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MAHMOOD TEXTILE MILLS LTD

Mahmood Textile Mills Ltd

FINANCIAL PROJECT

DEPARTMENT
BUSINESS MANAGEMENT SCIENCES

UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION
OKARA CAMPUS

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MAHMOOD TEXTILE MILLS LTD

SUPERVISOR

MR. RANA IMTIAZ

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPED BY

SADAF AMBREEN

BBA (HONS) FINANCE

SESSION 2006-2010

ROLL NO 607(E)

SEMESTER 8Th

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Dedication

I dedicate this project to


Almighty Allah, The Creator of worlds

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And
Hazrat Muhammad (P.B.U.P), the cause of
The creation of the Universe
And
To my parents,
To the persons who loved me, persons whom
I loved and for all those who prayed for me.

Acknowledgment

First of all thanks to Almighty Allah, who have given me the strength and knowledge to
complete this project. I would like to specially thank for the help of my finance teacher

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Sir IMTIAZ who helped me a lot regarding this project. I have learned a lot with the kind
guidance of Sir IMTIAZ and I think I have achieved my goal of learning practical things.

SADAF AMBREEN
BBA (Hons) Finance

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Table of Contents

Sr. No Description

1. Executive Summary
2. Vision Statement
3. Mission Statement
4. Company Achievement
5. Production process
6. Exports
7. Purchases
8. Personnel Management
9. Organization Culture
10. SWOT Analysis
11. PEST Analysis
12. BCG Matrix Analysis
13. Summarized Balance Sheet
14. Trend Analysis of Balance Sheet
15. Vertical analysis of balance sheet
16. Summarized Income Statement
17. Trend Analysis of Income Statement
18. Ratio Analysis
19. Recommendations
20. Conclusion

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

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Mahmood Textiles Mills Limited is a fully integrated organization. The company's shares
are quoted on Stock Exchange. The company's registered Head Office is located at Mehr
Manzil Lohari Gate Multan.
The company's mills are situated at Mahmoodabad, Multan Road, Muzaffargarh, and
Masoodabad, D.G. Khan Road, Muzaffargarh. The management body of the company
consists of persons, who are highly qualified and have vast experience in the field of
Textile.Members of the board are:

COMPANY PROFILE

Chairman khawaja muhammad masood

Chief Executive khawaja Muhammad iqbal

Directors khawaja Muhammad Ilyas


khawaja Muhammad Younus
jalal -ud- din roomi
Mrs. Maher fatima
Muhammad muzaffar iqbal

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Bankers
The Bankers of the company are;
1. Muslim Commercial Bank Limited
2. United Bank Limited and
3. Habib Bank Limited.

Competitors
In whole country, the company has many competitors who produce and sell Yarn and
Fabric but the company considers the following as main competitors;
•Fazal Cloth Mills.
•Khokhar Mills.
•Yahya Mills.

Target Markets
The company does the activities of both. Export and Local Sale. In both the areas
company doesn't considers any market as its specific, permanent market. Demand from
any city from the country and any country from the world is welcomed. However in
Export following countries are major customers of Mahmood Textile Mills;
•Japan
•Hong Kong and
•Korea.
The company has four Spinning units and one Weaving unit. For the process of Spinning,
MAHMOOD TEXTILE MILLS fulfills its lint requirements from its own eight Ginning
factories located in different cities. In addition to that the company also purchases lint
from various outside, parties. In addition to producing the yarn, the company also
purchases the | yam from its various suppliers including competitors to make sure that
enough yarn is available for export. For the process of Weaving, the | company fulfills its
Yarn requirement from its own Spinning units. In addition to that company also
purchases the yam. The company produces both, 100% cotton and blended yarn and
fabric.
The company has a total of 103 looms in its weaving unit. Out of them 5 are big looms
with a width of 165" and remaining are of 153" width. All are SULZER PROJECTILE

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LOOMS. Company has program to purchase 40 more looms to increase the capacity and
soon the company is also going to start another Spinning unit. The company meets its
electricity requirements from its own Electric Power Production Plant that is situated near
Muzaffargarh.

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VISION STATEMENT

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VISION STATEMENT

To be recognized internationally and locally as dynamic, quality

conscious and ever progressive

Textile Product manufacturer in the Textile Industry

Of Pakistan

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MISSION STATEMENT

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MISSION STATEMENT

We are committed to the achievement of excellence in the quality

of our Product. We shall achieve quality by motivating all employees

towards the satisfaction of our customers.

Our motto:

Honesty

Fair Dealing

Buyer Satisfaction

Reliability

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COMPANY ACHIEVEMENT

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ISO 9002
In this era of rapid technological changes and new innovations, every customer has
become quality conscious. Customers now days want the assurance of quality either
through product design or through image or the personality of the product. In response to
this trend, marketers all over the world are either offering to the customers, products with
high quality design specifications or they are concentrating on the image marketing.The
ISO 9000 is the answer of every customer demand through which the organizations can
assure customers of their products' high quality. Coping with this Mahmood Textile Mills
has also achieved "ISO 9002" Quality Award. It gives Mahmood Textile Mills the
international recognition as the producer of High Quality Yam and Grey Cloth. In the
whole world; it is now a general rule that without ISO Certificate, an organization cannot
export. Hence for Mahmood Textile Mills, ISO has become a basic requirement. At
MTM, management has a formal procedure to comply with the ISO 9002 requirements.
The organization keeps formal record of establishing and maintaining procedures for
every kind of activity starting from purchase of raw materials till the dispatch of finished
products. All the procedures documented in the ISO 9002 requirements are thoroughly
followed at each and every activity. Moreover MTM carries out periodic
Quality Control Audits to confirm its compliance with the ISO 9002 requirements The
Internal Audits are carried out almost once in a month, but the External Audits are carried
out after six months (Each External Audit costs almost Rs.90, 000). In each External
Audit, the auditors see the compliance of the organization with the ISO standards. They
see the various clauses of ISO that whether the organization is implementing them.
Moreover they see various ISO documents. They see people working, their awareness
about ISO and their training levels. The company is implementing following clauses of
ISO;
1. Management Responsibility.
2. Quality System.
3. Contract Review.
4. Document and Data Control.

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5. Purchasing.
6. Control of Customer Supplied Products.

7. Product Identification and Traceability.


8. Process Control.
9. Inspection and Testing.
10. Control of Inspection, Measuring and Test Equipment.
11 .Inspection and Test Status.
12. Control of Non-Confirming Products.
13. Corrective and Preventive Action.
14. Handling, Storage, Packaging, Preservation and Delivery.
15. Control of Quality Records.
16. Internal Quality Audits.
17. Training
18. Statistical Techniques.
MTM proud to have achieved this award and hopes to keep up its compliance with it in
the long run.

