm;? (tJ'D wkef;u wdef@a&Smifzdefu &mxl;tm;vkH;jzKwfcscH&+yD;
vlxkqDuynmjyefvnfoif,lzkd@vkdw,fqkd+yD; ta0;wae&mu tif*sif puf&kHrSm tvkyfoGm;vkyfae&ygw,f?)
1975 pwkwÎt}udrfajrmuf jynfo@lvGwfawmfeJ@ jynfol@ukd,fpm;vS,fawGtm;vkH;wufa&mufwJh wwd,
t}udrfajrmufnDvmcHrSm csLtifvkdif;u acwfrSDwkd;wufjcif; (4)&yf (Four Mordenizations) ukdwifoGif;cJhyg w,f?
v,f,mpkdufysKd;a&;/ pufr_vkyfief;/ ody`Henf;ynmeJ@ trsKd;om;umuG,f a&;Xmewkd@ukd [efcsufnDnD wkd;wuf
atmifvkyfzkd@yg? (1974) rSm csLtifvkdif;&J@ em;csr_a=umifh wdef@a&Smifzdef[m 'k0ef}uD;csKyftjzpf EkdifiHa&;avmuxJukdjyef
0ifvmcJhayrJh ,Of;aus;r_awmfvSefa&;&@J*&uf[m r+yD;ao;ygbl;? av;OD;*kd%f;awGu wdef@a&Smifzdef[m olwkd@&J@t}uD;
rm;qkH;tEW&m,f/ olwkd@&J@atmifjrifr_awGudk pdefac:aewJht&mwck/ [ef@wm;aESmuf,SufaewJh owW0gwcktjzpfowd
xm;apmihf=unfhae=uw,f? 'gayrJh 1976 Zefe0g&DrSm csLtifvkdif;uGefvGef oGm;+yD; a&S@qufaemufqufrSmyJh armfpDwkef;/
csLaw;wkd@uGefvGefoGm;cJh=uw,f? 'g[mw&kyfjynfol@orRwEkdifiH&J@ t}uD;rm;qkH;tvSnfhtajymif;ukd a&muf&SdoGm;wJh
uH=urRmwckyg? av;OD;*dk%f;awGvnf; “armf” aoqkH;jyD;wJ@aemuf zrf;qD;ypf'%fay;cHvdkuf&jyD;/
rsdL;qufopfwck&J@tajymif;tvJ[mpwifygawm@w,f?

tykdif; (3)

