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The Calligrapher's Bible

The Calligrapher's Bible


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Published by Aleksandra
The art of fancy lettering.
The art of fancy lettering.

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Categories:Topics, Art & Design
Published by: Aleksandra on May 27, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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De c'-m.rrorpher' bi :-,lle : 100 (:,0 74$.

6 ffar

I mlmll~ 111111111111111 ~I

Hmis~ Dav td.

AflamQS-a PUblic Libt3r)~ 3 (9'-462:-2183

n amo a li1b - .e

60 E,. Fit StT:iee;t nm sa I 5,2_201

Co f11'tri b u'ti ng a uth D rs:

- Mall} IN (Prepa'fl,tion)'

~----.......~.~== ,JIIIDlIII, M:e,h!lipn (Illumln:a_fion)


lm NO

I ,

~ , f

at n 0


Introduction 6

Pre pal ration 1.01

Tools and materials 12

Prepar~ng to write 201

Layout baslcs 2~6,


The hands selector 34

R'Olm,Gltn 42

Post Roman 'Insular G,otlhh:

Rerraissance Baroque Modern

518 7',8



1:64 17,2:

1IIIIu m inalt;ioln

and IOro,l!mentation Decorating w'itli gold


Glossary index Credits

2512 254 2516


Fim led mell'l '~Gr UU! JiJ nl~d State:Sj Ca n ad.a, :amI the PhUillPflne· R',pJUbHc. pucllishoo ~h 20,00' b~' B:al~r,orr's IEdlJe8Jtiona"1 9:eriesol ~nc:.

Copyright @ 2D09: by QJ;lafrWl ~ IlC.

All] ri gn,~ j'i$AiH·V~d. No PI It of tf1 i5 bOO kmo'y. bee R!:~l()d~'OeC1 in $ n~ W9rm" by ICIhotnst,at, mi,tnJ~i'lm, :er~gnallph,Y, er any 'ether mN'n~ or iMicarpora'tld into any ]nfomnaiHon rostrha:vaJ system~ erectfQ:nit:

Of m1echanica1l. wifhtlutt~e wrift • ., pemrurrsskm of t~f! ~py,r~gtJi ",w',rr~f<.

AU inqu~rjes:Stlh~u~d be oaddressied 'tg'. 8a,non~s EdllJcaUonall::S'!lI"ili!5m In11:"

:2 51) W~ reless Sou Ile\la.rd :HauppaUgfJt; NY 111',98 hfiP.~lIwww ..• :balJ:..m:Rsed UC:~Cilm

ISBN-l!: ,gJa-C-'7'tti41~Ea 5 .. 1 ISeN'-l(l~ IO-]11i41--'5615-2

Uhr-ary o.f qo:n~ Cltah'JI"Ca!rd Numbe( ,2J}O~,10·1264


(':(mDei\too~ 'd,esi:En~" ttrfJd (lro0d1Juc~d by Q,lIJIiI,n10 iPubl,j;sh ilne ,pic

The O:ld Ife,w,e'rJ

'i' 1;~~u:1llden :S'reet

london IN? :gBM

P'mject ~tntor Vlck, 'Weber

rArt ~ti~>0r MA!u'1~a Jeilli I11IS

'flCI'PY IEd!ftor '.ra KIPP! n~Jr.trl~;>,i!! P~',iini~ W'-·-'-"[!Ju· ... Ir:I!nl 1··l1.<il''''be~i!ij1 1I!I""~.f!iI'I""'I'" -._~ - - OiD_1 [UII[·ft -~~-- - - II

,A5slstallll'f Art [) i~ector IPenny' CQ~Ii:Jrll" Pl1o:ta~f.aphe.1P.!i P:a,l.lI~ FU,lIIlrie~ler", IlCu'llhl low~inl Proaf fe.a.d~r Amnlall~!l:1me.

~lnd'0~mr Paml·11al ·ElIfli,s

AIr1I[)\~r,ea,o:r IM'li,al tillilCh

Fub~eis:her Pill!lrS Ipturn::I.

Ma n~faetu red illY U o~ve'$a II Gira phlies-,Si n i:apore P'r.i~too l~ Mld,a:5 Pri nti:ng, ~ I1tefflati,onaI: Um,jrted. Chi ria

T'he. u npirec-e:d,ented gfi()iwth of ilrlfa r m ation technolo:8Y' 'im t!h'e late 'Mlenitieth alnd esrty\ 'twenty-first ce~ntur~'es, ar,e 'tll,e 1e.u11ml~netti:on ,of a ~rotess tt1at bega n IQV;r a eentu ry ,earUer w~tl1 the inv'elntion of '~hetypew':rliter. There ls ever less nrel!d~Q wr~te in ,8) d:eaf and Ile,l~bll€l hand, and :keybolrd skUlls IfWave become mlo're 'I mpodanrt tht!Jln h2u,diwr~t~n:g"

:It is, ,perhalps beeause of th~s relflaince ,an tlechnollQiY .and the T",ecI1an~stit padect~on5' it ICnJ~ite:5 th~t, pa,radcj)dcally~ many peopl:'! no,w ,apprec[a,te ,and praetlce the t,aetU,e. aim(s) of: cali I ~i'ra,plh~l.

Milodern-d8y canigr,2)lphers mav's.! a rU:,'h irltleh,eriisnce m Lath'll ,scripts deve1o~petl over 2'1,10010 yearrs. M!olstof thesl~ ~,re' re,adHy inteUig~b~el and Ie!ven scdpts tha'[ have fallen out [lif use halve; 'many ch,arratterist~cs

that esn be i nco,npora'ted and )adalP,ted for modern call1~gr,a!~hy.

Th:eal~phabet we use tOldafy W,8S aQuired by th,e 'R'CmaI1S from' the E.tn.Jscall!ls~ The Romans added the 1(jr;e'ekl,lstters Y and. Z'., brtng,~ns the b,tall eoent to ,213. nJ /' Hut and uwu wen3 mledievaJ 6Ioi:Htilons, to ,,8ceommod,ate fllrther phonetic values"

ThE! greatest ea lligra phk debt that we Q,we to the Rt),mans is unqul!3sfienaibJ,y that lof their capita! letters, above aU the iinsltribed eap'ibill's, that appear in the '~alt~

In strip~i:rm ~om I.e: base- o,f lhe Tt~jU' COl u run ~n ROlit. irhese la,Hims. de.ser~OOd m a stroke-IJJ'-S1~Dke se:Q~we UWl pa:ps. 42 .. 43, are re~tde~ ~,y fJilany ;;JJu1iormbes as a.G'~1 Pie

n~ asu ex.aF~ples ofHle· RDma~ le~r.

nrst century 'B.C. ~nserip.tion's had b.een used In m'811y dvHizatIons beflore~ burt ttle ,eid:relme'subtlety", be'i'Ultyl' and !=,Iegam:e o'f ,the ctuiracter of: these Roman lette:rfor,Ms. the cgplt:aUs monU',m'entaJis~ IW~,:St d iffef1ent :D.tlfect~y or ~n,cHr'eeUy.~ these llett-ers prov1c1ed the mode t(lr·,a~lmost all Qfo'ur text 'typeface caprita,bJ~ as we,ll as, m',an·y' of ou r dru'sp,lfJ-yand ,aa:lligraph~c ca,pjja,ls"

ln c:a:lIUgrarphh: '~erm9 th~re fB,Olme'Dlther Ro,man s!~:ript of use to US~ The HUstle ,ca'p~ta I. Th is give'S IJ5 a :different diuctus blJt~ unm~e the calJitalis monumentaUs, ~:Iso 'served as a manuscript hand.

As. the Wefi,ernl Ffo'man ErmlpHre f,ell into .dilef.'d:~ne and beJ~alme fragme'rnted ~ m:ost laf ~the writ~ng hands, became Increas~ngly r:egion,a,il~zed~, . The'. Uru:lial., hcwlev,Bfl, retail1lsd much of its i.ntlegritY, dlJlr~ng this Late Hamlin period. This script can be vIewed as ,a, Lat~ln il1terpmtatjon of the Grlsek Unc·ral. IM',O$t of the Christ~arr1l texts were wri'ttlen in Gn3J~k: and as such we:r,a regilrded a:lmQst reverel1tral11ly. AU of tine known ea fly Christhul latin fex:ts, 'wete writte:n 111 thH~ hand.

By the sixth c1en'tulrrg' A.O';'J the Unc~a~ was dev~1 ap;j ng diffler,ent cillanu;;te:ris~h:~$ I' partiC]u~alrly in relation to the features we' now dm,in(! ,BlS ascenders and descenders" We now de~f~ne .this letter as a Half-Uncla]. Two si,gn i fii,ca lilt Ideve,liIC)lPmen-ts h~Jd an

inllpact '~m tnls script, The fir.s~ tookpl,a:ce in nQrthern S;ritSih1 i'nd ~refind F where the' ,Ha~f~U neial ,2Jiti:a,[ r1ed ~ mli,gni,fi1cence r as seen in the Book of K,eHs and the LindJSfau"ne 'GCI'~peh&~, which _ar,iUi bly' has ne~18'r been surpassed. These booJ{s w~n',e w,ri'tten tD tine el~ory of G'o,a and as such ~AN3re the very blest that ceuld be mace On, respect of wri[in~:. deDO,r,ationl. all1ld bJrridOng·,.,

THe' Hail"f-IUlncdal Wi3;j,S also ,2m i'mports'nt stri~t 1'1,' contlnental E1utopeJ w'here' it was used J'o'ir bOlth secular and nenseeular work" aUIi1loLIDgn lit was wr'iit~enr rnore spee eH ty ·1 nd ICllns:eqUi!fltly had B, mere· cursive

,character. By [,Ilie lists' e trghth centu ry CnalrUamsgrllE:' hlad es:tabUshed the ·nrst Ptl$t-H,c'mran em!piJre, st,r,etch~ngrircml the:

BaUic tal northern l.ta~ly. Charlemiagl11s saw hilms,eJf es the Inhe:ritD'lr o,f Ilmpe'fial Rome w'ilh j;iterBJlcy, and tne spte'ad af k"now~edlge: :key ,elemlents ~t11 h~s clvnt2il1,g mlsslen,

~[1he:rent j nth is pro,Gesswlere the ~stab~~snm,e'nlt 'm"scr;iptori,a and the trailning of SCrUJBs·. AlsO needed was lBn easily

pen ned ~ ~e.~ bll,e~ ,andl Lmiversa,~il'y accepts bile sari p't. By Gutt,rng hfs pen ,at ri,gh't angtes to' tli1,e shaft lr1s1~ad of the ob~ ~q ue a I1gh;~; requ~rled~or thie' Half-Unclal, the scribe

p:rod Ul(a~d a "true m~ln LJSCUlle" This .gave less C,ontrast p@itwe,e;n str-akes,~

fhrs magnifict1nllinsu~lrscTitpt dates, from b~lw~I{'U1B lail ei~.inld e.ar~~

1IlIifilth Clmtmil8S,

was,mO'rB C'Ulr",lve in character, and qujick.er im eX'Bcurtiort, Thus th~ M:forme~1 H,21i1lf~

U nSia I bees me the Cairo] hte IminLls'cu,le,.,

The Reman capital',and the Can;)~line minuscule are the tWlo defining ;5cr~pts 'tor 'modern ~Ietters. The Ca,'F'01 ~ne hand

ev'entlla lIy' b.6j,came the, Imodell for the Re,naTssance HUlml8111ist hmd. Witihl 'the i'nventiQfir of p,f;MUng wrrtn ma~e8G~fe type. ~t also became the modell f-or malny typefllice,s" ,and we cantrace back much "of au If modern te~t ltype deslgn to thi S ,pl!lri ad.,

By '[he twel'fth 'cen~uJY the Garm~ine' m'iinUst;U~e had ,grQwn ~ncreals.jngly ICLJrs~ve for secular wo':rk, and more compressed and uprightror fie I igiioU5, wlQr~$.,Attl1e: begJnniing of the th~'rteenth century 'thlj'S div"shan W'a5 comlp'~ete: The g;~ately 'GiothilC ,sc,ripts date fro,ml U1Ii"$ pow nt


Modem a:q1tesSlw OOiIH~;ra~hy but wLlh &Iearly d:mrnei lethe OOri1'St.

~iS ~" thO' ca~oli,ne minu:sGU:~e. W~iGh l~ateiS fml1, :tie' ~a I' ei_, centurY.

The HlIml~~Hdst minuStuli,e. a ch,llld ~If' the Rrena;~SSanDt1_,~, spa:wned oUlar :scdpts: The eairl i0Slt 'wa's, the ttal;~el' a ClJrsi'V8 fo!rm .of the HllJmmnist rnlnuscule. ThIS ~I'etter~ wr~h a ~Qlrwar~ ·s~'()lpe.~ looulld b,e wriUenlt 5'~~l!d.. S,y the! m~d .. s,~xti!enth G'8ntury this §cript alo:,ain became more formal 8\nd' 'k.nawnl as the' Chancery :Sc'ri pt through its use ln the PallDal~ Chancery ifn the


The' next: i'llnavartion ,again: reJfated tal. "the cutti:lflg Qf the

,Ill ib, BfY the m ~d-,.s'eve nteenth csntu ry~, serlbes discoVB'redtha:t by cuttln,g the'lf

In ibs ito f ne pohllts ~ d rl1jlm~tnca~l!y hl'Crakts-1 ne 'the angi,e of slcpe, and by jo~njng, thei'r ~'fters, U;ney ,cQu!ld 'often write ~I p~n1~or even a wholle word, witillout rifting the~ r p·ensand ,aJ a Clons'jde!rabie speed, 'ThIs Rou,ndhandl Olt iQo'Ppe:rIP~ate letter found

Fr>1 rtlctl~ar lalvor j f'l Engi,aflld~. and wlth the

By J ,4€Jrn I{e Hpma ni s~ iliA 1t~lle W'a,s the !'S\SAis~le~wni~ hand 'DIlle led~<ca~ ~ n!on ,illi' l10rtfilml Ilta~,. The'

iCalselleresca ffJllT1'HJla

deoXl)lped fram 'the; I~a I~t. ~ao dl aid d~~ nom -the' mid~o:f,efl1lh ;~entu~,

rrl~e ,at a tradiiog 'Br111Pire it wa's qU~lolk~li d~S~i:limin(ded 'thtflllJ,ghIQut the world~, ~rnlellud~lnl UTe U[Mr~tedf g;ta'teS.

'Ktlow~,e~ue of hew -the ea,lr:l;er '$£fiiJpt-s, hadl beenr wr~tten 'was alll ibLft ~ID5t Th~' ~~u fg~nc,e ,pf l11aderrrl 'ca,mgraphy hi due t-o the ,s,ki [~III1,d[ ~ajnita.,k;ing· ~ea,rch of al few il[nldiv~rNJals" in,dudinrg, IEdwan:l Johnston ~n B'rltah1. 1 tl<.I rI,g tIle R.a'msey P~,tdter ~aln EngUsh C~uoUne' ,minU5C,tlrcef as his, maa:eL, he developed a !;il~p'le' and ufll:m'bi~LHJUS; 'wr~t'~ng ha,nd ~hart he ta1ught to ,5tudent~. The Found'ltjona~ hand remains the

. favorite tma:chj~ng hand for aJlITi'Gst everyone" who, has 11eaHI'ed Icallngrillphy,,,

The (oUow~ng dJ~eQtorry ,oon,'tafns s,tep~ by-s.teiP incs;tn.lcltlon,S, forr v~rtu:a Uy all the rna ~or s!Gr~'ptsfifo'm the 1:'ilJi£ two mi~,ll:etlni.i3J. 11m ~dditl0n the'~'e ,Bir:e ~~amlP~e:s of many Im~d,lelrn .i:n~erp.n!tatl'an5, land re..wo,rkio~,. Aliso lncluded 'is ,8 who~e: ranse c1f 'modern 'sc'ri pts, d'~awrn wtth' pen and birusn lUid with a va'rfety afWlnting impl'am',entsJ, both 'oo,nv"e.nbona~I,arnd otllerwis~e.

The"smmly Gomkrm;ripts i:am fltljiI'! ,aMIm~ 1UI0. ~ 'OO]1~1 moed '(0 bfUIs,ei i ~ Sill es and ,-r~er IR'k§·jlir the ned IDD VUfS, ..

Therle are one nUlildreddifferB'nf it1;.uu1s sll1bwl'1 in thisbcGk. They are o~~af1~zea iilnrl€l cf1'tonlaJ,~;gl'Cal groUIPS., EaJII:h t1'ahd is treated ~h :C]I sJmU·ar way. YII)U w~l~ f~rrdthat as you bmoom:€'·'mmll'lar wlitha s,crf,pt yoU maty wiish subUy if) aliter lt to' sult you_r ,(!),wn hand·~

M:iilIO~ oW the scripb ~mv~ heel! wiitte:n wltr1· a·I'mid~Gdged ~el]- W~'l~11 dQiliJIg ,this.ll·lis, helJfLlI M s'ITg,w '~heJ·I1e'h~ ·o;t the 10m fIlls'S.m·ed Iln pfJn wi~tt1~ (s,Ia' paD: 2a)' .

fIlle ~,nFJJelU !.!Ihlch th:e f~'n ,IS h'eld deteimj~15 t~e letter sn~,!. The p~ed{lmi~aJl'rt pem

:_,~~ jilS show,n he~. Howawr. th@St a:Rgl~s:are not ,aO~'llutIS:

TIUl arIJh:~' ~m alj~ert ,som,otmBs, wl!lIin a s'ingle SnClI~lr ,an~1

SG m'~tin les' betwten Bldlf!Gent s.~es.

~ , I 1 •

I~._I .~. II "1F.' Uj!o;.I~~.!! ' ... " ~ .,.,".'Itt .• ~ ;l~ !_"'.~ I~.·'

I.' ""'.- lJ\, _ _ 'IU ,~~ ~ . ;If

l'" - J .. ~..... t. ...


NlJmib~m:I annW9, mdlcsb 'the lorfl,1!l of imldhA~uarr stmkes n_~ to' Cltali Ithe IsNer. A Inantlui iJl ,"~ruJs drn DB e.mlbld lfNmJ s.e~~.}Ih!' c;;aIlTgra~blr Wtshes- a~~ ~~es:e do not JfJIa~e arrows

Thus ,all'lel ~Hs out

G~a mt:ttdsfics, lef the' scdp~ and ,sometimtli ,offell,

'a~ttnwa~,ve' ittt~orms.

A, ~;s~lllieton" lelllF S~i)\Wml .at I, begflllni"J' If ILhe$te(rb~"" step St$tij~noo d8'81rj.'-~5'h IWS Ole .shalH of Ui~ ,Ielew.



.. .~ ~-. - _i.:~


~ ..

. UI _, ...

... Iii_. 1>1.

for striptSrdllYOl w,ith 11

~ rlladl'"edgHll~~i9S'r:sba,_ DUmt, 8ij!J~ ~,nr~~t.l haighls:;a,pl, ~ ~ lJt ilecll:I~e If 'lhe-n~xifrilltly ~~d a bm5;h ,WWiS t~efe rules ~e nlOril' ia~~]y 8J,~'ied. for Uanc:Jk~nd's. l1e· eagle r'midieattdl Is41:11)' algl'o' a,t w~h~:~ Ie 1'ltter:S[~JI3:S r~ttlm ~ibe \ieTticall• Fl1 hl~ds dJalin Wimih cltller s "nbld ~1b"a 111i~If;f{mI, '~n a point,ar'b~WISI~, mA.Sl~ril1gtha ~eUti If Ule'. feHer ~n ~ela~fJn k1~ tiD paPI or tJrush 'Width ~s ImD Il'In~r ,ip~1if!IlID11S. i Ilm~. ~n 3' fillY li!1mt~~s' LI1e~ rJla~llIf1s.hllp, (I'f stem WI ~ th til 's~,m ~!iIItt ~:fH' be,en i~djOatt~ w;irthln me ~ •. ,

Ij<e IiW' N 10:'" " I.IIiIl!l'J 4f~11ii!.. In,.. ,I!! !Ild p!'ii 1m uilLil

~ 'm.m aW\I~ 30' ~ fh~ !'JW111lfiT.I' I!l ~IMlllKt Jill! ~ij~ ~'~ Itw> '11""'· I~L~ nLllJaW.;acal In!~~I'


~ .......... ~ __ [3[; b I; II .~

.Ii> wiJ!j ;-,.... ...

~ ~I.u __

ZI I:!nl l mlrt·" 'l11m~J ''11:11

COICg, ,S,


S~'"Tb)!~!st~, SeQJ mea:; demlm:s~1ijte, ,I :seJ'entian of IGlezs. 'Pratlrr,~e wd~ 11'Jill )l,lllliJ' a 10011 ~f.aIS:~ of ihe enttre s~r'ip~

l:BH.eri,~Mpllrga~rl illliro ~afall mulolt NoJ an lelers 8lJiEl'~nch.lljHI and S9me: l'e'tt8r.s m;~ fall illtG 8e1llrc.!li gJl"t~P$ TheV 2ftl. b.aner I ~ uruul i~~ic8ti~1 Of ~i '~ay ieNers U:lhtle ~D each other

lFuJII enJoymlsnt Inf IcaIIUgr,aphy' b9g~lns w,i,th g;etting to knuw'YJ.l'UF ,too~!s, and lequ!ip'ment., The f,olilow'ing p,8gesoffe'r guida,ru:e, on what yo'!] might ne~,ed" lind :s,how:s you how 'tDI usewhat yOlu ChOOSlfrL Ihsre alre detaHed jns,trU1cti,lons 'for dlevellop~:ng 'writi'ng' sJkins,~ frnm getting your pen 'wolr:k~ng to, rriUHn,H lines ready for sturdy'iing an allp,halbret. The simi pile suggestiicnS, for ,I;aying out yoUtr ta'xt will II: hrellp jou fn prodM'ae~ v~suaUy afflictive d'Bsi,gns.

The writing Instrum,ent is one' of thr~ most 's~grHftcant factor!: ,iiR r,r,e' a PWJea rancs af al cal ~'I ilrapnii,c ~,atter . Edged Df'IOt n:bed I 'soft J ri.gi d. IDr f~exilbh!---1:hes'8 "fs,ctors. ,~ffect the 's:pe~d and rhYthm oif 'wr~tlingi' 3,I1d ,everyone d!'BveJops,'favori,tes.EKp'l:oraliol1, Q:f the ml,8ny. kinds of pens, pfipelfsr in'd inks ~s part ofthl,e ias6inat~,o,n ot c,iiil:li;sra'p,hy,.,

To find the r!II,hit toob;[b)' &tJl't y'our ~,eve:II,of 8KpertiSa, !Icio:k:' thlf,OlLlgh "th!e foMawillg descrj,~:thlMlS", ,AvaUability mlay be, the 1itls:'I'decidlr(g fracb~)r. ,A~'tho;tJgn "C!iffic@ and ,stationery $;UP!p~I;ers 'WfiU hElve 'the m0:re, $1f:anda rd ltems, arti~ts~ slJPpH,srs w'm be the miajo,r _sDurce.Mare

sp€u:ia.lJst ~'tems w~11 on~y be' aVflri'la'tJl,s ttu;ough "gl'OUpS such as cal n,gnBJphy soci"et~es. Find the' healrest soc ~ety thlfOUI!h your locBI; ~ ibra ry, or f;heck the I nte.n1et f,or nEJ'tion-a ~ $CJ1cietles.


Fl. ·11~lm'---1I -en _ _~ 'IIP,II P _

IEconoilmlcal; and :tJ,onVJe111 i;ent df,s'posal),te f~bertiippeid pans ere use,fuJ 'tocds, for :pntlCUce~ and fOlriit@'fl"~$ t.Jlat wU111 not be em ,cHSplzty for ver., ~Ian.g: The ~,nk5 areg'ene:rany not HghHa,~tJ1 SiO th€~ir COI~OfS tade 'o~~r t~me,., They shou~d be replaced when ;the tips st,ni ro !IDS8' 'thta'~r sharp 'sdg,e.

'DUDlam aeus

Fountain pens, iJlre popu'larr tor be,g~nnersl as they 't1~V!e ,conveni'ent jnk r;~~H1r~dg,es) whic'h can be purchased in a varrne~ of co'h),r$,~ Howlever,these inks, wlm ,also '~ade in time~ so ~tu;Jnt.a,in penst EOt,?'" a'Fie

eXCel i I,~e'nlt teo'ls, for pr,a,ctJ'DB an d b~'ni'p oralry documents. Once b~ack U:"k hasceen used·, i' is diffiicu~tto WCJl5h out 5U'ffici,ent,IIY well'l to ,chalnge to

a ~'r~, CJ(l~O!r. Seye~alll nib sizes are avai ta,bl,'8 ~ n

apen sat,

fOU~I~ln "ell sels incl~de a wi ~e

ra fI,B\i; If ni b ~lzeS,


A~J, di~ Rens, w iJJ' ,be 'Use,f.Ld feu' writin,i' 'wjith cxdotlsd

liRks 8,iild: pa~nt~~ ,as th,!y wash, out. ,easilly,.