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COMPANY ACHIEVEMENT

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WEAVING
MAHMOOD TEXTILE MILLS is producing Grey Cloth. The process of Weaving starts
from the Placement of Order by the buyer (The buyer places the order at the Head
Office). When the buyer places the order he/she makes specifications in the order as;
•Count specification for Warp and Weft.
•Number of Ends and Picks per inch.
•The Pattern of Warp and Weft
•The ratio of chemicals used for Sizing.
•Kind of packing required.
•Net Weight and Gross Weight of the Packing.
After the buyer places the order, the Director decides whether the yam should be
purchased or it should just be transferred from MTM's one of spinning unit to the
Weaving unit. Yarn Store When the yarn reaches the mills, it is sent to the Yarn Store. A
Yarn Store Assistant is there who is responsible for receiving the yam and shifting it in
the Yarn Store. He also maintains proper record for Yarn. The documentation of the Yarn
Store is done in the following manner.
Documentation for the Yarn Store
(1). Yarn Store Ledger
When the yarn reaches the mill, all the information is entered in the Yarn Store Ledger
Such as;
•Quality, Supplier, Count and Brand of Yarn.
•Date of Receipt and Issuance.
•Closing Balance and Opening Balance.
(2). Yarn Received and Issuance Report
In this report following type of information is inked.
•Count and Brand of Yarn.
•Date & Amount of Opening Balance, Receipt, Issued, Transfer, Closing Balance.
•Remarks (If any).
(3). Yarn Requisition

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To start any process, a requisition for yarn is sent to the Main Office of the Mill
specifying the Quantity, Count and Brand of Yarn. Based on this requisition the Yarn is
issued from the Yam Store and the production process starts which is as under.

PRODUCTION PROCESS
Warping
The production process starts from Warping. From here the Preparatory section starts.
Yarn is transferred from the store to the Warping Department. In warping department,
there are two machines;
1. Machine on which cones are attached i-e Creel.
2. Other one is warping machine.
It takes the yarn from the cones and then according to the specification it
wraps the yarn on the beams. Here only warping is done (lengthwise yarn is enrolled). On
the machine every kind of detail about the requirement is fed. Also the workers do
continuous reporting during the process of Warping. After Warping is performed for a
certain quality, a detailed report is prepared about the whole process that explains;
1. For what Quality, Warping is done.
2. What was the Duration of the Process?
3. No. of Break Downs.
4. Workers' names.
5. Length of Yarn Enrolled.
6. No. Of Beams Produced.
7. Weight of Beams.
8. Date in which the Process was carried out.
If in any case like when cotton sticks in the yarn or when yarns breaks, the
machine automatically stops working so that the workers can correct the problem. During
the process a Floor Cleaner cleans any cotton, which flies of from the machines and falls
on the floor (Fluff).
It causes disruption. After the process the cones left over, which are partially used, also
called Short Cones are discarded off. The company also keeps control of Non

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Conforming Products. For Warping Department proper documentation is done which is


explained as under;

Reporting done for Warping Department


(1). "Daily Yarn Performance on Warping” Report
This is very important report. The success of the whole Warping process can be judged
from this report because this report contains very important information. With the help of
this report, one can calculate the Amount of Yam consumed for the process. Weight of
Beams produced and the Amount of Yarn Wasted during the process etc.
(2). Stock Report (Beam Stock)
The Stock Report gives information as;
•No. of Beams Produced.
•Quality Code of the Beams and
•Length of the Beams.
Note
On each beam a sticker is attached that conveys information about the beam.
Sizing
Sizing department is the second department in Preparatory Section
Process
Basically here two large types of activities are performed in the process.
First, the ends of the Warped Beams are dipped into the Chemicals so that the yarn could
become tense strong and it could bear any jerk in the next department. There are various
chemicals used in this process. These are Maize Starch, PVA, Size CB, Wax, T.Wax, and
Arkofil.
After the ends are dipped into chemicals, they are separated from one another with the
help of needle like pins. Second, the Warped Beams are converted into a Sized Beam.
That is, the ends of all the warped beams are combined together and they are sized on a
single beam. For example, if there are eight warped beams each of 625 ends; then the
Sized Beam will be having 8*625=5000 ends.

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Boiler
Boiler plays very important role in the Sizing department. The job of Boiler is to boil the
water with the help of certain fuel to convert it in Steam. This steam is then sent to the
Sizing department for the purpose of heating the Chemicals. Boiler is run by different
things such as. Furnace Oil, Coal and Sui Gas but at MTM it is run by the Sui Gas. The
Boiling Point is maintained at 100 degree centigrade. The pressure with which the steam
is sent to the Sizing dept. is kept at 150 Pounds/Square Inch. An FD (Force Drive) fan is
there to push the fuel into the Boiler. During the working of the Boiler, the level of water
is kept at a certain level. The water of the steam comes back from the sizing department
to the Boiling Room and is then reused.

Reporting for Sizing Department


Reporting at the Production Spot
Two types of reports are prepared at the production spot.
(1). One report is prepared "Set Wise". When a certain set ends, then after that a report is
prepared on which different information is listed such as;
•No. of Beams produced with their specification.
•No. of Beams brought in from the previous deptt
. •Yam Count and Quality Code
•Machine Stoppage.
•Date and Duration of the Set etc.
(2). A second report is prepared when the beam is issued to the Weaving dept. The
information on the report contains details as;
•No. of Beams moved to Weaving dept. along with their specification.
•Weave (Drawing Department)
. •Yam Count and Quality Code for each Beam.
Reporting at the Main Office of the Mills
At the Main Office of the Mills, "Stock Report of Sized Beams" is prepared. Along with
this a "Material Statement" is made which gives all the detail about the chemicals used in
the Sizing process.

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Note
On each beam a sticker is attached that conveys information about the beam.

Drawing
In "Drawing" the activities are performed manually. In this department, the Drawers
work on the Sized Beams. Basically in this department, the Weave is given. The yarn is
passed in the reed frame according to the requirement of the design of the fabric. It is
actually the drawing section which has to take care of the construction of the cloth. In the
drawing section specific reeds are used for specific order. For an average order the reed
requires six to eight hours to be prepared. The supervisors produce different beams of
different specifications, under their supervision, for the Weaving Department actually,
here the drawers work on the part of a loom that is temporarily separated from the loom
for drawing purpose. This part contains following basic things;
•Reed
•Droppers
•Heild 1The yam (single) passes through, first, droppers and then Heild I (single yam).
After that according to the requirement of the quality, yarn is weaved i-e in Reed, the
weave is given. If weave is 3/1, then from reed single yam passes through dent of reed
and from next dent, 3 yarns pass. All this is done manually. After this whole work is
done, the whole pattern is carried to the Weaving Department and fixed on the loom.

Weaving
Introduction
Weaving department is the most important department for any textile mill. The basic and
huge investment of installation I-e LOOMS is done in this department. Scale of operation
is dependent on the working of this department. Efficiency of the whole unit depends
upon the efficiency of the looms in this department.