wdef@a&SmifzdefoDtkd&D (okd@) 'kwd,rsKd;quf


“a=umifjzLwmrJwmrvkd/ =uGufckwfwwfzkd@yJvkdw,f”
“avaumif;avoef@&zkd@ wcg;awGzGifhvkdufwmyJhAsm/ ,ifaumifawGysHoef;vmwmvnf; usaemfwkd@ wcgw
av}uHK&rSmaygh”
csLtifvkdif;&J@ acwfrSDjcif;av;&yfykd taumiftxnfaz:zkd@twGuf wdef@a&Smifzdef[m txufygpum;wcsKd@ukdajymcJh+yD;
uGefjrLepfygwDtwGif;rSm axmufcHr_&vmatmif wjznf;jznf;}udK;pm;cJhygw,f? ol[m ,Ofaus;r_awmfvSefa&; tawG;
tac:ukd todtrSwfjyKzkd@ vkH;0OyuQmjyKcJh+yD; (1977-78) rSm yDuif;aEGOD; (Beijing Spring) tpDtpOfw&yfukd
pwifcJh ygw,f? tJ'Da=uG;a=umfoHawG&J@atmufu armfvufxuf ,Ofaus;r_awmfvSefa&;umv epfemcHpm;cJhor#ukd
jynfol vlxkukd w&m;0ifajym=um;ckdif;cJh/ a0zefckdif;cJhygw,f?
tJ'DumvtwGif;rSm wde@f a&Smifzdef[m vlwef;pm;ukdtajccH t"dy`g,fzGifhwJh pepfwckukd zsufodrf;ypfzkd@ t&Sdef
jrSifhwifvkdufum/ t&if;&SifawGudk uGefjrLepfygwDrSm 0ifa&mufcGifhukd cGifhjyKcJh+yD; t&ifwkef;u ajrykdif&Sifvlwef;pm;awGeJ@
qufqHaygif;oif;cJhygw,f? ('Dae&mrSm yDuif;aEGOD;a=uG;a=umfoHukd 0ifa&muf+yD; acwfrSDjcif;av;&yfukd xyfqifhwkd;ay;
vkdufwJhy^PrajrmufacwfrDSr_@ qkdwJhykdpwm}uD;wckudkrdwfqufay;csifygw,f?) 'Dv_yf&Sm;r_ukd 1978 'DZifbm (5) rSm
a0usif;&Sefif ( Wai Jingsheng) vufrSwfa&;xkd;cJh+yD;/ “tcsuftvufuwqifh trSefw&m;&SmazGa&;” qkdwJh
yDuif;aEGOD;a=uG;a=umfoH ukdtokH;csum vGwfvyfr_ (Freedom) uom acwfrSDr_w&yfjzpfw,fqkdwJh (Democracy
Wall Movement) 'Drkd ua&pDa&;v_yf&Sm;r_ukd OD;aqmifcJhygw,f? wdef@a&Smifzdefu 'kwd,t}udrfajrmuf
yDuif;aEGOD;tpDtpOfrSm w&kyfjynf 'Drkdua&pDygwD ukd xlaxmifcGifhay;cJhayrJh 1979 rSm'Dv_yf&Sm;r_ukd ydwfyifcJhygw,f?
wu,fawmh yDuif;aEGOD;qkdwm (1968) csufukdpvkdbufuD,m;&J@ (Parague Spring) yg&ma*G;aEGOD;
a=uG;a=umfoHukd twk,lcJhwmyg?
a0usif;&Sefifacgif;aqmif+yD; aemufjynfajy;b0ukd a&mufoGm;/ avbmwD&kyfxkudkukdif+yD; qENjy=uwJh wD,ef
rif,if jyifausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;r_eJ@ (Democracy Wall) v_yf&Sm;r_wkd@&J@ qufEG,fr_awGukd usaemfwkd@oD;jcm;aqG;aEG;
ygr,f?) wjznf;jznf;tm%m&vmwJh wdef@a&Smifzdef[m (1980) armf&J@t&kduft&mjzpfwJh (Hua Guotang)
ukdjzKwfcs+yD;/ ausmufusD;,ef; (Zhao Ziyang) 0ef}uD;csKyftjzpftpm;xkd;cJhum 1981 rSm [la&mifyef; (Hu Yao
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aps;uGuftiftm;awGjzpfwJh 0,fvkdtm;/ a&mif;vkdtm;awG[m t&if;&SifpepfeJ@ qkd&S,fvpfpepft=um; t"dujcm;em;
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wmvnf; qkd&S,fvpfpepfatmufrSmvnf; jzpfEkdifvkd@yg? wu,fawmh pDru H de;f eJ@aps;uGuftm; (Market Forces)
ESpcf pk vk;H [m pD;yGm;a&;ouf0ifvy_ &f mS ;r_udk xde;f csKyfEidk v
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ukd txl;pD;yGm;a&;a'o (Special Economic Zone) uwqifh zGH@+zdK;wkd;wufatmif jyKvkyfcJhw,f? EkdifiHjcm;wifykd@rJh
xkwfukefawGukd pepfwuspdwful;pDpOfcJh+yD; EkdifiHjcm;&if;ESD;jrSKyfESHr_ukdqGJaqmifum aps;E_ef;ESpfrsKd;xm;wJhpepfrsKd; ykHpHcschJ
w,f? wu,fawmh w&kyf&Jhajymif;vGJr_[m (Bottom-Up ) vkd@ac:wJh atmufutxufokd@ajymif;vGJjcif;qkdwJh t,l
tqjzpf+yD; txl;a'opD;yGm;a&;ZkHawGudkawmh tdENd,/ tD&ef/ a*smf'ef/ ykdvefESifh &k&Sm; wkd@pDuavhvmcJhwmyg? 'gayrJh
qkdAD,ufjynfaxmifpkudk ajymif;vGJzkd@acgif;aqmifcJhol a*:Amacsmhuawmh txufuaeatmufajymif;vGJr_ (Top-
Down) t,ltqjzpfwJh pD;yGm;a&;awmif;qkdr_&J@ rmc&kdtDaumaemrpf (Macro-Economics) uta&;}uD;rJh