IQuiiUs: These~r'e the bB$t.~knowrn trad~tiona'i dip pen. (?,aople"w'ho IJse the'fn 'ico'nstlnt~y instst th~t there iis no 'f1nfj'r tDot S,Cj,mre'skm is neieded to CUlt 'Uu! nUl ,3uffilci.rlt~y. w,f~11 fo,!" consistentlly sharp wrltlngJ as, it St:lftens 31frij,d WieitffiWllth IU.~~~, nleqes~~ta~tjng re~c~Jtt~ng ,alfter' al sholn t~mlt~t rpra,ctlcins, on ~eled pens, i'f 'you lean oblain '5uitabh~: ·NotfriH( rEl,ed~ ,rs a .godd~ int:r"n,dllJ'~.rtrrl'. U 18 sometilmes p'Qss~blie to pUlrcha~H:l' remdY-lcot tNUfrl~!tS'i'

Stee,,1 Di!bs;: These became p®I.pLilJ.ar,as, a conllsnienlt l~erBdy..-c,jt mo,i 'milnuf,lctlJlmdl ln up to ten width~t

lin ,ey al~~.5q uare-Gut r·raund;rn8rrld~~ 'n1it[iS" wnlelil artta'c,h te: a p'en hg!ldeTf (han~le),. ,11 'SeJ)arat& reiie!NCdr attaches to the und,ernBath Qf the ni,b to h@lp flet:ain Im~r'l ~nk. (Th~& re.mefVoi.r hi net apr'ecision i'nsf.rulml9'nlf and 'often needs, 'ft~, gf~p ·~U:J.jlus;tld b~' 'SQ,~ueez:ill1g or lope~n~r1:g,cnJt the si.des .. l

:Ste~,~ nib$ hav,:e B, 'striigl11 wr~,titng: edg-:e~ lout ~t lis possibhe to oJb<-ta~n left ObUICj.uB l1~bs''f9r Ileft-handers~ wh leh h~11 Pi to, com pensite s!ii:ght1yfor the 'wrilst .. twmstin;g· 'that ,a feft-hl,andle'r f1a'~s to, diOI to JtM~~,~1ieve the ~Irnle 8.ngte of writ~lnl [see p1'tf'eJjJatrirlg' to Writei, page· .20')'. Sometime'$' 'these nUJs rrteetd' "lbrrearkfJ1g tn I~ when new: H:oI,d ,sslr;.h side fo,r two to three seconds (don't w,ertl"Jo 't!)1 O\l,ef 1)[ mih::h iJisi,m,9: ,to bu rn 1011 t 11 Q va rn ~slh ,at tht~fi rst Va inch I( 1 em) of the tip. Tles:t It by d:, Plip i n\g in 'the i' Fillk,; ~f tltM!

ll1~b stays eoated ~ ~t 'is r,eady tor use,

.sQm:e rHp nibs come, w tth a reservoit' bu f~t i'rlto ttle bop, which ~s very ,c:cnven ient.

,S! it never 's~li~ off and does net

Reed pens ;81ld qums neJd camHI! c.uting, for 3F shar]p 'wr~ting edg~.

Steel n Ibi to;m:e In ma ny shapes. Many I~B~e resewiim atf~ed,

HandlllOr Ill' Slifa'tight C~~IP!~:lte nib

. ~\'1S W/,iltf. attadl'ooi Ifeservolss

"'Awomalie I' p~ns far' large lell~Iing

"EJ",~t 'cfll,,amlabrnib

p'f,neh itn~, n·to .. ManYe'fti1es;9 nins ate .sUg:h~}f r~l:llt_ o'l?llliqu~e~ desi,gne,(j for the' ep'mfort o:f rtifrd-[h~;nd,efs;""""sro ~eft~handers o!w,am;.

C:OiP IOI'f'Ii!,laie, nilibs:· Copp1erp,lata work

,req]u ires aflill!,xi bl e, plO~1 nteq; 11I~ tb with out a f'eser.1lo~r!, COiPperp"ate nibs Weilr ,out more Iqu~C:k:llytl1,an SCnJaln!~ooci,gedl pans, be[:,alus~; they .ijlre: 'worke,d by pressure, th us Ica,using ~V'entual~ mlm;ari fatig~lJe. lit ~:S wo'rtl1 purchasing sev!!ra11 at .1). tlme,

Pllsler' pllmu5,::Lslreeit pens fol p:j)st@r 'wot:k cDlma"bel ·"nany 'vat,ie.ties frolm' specia~J't su!p~II~,ers .. l~A.utematlc" pens and mlul~ti:~ :strokls pen!s, are 'tlhe most popull,&r .. 'Theil' hl(j,\n, \I\e:ry 'wiid&nlibs, inl'var~'oMs slzes !an~· rB~a~n the ~tnk: witlh .$'omle 'forml lOW ii ntegr,s, ~ resenJ,o,i::r. Th~y a rei ·'si'mtp:~ tOI w:~sjhout and geJ1~,raIHy co;m'ew1th 'an ~nte,gJ,Ed h,BlndJ,e.

RUlli'llll III IriS:: Tlhese w1ere en ee tI,e ejlo,ml,i31 ~1f1 of' 'techn~cf.1ill direiftsp(!o,pl:e but halve b,eelni ,~id,o,pted, b~t clall~i,IJ,alphel~s 'for'~ rol,18S=. for ruUni s,tr;aig.ht tines Bind for freefo!rlm 19rXpell'ilmental' w'rit~ng,. Flcn° the !Iatter purpose 'they (,ilfle!: he Id f~atier to encourage the illfl,k to f~o,w Qut· freely. ·Sev:em,~ ~p!lcla,ns:t· ,u~jllg: pens halve I~een 'ciesJigrlHa:d by icalHgraphers to maooe bt)~dtr rnarks for g;r:eater

Is;;'press ~on co'


,Bru shes,' 21J~e ~Iml PQlrtantro If Imb~i ng· p~ i nts fn ~ee_d the pens. for pa.ilnf] ng decoraitive· f,~atures ~n the'~r own ri!ght, and ·tney are' also veryg:aod for writing.

C:hl,oase chealp brushes'frer mlIxing~ as ·the· ~ajn't clloge; upt~e ·Fen·ule' (n,e,b1·II.\grrp)iand adv,ers.ely allffed.s, 'th;e pnMilile' of the' t~p.\. S,prin8Y nylon brushes ,SJe, idea'l as a w,riting 'tQal. They come ~'n Irn,alny widths., tU!l"th pJlI'if'l,ted and en ise:l~ed:gedj a II~Q:Vj,l;i ng pr Blnr1[yof soo·pe 'row W Ftti nl, slee an~ ·styl,le.. _Chise~"" bJrtL5Ihes :shou:l~ be c:h:lec.k~d 'edg,e-q'ln~ rf the shop wUI~ aHew lt, di Pi ln 'wa~eif' and sqlU!e~e· lit Qut beMIEH!n tnle flllge·rs .. Relect the brust11f it rdt'vides i 'nlte two [Iayers.~ or if the e"oge is b~uF1lt rather thi'l11 ~ha;rp .. [Pointed brushes shouJd t;ome toa si',l1gl,i "tine pointi ChSCl.k there are f101·s.t'ray' harolrs.

rlJ~nrmJ and .C~iH!-t~~d brus~'s;s-am iS1IIildis 'fo:rpamlmlg and mting.

II'DDlinaIIOlr·:~ -"IOID,~S rlmliU 'Wm~ need:~

_. Pat~nt.g:OII~' {attached)

• Transfer goild (unsttal:hllsd)1

• [BrUls!hss, lor app'lyi ng lamimQln[~u:~ sJzec' Olf'" eesso'

.• Agaite burf1~shersF--mled iu rn !(s~Z@!:

24) Bind small dog t10lJthl 1~.s12~e, 34)

~ll1Ilddilimn: .

I. Vellu m ell" g.eo;fi..:quGI I ftY p:al~:er '. PeE,Ue and mlQrtar'ro grinid the

rrra%eri,r:Jj1s,: flolr ;g_SQ

,'', OilP pen f,or !drawing nne lines or w'ritil1l'1,8: ln gum

.' lar,ge:9oft IbnJsh ~or dust~n·g aWlJry ,saldpaut'ic'~es

.' Cf,8!ft ~n Ue wit'llroun dad. IbJslde for f,aim,ovrnng IJnw'alntetige's;so ;and &cdd'

.' P1,BCI' of' !dlK for pCJ~it$h.hlirthe go,ld '.' 'G~'asJline ;pal per or c:ry~ta ~ paJchm,®nt to I,ay O:F1 y,ou r· work ·~o preteet it 'WhIB':n burn is,hing .~ Id

'. :E(aser

'll fltllm:s Q!r ·adhe9~vles to 1'il'tlne gUd tOI the' p,ilper er vel h.JJ m.

• Peunce (pum~c6! ,pow1oe!rand cuttl~f~sh) tOI ,PJtlr'epa ~e ttle!uJria:ce of ve~~lUml

timer '1II81s [Rul'B,

Fo'r m1eais,urh1g and "oir aCCU(,irte ruUng of ~~nesJ choose a Ic~'eaJ plastic ruler w,ith dear rna rk~ ngs, some plastric Iru~8!rs ha:ve a m,eita' mmp to ,al~ low' f'LI'r (!:uitl;:inl'. ,A,'lterl11'ativeJy ~ cneose a sb2el[ fllll'e!r; ,cuttinhg agaInst a p~asti~ lor 'wQodlen ruler wn~ soon destr~y the smooth ed,ge:that is needeq: for ru,ll~ng, stra i:shit ~i m18S ,i

:SllHllrBl:- n.d P.IU18110r

- .

A piesUc: tr 'a'n,gil:e ~:s us·efu I, fo r Imeas'UI rilng 6100 ,angl~es'T and for ma,'king paraIMe,[ lines'by holdin,g eareful hf .a,ga inst a steady ru~,er. Alternati'~e1:y" invest iln a T -square, which does the ]'ob o,f palra U,er Unres (Jln a ira.r~er scale ,€Jllild needis tOI he al( over th e Il!dg,e 'of a writi ng board, A r;notra,ctor (pi1alsti,c sernleircle w~tlh dee:r,ees marka~ on i~) can be. used for rnaasu rlnl: ,alll,g11Ies,.,

,PenGJJsxtJ d.ffl:&nmf 1~1'i~rdnesse's,


flsd c'ru!'8'f w.ilil Ijla~r maFk~n.gs and stQe!I rl.ll~r


'H81 is ttille, stsindard grad:e 'K1,lf penQUs in

e:an ~g:ralphY. H~ud,er Ipencns. (2: H" lH j 4H)1 g,tay sharp f'O'f :h]ng.er~ thus aj,ding ,!OC:IlJ.rBCY'. 'bu~ the very hard ones 'CIHil be dffff,cutt to leif,aIS'e. 2 H ~s' gCliO d ~lJr rLJ I hllg Iii nes, H B ~o:r Srkete,hln,g ~deas. -S.grrt pencns (2B,~ 31B) are 1I10t u~ual:ly I1leOBssilry ~or QallligralPh:y~ BX'C:BJ;llt for ruU1ng Unlsson de~[Hlca,te palP!er~ they erase e:as,jly. but blunt Iquickl'y" Keep pe·ru:Hs oo:nstant-'iY Jsh.arpwit.h a' pancH 's'harr~ener o r aeraft kl1;ife~ Soft era:se:rsa r:e be'st;, try a pla;stiiconer"

Sc~ssars, are fre.quently. nf3fH:led 'fo'r c,LJrliin,g psper, as IS a 'crr,slft knrlife, 'Kre:BP a :slet o:f ~palrl~ bladss, as bl,un knives are datrJgerous, [0. U5e'~ You press harder a rna they canslfp,


setsqtfE~ll1frSI equl~mrll al,~i_,I~s;

BI'lt!e~ i ~'k (~~oosJS! rulllW al~wpi\~(lfJ

Chfrrese inks:

IIDld Inks

For bottled inks. choose a rlonwalerpn:UJf \tariety'lwhether blliJck or eolored, WarMirp.roof inks are thicikelr and dog the pen, ·Nvlver use wa'be:rproof "n:'k ilf'l'OJ fOuntaiin pen, Check the 'lshe'llfor Ili'g:llt'a.slness"

Chinese st~cik i,l1!k lsa tradiliona~1 fa,vorite., requ~ril1g an I~nkstone' on 'wn.i:,ch t-o. reconstifu te it.

Gouach:e and wate'rco'ior pa i rts an! much' used b·ycalr~.graphelr,$J ~olr writ:ing ·al~,d for ba_;c,~,m-rIQLI Ad warshes. lin EQod-Q ua1llity products HghUasiness is exee~:lent ,gnd is u5tJ~1 ~y j ndlcated on the II SIIbeJ • 'W,atBrcol~or paiinfs SI'f'e tra'FiIspa~en~ and alre periect f,or bacKgtound w;ashes" or tor wr~ting' tOn 'wtJli:te: paper wlhere the colOlr wln :show true. H.ow'e,\(e'rt the 'opacity,Of \gouachesr make'S, th~se the best c.hqie.~wlhe:rm wiri Ung in cok~llr .on top of a bac~groluhd color. Transparertt

wate:reo11'0fS. woul~d ltmferB,cl wiith the b,ac~groUllil:d and IlcHi® the·ir vibranc){ ..

[;h~ne$t' s~j s~ ijli~ :wah i mrkstnne

Tubas ~f 3i tmCrnll~i,t


·Prar:.tit,e paper must be p!ain 'while" with a :smcotlh1 but not shinY 'Suria:ce. I,f ~t ts thin enough to see ru1edl Urnes, throu~h It this wH,r sa:ve the trouble' ,ot ruU ng gu id@:ril:'l'e5, for every page. layout os per. which comes in a pad., ~,s a pmpU\'ai,r eha;'ce as is goOlJ~ quaUty phot-oco,py paper. 'Som,e rnRs, b,lleed on some' pe:persl, 5([1 ~t is adV'tsabh~ to try to che-elk thms before purchasing Ilarge' amounts.

For finished work a thteker paper is neetl100 b eceu 52 thl n pa per ereases 'eas ny and wrjnk~les when yotl wrioo'on lit.

,An econom.1c_a~ paper for beginn~:rs is a good ... quaiityl heavy-duty cartridge paperDlut thee,1( It has a srnooth suriace.Av:ofld ohih:rrtsn~,s d"awjpg Di,per as tJJj,s ,may t.f)use' lnks 10, bhaed.

Beware of papers advBrtised as 'l-,ca~li,graphy papers~ and Often sold iln lPad$I~: The-s& f~Qldently have a!' ImoUled perchment effe£t '~h:at is an unsatisfactory surialc'e for $1121 rp 'writing

'Watefco'lo paper (18 the' u1t~lml~te cha,ice:

S,el:ect one with a very smooth su rfa'ce c'aUed hot-pressed'{HIP). The mafia tekttl(ed surfaees present a e~I,allenge for fin-a.writlng but can be verY' ~edJv.efcr tairge te~d,uraJ I'ett~rs,.

U~Q 1 ~,m,gOlb thickneswweigl1t tQr

3,pgesm'14pfb,~ whICh wnl not wrink~e. COIOFe!O pmp!t!rs save tn!9'. trOLlbll,e lof making a was h IbacL<grou rld ,ana come in rlI'an1 slJbtlle frntshl1s~ Chec~ the ·'Sudarte for ~dlQd Wt"trt i ng Cj11lalirty. ~ Ii1g;re~ [?ap;elrs wotk ,we1:l..

Handmade papers ,mij'~' ssem ~n extrav2lg,~uu~e"1 But serne are perfect for 1121 I II ~graph,Y i prnvi C1lli ng- su btle c:olo W'h it h neells 110 ott1er ,eimbe~ Hshir11:ent ~ nd i~aln ~lqad r P~IPelr$ e~Aerlll ~ mai1k,e vary ·s'ucte~fu1 wrlt~ ng SIJ tiac~s,


ACfDSS t~eftUwO pages.yoll ",mInd an a:&sijtImQ~t of ,~a~~. Clot kWj Si1

1., Wal$~I;t~'or ,after

,2'. Wh~'w g;r;tr1~ge' ,pa1p,er

,3; N1a~~ rail h andt~iI1ade ~ape r 4" W~ rle ~laMmad:e p~pef 5, ~O~'~ortd ti_l'lwidga papers I:, LaMolt ~a ~

'1. Vellum and p'a~cnrnEint papers ,8:. PrastEil and Ingres ,~Ipe.r's

Te allow yciulrSelf to len~'oy calmerapi1y to, thl,E! full, Ft is wO'lrJ:h si(!lending Sflmletjlme sstting Up a oommrlaelle' place toworkr as you wW !be slttin;gtllar~ far long, p:e:r~dd5, of 'time.

You may be m,ore: useld tQi wlrUing on a f!i;a:[,suria:ael but a :S'~'oped wrUing surface 'wm ril'B:rp :v,et) ilvo",d baeok strain, The slope can also help pn~vent blots from thedl'ip pen: An angl:B ofabout 45~ ii~s best for th is. but ,exp,erimemt to see' 'what suits you.

Ma.ny ImfQlnu'ac.tured baams. are· awnab/e~ some w~th ~speC'taJ hi nlges thtirt a I hr>w a 11 i'nnn~t,e· Vi)lriaUcm ,of S'!lope~ others wi,th slots Uke;' dsckcha i rs. To rnake YOUI!' lown use' a piece o,f th~n p~ywot)d "_!utln'siz@~ ,about I.e 'inches >:2'4 ~nc'hes '(451 x i6C.h:,m1~ s:an,dpaper t~1I,~ edgesml aV\Q~d spiHn1tlrsc,a;nd plrop ~t. up w~th DllO,ks:.

A rl't:~·w b~oard needs, to Q€'. padded lin orderto r:m'prave th~ :writing suffaiolB. Co~velr ftwith' seVIBm~ sheets of newspi8rper Hra,ned)' or s'Cfap paper' wiith 'a sheet lof wh ~te paperr Ian top" 'secUlfed 'wifh ITli2l!skilll1g

tat)e;~ l.ea:ve: a' :smrQoth i stra ight ,edge 9H the' bO~lrd If YO'bI plan to use _a. T-sqUaJre tOI 'rulll! :stOll r UnBS.

Adj,ust your boalrd so yl:lur Ibalc~ lis 's~miW1L

Se~'Ufle wiU11 maskil1g·1ape ,Bill ilIJIO[flil:d. avo~djn:k, pi,! O~ij~ ~~:6 edge.

3 Fm 3 nt! l1'iQwer~h ffElt tno~ly a.cr~s the IDa rd al wrn"1 ~ml.as 1211 gUtro s' eel

Fiinally', always use a guard sheet. This lsa strip "rf pn)tsctive pajper to cover title pain: of 'the board 'wihera yDuir hand rests-as 'you wr'ite.The naftlu~~I'oH:~ ~n your ha ndl ca n make t he: pape r less repepti ve to YOUJ ink.

II'f workin,g in dayUght, posrtlon your tatll~-e near a wirlcJoW·; !t is worth investing in a desk 1'2)m'p 'for 'w,orki'n,g, at other ti rnes or irn poor light con~it~EJn3~. C:'h~k that ycmt hand does not cast a shadow over the work, ~t ~s possibh~ to buy nd,ayHg,htI' bulbs I'f Y'O'li j:ntendl to WCH·k.81 I~ot 'wiltl1co~or.. They 'calst ,8 bh.J!er Ught~ but ~1'15 can make 'people' feel chmy~

urillilihe ·IDID

PI,8ce' the ink on the side of your writing -, hand, so that YDU dOr1~t have to rea chi across the paper to re.fiH" !:J11;d :Jec:tJlJ® 'the bottJe. bi tine table, wiltl, masking tapa to pr:avent spH ~aile'.

1;1.you aline u5.ing ,i1 new or dlitere,nt pen" spend some tlms gettin'.g used to the Upite~; of the n-j b OI1i


SIt wrltl1 your ba(;ud a ~ i'ltUe~ ta yOlur left to rnlnlrnlze the-need to bend your lieft wrist to hohj the pen at the same angiE

lhalt is 'Qo'ml'fo:rtllbIIB to ,ar4,gtt~~ h(lnd.err~ ;~eft-han.sers. who write i A the. '!~I~oo'k u posUte 11 can achieve SUC03,S;S by writtng Ole ~ettJers fta,m the bottom

up" whieh woulld mean

re~ interpreting tne !jtro'ke

ordj'e!f' shown in the a I p:htlilet lexem,.p:~a.rs.

1~1~(f llierpsn wn~ Y,Qur wri5~' me~if{~fj; to th1i! 11~'fl, ··so tIt~,t you call nmke:these ~ick.;Hld 'liin


flllr'~le·-b"k" ,1I&ltioll try wriHI'I& ~w,om haJom lu ~u,~; re.Yewsilll the. ~tll1b ordie! shown In lhe e-xempla~

See h~w 11ll~~1 ink ~e' w:eseNoi~' I'~n hQI~ bY. makiTJg these lug·st~e~es. If one s1:de- of;a gtm~e Is lra~d. jlf,f;st mOlf 8Yi:S~' ~Hh 'Ibf!' nilt Ma~e zigrail' ~nem!S tc 'iJrilC'f,+oe k!e'eP~~!Hil G(.msmml't pel'l a~le_

1,Me par18:r, 8}S t311 Im,akes oif pen: differ in th i s feeL A broad' nib 'O"r 8b_out ,)1t;i Irncfl (2mm'·)' is ·reconlmiended jf you ine nfBW' tOI ~aU,igraphy'. as this will ~lIawyou to 's,ee what. A; haplfJening with tf1estrokes,you make,.

M,Slike,a ttny sjdlB:wayS tn()vement at tl~e start of a stro:K,e: to spr'ead ~tua ink ffo,m the .slit aeress "the. nib a,nd to 'e!1tIGOura!g:e the p~n to d isena rge It merle evenly," Th~s creates a '~Iserff;_fl the small tJoolked startling $'tr.o!~e·.

M:dlKe str~ai,g,i1t~ long mairk5,~ 'beginning 'w~tl' 'the Urliest userifl' to start the in:k_ f:low., ~f your strol~e has ra:gg~d ed:fge~" the whoh~, lof thenlb is nat ;suff~ch3'nt~~1' pressed 88a,h1.s:t the paper.as you 'w:ritt-------try ,aga~n.

If YOlJ'iU'!: starting; ,211 new dtp pen I' d~p itinto the Ink and then look ,cklisel:y at bcrfl1 s,ide's. 1f the ink is na,'t stire~dlng RVf'nly ,acrnss,the !11etal surl,al~.e:J it ,ma:y need treat~lng 'witl, detergent or a m8,toh f'La,me to take ,off 'the vilrn.iush orm aeh i ne o~ I. '¥ou nsed on I y treat the 'fOrward % iru:hl t1 em') of the Inlbl bath sides. T~'ke care not to overheat the nib if wising, a m,Jtch fla ITllt, COl] nt two 't,c thr'E!e seconds ealch siid:,e~ then dip the nib qui(;~ly into wertelr to cool, Test 111'6 nilo for ~'I1k spread.

WllEHl you (ue. ha.ppy wiith this: pen's ~~ibttpl! 01111 the p~,per~ rule some nn~e$. or fbI' a sh.eet of' gui.deUnss: under neath, Begl 11 by IP-ractic~ ng '~egu lar t h i ckand

thin ma,~ks:: Ho,~d the .p~n ata cOlnstant an 'whUe

you Im,a~e ZiglCllg patterns sc,ross 'th118 paget ,Start ~\dth if oon.s,t_ant rangU~' '0145°~as tiltS ,s ·fB~a·trve!y sr:m,pIJB l(JI eS11imate: !itl's exactly halfw:alY between y,ertiC~11 and hOFri~ontal!'. "Travel ~e\tween ycnjlf guld~"~n~$ to Jf11i'ke neat p:8.tterns" ~t ls important to. g:ra'sp 'the eoneept of pen ,emglie-, 2!rS j·t in-ftuerncesthe took c,f eachl aJphabet.

5tm ·at 45Q~, make v:e:rtical land 1t1a.nZ{lrfTtaJstro'kes.

The strokes can make' a paHe'n~ but ·they are: etsea g.cnJd 'test of whet.her yOU! ,IFf! mail1t1iningthe, 456 ang~,e:: Horlzr.mtaland v.a'rt~lcaJ strokes snould be tha same' thli"cknessr. Keep byirll, untJI th;e,y' are,

Now try ,30P a/nd note: th,e ICj i'fierren:css. VOU' m"a~


19···.········.·.··.·.·.·· .. ~ ... • .. ··• .. ·.· . ~

wish to LIse all pr,otracbor "[0' 'work out the ,8I1B'I,eJ Olf' trace from the diagrarn om thls page., M:a,ke ml?w,e zigzag,s" ,which W1n have ~ong!~'r thins lalnd shorter thft:ks" then 'nJ{)'t'ice wt1at Ha',pperls 'when Y'OIU eornp(Jlfe vertic3,1 wi'~h hcdzonlte] I ~lnfHi. These sl~OI~ fd be of ~i"ffe;r::ent th h:1knasses: The; u pr~g:ht ,stnJ,k;es shou~d r~Jie th~,c;ker than the Ilorb:ontaJ ones,

Now' tlr1lwrU:ing other Illetiers a'l1:a v2llrlbI!J5 dlooolII es 'w~tt1 the :pen at 'th,at·angl:IB, The up.ri,lghts;trokes. shourtd ,oom:e out 'th~cker tha,111he. hQ'rwzor1ta,11Cl~r'leSF-"yaLi could thlnJk, of it as: :shel~veg needing to be fi".:<jed to 9t~ong waUs~

Semie' ,genera I ru Ires ,about writing·a pplly to alII the d~ftefen:t a.lp'nabets If' th~s bo,ok. r:hey aU hav,f!' the!k $1p,ecific rules for pen anil~l,which we have Just tried, and "nib wildths/J 'Wlllilch 'W.e h,91venJt_

""':a= ... w

'w-···'~·············~·····'·~····················· '~."." .• ~'.-

.... ' ..• -,,~'/" ,,:' .. ''>'_.-,'' "" .: .... , ..... - , .... ', :.', .. - .. _ .... , ."- , '-," ,. ,---.:-.'.~~',./_- .......

i.\l.· i •.....