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Process
A loom prepares the “Fabric". On every loom, maximum two beams can be attached.
The loom draws the yam from the beams and then weaves it and the finished Grey Cloth
is then, wrapped on a rod called "Cloth Roll". Here, the system of Reed, Heilds,
Droppers along with manually adjusted yam in them is brought from the drawing dept. by
a machine and is fixed over the looms. The loom weaves the cloth in the same manner as
it is designed by the drawers. So the design and construction of cloth made on looms
depends upon the design and construction that the workers of drawing department give to
it. Here basically the activity of "Wafting" is performed i-e "PICKS" are made here. The
weave (3/1 or 4/1 etc) depends upon the order. As described earlier the drawers make
weave by passing yarn through "Dents".
When the loom starts working the weaving is done by the "Projectile", which takes the
yam and passes it through ends according to the weave. "CAM" which is on the upper
side of the loom facilitates this process. During the process, there is a machine called
“AIR JET OVERHEAD CLEANER", which moves in paths between the looms and
sucks any wasted cotton or yam. This is to ensure that nothing sticks in the looms. Under
each shed there are usually 3 or 4 Air Jet Cleaners.
Loom Stoppage
The loom stops due to following reasons;
•When a yarn breaks, the loom stops.
•When a cone ends, the loom stops. The workers put on new cone.
•When a beam ends, the loom stops and the
"Knotting" or “Article is done.
•The loom can stop in case of malfunctioning. Every loom has got its own meter where
Different information is available as;
1. No. of rounds' completed. (In shift A, B, C)
2. RPM of the loom.
3. No. of rounds completed during the year i-e T counts. In this department special
attention is paid on each and every loom to avoid down time and supervisors and foremen
play main role here.

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Knotting
One beam usually takes ten days to become empty. After that a new beam is attached to
it. This process is called "Knotting". In Knotting, the beam replaced is of same quality.

Article
When a beam becomes empty, then when the new beam of another quality is attached to
it, this process is called "Article".

Reporting for Weaving Department


Following reports are prepared to view the working of the Weaving Department.
(1). Efficiency Report
It is the most important report for any weaving unit. It tells the Efficiency of Looms, on
which efficiency of whole weaving unit depends upon. It is a daily report in which
Efficiency is calculated as:
Actual Picks / Total Picks * 100
(2). Article Report
This report is prepared daily by the sizing department to form a link between the sizing
and weaving department. This report specifies the Old and New Quality replaced on a
loom along with the Quality specification. It also tells the reading of the loom in all three
shifts, on which Article is done.
(3). Reading Report
A third kind of report is made by taking continuous information from the Weaving Dept.
A person called “Time Keeper" informs the Main Office about the reputation of the
Weaving dept. For every loom, this report gives it's •Present and Previous Reading.
•Difference of the two readings.
•T counts* and
•RPM

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Folding
Next to the weaving department, is the Folding Department? After the cloth is prepared
on the looms, it is thoroughly inspected to ensure quality. Inspection, Cutting and
Packing is done in the same shed i-e "Folding Department".

Inspection
Unrolling the Cloth
First of all, in Inspection, the cloth is unrolled on the Unrolling Machine. Then this
unrolled cloth is taken to the machines where "Inspection Supervisors" check, correct and
mark the faults in the cloth. If the fault can be corrected at the spot, it is fine otherwise it
is marked and passed on to the cutting area. The workers on the unrolling machine list
various details about the process. Whenever a Cloth Roll enters the Folding department,
all the information related to it is listed in a report. A Daily Roll Cutting Card is also
made. This card gives details about the length of certain quality cloth cut in a day and
other related information. After the cloth is unrolled, it is sent for inspection. There, the
Inspection Supervisors inspect the cloth on machines and give points to the faults in the
cloth. On a chart called” Cloth Inspection Chart", they write different information as
•Inspector name
•Shift
•Loom no
•Quality
•Width
•Total yards/meters
•Type of faults and their points
•Grade of cloth.

Also the amount of cloth inspected by each inspector is written there. There is a formal
procedure for "Fabric Inspection”. The procedure follows one of two choices of
standards. One is "Ten Point Standard (J.I.S. Standard)". It is followed by Japanese. The

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other is "Four Point Standard". It is followed by Americans. In both the standards the
"Grading" done is different.

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Hence when the cloth is inspected, it is graded by counting the number of points in a
specific count of yards. More are the Points, lower is the Grade. Note that the fault
which is corrected at the inspection spot is not given any point. Only the fault that cannot
be corrected is given point. There are 17 kinds of faults that can be in a cloth if the fault
is serious and repetitive, and then an "Action Slip" is made. This is to take strict notice of
the fault so that B and C quality cloth must be avoided.

Folding
After the inspection activity is performed. Folding, Cutting and Packing is done. But first
the Folding activity is performed. Folding is done on the Folding Machine. A Folder is
there to do that activity on the machine. Every fold of cloth is of one meter.

Cutting
After folding, Cutting is performed. The Inspection Supervisors give the Cloth Inspection
Chart to the personnel of the cutting area that specifies the fault i-e place from which the
cloth is to be cut. Hence at the time of cutting, in order to ensure quality, the faulted
fabric (that is of either B or C quality) is separated from A Grade fabric. At a place of
fault, the Inspection Supervisors attach a Strip that gives the detail about the fault.
Moreover, whenever the buyer places an order, he specifies the cutting of the cloth. For
example he can say that he wants his fabric in ten cuttings each of 110 meters, or he can
say that the cloth should be in ten cuttings each one greater than 100 meters. Hence
according to this specification the cloth is cut. When the cutting activity is performed, all
its detail is entered in a register. For example; Quality of Cloth, Cutting Length (specified
by the buyer). Loom number.
•Length of A Grade Cloth.
•Length of B Grade Cloth.
•Length of C Grade Cloth.
•Length of Fents and
•Total Length.
Folding is done on the Folding Machine. A Folder is there to do that activity on the
machine. Every fold of cloth is of one meter.

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Packing
When the cutting is done, then "Packing" starts but before packing, the cloth is weighted
to calculate its "Net Weight". After that according to the buyer's requirement the cloth is
packed either in the form of a Roll or Bail. After the packing the cloth is again weighted
to calculate its "Gross Weight". Before packing, cloth is first pressed to bring it in proper
shape. This activity is carried out by the "Hydraulic Pressing Machine".
After the packing is performed, a list is made that is called the "Packing List". It is given
to the buyer when the cloth is dispatched. Moreover on the bale or roll a Sticker is
attached that gives information about the packing.
For the organization's proper record, a "Daily Summary of Packing" is made to know the
amount of cloth made with reference to the Quality. A "Damage Report” is prepared
daily. It explains the cloth damaged in daily production (in every shift). Based on this
report the performance and efficiency of employees in every shift is calculated and
Rewards are given. Dispatch After the packing, the cloth is shifted to the “Fabric
Godown". There, proper record is kept about the amount of cloth and its quality and
weight. At the day of dispatch, the cloth is dispatched from the mill.

Spinning
The procedure for making "Yarn" is called Spinning. Spinning is a delicate process
because the yarn produced in this process should be exactly of the same quality and count
as specified by the buyer. There are many technical aspects involved in this process. At
each and every stage of yarn production, one has to take care of all the instructions and
technical things to produce a good quality yam.