ykHo¿mefawGukd xdef;xm;EkdifcJh+yD; yk*~vduykdifqkdifr_awGukd t&rf;vGwfay;cJhw,f? wzufrSmawmh aps;E_ef;ukd tpkd;&u
xdef;xm;cJhygw,f? (Glastnost) yGif;vif;r_ukdxyfqifhwkd;jrSifhvkdufwJhtcg qkdAD,ufjynfaxmifpk[m 0g;tpnf;ajyo
vkdjzpf+yD; pD;yGm;a&;usyfwnf;vmr_ukd &ifqkdif&ygawmhw,f? qkdAD,uf&J@ ratmifjrifwJ@ pD;yGm;a&;jyKjyifa&;acgif;aqmif
a*:Amacsmhukd w&kyfuGefjrLepfacgif;aqmifawGu qkd&S,fvpfpepfukd opPmazgufolvkd@ pGyfpGJwkdufckduf=uygawmhw,f?
'gayrJh w&kyfacgif;aqmifawG&J@ pD;yGm;a&;jyKjyifajymif;vGJa&;awGua&m vlawGtm;vkH;tay:rSm aumif;rGefpGm
oufa&mufcHpm;ykdifcGifh&Sdyg&J@vm;? “wcsK@d a'oawG[m wjcm;jynfe,fawGxufp;D yGm;a&; ykd+yD;csrf;omEkdifw,f/
apm+yD;jzpfEkdif w,f” vkd@okH;oyfcJh=uayrJh tpkd;&puf&kHawGydwfvkduf&wJhtwGuf vlaygif;oef; (20)
ausmftvkyv f ufrJhjzpfcJh&+yD; vl wef;pm;uGm[r_}uD;vmwm/ tpkd;&eJ@ywfoufwJhrdom;pku
tcGifhxl;cHvlwef;pmw&yfjzpfvmwmawG[m qkd&S,fvpf pepfukd opPm&Sdr_vkd@ajymEkdifyghrvm;? 'Djzpf&yfawGukd
orRwusefprD if; (Jiang Zemin)vufxufrSm ykd+yD;txift&Sm; awG@jrifEkdifygw,f?
wdef@a&Smifzdef&J@ armfpDwkef;t,ltqukd aemufxyfqef@usifr_wckuawmh EkdifiHjcm;ukefoG,fr_ukd t&SdefjrSifh
vkdufjcif;ygyJh? (armfuawmh ukd,fhtm;ukd,fukd;+yD; pufr_EkdifiHudkxlaxmifzkd@ a=uG;a=umfcJhayrJh wdef@a&Smifzdefuawmh
*syefeJ@ taemufEkdifiHawGu pufypPnf;,EW&m;awGudk0,f,l+yD; csLtifvkdif;&J@ acwfrSDjcif; (4)&yf ukd taumiftxnf
az:cJhwmyg)? 'gayrJh 1989 rSmawmh ygwD&J@twGif;a&;rSL;jzpfcJhwJh [la&mifyef;(Hu Yaobang) aoqkH;cJhygw,f?
[la&mifyef;[m vGwfvyfr#wwJh pdwfxm;&Sdoltjzpf jynfoal wGu,kH=unf=u+yD; wdef@a&Smifzdefu ol@ukd rw&m;o
jzifh&mxl;uz,f&Sm;cJhw,fvkd@ jrifcJh=uw,f? txl;ojzifh ynmwwfausmif;om;awGu wdef@a&Smifzdef&J@ vky&f yfukd
r}udKuf=uygbl;?
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cHacgif;aqmifawGjzpfwJh vDyif;wkd@[m ausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;r_ukd azgufjyefwJhtawG;tac:awG/ e,fcsJ@orm;u
ajrSmufhay; cJhoa,mifpGyfpGJcJh=u+yD; (May-20)rSm ta&;ay:ppftkyfcsKyfa&;xkwfjyefum ausmufusD,ef; (Zhao
Ziyang) ukd &mxl;uxkwfy,fcJhygw,f? w&kyfjynf&J@ vrf;rawGay:rSm jynfol@vGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmfawG&J@ 27
ESifh 38 wyf&if; uppfom;awG/ wifhum;awGjynfhESufvm+yD; r=umcifrSm ausmif;om; (2600)ausmf/ jynfolvlxk
(5000)ausmfaoqkH; aprJh wD,efrif&ifjyifvlowfyGJ}uD;ukd pwifygawmhw,f? 'Dv_yf&Sm;r_ukd ESdyfuGyfrJhtjyKtrlawG[m
w&kyfEkdifiHrSm EkdifiHa&; vGwfvyfcGifhr&Sdbl;qkdwmukd jyovkduf+yD; Ekdifihwuma&m/ w&kyfuGefjrLepfygwD0ifawGu
wdef@a&SmifzdefeJ@ vDyif;ukd tjypfwifcJh=uygw,f?
1989 rSm ppfaumfr&SifOuUXu tem;,l+yD; EkdifiHa&;ZmwfckHay:uqif;cJhayrJh wdef@a&Smifzdef[m uvef@um
aemufuG,fu }udK;ukdifxm;wJh jrifhjrwfaomacgif;aqmiftjzpf w&kyfuGefjrLepfygwDu ,lqcJhygw,f? w&kyfjynf&J@
pwkwÎrsKd;qufjzpfvmrJh 'Duae@w&kyforRw [l*sif;awmif (Hu Jintau) [m wdef@a&mifzdefu a&G;cs,fay;cJholyg? EkdifiH
a&;pifjrifhay:uqif;cJhayrJh 1992 rSmol[mawmifykdif;c&D;vkd@ac:wJh &Sef[kdif;tygt0if Senzhen eJ@ Zhuhai
a'oawGodk@ c&D;xGufcJh+yD; “w&kyjf ynfuvuf0t J ,ltq&SdolawG[m vuf,mt&if;&SifawGxuf ykda=umufzkd@
aumif;+yD; wkdif;jynftwGuf tEW&m,frsm;w,f”vkd@ owday;cJhw,f? ol@&J@awmifykdif;c&D;pOfukd yD;uif;eJ@ trsKd;om;t
oHvGifhXmeawGu vpfv#KjyKxm;cJhayrJh ol[m&Sef[kdif;&J@ Jiefang Ribao owif;pmrSm Huang Fuping qkdwJh
uavmifeHrnfeJ@ aqmif;yg;awGukdqufwkdufa&;cJhygw,f?