T~ tilt! nfSitlwa ~ine£'m' lh~ I~OQdrre,S-[0.g~t use;d fo 30<) pen ani~h;e Vel rtt~'lstmkes; ~'~Iil:u'~d ~ ~lhicker~hlillill'i'J Ih,~ rimntlils. The' baHoml two ~IIII B$ u ~e ,8, 45;0 pen a 11g!e:; st1e If YOu cain ,gel uSia dl im 1'M I~iffmenoo.

Rill: -- -'.:1;

fI'N lib wtdths:~~ means 'the number of times tbe thickness (:If" the nib goes, into thehe.~ght of th:e Idette;;" Wlr~t~ng ill WOlnj at

a heJghit of 'four n~b 'w~d;rhs w,i!J;l cne'ate'81 different eff~ct thanwrLti nl the same word at a height of seven nib widths. Check

Ma~11! :SIre' thal ~.QU h'nld the. I"" at tilts Ullifl8·WfatabsDlut'l1l.Y veruca1 aqte. to make lliBSS :s'~tlla.nJS fmF pu.elng'~ e' ~a:tgM 'm .Y(lI.H wri~~.


IFcflr callHgraphy tQ h~UJik its, best, it must be :Gris;lP~ That means clear 'oMferenc,£!$ ~n 'th~e thm,okness of ~tr(} keses they rnove' around the,' ~6HeflQrm,. A, ~ette:r iI1IO'~ shou~d have tnick Clilnd ttlh, parts, cre:alr~:y deflnea'r and Ilatt,ers W:]ttl entr; and exit g,tr'o;kes sheul'ld 'Ara;ve uha;rJi,jneU stro~lis ,at ,ea~h lend 'I' rathe'r than b~Qbs. The :b,:lobs are air! integnd part

M,ab squares wi~, ~nur ptln. one above the' oth€!f, ·!tithe~ as a vertital hlatOef~ oras 81 di~gana I '\stIlIUSEI," wtl t£:1we'lJer j:s Ule. m ~st a~curi~e 'for YDU.

when you start l'sarniJlg an ,a:~lPhahetfrom thi,t! €>remplar:, and make 5Ui~e you ru~,a you:r Unnes to :fit th,e ~PQn 'You plan to use", When YCUlare beginnli~g'I' it ~s· b~st to use a !a~ge pen,t pefha:ps ~1i In€;h'".(2rn',rn' ,w~de:

HO'~d 'your pen oompleb:dy~ertitaJl'~ to make tlh,e nib w'idth squares't arid try to be as accurate as PGSSrbile~t avoiding oVlerlla.pp~ng or gaps. Try a few times; jf the result vari es, take an ?:,%lB:If,81.ge •

rUlblt 1'1 d 1 vf;U/11 h

111 IJnk.Jd111r11l Hp


(1 n 1-/15 1t7rl

. . ·li.eS

It is, ~mlPonantm nJle~··aJ:i£urate

I lnas . if ymuF wlitilflg is tc ~(]rO,k ccn~sistertt in we~gfut ~m~ heigpt Learn good hab~ts Jwitirn' large 'wAting i:1lnd it Wf'~ raNe yau wOin f'~r s,maller work~ '~meln a h~rtls ~'hjs~e1. .becomrs·.B :silnmcamt prop' artr'OlIl1.

Use a'f'mSh!,~' .s'harpBfled ~rrmd auld a r~hn wtlh c:letr ma,rliQ&1.Ctmck fro~!n y,a!,Uf a.lpkahet: el€mpl~r ~mlw rna~~ o;lmib '~'1i1iU1ili' are' '~eedadi m:Q~e·tI-!'.w I~i. ttMrPllll' ~w p'an to t:lse Measm>e ~e1Y aoC~iri$l~I:¥ ~~e: bellht of: ~llillr ~ n1b wi!lU,s:~ .. ';i3ind 'tbel'n lIll an!' of lthe'folrDwing, mll:hD'S~

Transfer the rne:a:su~'~ru n~ WI. WOrN ler all~· along :on'St sme.!or .~ e papa~ r f:e<peail ~'B'm .a:I'ong:'~e at!hllr :5j~e\ 311'~ join '~~em up, with you~ ,u~er,

ofthl19 letter. This i's acl,h3:ved b~ teking caire wtth YOJJlf plan angle. and by

de.v,e,10 (t)i n,g 8, s~nsfti.v~ty in YJlU r 'f~nger~ fo,r hOI'ld~ ng yDur p,en ,5tead~ lyon the Raper.

For the I ower"'case I or small, letters, we measure 'the main body of the leH,er, n,o;t .COIJ hti'ng the: ·.ascenders. and [h2S'C,enders~ Ca'p~t~l~.sd:on·t, have thSS.9 fe:ature:S,: but for ~ower-case wdtin!, wle' have to al:~ow more space :betw,een the Hnes of 'writmng t~o' prevent allliY ascenders a l1~d d:tlspend:o:rs coil Udllflg'.


t:he-e k. each a I plh,a]bet 'exam, pi arler hovIJ many n ~b 'w~d~hs· you needtor run n,i the: llnes: '[his, g~v'es you n~,e i'fO[l,dy" helght leu'

x ... height. Then work out w.hart is l1eeded 'to a',vo'id aSIDendeJ~, and descenders eel ~'knln·g be'Meen 'th e Unes. rf you are unsure, the

-saflest rneasurement ~s .. as. 'shown hierl!!. TW'ic:e the body hei,gnlt. 'Farlow the instru~ct~ons f,o·r B'ZlCh Etll;pha:bat Cafi~~IJ~ ~Y. as di'fflslr8!noeB ·arIB. sometlmes quite, subtle, lit ws a good idea tostay with one s:eri pi untl ~ you a re- confide MIt wiU, lts ru les befo:re ,attermlp'ti ng 13 nother.

body he'i;ght c r )l;~'l1emrlt

Aj~"iayg .aJrDlr'f :suf'ncxefil gi'p·lmlwee ~ linnaf '~dllng kl ,a,tokl the ·ascel1dl~,rrs: ~~nd desc~l1derrs ·cQII r di ~g.

M:arkoJl'1I a:lo"f'~Ii1Ii! :!3i~e 16r1lr:md I~~ aTl ~sQ~ar~ m, rm'le ~aral,~~~ lii1U~. Vcailll tmI:S~ t;l( ~®l!Ir paper tIl the ll~and rnmo·.ptsGeS~~1 prev"af1it ~~ IljfHNI!rug w'~ iI&~IlU dlil lhiiS.

4, 'US>,Q "'Jld~m ta nI i JS~ru men~ ~'i~tl til tWmpass bu1'~v~~1 twa, '-IlIinlS~' 31lld sel1b"tt ,~t(;ufii~e;Ill! to ~~'i!l nllJ· M~th~armt.

5 wWal~" the dM~ms,aU dDwn 'one !)j~J. tj 'pric! ho~ ~s, Repeat' :[(jr lilt, CI~~t]f side u ~ lass usinr,!iI T ~qllJ,1Blre_

A sim:p'hl!: centered lal~II;HJit can IllS madill d\!!coralti!l~ with omBllm~ntall flourishes.

Layout 1$1 enormously tmportant in controlling the space and 11ight of ',al page. This aaplies 'wnetlhe.ir you are wri'tj ng a .single name on a card or a whole poem, The 'wor.ds need ttl hold tog,ether in a coherent w~'lo'l:e~ so' the key to shJccessful des.ign ls posltion~ng, with sufficient space aU around-> margins GUU ,allll .. important. Then YIQU should consider the ,o~JraJn sha',pe Imade by' the C.'ustBf of wri'ting: Is ;,t wleU-balanDed~ or does it bullge 01 dlr~ft Uln"'inte!flti,onaU,Y to one s,r1de? RnafHYt ,ask y,oursldf if one wOre! or' group of words deserves ,special'

reatrnent for a :focal colnt, perhaps by making it [larger lor holder,


CCU1 sider hOiW th e end prod uet is to bel rood ·and test YOIU,f trlals by standing alway from the work at the expected disti:llno&-from, across the room if lit is a poster. You wi~1 soon see·whether adjustments ~n size and weight of the writi ng, ,alrle ne.ces'salry I' or in its ~;dalCing on the page.

Fora name on a placs card] make sure the writirng irs oolld enough to beseen from standing by the table. Words lnslde a greetings card or in ,8 Dook can be sJmaner." as they 'w~11 be read at less than arm's length.

When 'working wIth a quantity of text sort ou~ what is most lmportant-and arrange it into ~ogj'ci.d groupings, For visual i'nterest consider varying the ,weight,. size, or placing of these' group'ings-. lf 'it i!; tOI be eyle-catc;hing~ select one or twa W,O'fOS ·to be writtl!rn wrth i'mpaet' deslgn tha rema inder in a secondary wei;:ght and size ~()r reading mq're' Sillowly onceattention has been caught, IBeware flf choosing too many thing'S to ,empha,size--they wilU cencel each ather out.

,-"'''' .-

\he traditiOnal method o{ ~11l"ring a layout is to use

't\'lumbnail sv,etches." \JSflIl soft pendl Of a thin

mar\\e! pan and s\U1tch out \0\$ .01 different ideas.

Q()osider I\Ontontal (,landscape) and ven1ca\ (_portrait') layouts try empha'i'>i2irtf, different ",,~rd!>,

and e~peritl1en with contyast in sizes· PlI . e tl~e 0014. at the avela I balance oi he design and ~otice

hoV'i the whle space helps or hinders the deSign. once -you have put a teW ideas on papel', IHI'ite out

the en ire tEl)!.\ on pf3ctice paper so that 'flU can see he vo\lJf(\e of words yOU afe dealing wittlJ\'IeTI CU .\"Ie lines of te'li up and move· nem around \.11\'1.\\ ,/0\.1

have a satistaetof)' first \<fYOut. If)' landscape and

\10' ra::t dsslgns.

Il~ be \ill\\> c.at~ 1'/ IIIII\I,OU ~ve OlI~U saus.tattllt'J e1tet\·

l\\1~lUbf\a\\ s\llethe5 \0' aSUti\\'\til

teW a-ll elcMlII ~ aI i u.s .l\l a

libel" jlIlIlt pen \II d9~e etIIIl as .. afllD balanc.t rn . & cftSu~n.



C'elitemd. asymmutJiCt~l. liarti.~.al. aRd h~riRi'Jt11 tbumbnails.


A centeJ,ed design is the si"mpl:'Q'st to lball,9nc,~,.,Thi,s works~ whether v,erti,ca"~ OJf honzental, CJ'nd ii's a frequent clt1o~ce far forma'i aea,jgns :~nu:h as cert,iijcates,. Tile ~~In,es of 'text are ba:~anced when hey are appfOlimateiy the'sam:El Wild'tlh, gph1g, ~rn and 'Out e,veli1~YI perhaps b~g'innirng and f.i·nisl1~f1g narmw:er.

rf ~rHJ neeDltol in:tfll.de: I crndlt r~ne'" 'the poet~s na.lm:iperhapsl then il1dw.J,e ~t ~n the ·centn:d Ilning-

u p, at one: side ]t wili~] dIstlU:b th~ central balance .. , ¥ou can be Im,Qlre d~r~ng and st.iU rnaintaln balance", Move lines asymm,letrically fer 81 riveli'le~r design. leolk f,o'r overall balmm::e; a line puJlied 'to the I~ft should be co:unterbal:anced on the, rlght, Watch. the whit:B s.pape:, 'too. sa t:he're are no hor1r!s rn the rnlddle of \the design~

AIW,8JYs leave',a .s.pls,:ce arround 8illl "our sides of the textt to heilp tile e'ye to see the 'who~e 'Shape. There ,9're exc,ept1ons, ttl thiis--for e~alm'plle'l if yeu want to: '. b:letd off'J 'the ·edg,S: 'for impact., Staft by fo~lllowi'ng the rules, 't~efl brea,k them !yoins'dously f1 )liOU Ire a:i m i ng for (I, particuillar eHee;t

AJli,(JW more S,paGB .at the bottom, tal shop tlhs de-sigh see:ming to sag 101m the page, and ke~trp approl)(l m at~~ y ·ttlfr 51 me' w'~dth of m,alrgil1llS at smde's a1nd top. Fo'r ,a ve:rUct1,~1 dssignj i3Jlllaw extra to:PI nl;a,r;ginj' 1o:r horl:2onta,~ designs a,I~:ow extra s,ide rnargins,

When 'you hav@\ sketched out some thumblr1,ai ls, look .at the gaps with1 rr tha des.jgl1'i9lnd 'oomplare them with: Ylout margin!$,. J1·the gap@·are ' _ er, they w'J JJ, separa'te' the' ·areas .of t9>d;", and this can spoil! the design, unless you wle'n~~ ~}:lanr1ing to use the ga. ps fur r mpsct.

PI st'fl·n~aF~ ba~lancd la1Q'Ut WOliid IttI~e gerulriUS spatlog at :sld'as ,81i1d tip. wUh Mice.r$g mUGih;af the l:mttMn.


I~ 2


u ss dl1flerenrlt !~ zes"styli as, I or wedg hts eftext for more 'VliBuar~, rnt!:rast Conside'rtl1e foUowh,g:

'. Haa}Jler weJtht aga'inst Ughtwejghl

'I' Ev,el[J1 q:!IJ(u!]~i~'e$ 'fDf be;;Hance or rdiffe,ring 1amount$ f€lr contrast

'. large against ~m.al:t :Folr em,phBcs~S, QilWantilii3, ah~'ii(lh

ShD[ID~d' bs dile~ent

'. lw~ canas:tl"' s"l,es

" Galp~llls wlttf h)W8rr case' .' Form. ifeltl1lst ire sturm

• Ulpright- iltga uls1;slle.p i r}g

• 'IO~lpDimgr POl.lruoos

I~ £niP"IIQ'J thlwhi'~e sp'a'c1e ais 1) ''lJaluab~e' tool

• ID,i{ll:r~!M.tc[l'IIf,S

• Oppo,stt,ts: Light i:gains,t WUk. 'warm ~l,eain:st cold .' '0 •• ·an d ,~n~' c~mbi ~ation oftiler$:e

EMampl:H of QfJI~rasting leMersJ1.1'


The C~ijlt[lsf In weight 'Iv,es em~~!:sls tlJl the I~ext·

reparatl on

" ,e •••

Somrtlm:es ti''1u! design IfQqu[res the ,add~t'(;)'n lo'f e>ttra v~5u~,lllel,lem,ent$. such as ~o,gOSt hera~dh: ·,emb~em:st a dltaw;Rg~, ,or bQ!rdelr~. These mus,t be des'~gned into thile l.ayout fro 1m the start, not' addr~d to fll!~ ,I hofe,. as. they need to be cQ,n5,~de'red an(J balanced w:~th' the wiitilng ..

AsJ< yoU rs-eU 'ff the extra: alem'8l1t is,r~alUY nerJESssry ~ or w he:ther re- d,es;(gni n~ thE!" '~an ~gra, phy' War more impsct rnight be more successful", n it ls necesg~J'ry~the client's logo on a 'ce'rt~nc;ab~;l' for ·ex~,mpf'@:- tlher1rnlk"e terte· to give jt CQ1rli:s<tdl!rnlttonby trying it out·]n differe:nt.s~z;€iS ,Bind posltlons, ~ust ,as you wcu'ld wilth the' t!!xt

,s:ewarB'·"O"br(Jrd~"s! They can everwhe"m th,s' ,caJlligrslphy. They ean ~oQ,k fus:sy OF distractilng,. ,Keep them slmple, pad~iclLlllar~y when you are first 'lean'i'l1I'~"i' ,and conf~ne y'oL'JjTlsle~f 't,ollulecl .~jnes of dIfferin.g WQ~gllts 6;rltJ di'SltanC$S,!, er si mlple. re:p&at Ipatteflns,. Arways tr~at them as, p.ar,' of' th~ d,es.tgn, ~,~OII1,i with tine text, not as an afterthou,ght. Whefl ylou have }tour rough design drawn UP" ~.sN( yourself

it -ttme~bordef add~ to tl~lle desfgn ICI'r de:tnltts"

TI1I to ·enSurt that de~mf~ 1ta~i1S ,t{l,mplem'611t-and

bala:oc~ 1he~L a'regS,; .... 1 .......... --.... _.._..-~.




~~I~ 1,'~lrrrll~t~ 1-
'. .,

_, - --,
~ I~I
,_ I~I
,~ ,
,_ _"""'_"I
=----=-: "'_",
- _,
- I~
,- ~
~ ~I
- I~,
~ I~
,.....,._ -
._..... ~I
- ~I
- I~I
C _, leR rt Ii~f:
- ----=- _---='
,- ii!iRiI!I!Iiiiil l~ifl' and b~Jde·
,_ -
~llllllllllllilll~ III~ I' II fWi'HfI;g; tlXt losinJl]
,. .'
the ~gtll~ 1 e .' wlns. 1",


~ •.... ' .. I" .. ~ .. ~


.. .

,Asl:omblillgl'llIe POSb!TS, and inf"orlll12lrU-cm, sheets oftenl cents ~n a wea~th o·r text, a~l~ of which tI1E!' c~jlent fee,ls is es5ient~al to emphasize, but .somehow U haste be p:r16rttilert If every word SI10U'ts~ 'nclthih,! is heard. Ch'fa:ck 'tne ofd,e~r of iimiPortalnc~for teX-(J'mp,ltem the· What?'" Wltere?t 'Whqenl?~ and' W'hy?~and see wl,·ich of those ne.;eds the most emphas~s. G,raduat&" the test in s~.ziel w1eiight, ,Qtr pladng. IGroup loget~ner b~ocks o:f information, tomake it easier on the eye.

Paetry 2\'nd PFlJM by C:llmpa:ris'Olt1 offeJa '6im,ph'!tcalsK of nema p,s tt'\eatW~g tne "[i'[IIS; sepa rate.1 y fra'm

the mam 'text. tBut ha~~t1ig loo/ked at wl1at san bei' dtone w~th posters,,; )feu rmtght :Ii.ker:t·o be' more ·adv'enturo:us. Explore th" p055.i'b~l~ty f)f 'emlpna.siz:irl,g soms tB'xi: within the poem i:nsrela:d Ott the tit~e. But _tark~ care 'molt to, overdo ~t and maJ~e it .(11 confu-sed d:es~gn. Keep a~IKi'ng yOlJlrs_eilf::: Does'thls irniprQve it? Does this, snhance the m,ean]ng?

Ca.lli1igraphysarnns ~mpiact by the wa y YOfU p'l BJ:e' it on the page:. If y'OlJ are j'Ill!')l.r;rer:iericed

'j n ~ay,out~ pi~iay sarle at: rfrst and :keepyolJ r des~gn film gJ'BJ aUtQw~ng·the caUi,g:raphy to fk,pea,l\< fOlr its:e;if . .DeV'e,1 10 pi ng more ambrtious destigns 'wm!1 come gr,adlJaUy! P;Brtfcl:Jl,ar~y f'f y.c)U oltiJsINe 'tHe wD'rk 'o:f more experlemc:ed c,al~ I tgrapl,ersi nd try to analyze· how and why it

PI6,siEC~I1~d '~Otma~ a1t.en~lr~ni ~p Idvn'alml~dla"CJWI't ls-~m:Jhl.

Layout basi

There is never Just: one solution toa diesi,gn problem~


The hands

ThlB 100 scripts de'm,Qlmsirflted in the 'foliowiiing [pllie'as! halve baengenelralMy pll181ced hi.sttJlrlclalllly~

, beg~nnfng with Ancii',snt: Ro'mile. The irISa1d!le,r wUln, how'ever, find mlslnym'Q,dern versions ~nclud8Id~n 'th'e histori\c,a~ s!e1qVenc'8 'whel~e' these', d,~',re',ct'v n~I,II8'~a tnl 'the hi:s~tor:i,ca~ scr'~lpts" AI f'urthef aspect

'is th1e inchllsl1'on oifmlodelml I lett,ers, w1thJn3 nOlne~

I Im,ay -lh,El:VII pnavlous,'~y 1&" led, SUICI~ as -tbe j;'j/~

The hands,

I:alld-; . la.ol

The lrajsili!l·and Rustic capita1s are' known 'tiDI us 'chi efty 'thmuglh their use ss 'in seri!pticm letters a~H1ouah Dlle' RU1'ii,c W'a:S af!'sClI .used as a

llIan~l'scrilp1 hlmd~ TlhllUnci'all is of a slll,ghtly ~atsr daJ~e!~ the S"fH:lOnd CB'mUlfIY A.DI. The, Sqluare ctllpitat a manuscript hand but ltedVlng trom 'the ;inscn~ptioR~U ~9Iter. is I a,te r stiU I' 'h'om the fuu~,-fffth Cltllltury. 'Very1ew o:(3Imlpl!es, of tlhis: hand sUFVfr~e.,


The Traj.alln 8llphabet





Roman ,caplita Is mcderl11


lRomSJll mh~W1s,cu~el, modernl,2


SquanJ capita!ls

IRu:stlc mimJlstulie, modem



These hands wera' in iUse 'hum the sinh ,to' the 'e'l,-venth Clllifury" The Qucline; 'm]nustule~ 'I mnd~a'm I:o'oking' hand. is tha most sigmifi<:alrrlt. '~e Founl:i:atidnal HaRd, de,vjlse€lin the! early tw&nlie:th century as a calligraphic, teachiilog hauld danrves from the, EngUsh Car:oline minuscute.


(1 ......•. C

b·_.,'.-.··· A.



IFfee taferunl, mtnusCUhl : mlodam



Foundationall hand




""') ,", _' ,.I


I ",

.. . .1- .....

lho temllnsu1ar denves, from the tat~n Insular/s meanimg·of,j or Ire~ating to, an lis,la:nd, a,rnd is us,d Wjitl1 re~rd 10 scnpts 'frl)J1I1I tl1le Brit.ish' 1'5119\1 in ,pamCUhJf. iitwss, here that: he wliting, h aln(fcS aVQ Ive:d away fmmtlle

mai Ilstr1eam inti uences, Df ain't" "ental~ Eu rolla ~111 the' 181rly MidJd~e Ages. The ,mDst spect8'tutar of these &cri pis as the I nsu 1 ar maj Lm'CU h:l'f marel 'CC mlctl~ known as t~e :IRs;u~ar :Half;.Unctat lhe BODk, of IKe~~s ,and ~h8' Undisfame IGos:pels 3r,9 the sl!iIpreme! ex:~mlptes,



page LuxeuU c,apttals,. modern



page Irnsular po~n~ed m~nus,c:uhB:



-- ,Y''-.

page Artifi,ci:all unc'fa'i




Gothic SJcfi~s, dlevelo1ped ~~l D'orth:ern Eun~,m. \~ pr~bab\~ $eme,t'~na, ~~iS$ Il,arna decade., in 3lbmn ]200. rbf~G 'wem prsteded byothe IP'rtOO .. Goth'jl& :scri~t:s· derriu~ng frOim f~er Oarc:liin~ and \fl!suf(u Irtiinu&rmie', 1nm QualdlMa:

Slc~iptslc are e'als~lly NDIJll1iml b, the'ir $(V,en1 a~lJilaImtyand Itam~res·siDn and wen~ 'the h:lnd's:of Bibl'es ',and p,raiyer b~Qlks. ThiS secuh~rllands

flar le,gal~ do'cuments ,(1i'nd ,comn~efC9 a:n~ IClursive Bl1Id IJIss-i3oetd for w~iif~1 at s:peed.










21 ~ ..... _- EC·,,-~,

. .,1 ••••••. 1 ... :1 ' ..

"." ('., i '.' I ..

". - ,.-.. -'


- ttb' '



page Secreta ry hand


{l' b·.,.·· .. C.·'-

, '1'

I~. - ~.,/ ~. •




Schwllbs:cher minusclillet modern

~I ~._i.1 fA ..•. " ••• ··· ~dD~


Ba:tarde capl~ta~sl

............... 31B (3

; lombaidiccapitals


Secretruy hand~ mlJdenl

nL~ c ~(,c40 \..

R Yt.····1 C,·-.·.···· ..

,.4J ,,',


Schwabacher capitals, modern

pi! Cadeaux Dr Gad ai,


The hand selector

~._/ t··,··,

'." _.',

.• " -: .- 1

I . '_' '-,

_. I· .'.-

• •• ••• ••• • •••• •



The hands

me ,Ii~ l1I1alm~st R!enla~ss·a nice scnlP'ts wete' ,probably' Hilt de~ejoped ~M nonhern ~'~ail~ by mhe po~1 amd altadem~c Petr:arch in abo ut ],35,0. ~,y ·l..4m)~heir use WeB W~despread in Ita,IYi, a~ .,a:s tli1lewr clJ'swvefitst eousin., the Itafic. 8vthe e~d ·If the (1ie'nluwy tltep os.itill1, of both halnG:s was 'ful1~er SlBcur1e,d when the ~ll1rm,a,na used ·1li1)emas a, n1Illdle~ '~IJI ca.sttli1,s]r typefalC9~t FUlrtlhler Flfinemlents, 'well! !in'[lorIP~Ua!te,d: in the '11I1d ~sill{melWtill 'celntu ry' whe:n tile scri!pts: wer,e: a~d:I)JHed by tile Pa:ps,IIIChanoo:ry in Rome'.