Issuance of Bales
The production process starts from the issuance of cotton bales. Based on the order
(Contract) of yam, an estimate is made for the amount of cotton required for the process.
The cotton is then transferred from one of the Ginning factories to the Spinning unit or it
is purchased from the outside parties. When the cotton reaches the unit, the bales are
weighted and their moisture is checked. After that they are shifted to the Cotton Godown.

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The moisture of cotton bales is again checked when they are issued for the production
process. At this time the laboratory personnel came to know that exactly how much
cotton would be needed for the production process with a particular amount of moisture.
Relating to this a Daily Moisture Report is also prepared

Blow Room
Blow Room is the first stage in the making of Yarn. Here there are different machines on
which different activities are performed in order to clean the cotton. So, the basic
objective of this room is to clean the cotton to assure quality in the product. First of all in
the blow room, there is a machine called “Plucker". In this, 20 bales of 20 different lots
are placed. It means that from every one lot one bale is taken. The role of this machine is
to separate the cotton layers because the cotton is in form of layers when the ginning
factory packs it. The machine does this role by sucking the cotton into it, sending it in a
"Condenser" which forwards the cotton to other place. The dust in the cotton is sent
outside the blow room through a pipe. After the Plucker has done its job then the job of
women start who clean the cotton by removing different impurities from it. Impurities
may include jute, leaves, plastic bags and other impurities. The cotton cleaned by ladies
is gathered on one side. Near this gathering of cotton there is a machine that is called
"Breaker". In this, cotton is loaded which is cleaned and its wastage called
"Dropping" is removed. It is first wastage that is removed with the help of machines.
After that the cotton moves along a path and reaches another machine called "Exi Flow".
This machine also cleans the cotton. After this the cotton reaches another machine called
"Multi Mixer". In this machine cotton is mixed. As explained before that cotton taken is
from 20 different bales. So the cotton is mixed together so that the mixed variety
produced should be good enough to produce a high quality yarn. After that the cotton
reaches a machine called “RM" which further purifies the cotton. After this machine has
done its job there are two workers who remove any impurity like jute left over by the
machine. After this, there is another machine, which is called “TX".
This machine exerts a very strong pressure on the cotton in order to remove any impurity
and then sends it to the “Filter Room". In the Filter room there are different machines that
clean the cotton very thoroughly to make sure that the cotton passed to the

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"Carding Section" is clean to produce a high quality yam.

Lacreen- Dropping
Lacreen is the cotton containing different things such as leaves. Dropping is same as
Lacreen but it is worse than Lacreen. Other wastages are Card Fly and Filter Fan. So the
job of blow room is to clean the cotton to make sure that fine quality lint is there for the
production of Yam.

Carding Department
After the blow room, the job of carding department starts. Basically in this department
three different major activities are performed. They are "Carding, Drawing and
Simpering".

Carding
In Carding "Slivers" are made. These are long, soft and thick ropes of cotton. These
Slivers are placed in drums called "Cans".
The cotton passed to the "Carding Section" is clean to produce a high quality yam. Here
cleaning the cotton gets different kinds of wastage. These are

DRAWING
In the drawing section, a process is there where the lengths of the slivers is increased.
This process is called "Drafting".
Twelve (12) canes of slivers are placed in a sequence and after that slivers from these
canes are combined to form a single sliver of larger length. Here, thus, the slivers are
combined to form a single sliver of a larger length.

Comber and Carded Yarn


After the Drawing activity, the mill either makes "Carded Yam" or "Comber" or, both,
based on the order. Comber is finer than the Carded Yarn. For Comber, a special process
is there in a comber section where "Laps” are made. These are made by making rolls
from the slivers and removing any further waste (Comber Noil) to ensure quality. After

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removing the waste, again the slivers are made to prepare them for the "Simplexing”
process. Another waste (Short Fiber) goes outside the process with the help of pipes.

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SIMPLEXING
In the Simplexing section the Frames of carded yarn and comber are separately run. Here,
from slivers, “Roving” is made. This is basically thick yarn from which later the yam
with specified counts is made. These roving are wrapped on specially made thing called
"Bobbins". These roving are then carried over to the Ring department.

Ring Department
Here at the ring department, the yam with specified count is made. The Bobbins made in
the previous department are carried to this department where these are run on "Spindles".
At spindles the yarn is made which is of the count specified by the buyer. These Spindles
are run in frames. Each frame is of 480 spindles.

Auto Cone Department


After the yam is made on "Rings", it is carried over to this department which is called
"Auto Cone".
Basically in the previous department the yam has been made and the only objective of
this department is to join the yarn and bring it on the cones.
The "Rings" are placed on the machines that draw the yam from them one by one, joins
it and wraps it on the cones. Packing Department Here at the Packing dept, the cones are
packed. The packing is of two types. One is the
Export Packing and the other is the Local packing. Export packing is finer than the Local
packing. At this department a certain amount of moisture is maintained to add a certain
amount of weight to the yarn.
Note that a certain amount of temperature is also maintained in all the departments to
avoid some technical problems.

Yarn Godown
After packing, the yarn is transferred to the Yam Godown. In this Godown, all the record
is kept about the amount of yarn, its quality and the count.

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Laboratory

The laboratory plays very important role in Spinning. Its role starts from the issuance of
the bales. When the bales are issued, the laboratory checks their moisture and a Moisture
Report are prepared for that. In each department the raw material is checked by the
laboratory for its moisture. More over the laboratory also prepares report of various
wastage for different departments. It keeps record of daily production, monthly
production and wastage etc.

Documentation for Spinning


Like Weaving, for Spinning unit proper documentation is done. The managers keep
record of each and every activity. For each and every order, the record about raw material
inventory, work in process inventory and finished good inventory is kept. The laboratory
prepares different reports relating with the production process. But in contrast to
Weaving, the reports prepared in the Spinning unit are less. Now, let’s have a view of the
reports that are prepared in the documentation of the Spinning.
(1). Cotton Stock Report
This report is prepared about the daily stock of cotton. This report contains information
as;
•Daily Incoming Cotton
• Cotton in Opening Balance
• Previous Outgoing Cotton
• Daily Outgoing Cotton and
• Remaining Stock of Cotton
(2). Daily Cotton Issuance Report
This report is prepared when the bales are issued to the Blow Room. This report contains
information as;
•Date of Issuance of Cotton.
•No. of Bales Issued. Station (Ginning factory from which the bales are transferred or
purchased).

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•Purchase Weight of Bales


• Mills Weight of Bales.
• Shortage or Excess in Weight of the Bales (due to the moisture).