tykdif; (4)

wwd,rsKd;quf (okd@) usefpDrif;


1997 azaz:0g&Dv 17/ touf (92)ESpfrSm wdef@a&SmifzdefuGefvGefcJh+yD; usefpDrif;tm%m&vmayrJh
w&kyfjynf&J@ vrf;pOfwckvkH;uawmh wdef@a&SmifzdefcsrSwfcJhwJh vrf;pOfukdyJh qufav#mufcJhwmyg? wdef@ eJ@ [la&mifyef;wkd@
[m w&kyfjynfolorRwEkdifiH&J@ 'kwd,rsKd;qufjzpf+yD;/ usefpDrif; /vDyif;eJ@ Qiao Shi wkd@ukd wwd,rsKd;qufvkd@ac:yg
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yef;awGukd tvSqifay;wmuvGJ+yD; bmrSokH;r&wJht&mvkd@ t"dy`g,fa&mufwmyg? 'gayrJ@/
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qdk&S,fvpfaps;uGufpD;yGm;pHepfqdkwJ@a0g[m&wck ay:aygufvmc@Jygw,f?

1998 wkH; u udk qdk Adk ( Kosovo) rSm jz pf cJh wJh t jz pf t ys uf w ck yg ?


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'gayrJ@usefpDrif;vufxufrSm/xl;jcm;wJ@yk*~dKvfwa,muf&dSygw,f? olu Zhu Rongyi qdkolyg? Huangpu
jrpfeJ@ta&S@w&kyfyifv,fta&S@bufqDu Pudong
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oluvnf;acolawm@r[kwf/w&kyfjynf&J@ emrnf}uD;wuUodkvfwckjzpfwJ@ Tsinghu University
ausmif;qif;wa,mufyg? 1970 -75 ,^faus;r_@umvwHk;u armfwdk@tkyfpku ol@udk vuFsm0g'D vdk@pGyfpGJum
vlxkqDujyefvnfynmoif,l&efqdkjyD;a0;vHwJ@a'oawGqDrSmydk@xm;cJ@ygw,f? 'Duae@ w&kyfjynf &@J
acgif;aqmifw^D;jzpfol Wen Jiabao uol@t&dkuft&mudk qufcHolyg?

tydkif;(5)

[lusifawmif; Hu Jintao (odk@) wdbufvlrsdK;okwo


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“awmifwef;rsm;eSi@f aus;vufaoqDodk@csDwufae}uaomvli,frsm;”
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Sources & futher reading

China After Deng Xiaping : The Power Struggle in Beijing Since Tiananmen Square affairs

Era of Jiang Zemin by Willy Wo-lap Lam

China Under Hu Jintao : Opportunities, Dangers and Dilemmas by Tar-Jen Cheng &
Jacques and Dehorah Brown

Chinese Polotics in Hu Jintao era : New leaders and new challenges.

Hu Jintao : Facing China by Andy Zhang

Tibetlink.com

Articles from Harvard Economics review and google.com