I~~ uJlohnstonl~ Ita~IIC 146 mi'niUS}cllIlh,







13··········'.·.····:···' ~ '., - .

t ,,- _ '


I '

. .

. . ' - -

- ,-_




a be

~. . ._.

A- Be"

1 I . -', .... , --

,_I, 11 .. ,.. '.

I I •

~ ,

Ug;B IJfthe Rena i sSlnce sc ri pis alma '~he IGOrtl1C CIU rliivel SC'Flllis clntj,mJ[letI in ~his plliC'df but them~ was I $~.ermifnta At develo~pm'en'~ dB'f,ill!sdimll. thief clJfsi,ve fuiUlids, aind flilIPll1iOIUlaJ~ 'tfue Itallic~ wht~b siusfisd fifle nH{Uar IbjJWJ I!1J1afity 81rnttr speiSd.llIeJ;:Q,ppe'fpl:a1'B lor RlJlJI~:hlaJind detve!!op,e:di in Engllsn.d ,andL Clui'olk~y Sopr'9aJ~ 'thrt1~iI~ D Ut tl1;e' En~ilsih~sp sa king wDrI~d"



Copp!rp'mte:~ IEng:1 r5h mundhand

Co,pperp~atl! na lil rjs~!@Q1' cBlp.itals

Thtll:a:dern r'llI:riod n,lalUy beean at ~])e b8"!IrrmJJ]g ~ fh,etwernrti I1Itb ~Iln:~u~ 'wilit1h ;~h,e re='disooV9r} Bf ~ali~i:gra~hy b~ sm:!h ~ioneersa$ EdiwaR' JOihinsmn i iii Brjta'in ,al~1lCI:

IRlJd!lll~ K:ooh i rn G'emul ny'. Th~s IparaUel:ed tlt$' ~a'eJini,~demlands ~f 'the .adv'EMtisllg irntlmiMfY and llie dlemi;lnd flf ~int~aIWIfII nn:vel:~ In ~:pe des-ip and! the ,inG&V8UQ,l1S rnade ~~ssibIB by dry~t~a~sfer bdmrnml,,·Tbe l~~er p-alrt o~ 1~~ tw~nlillfth Wfltu ry saw n,e:W ,31nd radicu~11 ideals eme~lng.irru ~he ~J~fQSsive If&ll& Of;, ea11Jgrlp~y ·W]~ man, clIFmvenrilims be~nl eha1haned.








IR:oman IminLJfS'CiUl~e, pOlilnted milD:

A B(

A· B··'·-·····.··.·


. _.':

Roman ~B1plta~si poNnrted n ~b

Brush seri ptt bma,d"-edged I mi mJlJsculllEI 1


b:road~edg~ dm in LIISCU fe' 2'

GasoB!1 brulsh script Ca1IP ita lis

Boldl ;st:ript capiitals

Pa'mi scdp bo1d ital~c minuscul'B

IBrush script broad-edged OOIPital1


IBrush scri!P,t, ~,ormal min u.scull a



"B' e'-

I ."" _.I

. _'_

Peu ,SCMptl bolld itaUc ,c:ap~tals

A-8" 1& ... -,


" ,_-- _,._


, I: _.._

. .. ._

amshs,c~i:Pitl 'iormal calp~lls,


." ' .... 'I


Pal11 script boid capitllJs







.A ,r-T?I ./? ;r .~ ,PilL.;


1 .')

.. , .........•. ;

I • .' .

b a 'C




Stnmmred ita II ie, mi nlUscu'I'e


. ". __ .,


:_ -. t, 1

~ C


-' - - .

~ -~'

Runn~ng brush script n lnuscuh3'

Ruiling,iPen mbllu~cule' ,2

~ .... ~.-,

. I '

I.··. . r ' ~ •• I II'.' .' r:

EI'egamt sc:nllJt mil1lusculie


IRunning'lbrus,h·stript CI81pitaiis

Taken frorn the ~tns!crlptiion on the Trajan Go,lumn, ,ere(~ied in R'O'lm'e ln 114 A,.D .• plus mddl~ti,on,all characters, this is, the most ~nfl:uentia[1 cap~ta:11 script ln the Ledin alphabet. A~thoug,h' it ls on'I)" one 'of ml,a1nny rnstJripUans, trom thls era.It ls riegarded as the finest example ,2Jlnd plrovtdes, ani im,p.er1ant 'mlode~ tOI calHgraphers ana letterers, From 'the; fifte!19!nt:11 century m when the/sa ~ene"rs w'ere fi rst s,elr~ous,Jy censldered r U nti II the, late '1twBnti eth century ~ there was, a, bel ~ef that the key 'to

d r,aw,i'ng' these exqu lslte letters [la-'7Y' in ,!;eometry. It wa,sth,e pioneerl no; work of the Alm,eriic2In, f'allthe'r IE. M". 'CaticlhJ that f~naUy showed their 'Olr,igins lay ~n freeJy drawn broad .. 'edged brush Iletterin,g. These Iletters 'are based on his alnaiiysis".

These ~letteJS set the s't~u,dard b~ which 'other CSPlta~s afre jud~ed., 5erlOllS lcamgnllpl1ilrrs Ineedl0 knQw~he ~ etter's (JroPQ:n:iOAS;, \is weU as tn'~ Im~nuthle of thf! tietai II,

The.' pointed 11.A~ [an!!! ~M" anc liN:")

WI~e. "ladebl faei '~i:talt.e tufting .. , The more natUliai dlJiftLJS lSi a sq!:J~re ~E~P thal'l wlasarlso ~Iequ~ntly used. NlOte that '£tH:! r;e is Ino serif on 'tria

i I1ner ri,ght leg,


rhe "'UP i-SfJ me;d:ii~~all add i Ion to our ;a I ~tia~f:!.t r~,e pr()par1orm Of ~h ~s IWlJtl{i-e fun !' U " iUiEJhQI\11 the UN].''!

The IiW'" ~ uirso

ZtJ IFnICdi Flva I addjtton. Thts. r.ow" LS d~(a'Wn 'frCllm tlNo 'IIV~S'.·

The trajan ,~J phabe


AI,though these ble'alut~fuJi letters aJie knoiw:n to us from ii-nsC'ril()it~on:sI1 tht!:y 'W,8r'B f'~rs.t drawn 'with a chisel-ended brush, betore Icutting .. The colors on the ~eH'ers deicr~be the sequence Q~ strokes, m,8UV'E! =: flrst stroke" red ::= second stroke, ,gfiaeR ~ 'th~nj stra!k!fif y!aUow - - fourth stroke,


The f" ls 1ft1.1iI lff.d~1 as a i~~lnl, :leRer. 'On~ed:Jis can ~a' drawliIl]epn~~",iI·91 lrema n11i1tg ~etlersl :sh(lltd m'ot .pruove 'toa l.tu~l.A WIU: 00I15;tJ;ilIGI~d IoiE. I lis:

iir.guab~~ ~: s'~prl~me exatmp'lat. :ollie

'~Illiwap"er'"s afif.


The OJ R~j has ~.~ ,~d[dlir~g8. as' an _fl,I:a~. fJ11~lv,ing moi'!fJ' ,pam, oommon in ·oth~r ,IMtll r~ lMn:;~~y othlBr s~llJIe Itlltf ND~ee: rlIe\e~nU'e: 'S.welhng at tllilil bDe If the· 'tail, cantd [lyle. s~'idh~ :wming ilIf UlebMli.

Be&in.'·the ',ou:te~ '~p oF Ithe, serff~, 'wi~ til1e corner o,f tfl:~ bmsh. and Imi)V8' d'~~~1 to the 'Stem.

Re~1 tit 'cB;l1lltall ann. Al the eM of th{l aim, pmvif "our ·brush belwe~n 'thumb all~


[)ra'W~b:e' stem 91S fDr "'[,. but kl1epl the"brush h{lmc:lmllaI~ a nd, finfr5~ 'f dibt sermhln thl ti, 'Of-I~he brush.

At Uti po inl of oQn ~ ~tf ~,n~ Ilqin Jthe~JI.

~n rea,~inl ~~:~. base. ~llii iii your brush WI 30G! aWl,~ mlJlm! .allongll,e baseUne re;i1!S~riing you IB.a»B ,8 -:fiDeL


Move down '(he' serif., l'i1i111 yom b:rush at t~:e saml tirmt lh~ ami 31ild ~I~l s ~oul,d be c~mP\.ttd ~"" ~Mm~e.


Dr,(]Jw 11 ~.aI;..si'e semLi.. cimle, &tJ,,,ping shglit; of the .slelDForthe "P."

,As yu move dowl'l '~~e 'mml ~s.IClr,~I,Y, Ulim your brush Ita the horilonta L

WI!lh your blush at 30~., retiiim to 11'1 hemldline. andm rue! alDng, to ~hl' end lof '~i,e ilfm. an~ ~,iV(llt your b~ush.

TOI make 'lh~ ba~se' S~mkje1 t!lTn yom ~rush ov~r ;and, 'r~p'e'8t the

ell rm fJ]OJt~~lE!tf]t ~ 111


mLnl th8'bm~s;lTIIw 3~ . lind IGon ~101b.D~ kI s~m Wlt~ a stlort Ih'l}rUGl1tallstroks.

To n~ish 'the taR. mo~ "gI~Uy al'olg the baseHne fj,m'd I in: yi~ r brusb.

These pen c~,p·~tai:.s dertv,@; from the ciasslc lnscnptlons of alncient ROlm,e'l w~th SUbs.eqLu;,nt modlficatt"ons dh:talte:d by the use of Imodi,ern materials. Polnted serifs are replseed by' itaUc~zed slab serifs, alnd gr@8te:'r use has been made ofcurved strokes. The weIght has ~61.~SO been ~ncre'as@dt allthough you ma~~l w~sh to v,alry ·~t ..


IPaiD'S II i'nll:lIIl:

Tl1le calpilt.ats cs n ba~ JuSild ,s:uofi~sfu~I~ly without tn'e

.. accompanying· mlimJscu:le. The' bold srer1f makes: 1~ lPossJbfe to ,dispense with U~~ ·tnl at used in the cilissm,C 'form ..



1 I

3 4

All the e~r~I'~baSM lett em malve 'UI ~fI j1oil1Jnrg str'o'KeS\,.

1- .all'e.rifls:~lile 'pm;nl' tb.lncr~a~ the smadinG aln;(j

the '\(alria,tiDn b'Mweemi thifck,

and 'ttll n .stmkes.

Th~ !IE' ,~,n ~e rnad;e 'with the s~m cut "aW.ii.lf le:a{UI1l ~nto th e:' serii. or by [(lining 'tMiE! -.rms Q) the 9.teml ith'f mats .

This a~ptnabet ls p,~n-dr,awn and cons@quenrti~)f' has a more rigid strlJlt:tU~B than the bftJIsh~dl rawn proto1types., The lett.errollm:s ,a fie mo'riefolr~m~ lized, and se'rlfs late b.ah:11 r,iBJl1er than' p~hnb~lI;d.

lih:e CIJ Wirng ~~n,a~ll 'the • rn baisle ~i thE! ~~ft '~eg ~B ~,~S ,,8 crt~il' J~; lnforffi"al ity to 'tili,slellr.

It)11.1 inl~I'udilj 'il :3ldf ~alt ur~ tOll ,~aft~ sid" Q;f the 'IN" ~.r ,S~!nlyOID)1

fnclucil Q;I1Ia' ~~ th t "M:'

rttl~. !trlat the' !tal~' ,~f ·~IlI~ follows an

imagina,ry diiiPlil;a,1 from 'th81i~1 I~f the top ~erit.

iDl.~.~. '._-1 -.-' 'aU'u.1I51

W~II ItfJe' ~ BII ,a~ 40"'. draw theeuNfiI lrighl' leg.

The. stem. $\~ m;t.eji®W I~e h~.d[illltB, and en~15 $hort, lof '~~ e' . ba:se'!m e. Add'a",! Mol #e~~f.

Kea!~ thei IpeJiI aUhe 's:aml!,:fS ~lgtl fn dFIWthilil stim~ 'alillill~~,e fNt

TlIJS ~s :I" aJma~ l~tJleJl. bit Ula freednm (11 'the poen is diU: wJ,dBn~ whe;re anl' stwike' s~'51mo angl~er.

Drawltei ~ente ~ d'ialOna:~ slN~ ~lmt It sha~Jd Imhtlouch the haad or 'ba6eline.

Keep 'the ~en art the. same al'lgl~'kll"lfraw :lhe llel ~q; 'thts Wi~11 gtve a thinner stTO~e:.

lliIe' center llitl~iIIl~11 cam] ~ SI ~1i N'~~ or snl~t n stnngh'l. a~d '!a h~id 'SI(lntf',l)n 11 ~ left.

Lift ,an~ I~raw Is: 'bQ1i!iI i IOf ~I P.'~ This can :sta.y

short to'f 'lie :sl~m.

A~d ',If:Ie 'C!J Nilglhacad ,S,tr(l~9. I~ s~o:~ Id be s~l'm1 and n~ p:mfrude In~1 the ·I:flliiller SITD~'.

stm will 'i:~ I"" at the S3TIiI8 ,3I1!g,I'BI, dUi,1/t' the. i,eriw and' ,center sbTo'kB.,

Draw a:if right stem ,ana fm]sh offi with!lhe; ,m 9'.a,d senilf-

IFor "1'; oO'nnectqmrne' bowl to the s~m_ Then draw thSJ ~H.

The ID~lfdr slJo~e' .!ita rbl at. the puwr vlrlic~l, ~t mu~1 be w.eU :lucked sa sstn a,ppeaf 'CiJillj}1lCt

11 __ 1111

uvw z


H[(,M xv

Sileo E I J




. ' ~.....,.-



These 'Romani cap~t,21lls dls,rivefrom ~ette'rs used ln ancdent Rome., They cJossJy· ftorlow the proportlons 1011 these letters but have, been mod~fied for pen wrIting", The ~Ietters can be used as dil:5ip~,a'Y capitals. but wUI work elqlu3Uy w'eU as

medt u m- or sma II ~~taxt II etters. Two types of se'!rif formatlon a re shawn , .

. ~.


:3 1

The serif on tt'mi15 aJph'B'bet can tle varied.

Th~ :sewi[~ D'f this, iJA"all1d~'E3'" halve been madewitf1 th@: pQ,M naIDa t1oriz'f.Int,H, iy I l~na~rOd!LI~e a stdf much e~~sBr 't,,,tl1's . i I1Jscdbed I ette.

INotiee bhewp san~ Off' Sot:

This 'W'aS mll1e WIth Ute ~~I arm .starting ~f 350 and. QR ~.ath'irlgJie eritl.ot thestfGkell pfV,~nng te the 'ViSrt! Ci3 t

These an~ text [Rom,~n ~etters and des~gnE;!d to he written w'ith an econo'm,y of s.tnJkes (as .oPP;Qsed to versalls or bUlilbt .. up ~ette'lrs'., The pr~ncIp.aJ Id',iffelrSn()e:s

. .

betWeen'rhes:e ,a;Jlnd inSCf"ibed '~etter5, 'is, the rgrea:ter de:gwee of :sh,ad'ing and the

ser~f fjj,rlrnlatien,~ wt1l~:IGh ls bolder, lin this, a~phabet ,81111' 'the serif,s are braeketed.

- .

etM_ '~'1DrI

o:u'!Iltl!L _




The 'S'IJsi I '¥~ill~t:at "ti1I: bt1tom aJ~e~Jri~ll~,~ nid tHe "siof IS IImIIHll $lJaestlw"m an· ini5!lll1lp~fDI1 ~:etter tbcalliJ ,al I~ .. d,awn l1,~'f,



, ,

The liP bflWI~of :tlla." Brr is' no~:w'b11!im'l1Il ~fr :tJ1a~ Ii''e' i~rtlm ~owt Cq. Pll'e~fuis, hi tIEl trtiw,IS11F "''P·'.amJ fI,R/"



Nd6clll~e WI' I~n W~,IDh ;2 Sedt ~s' bftn 1"ad; Mi$\lll1tirre ~n to the wutictl,

'!lim ulaitirrg tim blush.


AsmaU e);~ta ·fi~!.em m s, be added l",lWNJiI '~,t righrf ai the bas!' m tile' snf Qrlj ~I -$~Mlf.


,Beg[ n Iby d[3~~ngJ~ t right 1.1, lmt ,GUfllJ11I f:o 'the righ't 11):11 the lla&etl~ pronU&,~g j"sma'U'-fillel-

'e~im the S~.' wll~.a :5mal~ iDuwe al~' )ttfe ·healln1e'. On weachi I1g 'II e: baselme tiII,ak,e the

r • _.

Ctrl~ Im~le f~neFI~S,

Make a sefl1]-,~~r'C~~. I~li$ is, also 'Uls~f1fSt snke ,m "O:'Bn~ ~Ia.~'

Nore: the dlapoa i stresS.·

Draw :1 I~o~nm:al ~frQ~e a,l' ii, hefldU~ iau. ean srn·rtba~le .. and I.In ~ ablm the ~tadHne.

Now ,a~~ It~' lellleg· and anITeachmg.fie' ba,elfAI!! gE',~H;V 'tv rJ to Ile l~ft.


Smrting,ai 'i~e fi~~ CLlllIll' J~ the head oUhe s<lem mi,ke'·llul u,pper b~wl. grnp~mg short of

!I'he ~:t,m --,

RMu~n and .make a hS'adll~ne' stl:lkt, On I'ta;c'~imgille end twist-the nib II veJica I a:nd lift

Dl3W al 'IIelftal deml turni lfIe~sngh ~" 'II the [eftor Ulebl&e~

WJH1' your ,e!m stU! at31Q6 add 'the I~ seriifs Il1Ilthe ba,s~~jA~, ca~tem Mth Ute. tfOS:S stroKe,



'CDm~leJte ~he IOWM OOW I b,jolnilliIDg theflird' ~siD~e, flITlllm the l:aft ,of, tile s!i8mj ,ad_~ a :serif.

Drs,w a short ~t€M to CCflmlfi,ct the ~md OUhB' "lilt .S:t~~.e. filil1i3Jlly, aId' a! hor!2llntal seril

C<lm Oleie w£th a small' smf i.t tha' ,ba.seUm~.


• I, . '_' __ ._




This ml IFIUSICUhe ,a1lphab!8t has been 'dles,~glr1ed[ to ,ac~oo,mpanY the modern 'Roman c,ap~ta~'Salnd. ls an lexcle~~e~nt ha,nd. tor rnora fClrmlal, wrrtlng., Use the same pen for bot'h capita ~s snd rni n uscule,

, .L-

2 1" 3-

- ~r"·~'


A sJight skipe, win !lVe ij1e 1",otller' ,a, ~e&s,', formal look. U~:geod

ttut·oot eJlit'e:sSi~' Iletief~pa,c1ni.


'NiOfie the

c'h ara defis;Nc car:efuUy drawn w-ed8~ ·;Serifs .•

Th,1 letters Ire tI,e~cii d lo'f aln~l ;nd'~v'icoJ~Q~ laKClelSl5. tn 'ma,ny r'e"~lc'b this H; a 5cr'i'Pt mElst si 1m i I er ,t" 'lyJJ e.

Anti ough a~c,endll!'l and d_e~de'rs

ma~ Di' lfu::reaseGi to ~t1tiDl' ~"lm'lihtl ,It

J.5 oo,mm'lln practi;t'il im modern work,w fedu68 'tJa;m.




Th,e Stl1UlIS, are straight and the, bows are fiuf:l. lNIo letter hal'S 181 ny' ,gre~lte':r emphasis than I 'nelghb9lf and, as ln many simlii~ar letters us.e"lastypefac!esl~ feiibU~ty is of: 1P1f'lj me ,conc'ern.

'ji ~

The howl,al 'the ij.a" is ' Ir&!atnNely geliler:oUs. lit is k~pr ~s I,wgn I~*-'iteml as pris;slble.


Tlle5,we~,il1g blU is. uniQue taffih~··';g,!' ~ns Imp;da:n t m kOOD 'tlile tip,bowl Rman.




Th£l'tJi:lwl irS 31 tuii ImMd.ed a ft;:. ':serl can be a.d~9I,lf the loot


PI"aoe the pen iIlll the :~i!,e: ilit a ~5° a:n,gJe.

Make ;:n~m(UI dl,wlward d~ls'~i,and a

I-I!I :nlfle bs,.. .. ~,-~ ... ~ma" ,CUI,!'" __ ",!'i, iliw


Ma:hlHii ~ul[l~ "]J~,ded "c.f sha~. Th'fcs, wi III ,u: !1M :s.aMe 'pl1'timij~ IS the fl!ll~ IIa" lbUl sn1aUer.

. ~rt 'Mth :the same .sbll~e as, .s "~I" but at 'I~ftfl' b]':p ,Ot '113: x .. ne~ght

S~am1!ln'g sit t:lwe begirming o~ Uu: dasll, ma~~ a _tgillt siteDI, ho~ki. at'fhe blttm:n.

Md tih~, faU, Ittum, and ,ad~ s i~dly ~'mll1 ~d bowlill fi'~iSJ~ing shortm' the s.tel1,

St.amJQ I iil'e;..l1ird d'lwn lin! stem :ma~"b! aQ~e~r r1JlU ~ded ~ om.

_Uft: al1~ make: :a' gene.mls, ~owl, cnnnectiqlll!' 'tJiI'eI-hoOk.

CIlw,pl&Telhe Ism side of It~i91~,wer IbGW~ a hd ~ f~naJll¥. ~c1ij l!he ~(.


D~!'~m is mnlDlette£l ,.ae b:Dwi IIi1:lil BJ sb:ajg111 s_k~',

d f'~ hi I'

I ..... ' [_I .. t

"'kl I'

J I .m

n ru


These: capitals delte from 'the first ICJanb.Jlry'AD Sind 'wer:e 'w1dely used throughout the Roman Ernplre untll the eheve'nth century. The letters 'Wlen! either painted w~th an edJged brush OF pen ... writtl9n as a manuscrlpt hand for Ic~assh::,a,1 texts.,


]:2 I


The 'IF" ,and a'~50 '~he "L" ri,~ tlib~,ye the head line" illl Q;rder ,!J d~ff~remiate liem ' flfQIIfI II [" a nd ~i I. 'I

PUrlS .tinlBresl

Held the pen b~ween 'the vert.lna! ann ~ ma~dmum IDf H;f'., TlH,e' Ith11ii1ner the ste m r the ~mr@a ter

MlI~ emphij~,f:s wi III

be 00' the r-aot.

The'slo,pe, of the upper ,C i..It\fE of II D~'1

wlU echa and klUow ln~ iame an~e: as

,a I~ dU~er'euNe5,

The letter is Lmique ~n tnat the stTa~ g~lt sterns a ra drawn WJth the pe:" hehd at Dr near to the verticaL Thefoat is very p:r(Jnount1~d I' productrllil a tl~Jila~s,tent rhythml across the ~,age.

The d"o:mli:na·nt. featurss of Ithe. R'ltstie: capltal are the urnque thlln stem and the \jo~dl toot Q~up~,ed,' wilth fhe diag{)'na~ 'sw·ee·p~ng 'CII.;uN'ed strtdl(e_:s~ 'A"th:oufgh 's,oma, Ind~v~du,~:1 letters may seem unattractive:, the, :rhythml arrd fllow of 'words when wirltten, as te~t makes the ,alp~habet aI'VEN]' attractJve Jc,an~;gr~ph:i(; 'Q!x,t f~C8,~

~'~em~r '~ maM ~~I' gel!' I(~~~ (~" IT41$ ]t rn€llli.~ fo'lfIf 'eft m~

h 1J€:1~~ls,l8 fit :angle ls ma'i nilined Alilow '~I ~a.tni[~J rhpJhln ~t U'i1fJ ft~ ~. d~t't( 'the ~ne:h~!' of the pe~t

¥PU a8~ i~ ct~~~_~ ltle' ~n anme. to,"9rl lo.r a til nflif it~m,

lh'e '~s It lne -"S' SihllYl! veD' 'little

\~a r:ia(~1i! RDlJndM s~rokil1lS' 3.l'e mcJhlFl ed.

'11I!a'ke iii fahiy s're!p rf~~Ueg o~ the ~A." hOl'~ed a:t ~Iith tlfiP .a~d DIJ'Rnrn.

With ~al r peil h~r~, at 5Qf"J, f1]li) ~e a b~ttkwaJtis:lo~ mg·oompFtised ,arc.

W~~, ", 'Pl~,'lIt~ S'DJ. mlve d!o,Wfwi8'rd IEin~ outward ,afl,~ :GlIrVe bauk Il1tO the 'S~m"

Keep l~'e C~fI tar stroke If tI1e •• ~ 'narrow,

~ O.~t\ITIJ ttl€! R @~ lA!!J mor.e I.Iprigh~woSI~tiQJ1'! ,m:i.l~(l'a '~pernn!, s.trl~:ke ~orl e len '[:eg.

Rslum lOlrhlll' j~e9!d :fAd m:akec ,a ,ipt downward s\ViIeep.

fli' \m~ .~lm. !tM fltn may be \terlJlca~1 or no ~. tha~' '50(1 Make "I h es.tem a~ ~ t'Oot.