(3). Shortage and Excess Report


Due to the moisture in the bales Shortage or Excess occurs in the bales. Shortage occurs
when the moisture is lessened due to heat in the mills. Excess occurs if the bales are kept
exposed to any rain in the mills. That is why a report is prepared about "Shortage and
Excess". This report contains information as;
•Lot No.
• No. of Bales.
•Shortage.
•Excess.
•Station and Moisture.
(4). Cotton Summary Report
This report is about the Opening, Received and Issuance of cotton which is prepared in a
summary form. This report contains information as;
•Opening Balance of Cotton.
•Cotton Received.
•Total Balance
. •Cotton Issued to B/R (Blow Room).
•Closing Balance.
(5). Yarn Stock Report
This report gives information about the amount of Yarn in the Opening Balance, Yarn
Produced, yarn Packed (Export and Local) and yarn in the Closing Balance, in one day.
This report also contains other small reports about yarn as;
•Yarn's Clearance Report.
• Yarn's Production Report.
• Yam's Doubling Report.
• Hard Waste Report and •Shut Down Report.
(6). Production Accounts of each Month

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In Production Accounts for a month, two reports are prepared.


(1). One report contains information as;
•No. of Spindles, Installed, Available and Worked.

•Moisture in Cotton and Yam.


•Cotton Opening Work in Process.
•Cotton Issued.
•Net Cotton Consumed

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. •Recovery of Cotton from the Waste and


•Detail of Cotton Waste.

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EXPORTS

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EXPORT
Introduction
Export is the most distinctive recognition of Mahmood Textile Mills. It is the most
powerful weapon that MTM has got in the field of Textile. It is due to the export that
today MTM has got a distinction in the production of textile products. MTM exports
both, the Yarn and the Grey Cloth but major export is in the field of yarn. Hence yarn is
the major contributor to the earnings from the export. Currently Mahmood Textile Mills
has four brands of yarn. They are;
1. Cotton King
2. Palm
3. Zaitoon
4. Engine
In Fabric MTM have 214 qualities of grey cloth.

Export at Mahmood Textile Mills


The activity of Export is carried out at the Head Office of Mahmood Textile Mills. For
export, there is a separate department for export known as Export Department.

Procedure for Export at Mahmood Textile Mills


There are various steps involved in export. These are explained below.
1) Receipt and Checking of Letter Of Credit (Loc)
At Mahmood Textile Mills, the export procedure begins by the Sales Contract. After the
contract, the buyer opens Letter Of Credit (explained below). The concern person of
MTM studies the Letter Of Credit on receipt and makes sure that its particulars are
according to the sales contract. If there is any discrepancy between the sales contract and
LC, it is removed.
2) Letter of Credit:
After the contract is developed, the buyer opens Letter of Credit in his bank (foreign
bank) and that LC is sent to MTM's bank by that foreign bank. Then MTM's bank
forwards the LC to it. It is a document that is cashed when exporter hands over the

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negotiable documents to its bank. In an LC the buyer quotes following important


explanation;
•Product Specification.
•Amount of the transaction in US dollars.
•Shipment detail
•Packing detail.
•Bank detail (that opens LC)
Note that LC has an expiry date. If the shipment cannot be made on time, then the LC
cannot be cashed and it is expired. Hence the expiry date compels the exporter to send
shipment on date.
2). Finalization of Production and Shipment Schedule
Then the preceding procedure is over, and then the concern responsible person f the
export department prepares the Shipment Schedule keeping in view i.e. booking. This
schedule is finalized by the director and then it is sent to i.e. GM at the mill who makes
the Production Schedule by keeping in view i.e. Shipment Schedule.
3). Custom Clearance, Shipment, Buyer Information
•When the goods are produced, the Office Manager finalizes and discusses all programs
with Manager Export before dispatching the goods from mills and makes arrangements
accordingly.
•When the goods are dispatched from mills the office manager informs the export
manager about the dispatch and gives Performa Detail of Dispatch (It is a small report
that gives the details about the dispatched products) which is used in maintaining the
export record.
•The Clearing Agent is also informed accordingly about the dispatch and all the
documents are sent to him after they are checked by the Audit Department.
•When the goods are dispatched from the mills, the buyer is informed
•The clearing agent arranges custom clearance and sends the Bill of Lading to the export
department.

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3) Bill Of Lading:
When the goods are cleared from the custom and reach shipment, then the ipping
company issues Bill of Lading to the exporter. Bill of Lading intains following important
information;
•Shipper and Consignee's particulars.
•Place of Receipt, Loading and place of Delivery.
•Forwarding Agent.
•Country of Origin of Goods.
•Port of Discharge.
•Description of Goods and Packages.
•Container Numbers.
•Weight of Goods and
•Total Freight (in US $ and local currency).
4) Checking of bill of lading and Buyer Information
•against the Letter of Credit to make sure that there is no discrepancy between them. If
there is some, then it is the job of the agent to get it removed from the Shipping
Company.
•An Export Register is maintained where all the information is entered about When the
agent sends the Bill of Lading to export department, it is checked the documents.
•After checking the Bill of Lading, the buyer is also informed about the shipment by Fax
or by Phone. Now, before explaining the next step, it is necessary to tell you about the

Negotiable and Non-Negotiable Documents.


Negotiable Documents
These are the documents without which exporter cannot take payment from its bank.
These are the documents without which the buyer cannot receive the goods he imports.
Exporter transfers the negotiable documents to its bank and receives the payment which
is specified in the LC. This process is called Negotiation of Documents.

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Our bank sends the documents to the foreign bank and the foreign bank transfers them to
the buyer and the buyer receives the goods from the shipping company and gets them
cleared from the custom.
Following documents are the Negotiable Documents',
•Letter of Credit.
•Bill of Lading.
•Invoice.
•Bill of Exchange.
•Packing List.
•Certificate of Origin.
•Insurance Policy.
•Form E and
•Beneficiary Certificate.

Non-Negotiable Documents
These are the non-original documents (either photocopies or faxes) of negotiable
documents that are given to the buyer just for providing him information about different
steps. With the help of these documents, exporter cannot take the payment from the bank
and the buyer cannot receive the goods. These documents are sent directly to the buyer
while the Negotiable documents are always sent via banks.
Negotiation of Documents
•After receipt/correction of Bill of Lading, export department prepares the documents for
negotiation/collection of the payment and sends them to the audit department for
checking.
•If the documents are passed by the audit dept., the director and the export manager sign
the bill of exchange. After their approval, the documents are sent to the bank for the
negotiation. Two copies of the Invoice and Bill of Lading are sent to the account section
for Freight and Sale Booking.
•After this, a person appointed by the export department follows up the documents in the
bank, removes any discrepancy, if pointed out by the bank and receives the payment from
the bank on the same day.

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•After this, negotiation file is sent to the Rebate Assistant for the preparation of the rebate
cases.

Bill of exchange
Bill of exchange is a document that is used to draw money from the foreign bank.
Exporter sends this bill to its bank which forwards it to the foreign bank that opens LC.
Invoice
In MTM the invoices prepared are of two types;
(1). First, the invoice that is prepared is for the purpose of "Custom Clearance". Its only
objective is to clear the goods from custom checks. From the two types of Invoices, this
one is prepared first. The basic difference between the two is that, in first one, the
information about; Description of Goods, Unit Price and Amount of goods (in any
currency) is given to small extent for secrecy purposes. Only that much of information is
given that can serve the purpose of Custom Officers.
(2). the second type of Invoice is prepared for the purpose of "Negotiation of
Documents". This Invoice is submitted to the bank. Each and every information about the
transaction is given in full detail here.

Settlement/Payment of Expenses
•With each shipping company, the Director or the Export Manager settles the rate of Sea
Freight in American dollars for each destination.
•After or before receipt of Bill of Lading, Sea Freight Payment Performa•(explained
below) is filled by the export department which is then sent to the account section for
necessary action. •The Performa is checked by the account and audit department and is
sent to the Director for approval of Demand Draft Issuance. After approval account
section arrange Demand Draft.
•After that the Demand Draft is sent to the shipping company along with •the Performa
and its two copies are kept at the export department for recording purposes.
Sea Freight Payment Performa
It is a Performa made by the export department specifying the terms of transactions with
the shipping company. It is sent with the Demand Draft and contains following important
information;

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•Containers' Numbers.
•Number and Date of Issuance of Bill of Lading.
•Invoice number.
•Destination.
•Freight in Rupees and US$.

Payment of Foreign Commission


•The export department prepares the Outstanding Commission Report and sends it to the
accounts department for the issuance of Demand Draft.
•After the verification accounts dept. hands over the documents to the audit dept.
•If the audit department passes the documents, then they are sent to the director for the
issuance of Demand Draft and the payment is made.

Payment of Local Commission


After the shipment is made, the agent sends request for the payment of Local
Commission. Export Manager checks the contents of the request and sends it to the
account department for payment along with some other concerned files. When the
account department checks it, it then sends it to the audit department for further
verification. After audit department's verification, account department gets the Demand
Draft issued from the director and sends it directly to the agent.
CF, CIF, AND FOB
In Mahmood Textile Mills, there are three different conditions in which the freight is
paid. These are;
•CF
•CIF and FOB
•CF
Means "Cost and Freight". It means that exporter will pay the freight till destination.

CIF
Means "Cost, Insurance and Freight". It means that along with paying freight till
destination, the exporter will also get the goods insured on his/her own expense.

FOB

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Means "Freight on Board". In this the exporter will pay the freight till boarding only.
Remaining freight is paid by the buyer.
Getting Rebate from the Government
When the above steps are over, the job of Rebate Assistant starts.
•With the help of some documents such as Shipping Bill, he prepares the rebate case and
sends it to the custom for payment after the checking of audit department and export
manager.
•He then follows the case till receipt of payment.
•After the receipt of payment, he maintains its record and hands over the check to the
accounts department. Shipping Bill It is given to the exporter by the shipping company
when the ds are shipped on board. Its important contents are;
•Export Registration Number

•FOB in foreign currency


•Freight
•Rate of Exchange
•Exporter's and Consignee's particulars.
•Name of Vessel or Aircraft
•Port of Discharge.
•Country of Final Destination.
•Packages (description, marks and numbers)•Quantity (units and amount)•Description of
Goods.
•Export Value and
•Other information (Form E No., Unit Price, Vessels name etc.)

Other documents involved in Export Form E


Form E is attached with the documents when the goods are being cleared from the
custom. In this Form, the exporter informs the government that its specified bank will
collect the payment from the buyer within 120 days. It is so because there is a law in our
country that the proceeds from exports should be realized within 120 days after shipment,
otherwise State Bank of Pakistan takes strict notices to know, where is the foreign

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exchange going. On this Form, exporter's specified bank also gives its statement about
the exporter that it knows the exporter and will collect the proceeds within 120 days. In
case of no realization, it will inform the State Bank about the circumstances. On Form E,
other information is made available as;
•Description of Goods in detail.
•Quantity (In bales, bundles, pieces, tons, Ibs, etc.)•Invoice Value (In $) and Terms.
•Destination, Port, Station.
•Name and Address of Consignee
•Name of Steamer or Air Company.
•Reference of Bill of Lading or Airway Bill.
•Port of Shipment/Post Office of Dispatch.
•Land Custom Post.

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Packing List
For the purpose of Custom Clearance and later on providing it to the buyer, a Packing
List is prepared. It contains information as;
•Description of Goods.
•Bales numbers.
•Measurement.
•Total number of Packages.
•Total Gross Weight
•Total Net Weight.
It is a negotiable document and is sent via bank.
Shipment Detail to the Buyer
When the goods are shipped, a detail of dispatch is sent to the buyer that contains all the
information about the Goods and their Packing. It is a non-negotiable document and is
only for buyer information.

Certificate of Origin
Certificate of Origin, as it is clear from the name is to certify that the goods being
exported to the importing country are of Pakistan origin. There are some countries in
which goods of certain other countries are banned. Hence this is to make sure that the
imported goods are not banned in the importing country, by the government. This is also
a negotiable document and is sent via bank.

Bill of Export
When the exporter submits different documents to the custom office for the purpose of
Custom Clearance, the Custom Office, issues a Bill of Export. Based on this bill, goods
are cleared from the custom. It contains each and very information about all the
transactions. Buy-Back-Cum-Indemnity for Export/Inland Bills After the exporter has
negotiated the documents it signs a "Buy-Back-Cum-Indemnity for Export/Inland Bills".
In this it accepts that it will buy the negotiated documents back from its bank. at the
amount of bill of exchange plus all the bank charges and mark up at the rate specified by

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the bank within settled number of days, in the event of the said documents being refused
to the bank by the bank opening/confirming the credit or

dishonored by the drawee after acceptance, insolvency of the drawee or the bank that has
opened the LC or any other reason whatsoever.

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PURCHASES

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PURCHASE
Every organization has the need to purchase the raw material, heavy machinery, daily
used products etc., so has Mahmood Textile Mills. At MTM there is a separate
department for purchase known as "Purchase Department"
At MTM the purchase falls in four categories.
1. Import
2. General Purchase
3. Cotton Purchase and
4. Yarn Purchase
Let's first have a look on MTM's Import.

Import
Mahmood Textile Mills imports the goods that are not produced locally. So far Import a
proper procedure is followed at MTM. or every organization to import, it has to, first,
register itself in the list of importers. After that, the Importer can import. MTM is also
registered in importer's list.

Import at Mahmood Textile Mills


•The necessity to Import arises from the need. When the need of some thing arises at the
mills, they make Purchase Demands and send it to the Import Department.
•When Purchase Demand reaches the Import Department, the Import In charge studies
the demand carefully and then sends the detailed information about the required item(s)
to the Indenture (Agents of foreign Manufacturers. They act as middleman) for
Indent/Performa Invoice.
•When the Indenture sends the Indent/Performa Invoice to the Import In charge. The
Import In charge sends it to the concerned department at the mills for the verification and
the confirmation of the demanded goods. The Head of the concern department evaluates
it after his approval sends it back to the Import In charge.
•When the Performa Invoice is confirmed. Import In charge sends application for opening
of Letter of Credit to the bank along with insurance Cover Note (Insurance is necessary

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for import. Without insurance, bank refuses to open LC). The Indenture informs the
manufacturer about it and asks him to send the items.
•When the shipment clearing documents come at the bank, the Import in Charge receives
them from the bank and gives them to the Clearing Agent or Custom Clearance.
•The Clearing Agent, after clearing the document form the custom, makes delivery
Challan and sends them to the mills. Import In charge notes each and every detail about
the Import in the import Register.