Re~m tofhe lm~a:d and Imake mak~ a very ~;n a~d d Wlrrwatd, s;iI~eepi mg' 2l:fC.

K~~OOI ttl rJ;,J!:l!fi al\h B ~ame ,angie! tl rna'kG' the ~\l~ld 'fUQ~ Ens um~ ;811 fe$ta ~fI._at ,tf1 ~s:::al'l,gi e.

R&tum t~1 tbe b~s<~ arnd :adid_'B' g'eJlfl FOUS. ~o~

Rdum \n ~M he-a~ ~1'i~, ma!k'e ih,s' bo-w! and bl,il lin a ~jn,gI9 ~h'fike.

1\[UV wx r

$j)ff K lK i 1? r r

AU~e 'f'HL ~Qv,e.,al'{m£ the baise~~n~. &onnt:c:~~g -~I Jbe ~ft11l1eT 'StTO~ a

wit" a ,genf!l'I'Us; arc.


D'Bs,iigned to i3r:colmlpany RO'imlGJn Rust,ie, ,c,a:pita~sr~, thes,e Ietts:fsf use tlh'8 same:

na Irrow rve rtiea I stern to contrast the dllo'WlnWBtrd s;weepii n:g· fao,t and bold di algonal!1 of thle curved strokes, H~s,torh::,a~~y~ the Ru~titC Icap~ta,~ wou~d hi,ave been used

,8J one, but' thes!8 mmuscule ,~lefjt8rs increase the optionsfer modern usarge~



~l l

2 ,



Tfte leners am genB'ralilly

eem p,rU$ec remIl cllosely' foUow th~ ductu sand l:ette:rforn1 of the cia p,irta,'1 s,

3 ~~ .•... ).2 I ~'3

H,Ii}~d 'the p:e~1 a!t ~UJr? to oraw ·t~e smm~ T~,eI'UIf1rQ\I'I,H!r ~he stem I tll.e .101:dder tnefoo,t by' eon ba:st.

':I .:J'

D.QwnwaW cl1"jllg. ~tro~ 5,hiOiJ~d faUDw tna ~me, degree 1m slape as ckise'IY a'S possibl'e'.


,NtVB.IJ" put fw,o

na rr,t)w VEl r'1t:h~·ai~ stems next 'to eac'f.i Dtr.r;fo~low' a thin vertioa~ with a oolld cLilNing stroke:.

J( ./

An.·.·.\a.~_.m.· .' :OSBI lib,rary-·:.· , lie'.'.

, I ~ ..

IBOO ,E Fir,s! S'treet-

Illil llruGl~mosa IA52205

Wtth the :oomer of the nib 11~~~ ~ loop. startull 3t about the tMltil] hi ~ ~ei

The Irn'iIMIlUSCUh!!! f[li~~oWS ttU! unique forml of the C2l'iPna~" the only sc:ri'pt w'herre tha stem is df,8wn withl S' v,errtlc,all st~oke a't 8 0°,., Thlscreates an ,e>!c'rliing ftow to the pSlge, the \e~I"e being carrled ailong by'the bo'lldlness qf'thl,e f,eet and ~d'jaBpn8Iny lla.y tl-h- 0: b QIII""iI n' IQc:'S-- '0' .. f' t 're·· If'" urvi n ,0 stro ka,s·· ,

lJI .:.1 ~ UUJ.I .~Q " ,IIII~ ¥ - ~'HUb .. __ !I;ii "


me! Shll~P a~Je lof' ijll clll1'u,ad$l'$, ,rn this gJiIU,P foU G~Y" thel a)1me ot 'l'Iiie (la,WlL

D,is:, al tJmitivfJ' "1l" ha~' IbWI11~ra.wn wHh'th'e mat on the Imfnl~i~.

The, If,m maiM H olrai~ w~lJ!1lhe ·pe~i1 vmi ciL :lwJstimg, Slwgh'~y, as, ~'f

It pplI'l~e che:s the 'fuo~ ~n ,310~i~mtil~: of.e sl1l.

Far {Q!IUlldefj ~tlM~, hQI'~Ufie' Jllul~·an ·Ingle of Sir.

Hald 1ihe ,pen mll the' p.ag,ea~ about C)g .

D:f8i""the S~lilrH~it ,g~OR" twiStinelll! Ipen 'kl4!IJ° tl c rea:~e the fimt

Wit" 'tOO';~11 &t&r ' movEl~ '[luilward1t bvis't ltalC~, tol liD,'" '~nd dh1:w j rlear v,amcal stem.

KteLD th el t,enbI~ ~l:Ine i~ ~Sil as uwnfp,t as PtSsi'iile.

IM3,ke '!rra~rl~ steep, ~lleglUhe "a," ~~ghd at ttl.! I~Dp a~~ bi,i\\(i.',


Turn"U\e ~,\,_,t 500 311lid d:r:aw a foot

Ke~, 'thErmpl stroke as :short a[5, 'Ptmi:b~e.

Millie G!ul;ter's~O~BJ stujne.~'the 1,1 '~f fhe ~t€!m,

MI~~ a~~[\y '~\t~p ri.llegj, hKlo~d a~ the oo~~ ,arid" bnttfll. Fil.iS;.h with~~8'U,p ,of irE! ,pen.

The-rettom sblliw tmsl'lds IlI:Irther ,~FI' is mO~1 ,gtIWI€£OUS.

bdf 1J k, 11\\ .L\ p q r :

Thls ~s a late R:,oll11,.an prestige' bOr:Jik heine from the fourth c.e,nb.uy~, ch~tnlY deri;ve,d 'from cJialss~c ·inscri~.pUorlr5 a nd ii]'d,apted for t.ext use. ·Veryfew exa m Pi lies e};;i'st. One rettlsOin fOir the script~s. short liif_e rnay hiave been t,he' :I,ength of time iil. toek to write this ha·nd asop,po.sed lt~ 'the· ,Rustk~"Gr Unc';:a'scrrpts ..


-_ 1



'2.13" ~

i" "4' .... _

I •.. <' 3

is- _~ ~.2


.,.-' .

,......-- _"

4- ~

fil- ~ .. 'rzi·.'.. ....;,3 ;::;;;8 ... 1 •.. -.2 •... ~ .• ~.. ,,9···._12 ..... ~.k:\ ..

2 ( .' ". . \ . I) r

\, ).'. ~' '. ) . I

~ . " ... /- /





Atthougn the ,lfttte.tS~eem ~raborious~ as a 'terl hand tJill,ey . have s c·ertain e~e~,JllCi! and 3:utha ri~ Ln.at ochGe5, that of Ul e i nsc r~ ptil'c'Hl a] I,etta r .

I!'----"" II~ oroo1r to

- - -- disti ish '11l'e'ff1

'frPm II rand ~r~. '1

thet,ch;alraelef5 FI and uLI! irb~e i311O!Jve

th~ treadi'lifl'e .

Ttfe. II P ~ 1"J'a!5 a: bold '$tem"

The first and haM

- sbokee of U'Ui! JJ N r.

a~e Hs,tr~~'Ii(" w~th tt1e PQijl' s *d.~e·.

The stem of ~R1' is a ... ~~ fil'1le fine d,MWF1 wil~ Ute".pe;ll fedg,e--on. The p~n is IuIpright ,

fiJ r bhe bowl an c1' ~d.

Basile I·

The I'etters are dra·wn w[th a ~ctstn3~ght~~ pen: One with the n~b cut o.bUqulsJy .. This lenabJes the seribe to, d~a'w an upn.l:hJt V,e: rti cal II stem wi'then,ds, at ,rt 't ,angl'es to the stJrol(e .. The Ile·tten:i,.allre bolld,j written at aOCHJlt three pen widthsl, and w·i'da·~ w:ith go!od spe'clin:g 18111'0 Ga!pitaJ size ~nterlinear spaclng,


Tha. f$et :swaep' 01 the dh:i.nal, ·s1rokfti):s In cilnrrarst ,~o fhe foJlnmmy· ,m Oe ~trdi~gM slll~tls.




m~ e De tI hs s ~eij' IIlIe l' tlttil1Flu~h il ffOrJ1. Un!! '',f,,'' which has lo ~. mad~1 fcelfger tt1~ e!f.a~Jish·,.a, dnferente.



~ .

The: r~Bons mF Ie fil1e' ftrlt. stw1w of lie ":if' is. .Stmil1ing flf· e mys!~ . and,goes apiost' htslQrical ~~Ge:dents..




Using an cbliquel.y !CIt mlb lmakliltdiffltwtt m df:aW OLe usua' !mId: spilt ~o~~: the iIilWl~~ pom~~g bmttom H~f

WUh ·the- pen le~'ge"G~ d[3,lU th~ little,g. Ttl is s.rake: c_an ~r:s,D be e~lte~ uSi,~lrfhe ~meF o~ U:te nfb.

~IQI d youfob~ iguety CIt pi6!iIJ. it aiitfJer '[fIJI:

IlmiiiJI1f[a'iof i IltaxiWlUfltofl511•

1Il!e Irs~ .nro~'e. oJ "Itt' 1S',a thin Srfttll~e. Draw' th~s ,jlIS ~.~ , A" wl'th '~t![, nat o~ the nib.

Ma hI!' 3i lhal'f ~Slfli:ra·r(; sh1mn~ a~ thfi ~e1Jfll[l!.

Use iteJ Cllf,mer ~fthEl' ni'b to make a sarn_

Wi'thou~ (!1~rfl1g:YOlllr p~n ,j:mglet draw ·Ilel I1ree· hOriWBtll s]r'kes.

fle,tllm I~ pen"kil

~ ~rilnlilt1l. maJ.leM ~hEl' r~tt ,!)f~l~e- s~e,mJ ;ana: dmw' a sari ·r®'~lnwillg Imwgl1 in!(!1 file. bowl.

M'~,ve to IlJ~ rrp t ~img alln ijJlne" Dlaw al~1twr hai:f -iSla:: ,3J'e m ·thB basel! ne.

Rc!~~rn you r ~ell lo '~~ horI~ontf}1. :aId :iW~ QU~ il 'l1J e' righ't for· U1e dla:pnall,

The ~Dd~Qm~(J~1 ,ams ,3f1e wtthOJlt ,iBln~ se~it~"

ICon~j AIJEl' the preiJ,i~lIJs s'~m~e dDWIlI~6 the r!ig~t. tl ma~e a tiBill 'Sjmrlalf till' A."



~ - -


'Ori:sinatilng in tlh@!: second or third cenlury'I' thls was the script ill: the lear~y ,Ghr'$;t;,a'r~' telkts a:nd is, a Latiniz'sd aldalplU~t~o',n of the IG'r:eek UnciaJ. T.he .or,fgj ns of our lmlinuscu~,e. Iletters can be detmct1ad in this script, w'Ith some ~Ietb~~ts riising :Blb'ove the he,ad ~ ina whUe' ,Dithers d'esc.e,nd beliow the bas/eU ne,

3, 1

.. ·2 .. --c ....

,l~ .. - ..•.•.•.•.•. :J •. 2._. <_W,'·. 2 ,~3~

- Tille le;aa-in strcke:

t /1.iIClW. S,'_ ea,ajJI~l i11i(;. ~Ie ste.m~, whfle, fha, ~

stroke ~leaV!s ~he

I S:MRl w if hOUlt 'i.JI;1:d lJIlE!

fotnla liity •

Ttl is fmm en "'rt d~d not ~whte unifU' the carrcHne ,m~nUscblIB~ QU ( Ts morae- u~u I for mOijem use.

This, se ffpt evo~lvled :qs a ~'ra,ctii'ca, ~ 'and ~~Ied'~;y wr~lten hamd~ Th.s.f: _ 9mGo'th

U nl,a,bQred ,qllJ~IUile$,shQlJIl~d be rata in 00' Ii n rna de.rn use"


This less cursive ~IEr w~ somstirues' used on Wile more.sIQWIl( wri Lten 'fJre~tigt . ma AUstripts,;

Tlris .SC1rlipt was 'DrigJnalliy WirU:ten wtth: ,al ·~~s.t,rai,ghtU pen, 'one with the nib cutat an obll.i:que ang~e .. This enables the 'c,alli,graphe:r to draw a vertlced stem w~th thlle pen art 90Q"" 'matdnll head and f;eelat rig;ht an.glles,,, ~f' you use 18 :square .. cut pen r then hold the pen ,a' UttilB lOft the horizontal .


_ BJ _

t~e Mar is congpicl(}~;s: b) ~~e .s;1ryl,~g. ~l1lt, W:~IGh l:1ec~lu"s 'feature-If la1l" Roman ,afr1:d eal~~' mB~E!Va~ scripts.




, ,


rtll:s fl.b' 'w8j,S:.ild:a,pi~e~' on "m'er Slriptl, WhBfl I!:I' 'lip 'bowl wals re;.liluw6t! .

..;~ . ~


Th I',.;:!o'·· ~~ I

- .:IlI' &; I'S, eXII.dl!fJUJ rl

'$!'lIllle i n slruc~ Fe; 11 is a lie" .Wlrth Illrn:ly a

SI:J£GtSi.D1mI, .of a tail.

. I~

ril;U-U _

~lOld, the: ,en at:.a Viry sl1alll~' ogle.

,BBlin by ma'ldnl the. ,~eLtef Uli" but w,ith ,a' genlUDU~ tUMe~lfo!lt

Stal~ the l'eH~r by m:a'~~n2:a wj~e a".

Ttii$ is the baSIO "l" str,@ke'.

~ke a Wi'~B dJliI'gllfil1 Sbl~~il!:.

R~llJrn and Il'a~e the t(]~ bowilli convert '~I,e "l" il1litn a l,IB. ",

Return ~o the' lip of 11J~ alt· :and iuahe laJ si:mple hallifaul.


'The l.llin' s~mu ilp,e'!UJi, ,ala[~ i ~ 'tha~ I:I~b!'e 'form hi m !ike. 01111'. "

SlaIrt lie! bow,l one;..Ifi!'ird l(iewnHle:· di;lJl'na11. M~w down ailmo:s1: ve~tlcaU~ ~nd~ ~!w,te back. on the ·camer 'of IJitI 'nib ..

In III co(Ji1!'HmUDUs swuttej li nk ~h B! 'bow,! W: thli! bOl!if]:l1Ifoot

The taU' ls a .s~rmp1B~

-si ll.e'i;f!1'~epni,mtllg 'm 'the ftiI.

u _ t'!

us WI.




This senpt W"2IJS 'the precursor to, the: C:arolnne rninescule, The d~ffle'rlences in the characters fU'E!: the ~,gl'~ (lind "r" ',and most noti,ce:ab~y the "n," which takes the form of a capltal. The ether :St1gJ1ifk:ant d~ff@renee is the' use: of an obnqlJlr911y cut nib. wh~!ch enab~@'s the 'stem to be drawn ~'!stf'a,~gh~" 'Wi,'th 'a min~m'al pen angh~t.



I -,2




;PDinIlIDI iDl8rell

The ascenders, havle a cllJlbbed serif. The Ua~ttakes the .:shatpe:, '1.11 a cornjo~nect UIOC/1 ailrthough f{llf mode rn u sage the "a"

ts k~ ,an U nCl'a[ 'flolrm when lconjoinedto "e, PI

1 2




3 \, - 5

n ~~ ~d;V~:s;~!lble to ~-aI~M th is Iffl~ fbr





TII;Hs alternative ~g,'1 i' t~ readable ~In modem lI!I!ie. Il80th 1~~gs:1J beg:in from: a



1111 i It alllt1e,nt"J,ative U f"!' ~s aeeeRtI b~e J loop!ei~Uy ~111 modern use.

Th is irs an upright small text letter.The upri:ght stems and thln horlzontals gi:ve, 'tlnl! script 3., I'Glnna;1 ~ppe~u'211nce .. The obUque~y cut pen ~S, held as, c~ose~y as pos,siblie at right an,gh!s~ to the stern,







H'~1d i!~e ,p,en a$ elg&e t; Ire! '~'!J rl,m_f1'hIl~ as

~~lbh:~' w~efil' £fle:i'i lID .Iis 1eJ1m.

The N pushed I' PEIn wjlll ~~ eHH13 erQt" the

d IsfinOb ile "~'I ub.bedn .£eri.

Thts ~t1ilte ~roVldes an anemaltlriril' h~j[J..in ::sttok, rq, "i /' '"j'I' it" ~


This $'mal~ t" rlemmmSLi, the l11uGi,rd unltn '!fl' 't.1I!~~Hft "rerrt1!JllPimlu ~Ilf~ $I: ri pts created 'the modern nrm

10 make ~n "a, M dra~lj:a SeMi~eirde 'b,e:gi:nnlng m the fighter te~in!T.

Stij~ a:b.Ove 'Ilie l!l~~ e~glil t ,and pr~5~ the "u

u,pwa rd ,and 'I)o.ard.

~or an a'lmmaUlJidl3lad-

. -

in Str(l'ket mOlii -a£fIOlSS han)ontaUy, at the U!P of I1D ll-'~ eiiPlt ad down ,n\Ouu~ st;n1l.

Ba.&in 'the :S~'llIke' Wit·1t ,3 sliJlt ~~,i5~ '(! bO\!e tile nnEl'. 11'1lShfuJ ~i ttl a snmM,'I:li.8lt: lbeww i

Refu m to the top and malke a sma~ I CUTVO', to the' "ght Ql'rlse ~i~e' jam \~ a fiu1~ltr are.

Move _across 'b:ll s' 'held or th'E! ~tem a~d pu'lll o'lwnwanl with tho pJ:!fl ~~nlont3t finish th~ stmkm with a miL

~ n a rl;onUnUO'lHstrroiw:. mO\r;e Lme~W8rd til dr;fJw a 'fuIhJITt.

~ve hi thettlp of' the )l~tMg~:r a~:~ maKe a 'fuil bowl, Ikn,pingll3 pe n at till S3rmll e ingle,

Fur. ~h!:rii,11la11' sJwoke! ma!ke l~~e I~OIil~ luH~ 'c,tJll\'ed. ~I.ing ihe pen'lat

Mote 'ltl the ~~h:t mid x-h:ejg~~ ahd conne'c'ta hal 31Clo ~be 'Fulir src,


ceo QU

d hk pSV


J l N 1'-


'This .refDrmed half- Unc,ta" hand Was de'v"eloped durjin,g the' ~lale eighth century at Charlemagne's scriptorlum at Tours, The hand lis lof rnaior importance as our modern m'j'nuscule 'characters can be traced back dlrrecUy to this, scrjlpt, the different letter being, the "t, ~~

The a;o~"'Qe($, have, dubbed heads ,2'tl1d are equal, to the x~'hlight. (s,maUer in modern use).

TiJI.Oe "r~II'~ ~WA -n...l <!oho

'II _, ' I I.:;.' 1I'Iol'90! al u[ 'L 1 ~

!'j ,arnd '1~l.a re m,Qd:elml addit,jJonS.,


1M ~

'11,17 ~





[lol nm aUGW til£! hS"1 to

9)f!Ome! toe namJw-;pulll &RUllt . tNe Gerner strOke.

'n modeln u~hjs farm oJ serif ~$ ~flme.fi mE'S)

51J f;Jstituted.

The i~lters fI:OW nityraJ Iy, 'W~tt1 no ·si Il.li~ Ie -·~tandrl'lg

o . Fe rtl~11 its, nefghbor.

-- 'I--C'''''' .'. AD-


The, C-girflHne minuscule its, ,as,mlal~1 text hand, wide, in ,appearance and used with ,gane1rdU! IUne- spalcin,g. 'The~ important i,nnolvath:;,ln ,of th~s hand 'wels tOI c·ut the, !Q,ullil I~t Irlght ,8nl~e.s and wrlhl ho:ldllng It at a fa~r~y ic'olnS,istent 30°+. The letters shoiw a <iist~nCitJve fibrw's'rd slope and hav,e an e,a:sy'fluency.





Thelas~en~!'mon 'the:

Iccf:i~inental: Ca~onne ar~ r~~ ~bvel" 'La! I ~'t, a~~ut mo ~~~:emlJ;fts;


The "mde.d .. rlil~! t~il is a a~SUqV; cham'ad"enlSiI~ ad also O~CMr;s, mil

",,, IOh·'" irull;;j' t,




Me&,pli~' '~5" wide lby Ju:JI'il1~ill1lljl the ,tfll~r '~tm~.a

H:~,,~d the :1JEl1:1 at a iii :a:ti1I~e Ilf 30"-

ThQ~.s[:em Cif's'n~IUI I:Stte~s b~gie ~th.s ~.d r~ld-il,.

Q.·e, I~h.lb ~Ja,d 1l~'tfIe a_s."ende,~ tan :be: "!lImed IbY' l~uSihi~irthe PEln upwa:ff! and' th~n dlilwJ1I

• lh. . .

IIIItO 'Y1E!' stem.

RetUirn to :liJi1la~'B l1a rtl1t a~t and Olti~ U!!l· Inm th~ I&war U~~~ng s:tro~. ~ ~~, elower lOP en bo.wl.

US!ilan~ the Ina~ stRike is bJt~~1 UMlf! .although i~ m~,y allso bI "ooked';e~~y tillwtiTrd' lie' I~ed letter.

Begin wi'h 11 e cente~ luc~ the_ fa!'1 u m;de('III'

sb"llke :;lind: ~f0,p:esl.:IhU,y ICEll11tsr s~~~ke~

d'twn'l'lllE ~dff(lm l1i .


Conlln ~,e-lhe might" side of the ~owl

d 1rx:;r.;U)I ilmlito 'tfuifl~ talUI in a sfq1e strl~e,

Add the ear to Ithe :rj~t ·side· o~ the '[op bowl.

The !lmii ~~nows '01e' paUern o~: '!tie '''I,'' b'lt reJ)ea~'lhe 'Ir5:~ s~em u'fo~e m'C~ing IWinder Itetallii.

R·e.~1lI ~·the tOPI and oompr'IHfltf:Je "5,~ Wittl ,a short htt.d. seke.

d- k_"

.. , .. \

- -

_ .. e .. ·<


C'?P qy

This 'freel,y dr,Bwn script derives from the Caroline minuscule. It dilffe'fsfrmm it i 11 the increased slope of the ~Ietters., the extension of the ascenders and even more on the descenders, 'in particular the ug.u The letterforms of I: a/f.-I I p," "t." IIW/

,and .y'~!' aliso show variatlon, but the clubbed serifs are! retained.


2 _



3 4




'. 2

The lette!(S, aJre ,cursive. and Illa,'ve an easy Irl1ythm I tnt ta 1'1 ascenaers ~nttua;ting the'

maU bedly' of the letterr.

2 2

I -y-'.-

-1'.·.··., .. '·


Ttl!s altemabvle lin I has a 'wrned

foot ba ~dJ on the p ropfl rtiens of ~he ~a."


These mOire formal U$e a Iligature

terms aT '1''' and lit' wheril~~ Doss'bl&

cen b.e substituted whem,jr,1 fallows-

whe,re 'an linterUneafl' "5. I

_Is'sh ,~ IIt<:ely to. O~LY •


TheS8.lletters have been drawn ,at 'four p,snwidths. The boldness tnls proport~9n suggests is negated by the letters generous width. The' apparent Uglhtnyes,stS further emphaslzed by. the ta II ascenders, 'wh lch are more than double the x-Iheilght.

The 11',1 sels the p\2lltom far mim~'.oI·lhe otft;er letief'S In thiS hand. Not~ U1e I~id~, fjFj:d Ute gafl e;rous "nluUlI tBv:ill in tf(e cDUltliffS.


The ascender~ sttD.u11 baa Ie:ast lHIual It lh_B x-help', nd the clutJbed tn;la~ !e'flds to, b'e rO'lIIndedl.

The;.open Ior.lJI IS mlall ami! in oclrtrast 00' the s<weepi Il8: 1~J:!l!n It~it This nlay be reduoe~ if spac-e ~s inSlilf lfliel1t..



Th _ ~ m al'Sa ·g,ws the 1\" h," ~nd: • n," 1~{J\i.

htr · finals oke

c s under 1ft le:tI'&(,

With he 'pen • 3'5~. make a w"d~ I,cop.

TIlls tS a wedSl' Berill A Ie: ubbed ;serif i s m~de IWIM!I ilf!' sa me duCll~'~" but''W~~1 a mUn~&'wl' a~~ IUPWil'~d IJ1lDvle'M'snl

'The firs~ ~oop of iii" IS, s maIler 'U'I'iln the !(-het~bl

This is the 'i rst s'!roke of ~: Jr" ill "Ii "n:~

and "'."

Mow back to ~he hea~ Ii De an d fl'rtl1ld the tt),p stroke.


Dra' the smm and give a !Ni'tmes~1eep to cma1:e H1e II'owi3~ p~ rt lif~~9 bl.m!l.

The IiInk leads, wmo:U~ "«nil tile Jjghlllaa~lj iVilI this Instante. ~I is, more than t~riee x-heights.

The s&:llfld stroke ~ 'm, s 'pa1lf:a~lfJlli the:s~em.

Draw thel stem 'Wi~, ,I tu.m 00 [out, makfng sure the .counmr is- \vide ,and not lcom pmss&~l.

Com~lele rthe boWl ~mh a wi ~e SW€l&JK a~ .SIr-e th~t Ole tQmrlllr has the same voJ'I~:me' as, the "a, tl

A~d a loop m JDililm9J Ii nk; in 'tJh is. i Il~tante. the I'oop is Wlg't I:lltllDsed. Add an eaf.