Performa Invoice
The Performa Invoice is made by the Indenture to confirm the goods and r particulars, the
organization is demanding. Moreover it tells the importer about the Price, Payment, and
other Terms and Conditions. Forma Invoice has following contents;
 •Exporter's Name and Address.
 •Importer's Name and Address.
 •Description of items.
 •Quantity.
 •Terms and Conditions.
 •Country of Origin.
 • Delivery Date.
 • Mode of Payment.

Other Documents Involved In Import Open Bond


Manufacturing Certificate (OBM)
It is an incentive that the government offers to the importers. It is only for the goods
which are not manufactured in the local market (and must be imported).According to
this incentive, when the Importer imports the goods, then the government doesn't
receives Import duty on the goods, provided that the goods manufactured by the
Imported machinery or part, later on, must be then exported. Later, the excise
department is responsible to see whether the organization is fulfilling its obligations.

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Form I
Form I is an application for permission under the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act,
1947 to purchase Foreign Exchange for payment of Imports. In this Form, the
Importer declares;
•That the mentioned payment is due and that he has not already obtained exchange
for payment for Imports nor he has made any other application for this purpose.
•That the amount of Foreign Exchange mentioned represents the correct prevailing
marker price for the goods on the date of contract in the exporting country.
•That he is neither connected with the exporter abroad directly nor indirectly nor do
he has any financial or other interest in the exporters. The Importer certifies that;
The imports are covered by a valid Import License/Import Permit/Sub
unauthorization/Authorization duly registered with the State Bank of Pakistan.
Importer undertakes that the remittances being made shall be utilized for e Import
mentioned and he shall clear the goods for consumption in Pakistan with in four
months from the date of application. A part of this Form I is completed by the
Authorized Dealer who certifies that the statements made by the applicant in the form
are to the best of its knowledge correct and it has seen documentary evidence in
support there of. The dealer also certifies that the remittance has been made in
accordance with method of payment as per existing Exchange Control Regulations.

Bill Of Entry
The Bill of Entry is just like Shipping Bill. With the help of this document, import
department clears the goods from the custom. It carries all the information about;
•The Importer.
•Letter Of Credit.
•Freight.
•Goods (Their price, units, weight, packages).
•Shipment detail.
•Sales Tax, Income Tax, Custom and Excise Duty.

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Invoice
When the exporter negotiates the documents, he sends Invoice to Import department
that specifies;
•Goods imported by MTM
•Air Freight and Forwarding Charges.
•Port of destination.
•Payment (in importing country's currency).
•Type of Packing

Airway Bill
When the goods are sent by ship. Bill of Lading is made. When the goods are sent by
Air, Airway Bill is made. Airway Bill possesses following information;
•Airport of destination.
•Flight/Date.
•Amount of Insurance.
•Handling Information
•Number of pieces of goods
•Gross Weight and Net Weight.
•Rate/Charge.
•Nature and Quantity of Goods. It is a negotiable document. The exporter also sends
Certificate of Origin and Letter of Credit to the Import department which are both
negotiable documents.

General Purchase
The Purchase department of Mahmood Textile Mills purchases different parts and
daily used products from the local market too. But Installations and other heavy
machinery are imported, because they offer high-class quality and prolong warranty
periods. The goods purchased locally, fall in the category of General Purchase.
General Purchase at Mahmood Textile Mills

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•Whenever some locally produced thing is required at the mills, the concern
department incharge checks that whether the thing lies in Mill's Store. If it is there, he

gets it issued from the store. If it is not there, then Purchase Demand (Purchase
Demands contain detailed information about required items like Quantity, Quality
and other specification) is made, which after approval of the Head of the department
goes to the Purchase department.
•After analyzing the Purchase Demand, Purchase In charge asks for Quotations from
various suppliers and makes Comparative Statements. Based on them he makes
Purchase Order which is then sent to the director for his approval.
•After Director's Approval, Purchase order is sent to the Approved Supplier.
•When the goods are received, they are sent to the mills with a Delivery Challan
•Store sends Goods Receipt Note after receiving the goods, to the Purchase
Department.
Note that Chemicals and Packing Material for Weaving and Packing Material for
Spinning is purchased on the basis of Daily Stock Report. For them Purchase demand
is not raised from mills. In Mahmood Textile Mills, the goods are only purchased
from Approved Suppliers. There is a formal system for the evaluation of the
Suppliers/Subcontractors. After the suppliers are evaluated the Approved Suppliers'
names are entered in Approved Supplier List. Those items that do not affect the
quality of the product can be purchased from unapproved suppliers. Also in case of
emergency this can be done.

Yarn Purchase
As mentioned earlier, Mahmood Textile Mills also purchase the yarn from outside
parties inspite of its own Spinning units. The yarn is only purchased from the
approved suppliers and it is made sure that the yarn purchased is of high quality to
produce a good high quality fabric.

Yarn Purchase at Mahmood Textile Mills


•Yarn Purchase is responsibility of the Director for Weaving. He receives

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•Daily Yam Requirement and Daily Yam Stock Report (explained later) from
weaving mills and based on them he finalizes the purchase of yarn. The Brand is
selected by the Director

•Yam Purchase Assistant prepares the Purchase Order of Yam with concern of
Director and the Director approves the order after analyzing it.
•After Director's approval, order is placed to the supplier. •When the goods reach at
mills. Yam Go down In charge receives them and sends confirmation of receipt of
goods to the Head Office. Note that the order is made in anticipation. Hence no
shortage of yarn occurs at the mills.
Daily Yarn Requirement Report
The Daily Yarn Requirement Report carries information as;
•Amount of Yam (in meters) required for Warp. •Amount of Yarn (in meters)
required for Weft.
•Total Yarn (of different Counts) required for production of different qualities.
Daily Yarn Stock Report
Daily Yarn Stock Report carries information about yarn available for production. It
specifies the;
•Yam (of different Counts) available for production.
•Brands.
•Percent PC.
•Opening Balance.
•Receipt (Purchase, Return)
•Issued (for Warp and Weft)•Transfer and
•Closing Balance.
Cotton Purchase
MTM also carries the activity of Cotton Purchase. Inspite of the owners' own Ginning
factories, cotton is purchased from outside parties due to heavy requirement of cotton
for four (4) spinning units.
Cotton Purchase at Mahmood Textile Mills

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•For Cotton Purchase, Director selects Ginning factories based on their Site Location.
On demand of cotton from the mills, he calls for sample from his selected Ginning
factories and sends the sample to the mills for testing.