To ma~1le h" and "ou ,ani IhefiiJal ·strDke £Jf '~m,l'l' curve the'stem and tJj(lk under.


, .

._ b k_L




These free capitals dlesjgn'sd to ,accQ,mlp,any t'he Free Carellna rnlnuseule, :are slso g,ene,rousily $'I,oped 'f,oLrwa'rd at 15Q• The eurslve eharacter ls ,expir,es5ledl ln tne use ot swashes a:t'rud f~OILui1Sh,es'j,allttTIoug,t1 ~~IG:~U nJl, ~~ ,and ~~Qn also descend b!eh:J'w, the basellne white the tails of t'I,K~' and t~Rn are' all~owBd, to ,extlen~ fOIM:Brd.

, " ,




The tOiP· ~~~ uf "~6J n

~jnD. n ~~p _ U i:l1n(j i"R"

,~ I -- . .

arches ulpW,lrrdJ, ~nd the' tai~1 af ,r~J~w sw,El!leps

bellow the tJja~e1hle~

The uA,," andl !~Hin are h@re 'tr;e.ated moore: fo:rm,al~y!, wi~n- Uwe '~/tiemrs ~m1~f1la!tililg ;M~

,8 serif ..

T h I~S, is an .1 N1"'.

. -'~h ,i'll swa,sNes' Who g'lI<! - - - . . ,~

lh e· sem e:CJ31l

,a~oo b'e a,p 1'1 led tiQc 'the i~N.'"



• • ••••••••

I" tf~s ~IP II' 'the top 'bowl [oops Q~er:'the stem, If this 'tlilllm·1s, u. t It shoo,ld i!ls'D be ,app H~d tfIi fHe

~til ~!\I ~!D n''!' 911~ UlR. ~

Ti~n, airm s of

a. letter ca n be momf].ed dlperrdlrng.~n 'Sp~lt ~1rI1

~eQ u rrenft;::I1t!i.


The'Be: Iletters, ha,ve [belen dirawn at :sb: pen widths, and have ,81 fOlfW,alrd' s,:I'lo'pe ,of 15Cl,,, Th'lE! pen Is he'll.a .at 3,5,Ci" •. The stems .s,plrin,S fr,Q1r111 the r'~lht ,ed the to'iP sle~r~f ·and fi'n~sh at the li,eft of the bottom, :serif. IOiPt~c,all'y~ th~s 5u,GG'Bs,ts;a,n, ,even greater f'orw'8Ird slope,

The 'Comb~ned ,Hiett 'of ~e iF slope Q~ th:e ~et; I.~ am.d M:~ 350 ~mI a~e pr:t~utes: ,a ~;iiJh1mne st~ke;

The"tJ],~ stmke a'f 'I," utend\ "~lI1d1he 1b3m and ICUrves u,pwird, i lli IClilUasl10

Mfr' 13 nd ":N. ~

lhlS far-ml Bf "I" ca~ be ,a~a'B1 ~tl 'fi~ 301 ·stMipI:",stemmle~ raHer ,"I~ iG idJiil,1 tmr ,slarung ,3 :sn,tenoo 'm J8f~~ph,


Io ~{!~n~iVe Ithe' relstil!r8 wjjUll Ul 'Ie 'IS;" pu[1

glltti91~ine'. ClI11}! iilll.Q'MIiLq a .sha~lll·w cl!INe.

Tiu!' lSI, l~i3;golall (lithe 'If A" 'ha~Thln ,drawn ifJ;S ,Ill sirngile: dowAward stika', 'cmalti mil :3: s,tns.tl of Immeflatj~

IB~gin'lhl!mm'lIllfl!lEifi ~iJlt :bel'Ow I.e ;~ead]ill1,e!. I&'enemllusly, pu~~ om

tt1e htilrm 'Sti'OkJll! If Ithe HW~,

The S~aft~GBi be added bdoJiil'Ii:e1 :S_111 of lanlleRer starling:

W~ml,a S9m.

IBemn the i~Her ~S" w~tb~le!.,sffn1B~

The ~Iih~' l~iagDl1Ial t s sligh'HJ ttlmed WIth a sweepiflg:hllI,~ l1~tj Ilis:,al!so ~I~PS ~he '~lima~d ~lfI~l

'for U~I3' ;c1'~~mative '~~ bawl ~ s~art "~I~I'tll fhi leI' ,of '~!e ~!tJe,"iI::nld ~swe~p OV~F i~1 a 'o®nbnllol!l'S, .]\fI1iii1Ut.

Ij~th. swft,11 ~ silm tom ilie UlrnnJnlstil1m of me 5wa~hi Oli draw dawn wmt-amy.

Then a,dd the IllWfjr basel me s~ke.

'1\e: t1{OS,~Str'kllC~t3 UIIn)~uJh Mth d'iag(lnlls.

CI~nec:nhe upper an~ inw:er MWnS, Makil~1 su r~ ~e ,tll!!nt~m~an! ,gener'Jus.

0,'1'·· •. · •. · .•.. R_: ' .

• 1 .,' .,

, ,,'-.

i " ".'_

err:' L

nJis, arrternati~e: ur' has ,31 swa5:~lis Islelr I~QlN 'has ablI10~~ reBaI ~ua~rielli ..

FoUow with Iw: U~JJl'I snJlie, reliili!iling·the ,a,n~e 10~ (he' slope.

i C§O I~


This basic teaching, hand w,lIis'd'evised by Edward Johnston in the le,alrllY' twentieth centulry' .. The: hand was ~dalPted from a tenth~centlUry En,gHrsh Ca,J'oOne minuscule the IRamsey Psalter now in the 8,ritilsh Libn~lry'. Th:is manuscript was se,lecte,d as an exemplar because of its clletul1y Id1efin'ed characters,

P ~nllll: I '

TI~e ctta'K8cters twv,e' a lConsfste'lt x,-hei:,gnt an,d ,ascender Height The,y' have an ,even wei~ght and regu~ar' width. with no ~etter

domi nailing.

The center stroke 0, "s" h:t nearly horizonta,l.

Fou ndational han

The "i" and 'i'~O'U .are the key ~Iettlers,.to th~s, scri'prt: The "l" detines stroke 'w~,dth and serjlf f;Olfm,st,lionll whi:lls: the circular "o'' defjnes letter 'w!idth., The pen ~s. h'slldi et 30,0 :3lnd all ,of the strok;es are made with ,a~ f(Jrwa!rd rnovernerr ot the. pert There are no pus,hed or Uskated"~ strokes,

n,e: ropn~ 1J1QI" will ditfiiM tlm P'~QP,ortJl~'~c afmanJ fit ~~e: oth~r latieF.B.




Thef1fst~mke af th~ unl'· "S' the ~amifil as f~u me 1'j ~, N'Di~e' ttli ~Iead~ dllfJi ~' Sl8Jif ~ lba srrut 0'1 l1e' ~ette~.

ileit~, bowl Qf :the ':f is ci rtu~ Jf, '~~e t,ij 61' "11, " ~y~ ucUc,e~'bl~ s'l1itmier.

BeGBuse the "011 IS wide, •• ~ "s" 'ShIJuld aisn h as wide as p,t~1Ica1. J~fak', SI long tu'trat lb'~~fj.

Stan with a 'fu~ I h'll'r tin:uJaraTc. NQife; fha ib.aGkwi rd~im::llii1ed a!ds.

From 1WJ top of the cl(-nellh[~ make ~ ~hDrt d~agoTIa~ ~tro~e 'm :U1e lett,

Star1i"ng ait'the top Q1f 'the ~;.h~ig~t-. mab af! "0. ' but ~I sITIaUer I:n:e 'l:haJI ,3 fuU Ilo."

~gm ~ma "s" wirth.a1 wir!l. Een~, slop'[ng; fim~ra[ di.I&OfHirl stoke

Rep~a~ UIB ,aFt: in ,reveuse eliltha' ~~hlt

Witlmu~' all~eri~lI' the a~,9'c ,r Ule IM"~ I na~im to Us s·t~m'. D~aw(he

-- . -~-. --"" -

sjlm, Wi~11 rouhd~ root-aft the bars.g[inEl.

From 'J mmedhttel,y

OO~DW the rtgh~' J::i~ ~e of tI1 e lmwl~ draw .8 :~!Urved I'iflk!:n'g ,wke.

With a tign~ cUN,i~g· strakfl~ruck urtlBr (I, slDirt taft

IDoin t~lnuc, w~e'm lI1te "fI rstsotroke 'tBm ill1SJtes. mali ng; ttl a 't~ltJr as rlu I1d aspos.Sirble:.

~rch i nto~he rllgltt s~m S1nd turn fhe -fom, as, ,~ah theWtS~ ·stro~e.

ID'ra-~Y ~n ar\: ~ 'the lifl~t ro enclose ~hl ]m¥er b-ClWI, IAnaHy, a,drrJ Ithe Bar tn ~i e rigit o~ fhe u'l~er bawt


abdh ~ j kl

m- - t ... ·t· / u

- - - - . •.. '",


Return ~o Ute, .fI~ 'Dlle ;(-h~i.:Pl a'llld oo.mp~mer Ule letten~ith'1notl'r tighi, Cun.tlllllirS'lmkifl'.

These cap~tal!s have 'be,en'des'i'gned tOI allc.'oomlpanly,the~oundiaHol'na~ rnlnuscule and, ,a~thaugJl' CHstlnr;tly ,R'o,m2u1 in stru.ctur,@~ thlelr ,p.roportjonand SGa,~e· I~S

- -

dictated bV the minuscule. 'They can, howe,w~f" be 5atisflctor~~y' used Gl11,ione

w~·thout the minuscuh!., Their structure is bra,s'ic and forrnsl.

- -. - '..I- - - - ." • - - -. - -_ • • - " - _. -- -

Make t~e bfJ,wJ of 1;jF!lilgene.. I .. ~ han

tile ~em, t, . a r'1Jlrj evord excessIVe J'en;th to ~he' taltl,

Th~s alremattye tan

Q( ,to 'the· (~b'~ 1telps ~o

"ed'uoel. ~he rhtt:,rfLalt $P~·

The capllaJI:s m.[Jst~y use the sJab ,seriif. The: letters are' 'et!lu;all, tQ,~ or just betow~ the ,ascenoe'r hSli,eht 'of tile, m,inl!J~,lft,~

As Y,QU ~'eath me ba,sillfine, mw,ve rilh~ and 'dr_aw tMt~fJt :sari~. lWo~I'oo theS'.ma~lln~ck ,iit:the base. ~"'~lt' steilil.}>

It ls best tf) ~ea'm thls slcr'tpt in Icol1junctl1en 'w'ith the mlnuscule .. The s,enfs are slabs, 'wi.th a hoo[i(lo,r1! the right·of',u·A/~ HK/~' .uM/~ ,and "R." Praetlce tne structure

of these [~etters by tying together UJvo penc~[s·. Onoe you are rSllmlnalF wlrt~ the! proport~ons"I' an~lleH)~ and forms, ~t: wU11 be eas.y to use a square-edged pen.

:.11101 _I ~.I

Bre It'" fDn1l1S the baStS of ,atl "iItralgbt~

. stQmm~d :~elMrs-





Ttle wide I~S" I~ru~ :g;rllitl~ a I1IWI ~ e;a.~ a Ildtalill -



P:el;ilaIPs; lhe m!lsl dmtiAJiS~f(lg ~Sl~ orr Oil- ~r' i5. that im ig. the

I~~ ,obtrusfwcGhall'sdu j ~ al'l~ iT" the ~aJ1's..

TIul tUlNQ .o~ the I.~~'I (and ":A." "M." !J W,·j alll~1 "r) :Ii a coun1er:· ~laOO8 tim the·gtDigh·~ ~femmed !e:~fiiTS.

Ift_LDC!! .. g:uu Ili'Ql

'~rmld 'the p~n it 3iO.£' and Intl·8lke :31 Short hanz.onl:a:1 slia;~' 'SEd.

~i£l'fthe' j'S?' fe ia~"vely . wid&.~· begln~ing wil a wi~e ~~nter.J$iro.k,&.

The' bJ~1 Sb1J~B Iljl the '1'r ~,s sraipt~. ra~hE!r I ikl·;n tl~tendH: senl.

B'Mirlthfs, diagDna'1 ~tiWke with,a hooked serVo

Dnrw the 'ste:m~ fllillshing el~ laJrroW" le~ diagona:i.

Ma~B ~ure the ·~U is welftunk€d in.

'D. ". "'1.. 'l" +" 16.

D~1l n '1iI118' :S'~Ii:illf1SI.l'Q.m.~

at: ·thB IOD Of the ,hOri~O~~B~ to Cllnooa·1 1h~: 1®1in cr1eatcd'by d1sl pen :a1A.[ie ..

lna con~i:nuoufs, m'Qvcel:i.eru. arc Idown to M1~' Ibaseffiins'.

IinJs~ wi~ffir.a sh",rt tQp ::!!bnklB:.

~dd ~ .s:!rif at the foot ilf Ii~ leler.

With 'the ~n~' the same angle~ dm,w De [right s:ide sbllked n a. mOle· pl1f!DUI100d 1m;.



A- M~······· W····.>.I

......, ~' ... ,,' ,_' ,· .. ~'·I 1,"'"


One of the longest-lastlng post Roman scrlpts, Beneve,nt!ln was dev.al,oped 'in th,e' middl,e of the eighth century and lasted until c.1300. lts use was most preval,ent in southern Ilta'ly ,and centered on the Blenedijct~r1e monastery of Monte Cassino. Tlhese letters have been regularized for modern use,



1 n ~ 3.... 10 - .

• " I

, .-, '.' f

' .. , I. .: """ .... '

- 2 ' '2


2 1

The apparent bald sB'rillfs. of the miniIT15 ar,e' cre'atedi by

a twist in the s em at m,~dpoint. Tms ,reduces ~ts Wlidth, thus ma'Klng.the serifs,

·al ppea ir b~)I~,cfer.

Tile hal ~I r" may be u\~a, but a,~riid confusion 'with ~~t"


The tal'l "e" is more hbaD(~ca'n~~ tor're"t;~ ano Woas, oft!! n ti~IU red, .the llga'w r,~ sboMe~' lea(if]rngla or f~om '(he eross-stro,ke"

I 1


K:OOIEJ your

round latiers fOUl and haw a OOflSlSte nt ~,Q1tt1.



Rmln'l to I~e ,head and ICfJl!lplem with a sml!lI~ arc at .'the ~\1' to ma~tl lilt) "a" i III .ec 'fOI'illM 31n' "ec" ~~apEt

Th;Ce ~.ettets h'8ve a fnrmal aspect, lc:haraclelr~2ed by theIr reg,ullar w~dth and IEll Icons,1'sten't v,o,lun"e:"of the~,r,counter:SJ"Ascend:ets and descenders. are restrained in 'the:iiF US!B and the word spacing elesr and uncluttered,

fhe,s'illelt",s;tQI) j~a. tr 'Which rCG'(~ Illk€fan"IDit an~ "I;: jnilmmtog~ther. was ,a~eJaluf·efClulild iR IlifJst. R~m,iilin scnpt:s,.



Th'e s~ra i.t t(P(Ii~~

,S '6111 ltH1 chelrl'~tl[i'Stfe :(f rhi'S :balm~, ~bl ,rfG~ heilh~ ad by the II!1tillllt bmru ~Jt tne _o~:.

-the I~inwlkh:~"tetl I~ ICINin,g !h'B'·sBok"tf-;at· riHiI-~nt makl}s 8 bold ~eJr~ a~~ flmQll Which gjv,es 'the ~~f,ld a Gist!lif~tl!Jf tutuce..



Thi G original Torm 'Gl "fit ma~ look ~J~ of pia ~ in Iifi!lldi~n "i.Dr'. -bu\ will ~ authenlb!"" fn tra~l~cnal WilBa


Wtrth Ithe ~II, ,CIt 4CICm~lk,e a small upper iallfl:. ttflin rllum .:lind comiJJete ~iIile '1Ilwe~ an: 'II make 11 ra:unded ~'W.

Me~e a ~minl dowrn1.udl shtJkll at 4!O~. V/llithOtit ,aiite-nn:g Ine a~e retufl a(iJ~1 CIl.m~fete ~ e ~f.t:i1rll,

'B'~!miI1'the "t with. ,8 tigiU dQwflward eu M.

./ /__ 'O°

l1~~ll!fil 'Dfl ~~e hlJl's iDJ)lIOiite [IS, a modem

ve rniart 'Hi,st11iical~'~~~~e .. r" .1Jqa n ~"ilh a ItIlfg, da~n'~fd sweep,

C!1~~5.e' t'h's bow wB ,BTl .a m en tbe right

Lib: the p'e-fli Ind, rna ~e' a smalll1llJNed ~oot

Th i:unlrw can, be' lfepeated 11:1' llI'IerSe~ gavlng a oonll'lUO~iS CINe or ,be termlm1ated wi~ ;; smaHi~dt.


It is, 'III lowed by a skat&d u~warld strike aoovtRe ;:-~tilh'l

TiI1I~ii1I~nClote 'the' tOlmte:r wi~ ,8 ifIIillly roU'lded ibllW,



The d:~t was not w~d IJ nljltbe UD~rtEilnU1 G.en_ry~ 11{1WeVtlf! you can inoi:ude it~Dr I~H,,;Jem use,

It is oomIP]e'ted ~,~ a short horizontal are a~so abOvtl the!l:-hefghl u si nt 'the' P0}n't 'mf 'me, ~J.

c (.'S,o q ''"Z

bfhJl'k 1 'p

m n r t u tV;ty

These modern c,ap,Ftal~:s' have been d9S~'8:nedi to accompany the medieval Benev'entan n;ti'inuscul~,e and use the, same ductus, Tlhey' have net been designed for s~n,gha use. lOne cllailralc:tlet~st~,c IOf thl,a rnlnuseule ls the, a'pp,S1llrlent bolld he:adll~ne" and balsellIne .strokeS,t created lby reducingthe wa~st..


PD 11_1 011018_1:

The ~etler',. retain the 'oulllded I~ EHm,ost weat.;ge-:shal,ped serff of ~he minU's,eul,e. The upper a"rciM(B stl[oJt!sQf tle~ u 'J[~ II ,. F/~ anCl ~rG'I~ lend '10 have s forward thru,t.

N()tice·the slligrnt cbange at {ji r:tl~rifJn be~twi!l~n -lfO,WI, a'ned 'IJPI~r-'


ThS'rcundltd The t~p arm is '$e!riW has, beentrnrownl fn1W~rd. used, 'the U~iP!lf bQwl 'Spwin'gi ng from berow tne serif.

AU,rrna;ti,Ve IIM:1 baiSet1 on tlhe minuscule 110m. I"! Hole hoW'

ttie' feal en 'tli1il$, le'tOOr am facer in the. same; ditec:tion.



The ~e:tte:r$ arle' Irj<esig;ne,d, to be unobtnJs;f'v8. They combine eas,i~y wlith the dOwfiirlrctlnt rninuseule and enablle~ the, Beneventa,n letter to be U,$lsdSUCcesS1fuUy' 'In modern ca~H'glra~~I1'y. 'W'he!rev,er pcsstble Iml'hlusCu~IBcharacteristt:lcs ha,ve been

i ncorporlatedl•




-me width III the '!ICIi' 'wO~ 18irU m~ly armenlil ~o U~·e:·width (I,f Iht


The wjd!th Bf tfI~ IbmiW] wI~ I ttl dl~ttrm'jni!~I,by .~ ~ ~~Id~i 1m. "0."

la M

This is a ill ,a~ teFIJD¥I'. ~'S" wrth ~he bDI~ m s!roke,tOnGl\f6 inr&19a.d a semii-cJrclfllr, 3S;.i~ is DPilUte.

~olgjl'lg 1m pen al~ 40 ~\ fIlIl~e, a ~horr d:la,p'na~ ~tfoke,·ml tfirlllll~alif,d '~,e-lil mue'h~k mto· '~Ii sliml.

l~e'n, Ithe "0" wi~ a IQam p~essed ie1tarc.

~s ~nallfrf!m:am 'Ii 91·'

~I - _"

"\P" lean ibe d~a~v" w~.tfI, 'S ~ ookad&eritAI~o. 'lITl"!teli m~y b~ , ~li~h~6~ blwed,

Ma:k~'J' IlDs!11 a,t'rfil!lml III hei~liniil,tStt;,pi~g at 'M1I~~midw, M~nt.

IGi:lmpl$ f',: ,.1 by fin'iQ;hirng wjH1 ,11 mUJ:1 ~ed


[jfl'l~ e Jan and •• ~kI.e bqil1-~ing of the 'Or,! slrokl!,

1!l3ilum tli thtrH~ of ibhe m~'and mal~8' sn art with IUilSlnlE.l' r:I~tJpartlan as ~~e. ~fl. II

From 'lhet(Jp oJ-I'e au~e- mau' al ilthef I~an ,are. Dl,3W' Hi 'ha irllnfil

cJj(liona~ ~ the l:tft.

Ma~ean a ruh ~halt doez, no~ ~~te ~tch capl height" an~ a G~ I\!ifJg s<t~m. 1 um 'th~, PI to a.oOe 'oor lI;e Foot

Bm-- _

ou KL JllUUVI tV~y

Cillpl'l5te 'the ~elter w,ilh at. ,om,p~et1ed a Ie DII t~'e ftgM.

1r;lID1p~et9 ie bowl by Ibqlnning 101 the .refl of Ithe stem, 'tmd .rna1kl'ne: a ,genewliI;s oQ\llc.avf,: arc,

-M·I~,a.a '~II'IWi'l ·c ..... -,.,.;

.' !.!ii ~ ~",u~'lwal'U a.~""

between the: ~!WCi' :a1U. FiiinistD wrth 1B sb1o:k! hlill the' b~se of ~ EI h.amrli~ I,


a I~


Tlhi:sis pos:s~blY' the earliest European minuscule alphabet, da~h'-g from the middle 'of the. seventh eentu ry and 'd:eve~ope.d in the,monaste:ry alt Lwx'eui~ in France, lit has ,its 'or~g~ns, in the M,erOrving:ian Court hand: Although retalin~ng its eurslve quallties, lt has been simp1Ijfi'ed.,

2- _ 1



The fu ~ [y IrQ'1llI nded fDow~s, co,nwast wiltl, the narrow 'hatters such as, "n" and "m." As,oend~rs .and deseenders are ~1C?ng~ a ndl letters, w,e,re' f,r1eQuentty conje'j ned.

The !!u P' t~r ~\lt~) [Il~s ge'nfSt se,afitJjng, ,t from the "a." Ttl~ SIJjM~tgd "a

shoW1'i1 tieFoe may ,be mere suirtablefar rnodam Lffise.


U-,t\.······· ... :

, . _-

An 'H'te.rnat*\I'e: fOrm of 'Je~PI Tl'1Ie f<e" i~

a taU lettet ricsing aPJ)ve 'th~ x .. l1e~8ht ,and r'ep.~Mts

~, distinguishing, feawre.


Vlitew'edl as te~t~ the lrnpresslon ls of small W,(JlVY compressed mlnlrns contrasting wlth the ,pn_e,n)IU$ ,b,owh1, of the rounded ~letters.Ia II, ascenders he~ghten the dramatic, effect. The use lof ngatures hi frequent p,articul,u'IIY w~th 'the tan "e," B:hC1 wtM9r"e~ ecnVBnwent one ~e,Herr Imay ruc:~' in under- anoth18if.

is' ,_BlurB


lite I~ llV.et 81fpieS, ,Sf:! eenman to aU ~n~:ea. The:;s~em,s termrnateJn :genefQU sly n»Jnded stroke;s.

ll1:~ J;p" ~$ one M the \'lI,ider letters: When using',a lqembly o~ 'li&~r, this ,~affllwl\vide as-pad ma~· be ,~pi 1l1,_d 'hO ,~_I'd I rllstilltl;tive ,ohaTi:td~f ,to t~e 'ted.

- - 'M

TIm Ii.tmrn, ! I~ ~ IS-~rtp .are o.r v~iil'Yine wl'tlls-= Then" is a ~,alrrmw: retter.

~-'DI!!I IGlU'U_ ~!

-HlHd the JllID an the' page,.at an aqlo.oF45"-

Begi ~ by, mavi~g. the' ~'rts~ightl~ 'DlOrmw.am 10 U'leltit.

BegjQ will-a dfol1: downwa m strIke lo the'~re:rt.

Mile ,~,w8,ri amd wtWa rtth1l~e right wl~, l~e pen, ~liH-

Ma~l~ v~rtica~'.


Th,e a~:en deu$ 'SirlE!! 1.J~1 Bl1lCI'OJsed Imop~ M'o"JlIl! UpW3fdl then ~a.t~ s!1~ghUym 'd16 ~eift and d'IWI~ ~nlto I'e stem,


RIe,turn and draw the stem I 'Sllighly tum~ng. ~~e 'ro~I:-lfo ttl, riill$t

Then sy,ee,pl :back mto. te'Stem.



ilImmenae l~:e bQw~, with a n edge and mike it ~!{ld~ and

'I'" 'i. ,;II

'5, -SII~a~tII.

~~ep lUI sfElm, ,as 'thOiin:gh til i!~ fa! Ii ng liac1kwa:ra.

MOlle' Il'ut 1rom U1a :site. and· d:raw the ng~t leg~ 'fi~'igll~ng"with an IrpwamOlr:k,


As you m Gwe d~'li1n Ile s'f8lrJ. lwtstthl-pen'so mt i:s, nelld~ .rticall ,and tJ ojsh oille po.int

Comple.'ire th! towsr pan {;If '~~:e. blmwk 'l'Iis ]I'~J stay' snort of. the sUlffl.,

__ : UP

~o' 95 ~ z

tleh-tll r-u VI WI


Calplita~s w'ers U!H!d during thls period as dsconltiiv'li! 'Ichaipm:r or verse openlngs and based en the Peman capital, They were not used with~'n the 'text to dien,c)r'te; proper nouns or b,eginniings of sentences. Tlhlese capitals, have been 'created fot rnodem use wUh the rninuscule a,nd h~V'le' been diBsigned uSI,j1ng asimllar ductus, pen w~dthl~ and :Ii'etier characteristlcs.

Tille' :I.ette,rs h,8v,e b_e~n dra'WflI ~'thi'l 'cons,i,~tent i,mernall

...... t~ " t"

sip1acle~ av,CliI!IJm,i]nEr v&na]'CI'nI!i

Itm!tWeen whje a,lntj naHOW' letterS thrit OCCr'~r on 'th1e

min uSt:;u 1I'e;,

0- Oonsider'this I. QI'f an IlUpsidfa ,dlQwn versfon tJ):f

I fl'l one snown aooue.



CG,."s~d:er bDwinE the stem of i ~ ~JI a nd

brin,g~ng it to a point be~ow the illn!!.


The j'mpnessl():n .o.f the text w'ith ills small cornpressed ml;j'ln'i1Im.s c:onltfast'~n.g full ,g~neriQus bow Its. should not be ~mpaJfed by any emphasis on the capltals, w'h~ch sno u I"d natu ra ~ ~y bll,end ~ nto the b2Xt., If )I'OU USIB the capli~talls' on th:eJi r own, doso w'jth caJ&--a~though the ductus, you use coul,d form 2J: useful basis for experilm,lent

A-!G1n ararllel1~li:~ af~his hami,~ iUha p®~nte~_bow and Ulg IPDint.e~. i:11~hed Ii~,~r"e.$ttik~.




Tfie ,Cllnring of 't~e'

stlJ!m is Irtlfloot. lillie .. bfi1iken heat~ at tbf!i ttl P If Q1,~",~.~e.

The f'NI" ta"tai~s b(j~b a. wed.gf"s:el1~"ind the ha i~i~1lE1 bgt\~een thl' ar,ci~ 8f1d Ibe right s.~ell,






1he lla~ loft O1is ~'Ftis ~hoM13,s~n 1I1~ematW!f.l IUhe illiward ib!lrnililg: tliI' f]1 the "If' 'QPpul~Tt~.

~old.1 ,~en 'al~ am ~11iI,g~e 10f! about :40~.

;Mi~e ·two ptn wid:ths diagQna II~ down t~ 'Ute' h~fl. O~rw' back 'intI the' s~m,. :Endl wi1i a fiHt

,,egfn Iby 11I,.king a: wedge sent

D ~ MR~ alSIlI sfads with a: weqe :ssrif. an re&:ehing'lI,e baUnme bmtn :001 the~ 1e:ff.

Now make',! IQI]mpmsse~ oow endl~I'I'9na point

IRehim .~ the' he-ad lind sweep '1IIimta,rd 1ft a wid,9' bow.

ReitUfn ~ the' ~m,d

" ~ ~ - - -

bef1iue ma'kingt~e s;tem with a sH~h~' £i!M' and ,3, ~Ol.lIi1'dedkm!.

Aa~1 a tUINed :senif ail IhetmGtneturn tlill head. ;3n~ add rlfie tm.w~ ~~:e.pil1g at pOlrnted ~DW.


FloomU1s: bead i rlilita~e 'the rig~tsidel G'I 'the b01.'iJ ~'s"~Sh3Pd 'witih a fJI,]ntid'I:I land. botttm.

ICoHill H·t 'the t~ bow It 'the ste~lilII will a vefY thin f)tli'o~e. FI~na'll~, ~r.alw 1m e Clfnrfet 'S\tro~e.

Mtl'VIlI' Ipward 'fit:m! 'lit ~sitli'm i lilt)] ~he rjgJ1t'hrg. Start' with al haiii1imH3ld lim:t'! wi:th :1 ~Wlmmll [oot

CDmplem by ,addi~g

the: un~tfu i~ lsa &OJiI~lua"ti(m Ilf I1tlblllW,.

More .corlr1ectly termed lnsular ha!f .. Unci,ail~ thls 'Is Qlne of the most beautU'ul, text hmnds ,ever produced .. , IO'rlgil1atlnginl ~ reh~,f1id~ southern S,clotland t and northern :En,g,~andflt dates from the sev1ef1th century. Two supreme examples are tne Book of Ke.1 hi in Dubl!l~n qind the U,ndirs,f'a,'rne Gospels in London,






~q .. ' ... "'.::-:. :1 (I . -

- l


1 2:

...... 1


- 1 1

3_ L


'4 i?J."

.2 ._~. ~_ .... :2

The eye lis ~alnrtad (l11,orng !by the' bo~t1 se'rff a n the hsa (j I in!. Tn11s effect ls Ilidad by m~'lriJJmall' ,ascenders. and descenders and by l,ernerouSi Ilne sp~cin=.

1 3

The Oind'!£afm (tf UQfJ is ehl~aalle(iist'c'" b~[t th e .u1l1C~iil f.Qrm is an aeeeptabre'

al ~e meJU\ti'.·

1 2

The feUers IB~e Biv;e:n wl]clnl an~ w8igh1.· .

A'ltl:frfnlstfijo:.e 'f;orm'JI' of hO~tl fa" an(P'I1Jf w~lI'e fTe~'uenUy mh:led: within the $~,rir:Jj.



~ nsu lar rna] U!Cu II,'

:M!k~the rie.h~ s~~e If Ithe b-o\l!ll. Nall~e.the f3ilpanded ()ijralrfi~'ler m 'the letter.

IM(JVf"~!ighly 3:lonl the' ~i(lIS~nne'l ~ ~'yel1 ~ ti~,~ slem tbemre areitng ~a:ok [nto, In~ ma~n ilo ~~.


These hE~ttelrs are 'wrlitten with a "straight" nIb:: ,A n~b cut at an ,angh! 5'0 that in w'ritlng the terminals are ,at right an.gh2s· to the stern, Tlhirsa~5o produces 18 contrast btet_w'een the thick and th~n strokes, ,ho;rizonta~ stn.~ke:s being of' rnlnhnum tlh'j,c,kne9S~




me ~rotl Is'tft,t bas,isfor ,al ~ 1m'1' the, IJoum ~f1~'

dlilflactren'l. K~" ~lJr p~n ss 1m~ 3"$ :l1o'SSible 'fin theSe r~tter:5.


'ft"wa I'pi-ste fflmed '~twrs: shGIDJ}!d I~e~£ be tlllie.~W1le,~wr(h a'sinlla' WOk,. n1:ey ~,re always wj*r arll:e; b3~ennll.

The 'da'lU ,on tne IItll,t$ irn this, goolWlP wi III

~ui 'Hrlot,Gf~aGge, bait tile' end: rmJ~~ wi~1 ma'~e it,al'l' w~u1J~WMe, This ~~'t is. ~Ui matety lUI mOflI' ei egalilt

·and Situdyinl ~he. ffijroductitns fr~m' 'the lind i!Jfamlf Gil5!Pftl~ 'wi~ I be '~ail ~e,lrplflL

Hll~dtke p'~n Illlli the 1UIfJ! at l)Ji:I.

1'8 '~dge' i,sL,arnfed. tt is mff~e b~ I1G\lfn\r the pen diwn1iluHd and 'lwlJi P~11I wi'tlts 1000·m'II~I.

11 ~ i~art wi III m~uire ijlla;cfioo.: twi8t 'Il!n:B ni~. mrthlg >a'~ ~(r 'aboW the hudUte.

Ma~~_ a I,oStUve wadge~ ~1ce top tan be h'GlizanmL

~o.ld~ng the' ,alii ,a~ th ii'S a ~I~e:. m!sk'e the ,rsf brall'f· chtle~

Move down l~e s~em~ nUlv~r1,g;SiJi,fJhfJ ttl the ~eft amid bJlmitmig the

~ e'F! Mri:zontU,

Th(!1 d~rt shi~ul~1 gl' to ~I p;i n~, tlwlll 111IOVe ilID ~~e h(lrii~n~rl.

Sw~p b.ae~ williS geneoo,lIs IIBft -arcM 'the b$Hrnifl:e~

MOM along ~~e headline. 'lmep~ng Yl1iJr hi nd s:t~t~y.

LlUhe Ipe:l1I! move: bl 'the d~1. aWid ,qmplete' the dJari3der with bl1 an anc:,

I 'I. Up.

ChJF :L,mn

P II U, Vt tol

()I T ... · .••• ~ .... ~- -:0 ,~I

Th~5 e,lieg:~nt scr~pt dates from t:he earl,Y ei:s:htn century and, as the~ name

su.ggests" deri'VIe5, from the UncJi,a:'1 scrIpt:. lts ,o'!rl:gins cain be traced to Canterbury ln southern En,g:l,and. alltholu8!h as its 'infhJ.1ence Im,Qvedl nOlrth it eame under the span cd the lnsular Imlajuscu~8~, which it t~leaijrlly tried to, both emulate and outs;h~ne.


r\ ,'", 3-

4 3-----:l~

The 'straight S1em s: '\V~~h tta'trUne- $'erib, and the r1~sed "L JI Ihllve si'milaritlres to 'th" Re,man squ"are ,capital..

IBrm"dtIFtg,~:he ~ a llrl i ne ~er:lf WfJ.S a dev~ga' u~d to til1l if'!

em, p.,~, s;~.a,:&!. N,otl,e,e<tfui!


term mnatlOt'I,s, • the sl'ems.

T't1lh. Is an iIJl'm:ma't),e iiU .• '"


ex ra~ted

:ser ,at -the head ,and 'foot of Itt:! can a'so be u:std ~l1the ~H.'"

1 2

This a,l;!rJ1a~h,e: form of i'Qii falll~@lws the Rc:m'm form as up ~Qsed to 'the W'nefa' .

'I' - -I'· -I' --

1-;- ,- - - I, _ -, ,__: r I

'alSIC s ,IIIUIi,~lrl

Thls &tr~pt h~als been 'wri'Hen w~til1 a Ustl~al}gil't'~ pen, one w'ith an o,blliqu,ely cut nib. This, pJuduces the 'st~uafe term,tnats, to the' bUI~d uprT~,ght ~stem5, and g,Th\iiiS 8)(irBmrBS eif thic:klthinstrlo,!k.e:s, and hairli ne horizontal serlfs, The fLJIU serits on ho:rlzonta~ terminals aredrawn w~th the comer IOlf the nib.

l~e ~'A," is a Wilde ~'e:tter wi,th tEl' !'painted" bowl li~a~: dest,9.n~S beJm~1 1mme baselffinft

ft,9<5'maU senti ,unl the' WlIldWd Ile1tef$ will Irreq!illl~e pmnnce.'wlth the :atmero of the llii~.

~, llJJ

l1I1'~' o,jiH~' ,an~ -r nse I8bjJ1JeJ th€! :heaon~e ,a~d

.. ~ TO ~'F ", "l " Itp, ., '~a .-,

, . .1 II -.

and ":lJl" falll ~B!9WiiJ

!Io. J,;, .... ,U· Jl!;!iaM;d~e'.

The':dllgonall 'of lie J'rr is "lOs:ti0 tJ~al' (Ii 'the UMiel"A."

,start wi~lh EI,.Slt s:ideward h6mla:~1:aI'. hat;di,~ lite IPd n horimn.I~.

M'o!D1f.1c1 fi~D 1*11 hOIi~lllil'dly, dr,a:w a SjmI-clrcle tQ.~he ~e-ft.

rllJ, Id- I!li., ,', -HI ~ I.~'"

fUll- ~w~e: s~:uli~g~~IILpen

crow Jh1, the hOrl'l(lntal aid ma~ea, s;~ort stmkel ,8JbOVie ~:e he~~I~ne.

To mike th;J!! 'Hn;t ,a'~ d lafSt S~.akM, d'raM/ a ~erflca'l hairline with lie· rCltne.r I" th.e nib.

:Stfi~e downward: wif:~ 'Ii e YuH ID ~,W1;~ ~dle. Add '~hre fHlt 3lrtf.

Re-tur.t1 M: the h·~d~'itH! ;,amd wi:th the :Dmlm,Br ~f 1I,e: ni b. movie l!Il'~'~g tile: headline ,ilIlil~ dr"lW'8 s'n1.2dl self.

Now dnuV;Br vertical

. stroke' tao 'Ihe- base-liRe. M~ anotl1J~r hair~ine ,at. l1el:f'IlIL fbis illS, tile' ba$l't '$ml m,lke.

Return Iitle p el)l, to lie h:onZ011Ifta~ an~ d ra w a d lag~na~ Ctlrnter ,strike"

The oowJ ,oU~a ",A. rr may be ~rn,WIiI wffli 'the 'tlJ,merof the iii ib as ,3 "skated" l)koktt

R,epe.at i1is: stroke again ~ ;16am al.sem a~' the j~asenne.

Ani;~' N:~t b~!'~,W the' headline (I'nd draw a fu ~I ~ern~~"irtliar a,te.

Add:tfHHu_I.I!eg. Ma'ke Ile sefTfs, by drarwiAg: willlb~ timer ,oJ' the n~b ud fillimg in:,

Orj,ginating in lreland in the 'sixth century~ thjs scrtptwas quic:k~y adopted ln mainland Brltaln and by the: ninth ,cantlilry' WSI,S the most f)avon~d A,n,gllo,-Saxon hand, lit touk, diffelr:ins: forms, the two m;o'st common being the square and the pointed minuscule. The distinctivel pointed aspect iscreated by twisting the pen to the: near vertical lain the long deseenders.




,t(~; 'f3

As w:j'tn an CIUIFSi\~{e -~r~1 p'tsj ttJe letters were de:sianed to be wr1tt:EUl wi'th ,economy ~nd

_ paecL A 'Gertai n i,mcuJntc]<f IleHer-Un1kilng 'will aCGur.




4; 1. .'


~lhiB wedee' seri~ sho:u~d be

'/' ~ar'ehdliy dra,#n :an~,

I f'c~~()~ed OY' I qui~j

I 'twu;tln~' d~o~llward ~.'

~~. moVem'enl ~n,to t~e 'Sliem,

_/~ t,rrj1er~n. to cdmost a ,01 nt,

Tht 11~ I!e~' walS - oommonly Iil~'ed andmuk!1 be hgatured to .. a nlJrmb-er of r~·ftm'.s,.

The pen 'is Illelid at the dorninant 'ahf,gfe of' :(3,bJDUt 40b~ w~t'h a s.fiight ~Mr§,t~n,g, of the pen 'to-ward th's up,igh1 on s'm,an 1~~ll!tters '2Ifndl a steep tW~;fS:t to th1e al'mIO$~ v\ertlc:i;f~ on dsscerldlsrs,. The I:eiterscaln a~so be fe~atFvelly open and ,sllig;hUy expanded in their as'pect.

Demons~are~ hellam'is mod~mve~&U1n 'gf "~'I he s,the ehs~'I,~Jr~1 f®lf a!ll.e leters illhf hal~.

~'"",, r,J'


s-too1 froli Ie' ,dO'm,ma.n~ 4U? 1)1 nea~m 7'e~ Is

a ~:milfaderi~io 1hat gi.Ve:S£thB ~rip.~ Its po[~,ted 'aiSiP~l

The wi~th tlf~!~e J~o~ 1:s ,iI ~'mfmilfl inIJ3;~lQr mga rdl~~g, t~,e' 'width otDither leltfr'S.

lilt! t!tn!-U,lmlUIm,'Stem Itt ma~e 1:1. ~GW ~S ~pill:a'I' rj !leidy aU ~fi,PIs bimre 'tf1 e

iii rrm:e nth (.en lllry.

Qifl'l wUh aI8n:~Klus,. st£Oktal01TJI 'the rQ~ 1M tile )'J-heJg~t then re~urn .i1l1'id ma,~e.a I~JJ~pr~s~~ bQwJ.·

B~gin t%;e we. w~th al l~f~n~:e(IDp" Curua bank ilIa I,~ e st~m.

SbJ rt y(J~ r ~~mke just "I.'w the, ·~p~n ~ilme.

MaRe ,a 'P_d einruhir s~eepl ~ownwam.

S:tlrlil1g wi~h 'thE!

~~m iniarlian lof~l~e '~~ . ~,ppel s~kif!' dralw~i::e! d1lGwjiII,uard I !n~.

ReWfiTIl aid makJe!.the' $Jfeml.lwisling 'Ie orb ~:, ~Qu<gOj nnishJnB' ,a'l about .'Ct'.

lh~1Il1 mS'ke a, good rIlirllula r sJNeep.

lthe .~ [(ISS sttl:kec is 2pJbed in.a '~i~!te IiT1.DV"(iI1:ent


Dra,w a IlHimnefm~ below ~'e,u~llef bowl ,an~: ~\u~lp!'lettflh! Illlwi'rr ~i~ k .usjl1g the tor~&t 1111 ~& nib.

IJi rch ol.llwal'id in s. cl1m~ re~s,et1 bll stm:~(D1 N~ reJ1'dl:~lo n ~~e edg~ oUbirpillII.

Ma~ElI i!llothSF r~ aU ·to mirror the'~fiFsL

Id1b'Calt l'SCUW

This tenth ... centu ry scrtptwas used lees,s w~dely than the centemporary pointed minuscule, Most cornrnonly occurring In southern .En8Jandt the scrlpt Ir~gl;dly aldihenad tal head- and haselines 'w~tll1generous line 5.pac~ng'J' and has. the appearance of a formal w'rilt~ng 'hand., The "e" and "n" are dirst:inc,tive characters.

.. ~



1 2'

t' '


ill 2


p,llnlS 1111nll .. lesl


rf1.1. - .... ~ ~U,'



nils i:s: ,iii modern '1,," w.hicn can be used W1ilefe Ul& hi8tor'iCS:tly ooreect I~r" w611lld ~end~:r tiRe text ni'egltrle.

lhe$e a1r;e moo~m fdrms; o,f '(w," H,V /'an~ "y,''' atn,d: have been (1 ra ~'11 to, $trer:tgnu~r~ the compressed iBli!d uprilht

eha rat'te;r of in it str ilp~~.

The ~alrrQwnes$ ()f the

tl1m ~aelerl hQI"s m r'llnf~l'r~e tt'l~lr lUp:r,ig'ht iUif)ect. ,~,~,though boUr Hd'~ an"d .~g'~ retSifin Q

m,ll nBnes!i.



, .


tfi] ~

lJile wtd1J1, oir the loa ,I 'w'\l*Wm\q'~ '!MI~ If~the')l.!' ~Mrers,

rful 'Ie" is lieiry

distl n,stWe ,In th j:5· hal~~, as irt ha,s.a tmtlkd se rif .IS, .3 i~inml·'$'&M&·,

·b'···.-··.··.· .... · .. ·.··.··

~. ~- ... '

I .

.. ~: _' -

The' ,wight ,ft(iss~ ,stroke a~' the ~€lild, lin sread <~J ,11 fQuni1e~ trow!'. ~ Indh;ative ie:f 1l~1,I~ii:'ar StrilllS.


1), "if win ,3)Sft:gilfl !fQU the' \lIitlths 'mr'llm." >.in:' U, and trlB 'baditiQ.ML "r, ~


fwom me lOp Irrttlte ~neiI11'~j Imla~a ,ar short

.. . .

stJ1\kem the r,il~r',.

'Start rlrrrmu *e l~h~mn\ wl~h alml u~arll ni~l MQV"a!D~ hQr~0nmn~ ;a nd' aOlm,le,te with a dQwfl~lalli mc~.

Ma~e~a Im:an_gutl'f serif at ~~e head b1,m@1IIi1't1 str~liht downward B'nd crrvinB illi,to H1e~ :s~em'.

Ret~m a~~ swee, to iJ.Jiaw'the stem and a

tile' :ba~:~jn~' and up, jntl€l' "is.tJete 'fuol

the 5~ern.


M·ake I silD'lI. b~t ~d m:1 nom t1~e top 0.1 tile

eut th f! filot to the r~pt stem., m aM' a~ .short loop ,j'!'ld M{PIB· outW,u'd at ~Ia' midwaJ pci]nt

f'J1CJI1 :nt~~ aOS:SNf ma~9 ,a~ "st.:.. sha,ped h):DP Ides~em1e,[

Miske Ule s'l!)m 8'8 a sepam, , SL1'Okt and tum. the loot sharpl),.

loop \he ~'8lII: bae~lt.J~~n this sltmke'.

Mab ,11 sb,allll~.w ,arch and je' IrigM 'Str'D~1! wenr 031 tJ m ed'foor, ·as on the stem.

bc()o pq

J f: l mnnu


Dep8nd~ng on ~t~ domlnant char.acb:u'i:stiesl this script is also known as late

Carol il ne or e,at~yGloth lc, lit w8sthe, IPrestig~ bOOiK hand, th nJ,u\gh'(Jut the, twe~Hh century, The club .. llke s'erilfs on the ascenders are 'one of its di'St~nguilshing 'f'eatuflfe:s. The we1dge slerjlf on the smaU lle:tials irs, p.r:onounced.

2tl"1,-,-', ,'",.!

I , ".' ,

I " ,

'.l y

pl~lnlS II illenSI:


l~eJ'iS caM be ,~ D9,ld a~dftree rf~n Wj,affis.

The jl5;Pender~ ,andl EiSic@tldelers at'r'€!' r:e~a1t:i v£: I ysmlH Lies, tha In c1,oubh~ t'h,e, -hei,glht CaOltats are gel enlll~' M1Ce the' xheJght 'Ca'ron We ~al'p1tahi Of

,simp~~fi eel Quaid rata t.a"pit3'~S, can tie usgd ..

,lmernati:VE fOMm for Itu:na:ettt.

For most of the letter the pen s,hou~d be held at. a consistent lang~e 'of ,40Q• Letters ere mos,tty separated but just touching from the crossbar IOf "e" and the feet of tbe stralig,ht sterns, The wedge serif is more rounded than other scripts,

Ute' wedd seJiif' telldS to ,~a~e a. .. t1~_bRd

appmfan 'e" Reap 1I,,,e

ents more nnmdid

, ,

thaJil sharp.

The t~,p be l of~ll 'if c.euplei$, the (l1li11 ~~ heigh~ ,and is IIIftf ~i n alii ea rrier Jtript5 .

rhe.!t(l:~fm~ssiQIiI :~r' this'

._. 1'1. , ... ~.'

S1CiTl~,' IS m'J,1rllC~lill,e m

III maiEM-s~rmIJd letters ald, ~n I' ns way, an . cipates.ladeF Ga1hic~ klfflllS.


TI1frf-ool dees nil him a' 'on he Q b&r ch'B{acfes, but

firm nates WliPlI an upward nt'C.

Be;gill the' serU with a do,Wfrwa JdlnlIJi~;

Commenae lielow lie UP)1l1r line; dlJl,flllt sweep nat lao 'fat

Begj!l11 the &e~f wi~1 ,a downwind flick

Ma e-a ~ertioof .stelil and mtk II e fool

F r\l1iil11UJe' en~ oHh:1! ~'tc'kl SW"Db8'tk\Va~d a~t1· d.o.wnw~[:dlintD '1ihe stem.

From Ole! head I c0n1pJe1te the right leg with a, laf18 "sti. s~lped, stoke'.

Rlfum m "the sta rt lof' U1e' ~IDic;k'and ,m~lJe ,edJi(ally Ido' n tif stefR, He al th~ fc,01',


lmOpl at the b(Jttllm of: the"s em t.o mike a toot

Make a diagonal

b'a irlme bil~, the !tawl. End the ~G~ hori~onb,1 and tS,F tlil ()Irl~ :s.tnil~e.

Cim1plie:ti the' Fl~ht ~eg' of' the "n 'before:

IretJl roil1ll~e the: 'strill and I&tHllple1ing thei tria'lIIgular 'ledge.

Se,gln fD rile ffgIJ1 of rUle . Rerum to, 1m head arrd

stem Sweepl eftto the, rna'ke the fiaallsImJke.

kip ,and, move, In_n lD!

malke tholc-roSSi"l,lIoke.

d III 0

ac(:q: scv w~z

One of the classic scripts ot the later IMjt~:ldl:,e Ages. Goth~c Texture QuadrataJ W6lS, inve:nted in about 12:00 a nidi continued ,~n use fen' non-secular w:ork for ,300 yea.rs,. The narns chs;no'tes, the "square" ~etter s,hape~ali1d that thew'rittien pagJe should have the appearance ()f bel ng ,()If a wov~n "texture, '~'

Then~- is 'l.tery Uttl a d~ ~'rleJlna'tlon between ~ette'l"s~, wlttJ many

oeeu py,j 'netne· 's:art1ewidUl. 11'M! dot on "i" hadt.B! be i M"IJen t!i~dI te, i ncr-ease legrbiliity.,

The s,tem 'w'idtil'l'l illllts:rlet1er s,pa:Qe

a n.d intefllNGrd ~ ~ee ~h"~id baas- r;~~ t~ ~~h (l~he r as. pDssi·bl,e;.


3~ 1


2" " "!1

Ilhe Splli'l s.lem ,oogi",s to the· left ,of the stem,: -the Iright -'spur ,j:s added.



The: lh a~fi'fr is

lcornm, O~, 'I,IY U,S , i'd" ,and bowed feft.e:n; are



Th~ hEitters are IcomprleSse:dl;: line spa:lc~'ng ls accurate, about equalto the x-tll,aight; word sp2fcj ng, is eq u8,1 10 tne width] of U~~ ,.'~ Tille [I,etters shown here are very forrrtal: the'y cain become mo,re CU:rs~VB~ dep!ndj:ng on the speed ,alt whiieh th1ey are wr;ittenJ,. There, ,are few ilngh~~ changes,

1lt~s~'el U1'ilt .ake Upl the iii'" ar;e basf:t fir:

n1a'I~Y ollB~e Iftl~"fS, an~ '3Jtr~' IBJ:SY 'ro $B~!~~e.

De lJ]m~r bml~..r~ ofth& ~e:" wW ID~a' Y~'im ba,j'n lebr wldthsf',amrud~" ,~alis fOJ aH li1!m'I~e-d Jetm~&,

~~ ~Iil ~l~m ais,o :GC!liIilfS, elm til, ~~h," il"

anU "11 ' aid "ay' '~akl,1J ~iHle pracbl~ljtl tat






H,'~d 'the PiBlI1: :at 401'0. M'Ow ,'ia,gof1all~ tolte ,~ght and nJaik(!'.a Idiamond'.

M:lWe" ~:GWj varielUy 'to ma'ks d1Ie bow. Wif!l~ U~~, ]pen aif tkeS:OOl~aml~Le', Imov{~>aoro;ss ,df~:p.~~JII~.

Bq~n ·tIle sp1 i~ im, tilt! ROOt D~"lIe stem. l.o.V~ng dowmva rd.

Start ,8 dlaggna~llJfsl Dove the .. height Move down foUle I-height ail1~ a:~rn'.lg, hfJ$fm~tal ~'.

hom as- center ~f ·Ii.~ ·dij'amo,"'d· draw ·'Hle sfem, swp,ing sh.tlri: of '~~ baseline.

Ma~e a Irnimm image» looml,pllSire Ithe' "'I1I~'ot Nom, mar: the stm:k'eG may ~I 'siigjlU, eonca!t':m.

Lam~'i the spur wi,th, the M~~er ofUle nib.


D~,aw. al.stfm~ stopp~llg sh~]'t I'r the baseJlile.

Ad ~a ,~iamonl ,a11he fOOl, ee.fllired ,wr '~e stem. Ad~ ,8 dE hll 'the (ji."

This, 'J,j i5,~hortened on .'e r~ght the o~,(lda,pl 1iI!)i mom b iii, 1M3~1 width. lhe taH is' iGrn~d, 'talfle' bowl.

Draw the ~I);Wf~ s.trok,e.' lof '.e bowl. Ce mJIIpl'e1i13: ~he' bowl in one sktlke. nwing: Its" :smi&hll~ OO:JIilMVIe- btu'll.

PUI~ DI:J:ti dia~ond flfJt m t~ai r~t Add a s~a'til!(g slmke tol e ,cmss .. lilal[' usmJ the tOmer ,of-Ule n~b,




.rI ([' - ,U'". 0 q

bl 1.1 li'~ I 'n

Il'., ....



',oth lc (black Letter)

The full na!fl1lB fOlr th~s, script ls IU'Gotflh:: 'Quadrata' Preseisus v,e~ s~f1Ie, P)ed~busn-- "a GotlrUc texture I'etter wilth ~ts feet <CUlt ,off.,'~ lt is anexact c1oi1memlpor,Bry of tne Quad rata , 'whh:h it resembles In most respects, ,exc,eipt for 'the absence df the foot diamond. Here the stem ends In a square cut .. Qrft section.



2: -


I 1 .,'


,III _ 3,


Ai~f1,defg and . Cj~$~en~e.r:s 'may b'e Ilengthened~ dipendirne: on Inmriin.! s~cif1;~~

Tl!l[s is an aa:egtab h~' almrnalti~e fom Of tOOe" '!~tt~r lJy• I.

InteN~t ties ~nthe' lendB"of trne~ Ile'tt.e1r stem'S' far u,a II·; 't ~I' "h,"

uk., ,jt jll U dm II un ,I II'p.'~' U,I""I j.

'" " I 'I"~ "iU

j\r/I "t," and ~~uu~ They ,ilIF~ ,at

right anel,a ~o·the 'ste.m.

~~f·srildng iseQ lJiJ~ to a !:lOY the WJcUh m 81 single~

ste;m. -


TflI~! :scn'pt iSI 'SjlR1 i t,ar' to the Textura Q~uadrata .• , the s~gnntcaJflt d tffe:nence be~ng ln the s~ua'lr! rotmation of th:e fe,et. The square terrnlnatien could lbe leff'ected '~n onet of three way:!S: The s~troke begJns ,eI't 40° nnd then i~s D/tiiste,cI prQgrlesshJle~y tOI the,

. - -

velrti:,ca~ ~ or tw~ste~d: at the_ base elf th,e- stern, or outllnen and f~ll~e,d In.

Ihe ';m'i wi~I'~Bltrmilme I! wlrdli :ai11lf ['lUI b~·S!15 0'1 olls'j' I'ettsl'$.


Tne &quclmd J~'t,gf '~Wi~'S, \~_nU~~~~.~restj5t1 s ·foom its . 0Il"n11J1i1iillm Il~ Ithe Ous«raEa.

Tha :B1,wi ean ~e :drawn lilrtt[ghllt rul~h~y 'oon~ve.

'N ite 'I!he:. aRlmative d~l\1i!ipl Jo~the right mU3Sa oontinwr~ui slrtlke.

'sta,~ine bellrnw the xh'eiJl1!t! draw' 8ii'lt&M tha,t S~~I ~us·t a bow. tha:.Oas:s'J~~e.

ti~a,rt Ol'e' ;splirt stem ttl t~8 right w~tb Ute edge uf the "Iml,

BllIgHiIUile :lmwl ss- fer the "D.!p"i~' up~Br' stro~tr fS" sltJ~rlIy 'bil~oo and· eltnds Ie ~rea.te .an· ear.

'Make ;£II m~~tl1lal d~mIIllH. fWfn file IJellreroi Ie dtlmona, dmw'lhe stem.

F~'Om *,·bolcull IOf ~1m1;l ~eml draw tal d~pJ1la~ nne, .atsropiS ait Ute b,~~I~neF

At lhl,b~se on~ II' :Ue,m~ 'tWfistll el ,pan from ,~OoCl til Ith~ ~~nzOntid to cream ,a "s,~uare" foot

IJcaw it, sl'igh~ ~n'M diamOA~ 'kJ kUI~hllle :bas!lirn:a

I~ejle.aft the.5e·stmkes O~ tJe"right to l8:fiCIGI;'~1 the .bowl, Th~s lolter ~·the basi Sf ~I~' aU Inclosed hd~lIls.

Ar~h :0' dh'9 ~all s,ttQke 'fro. 'the r~'1Im, Jift it a,nd ma~Ubfl! rnlg)l stem. T[irr~1 ~ie Ipsn I~Qimnla~' 'for the: ,fttlt

.ora/VII a ~la~,rl'lne' from, .e base DF.(I bowl til 1lbe .~eft C®,~nem U tD lhte, ,~rnviom, 'sb'okie; ,~£th ,3 ·p,~erQ:lffis;alrc.

Repea,t {i 1iIU1~ I]Ipt Usiil1l the mrl6r of th~. nibl, Imove to the dght in a,n',amlor me~e 'tilt laill,



bfh.lm nrtu

These [I[etters date from the: late medli!e,v~a:l' period 'and are i'rrf~uenc,ed eiy woodblock pr~nting'i' Allthou,sJh fOrn1!all~z:edl~, the characters can still be executed w'ith BI pen ~ The, poi nts are created by dI r,a,gg~ng the 'Wlet I'r1'_K on ths diamond with the c,orner of the n~,b.




~I" ..,.,


'OiDIS 'II iinleflSI

The space betW€S'11 stmkes is albClllt ti'nle .sama"Ss the s:tlmKe width.

Conjoining of leHers ~s, oomm0l11 JH·a(~'£e.

The corn pad quant, (llf the (}uad rata with rnl n,ilma,l rntar1efttar and i n~tt!rword spacln:g is r,e'mineC. 8~vrng 'the p,age lthe 'textur,s 'Qf weav:il1,g.

Willen tlh,e SHZ, ri pt· is. wr~ttell1 on a sloplng base, thfie i nk 'wi'll now to the' bottom IOf the Ir'ettef. Tht! oe,cflmles"eve:n more effeten! Ion parchment. A fe-ature fs ~nade rJ:f thr~s by draggi:ni' trt,e wet "nk downwElIJrld from the d~am,o,l1d wtrth the learner ,of the nlb to maike, the ploInt.

The tel '9r fhelu~wi m,a~ lO~~h 'Ui ~ stem~ H1:~~ r~ WBg Clrnl11GmI ~ricloo td'Sep~TJte 'tbe~m.

'O:rnlll ~~~~Iematille <ly" thf!J 'lM 'Stoo~e&t.a n 1M ooi1inecled if' I'egibi~i~ is hk,ly to he im p~Rd.

)\!1 "'l'~ lending i~ an e1it!lbemn~ 'Flou ri'&~~ Th9)t:aJja~tiona R1 a~' b.e u~d at Ylur 'dl,~fttion,

With the prelim crt ,4ff! • ma:1\e a wal.) t sl~m.

Make ,8~ extended ~i'~iQ~~aL ,itellHIii and .s.mlB ,3 ~fJ[),P lo the left, 'H1B III draw 3 ~1~n1.

'Dr,aw,a diamond at the relP of the Xr-herg~t

ffiOm a di.a,mDri~ head dnHv~' stl!w,fin~s:~ing. on' the eorner of me' ni~ WfUI a l1taJl1Ion d mo~.

Dmw' i, dia,I~liital Ja~ the ftu~t. dra,gfng ,d.owillthe boblll ~omeli. Ma;~e 3. ~,mlaU '~fiek 11 :the bI,p" I. 'of~UJI 'sb~ II.

Fwomthe t:lifd 'Df~*~, skated atr~~e. d~,aw U,e ~,~si~e ,m t~,e bowl.

fra'll ~,e tenter Itf' 'UIH~I d~anTO'~d~ draw';iiI stem! en~,irig wi'th a dregQlla~ or p'gi'~ted dlamond.

r l,

Dra\, ai' di,apla!lto the r,~n. for 'arli ~1r8J fl'I]:IJlrish. skate bat~,

UmJU~l Ute ~Jin to bell[)vl the lta~hrn!:l'.

Dr,~w a diag~1fI<11 fram Ule to, ,fliel ~-~,eight Ult t~t'- p,fJ an d enclose

tho 1<.:1'.IIJI, "~"~'I"~~


Gdmplelet the IleJHer wi~ ~o d'iam,Dnd 'foot" dJl'l:1ggil1,1 the wet ~nk. dOWIii to m~~e ~1l0IfltS,;

Fa ill flol.l risl~Bd w;.::, ~ add a titssba r,

",ruJ) w~

These Go,thic: minuscule characters are based on the ~Iett'ers of the G'erman cailliign1lpher Rudc'If Koch ~!nd date from the c'e,au"~y twent~eth century. The ,alpha.bet uses ,G'loth~c spllit ascenders, diamond 'eat ,I ,a,nd' bold strokes, 'which create a' te:xtUire en 'th'E't pa!g~. The pen is twisted! to the directlon cd the stroke.

1(! ... ~


2 -


'~rr~ ~el1i(l!r wW .1~,Ut!l1tly rUr! Int'O· anfit'her. Any ~!ttt:ii sp,aru'n,g is k,ep:t to ill minfmullI.

The dense tj,l,iII:KFlf!SS of '~he.lette,~s

. . -- ~ , - .,.. _- _. --:;. ~

is '9r1ll1anc;ed by dtawHlg marlY str;n:~es Im, :the fun w~~th o'f the !len w'itn tna ny ~ ~reGtm[ma~ changes.


e ..•.•.•

2" ;$

rh(llett_e~ hlvri ~~uelrilt pen 'I ifts -an d may 1St fi'Rened to a ;e~~sof s;l\i~bb~n:l"mO!ilefn~nts

cm..lrl"'rpCliri~ D)'. ~he ..

~'e!ef'lllg ~ff9 ~e§ Qf t'roo :rl(W1S,. The. !'eHers do not adherelo :a f~d baseline.

.J ' .

. I' .

- . ."

II -;I:C S- 1'1' UICI'-U-I--al

'- __ ~ ~ !~ I 1-,"1 1,- _ .1' J-, __ -Ii

The bollia] b~,a~ck ~etters. are ccmplernented b.y tho 'G,oithi:e fa:Bturle of ,aJ frele~y drawn :sp,~tta,cendleJr. As'oo:nders and deseenders are truncated w~th the "f" irletai~nlin8 as ,corninaln't pClsitlion" having, a dQub~e-stIFo'ke stemand ~ong tadt Provided the' ~neralJ rulle's's re 'fD,!I~owed:,the letters a now ccnsldera ble persona I i nterpretatjlon.

Jle qa~ lS, a;!ingt~isldry :Ie:~r ~Hilt, illitTil'y'!ii i'tJ.; nlodel1l millin:s. U: ,nJjlates ~n Ii e ~tlt' haft

T~a$pnt ~I!m, Is ~plobd 1D the full a,nd ~am!s, altflS'tiIiH::ti~g B8iu~! oftriis hand.

ThlUten~iw: ~se ai

cu rvfj. $,rJl~e.3:);v,es j\ frer a~t lIi'o Wll~J'd ooccUr ~1lIr'tradtiltIOI1i!II £iattu[dtuuk

The terrffJr-;sb"ok,e-lf "if is bmkfll1. Una'torJ part IS 3T:!p.nn

~t'illl1 ~ :pa:n ,at 4lO" " m~ke 'a diagollal hah~ilU~ ,DFa'N a, CUNjt~1 s',m, illl ~fea'9hl1g' OU~ angl'lll 61 q.

Begin wa,11 II the Fl,ght of ihlH,lem, a J1ld d'ra,\'1 ,s:pl~l ill ltd SII:e111 In lite movement

Hqip i1 ~i~gW'talat,~'Oti ~e the' riBM'l·of li1i el a~m. Mon;ro dawn ~n~' the .&~~

A~d lG~Vii nn~ing arnd head .sirokei ,I: 50 ~ "

Skalla IQUMa NIl wilru tie GO melt o~tha n:fb ~, draw the, left s,pli:l

A~th~l"ff.mt lom 1:18 pel'! 11 aloout 5D~ •

o'.aw a ha~r~imJ ~~Jlrtl1ll'mI~lhe lstt, f.mlilillWed b~3 :S'1irarl'n~ ,I~a~f-Ie~ stEm,

From the en~llof Ilis s.~TClke. draw ,a-fluB all; to Ite left at 4(f:l .

Retill m to 40 ~ 'h)Jr ngtlt Slide' or bow~ ililiid f'Got

Dr:a,w 'foot as f~n "a" Bf.~tIy ,CotlNt [he. bow. rinishing ata ,point ,]uS~' h1u~~,jAiIltlu~ foot

IFMtum and mate a diQa,on,a'1 Mitt the ngh1a:t:

,,!iii Q in ~'b' rn!J.d "tll • umw me r,I.~JI~

'sJoke w,i~~'a CliNe el~li,. at ami"'.

The headline stfl'~e remlSi~srild w~llelie basellhe sf.r:oke has"i! S;~ght~NI!l


1lS .. ',

"', ,

k'····I··r- .. ·,

, I

'_ - .. ,.~.. . _ ...

These cspltals iu'e,b8'sed 'On cha'r,8'cters, Is'rilgi1nl,aUlyc.reab!d in the earliy twe'nt~eth century by the great Gierman ca~h8~alPher RudtollfKc)ctJ. They can be sati:sfaetorUy reduced to fiv,s pen 'w~dths, and can be used freEdy w'ithout strict adhsrencs to the b~asle~~ne. 'The nAu is the key letter"


AfJ with ,I,ll Got1ilc cap~ta's.;

it ~ s n'et ;1 goru;jj lcea 'to lJS~ these' effaracts'f5: for a"om'}j,lete wortth\~ lieu: ,al],one :senlten(}!S'. 'WllIlen' used with mitiluscUl'les; by to keept the. ~e'tmrs

el Dsely stacked.,

When ~sbting,it a the 'termination of a stroke" rUt the WJefi ontg the rmrtFlE!f' lof th.e nib ind ~ Illi 'lhe 'wet ink ,'rdiG: the Ot6Siire,(jll1(Juri,sn.

:For at flauristJ ,a'l th!! belmmIJlng P~. a SL'foket O1td~f! the fll(n.Jwh~h from th~

fi rst f'ljckl fttel!'!,

retu rn kli tAj~hr ttTIe strOke.,

The tpen is helld at '. consjste:nlt al.nlg~e} e~clept. for thi1e 'skated ftI1ourishes,. Ats w[thl th,e 'in(Hvldua~ ~etters~, the ·stlr1olkes tend "to be p,lckedi ctl'ose~yto,~ethe~ir. As fair ,1'$, possiblls any ~nt,erfIOlr soaces ,ail~e neutralized w~tha dli,llfm:o,ll1d"

- .II1II

~ I (L,-~

TIle: sbtlkes .GOJJWltered iin the! ' ,~/'

wi" Ot£l!,' in ma'Wrj' Dt..ej" li:ttJ·, \lihr(h ma'kas' lIi~ L~hil' [dear for p.iafi.ce., Plfi':ba'~ 'rfirEl mCl$t dFfi~i~ It" part I~ j'dlinGj II e :ammu mUf· il~'k d'epsirted on ,eaC:~ Ifllf i ~ ,order

'fni . Iloe' ,;I!Iwe Jj~t. "~i:n..l' !.Ii! ma ~ - .IP_ ~MllII.l!i,


The .il1~ illl Dru8 Uipr MWII;linDniQIS~~ I.,ds liTh'to a ~ilfin E!) ~Dke!j wh~ (OnIHts:trdhe" ,stmt ,aJ1l~ iA ,oannlS~ swe,ps tlLt fnt,'"a '[IUy 'ICIL!F,e~ s~nllm tD 1I113'lIS' tihe, llwer ~Awl.


M1ake lie ridlit leg starn q til. 1M ~el!;d In~ '~'liItshh\. wll-aMI ,upward nlick.

~eptilfS,tep J oH'e .. AtlleliIJJf.

\Wlh' 'tha'Up of the n]b sWetP· a~~a~fmJllrtJile maliiTII sftm ,ami mike:' .e 1~IiI~f bowl<.

Hew rn 'to U\Je head of "S" lM.peand I.ew, ~[Iwnw~l(d i'ltD ,t~ e

~e1n IlgSJ Nfl! ng th~~ ,,em mllti~o.'i~3.tip, at i e ba'se~

~elmn Ito Ib,e IlID,'o~ :lhe stmlfl,anal wi. lie tip tJf Uiie' ~iD ImOVI.!' ~pWB:rtr Ilri rc~e. :!'II :split siem.

Repeat S.t:eJl :2.ij]'r' Url'Si "pr II~bt. 'ffll~wrn,E, UIIa ~if!e. dIllWnWilr1. Then m~~e the '~o,a

IMa'ke' a sb1arp drn~E:Ol1Ia'l bac~ h1! me .stem.

NllJW make IH~ 'fOIL then ~,dd the~nQurish! 11lI5Jing 'i;1iI point (lJ the nib.


Finall:y, ad~ Hil:el ~N:.s'$ bar: Ihis lilia, ~e in 'the sbalpe o~ I ~i1J.mol!ld.

iW~d Dteft'u'Wlri:sJiJ, u~i~g the' '~lp' aUhe, nib. .

With 81 Joop nonlte:t bac* to the lfio .

t;: 'I Ie: $~t


,.'- .. -·'-.2····· ., ....

. I .•.. '-_'7.-

," "--


These late G'ioth'~c capltsls ·.are' based on thl:El d;ssigns ,of A~bre,cht tDI;On3:r amid can be used 'with the 'Qual1d'r,(!lt2l1 or Prescisus rn 'I nuscu h3:. These ll~etters!, 'whiic:!h

or~,Hln8Ily appea:r,ed ln the' 'form of: wt~o,dcute)te~m,pilars:~ in tos,how the

lncreaslng (iive:rgence betwse_n the !p,rinted and the writte'n letter,


JtH~ use CJlf d~amo'r1lds, ''is ttJe obv~,ollls tl1a,rar::·terlstic. ln this lrender~ngr 'there are a hnlxi:mlu m Of 'two p~r 'Iette,r;

B uJ'er somel11mes used three.

The peo_ a'~g~e ~s 'PQnstant and rtl~ailmQ"~'$ aR;~'jT .til' tliQ left

the stems a(re-~traijht. Ollly the' orthg, stem or within the

hcrilenta] s:t~e:kesstlO'w ~OUll'itef5 ofleUers.


[118;[1: IUDC'lltl

The Ilettlers alre ,gjf:u1Ierall~~1' more compressed than most G,olthle capitals, ConsJderable use is, made of(Uamon"dsJ a~tlh'Olvgh vertlcal strikes areabsent, There ,ai~e usualilly tw,o di;eln10'ncis! llnked to the headtlne stlroke by' 8 skat1ad stf.o,ke. S'rrrg~.e dia,monds ,are used tal reduce the vo~ume ():f the, counter".

11!. .. "i\!' '"a I

.1;1!;!;i n 'l$'a~11 le~,

~etler ttl prac 'C~lCI~ as i~ C(mtaifl5 nn~($t lij1 'Ie IroH~:arI1l~s ~E1lJ \!.lin e;Mcllufferr en olhl8:r Utmrs,

An ,aLWama'Uve alJlld mmJre ICEH~'prt~d ~S" wf:th Mil d~~mlJn,<dsl 'Vlhich iUt. dfIDNn-a!fal ct]w:si:l3tell~ ;a,ngte.,

l~is ha'md diRt nit h.ave thg'·vertiaa~, bairllnes,-tiHl1t woufd is~al~y run through the dramond$,

~olal ~~II~en at ~nll Bj}gJe 0" 4 Of

Rei~~1iI to iLhe s:kalll~ strake aId add two ~j,mollla:s"

Ma ke a SfIIl,aUt halt:· $Tied ar~JO:ttn~ lefL

lh~s all:erla~~v!l3: "l" ~fS 1iIiI4Ite ,tlJa~:itKmall. AJlo~~ .~ toPI Sm,~i;I ~

di Stili'n CiW'J "m.Ive:

M aJ_kll )tne heamllfne SI~ro~~I. R,~lumtIllUl~ ~eft·and, With '~.t~Ml!1f 'flf.the nib,. ;s,kate wel'~nk lrnrol a' OIrJ6.

Next 00, Ute 'diamlJl~S adlltll1leff ~e-g i3;nd _s'~a.tei~ ~nll( a taill, pl;acll:nil:'a di.OiOd

betwee:~ 'h~' 'two stem~.

I •. v-,

__ I

Ilm:ed'i~~eiy above' a:nd ~;I'DW m~ ermiIilB_lion,

. add d~am~liIdsA m1r a:dd a single ~:iam'a:nd

Clnl1'al ~~.


AI u~,i-ard s'kate ~1:'rlJ.'ke m"ay be;~idflH '~flm the term ination eJ the: top ~Odljm.a~ stmke,

Male the )stern ~/eU ~I the nght an ~ ad~ :a dial'U)hd-sh~:ped fjot.

Expe;I'j;Rnm~. wiUll' skated srm'rs 'whem:

oppOrliu niUes permit a~' the 11ct ,of letters.

Add l~nefDusly curved' ~.~~ ~ and' tai'~ stfoketS a)~d ';EI $'ks'ted flourish '. .~: 'tait .

M'a~e the s:tel1 afi~lliy roumde,d ,ar(:, ca~s'ider placing 101'10 01 '~v,g ~iam,O'nd,s '/li:thin it


T~hese Goth;c C'8,pita,ls w~eire used in co~lunt;Uon wl,th GothiC' ,Q.ua:dra'ta; ,Bind ,Got'hfc' IPteS~i'SU's 'm~nus:cu~res. their s,[ze USU81111ry' del~ermirH~;d by' 'tlherr m'fative' ~:mpoFt;ant::rB w~tt1~n the text, Thew'~de capitals loontrast with n,arrow minuscules, They' 'wer'e IOlften enhanced by the use, of colcr or' ,d~c!orat~on.



,~, .



Ho~,d the p 6f1

VE i1'tt!~'nlY m the. Pat~~rand $~r1~Er DQwnwaMd attne Bflile of the ~]'~ada'.

H'@ld~~e, 'the psn VEl ltfea'lYl ~mR, cll.algonaUy at ~e(j.

The slraight vertic;ar sbokes €an 13e. ern befris had with eftl1er ~u~eesi Dr 'hiCk:fS$' t .g;jving .adtt ~ w'ejghtli) 'the' 'starn. n,~ spat;ls withlln the letb3JS am Ineutra11ized with hali'rHne ''fQ!n:i,ca's EI'nd dhilgQn~fl stro,kie;s.,

WUh thee r;,li!'n at 300 ~ Im(J~~: aut ff'omU,e stem, 'tt'um tlaGf(~ Rf!Jl eat to cre,a«r. a wGOeSKi~I1'Q' l1~Gldes.

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