• After testing, the sample is sent back to director for approval/disapproval along with
the Cotton Testing Report.
•In case of approval, the Assistant for Cotton Purchase makes Purchase Order for
Cotton.
Note that Purchase Order is only for outside parties. For owners' own ginning
factories, cotton is just transferred from one of ginning factory to the mill by a
Transfer Notice.
•After the Director's approval of the order, the order is sent to the supplier and the
Godown Keeper is also informed about the purchase order at the mill.
•When the Cotton reaches the mill, Godown Keeper receives it and informs at the
Head Office about the receipt of goods.
Local Sale
In addition to Export, Mahmood Textile Mills also sells the Yarn and Fabric in the

Local Market.
The Local Sale Director makes the contract and he is responsible for sale of cloth in
the local market. He takes help of the Local Sale Assistant. Usually, A Grade
products are exported and B and C Grade products are sold in the local market.
Obviously the rate for B and C Grade products is less than the A Grade products but
these are also easily sold in the local market as compared to the foreign market
because foreign market is more quality conscious than the local market.

Local Sale at Mahmood Textile Mills


•Local Sale Assistant receives Daily Stock Report for Cotton and Yam to see that the
stock is available for sale.
•Local Sale Assistant discusses with the Director, daily, about the dispatch of
products to inform him about the amount of yarn and cloth to be exported and the
amount of yarn and cloth available for local sale.

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•When the buyer consults the director for purchase of either yam of cloth, the Local
Sale Assistant makes Purchase Order Detail for Cotton or Yam explained later) and
sends it to the buyer.

•The buyer, after specifying his/her requirements in the Purchase Order, sends it back
to the Local Sale Assistant.
•Local Sale Assistant sends this Purchase Order to the Office Manager, which then
sends the goods to the proper buyer.
•Local Sale Assistant prepares the Invoice and sends it to the buyer after getting it
approved from the Director.

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Purchase Order Detail for Cloth


Purchase Order Detail for Cloth is made to know the buyer's requirements. It is then
sent to the buyer and based on this the Cloth is prepared for dispatch. The Order
contains following contents;
•Date and Buyer's Reference.
•Quality of Cloth required.
•Quantity of Cloth required.
•Dispatch Schedule.
•Number of Bales or Rolls needed etc.
Purchase Order Detail for Yarn
Purchase Order Detail for Yarn is also made to know the buyer's requirements about
yarn. It is sent to the buyer and based on this the Yam is prepared for dispatch. The
Order contains following contents;
•Order Number. •Buyer's Name.
•Required Weight per Cone.
•Required Net Weight per bag.
•Required Cones per Bag.
•Total Bags required.
•Yarn Count(s) required.
•Yam Quality required.
•Required Brand(s).
•Delivery Schedule:
•Date of Delivery.
•Bags per Container.
•Type of Packing required.

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PERSONAL
MANAGEMENT

PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT

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Personnel Management is a very important activity for any kind of organization. The
personnel of any organization are its keys and with the help of them the organization
can do miracles in its business. It is but up to the organization that how it manages its
employees. Mahmood Textile Mills also does Personnel Management in its own
particular way. Let us now see how this organization carries out various activities in
the field of Personnel Management.

Recruitment and Selection


Whenever some unit of Mahmood Textile Mills starts its working the recruitment is
done on the basis of Sanction Strength. Sanction Strength is the estimate of the
workers, middle and top managers. The recruitment and selection of middle and top
managers, that occurs in a normal, day by day working is carried out in the Head
Office. For workers it is in the concerned unit. GM (General Manager) or TM
(Technical Manager) does that. A register is maintained in the Time Office which
gives information about;
 No. of workers Enrolled.
 No. of workers to be enrolled in future.
 No. Of workers on Leave
 No. of workers absent etc.

Orientation
Orientation is necessary for any kind of worker and the manager. The concerned
Officer or the Director is made responsible for conducting Orientation.

Training and Trail


Training and Trail is only for entry level positions. When a worker is selected, he is,
then, passed through a Trial Session for 6 or 7 days. The Foreman of the concerned
department conducts the trial. He reports to concerned in charge. If the person is
working well in trial, he is passed and in charge is informed that the person is fit for
the job. When a worker has successfully passed the trial, he is then placed
permanently and a "Worker Number" is allotted to him. His file is maintained with

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reference to his worker number in which every kind of information about him is
inked. During the trial, the foreman also gives continuous training to the worker but
long training sessions are not carried out in the organization. Hence, the worker is
examined during his training that whether he can do the job.

Placement
The placement of the worker is temporary when he is selected and placed in a trial
session. The placement becomes permanent when the worker passes the trial. The
selection of the middle or the top managers is in the Head Office and at the time the
managers are selected, they are placement as permanent. For them there is no trial.
The job description is given to the worker or the manager after the selection and in
this respect the documented procedures of ISO 9002 for job description are followed.

Salaries
The salary of a single worker is Rs. 2100/- per month which is called Gross Salary.
Overtime is paid according to the hours worked over and above one shift of eight
hours. The salary of the middle and top managers is determined by the concerned
Director. There is lot of variation in it.

Rewards
The rewards given to the lower level are of two types
1. Rewards which are given to weavers.
2 .Rewards which are given to workers.
(1). the amount of reward which is given to the weavers is based on their work done.
When a certain weaver weaves the cloth, then the Time Keeper places a sticker
(Tape) on the Cloth Roll which describes,
1 Length of cloth weaved.
2 Name of weaver.
3 Loom number.
4 Quality.
5 Efficiency of loom etc.

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After that at the Cloth Inspection level, the condition of the cloth is checked and
based on the condition of cloth weaved, that is "number of faults" etc., the reward of
weaver is determined.
(2). for second type of rewards which is given to the workers of other depts. the cloth
which is at the end inspected determines the rewards. From the cloth, the faults that
are due to the workers of different departments is seen. For example, in case of
Sizers, the managers see the faults in the cloth which are due to the sizers. The length
of the faulted cloth is subtracted from the total length of the beam and then based on
this length the reward is determined. Similarly the rewards given to the workers of
Warping, Drawing departments etc. follows the same rule. On various reports
prepared, different faults with respect to different departments are mentioned. Those
are taken into account. The rewards given to the middle and the top managers depend
on the will of the concerned Director.

Bonus
Bonus is given annually with respect to percentage of profit. (Percentage is
determined by the concerned Director).

Facilities
The facilities are provided to all the levels.•
The GM of the unit as been given a good reasonable home and a car.• Middle
managers have been allotted homes.
•Lower Managers are also been provided homes but for four lower managers there is
one home.
•Moreover the personnel are provided free Electricity and Gas into their home
Workers Union concept is different here. Union in at the mills (production units).
Unit #1, 2 and 3 has one union. Unit no. 4 and 5 has another union. Union's President
and Secretary are elected by the workers. But usually they are the persons whom the
owners want to be president or secretary. They take 1% share from the workers'
bonus but according to the workers they are of no use to them.

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Attendance
For attendance every worker is given an "Attendance Card" and he brings it in the
unit in the morning when he comes to work. From that card the attendance is shifted
to a register for the purpose of making "Daily Attendance Report for a Shift". This
report contains information as;
No. of workers that should be on work.
No. of workers actually on work.
No. of workers in trial.
No. of workers present.
No. of workers absent. No. of workers that have come on time. No. Of workers that
have come late.

Leaves
The company has a leave system for the benefit of the workers and the managers. In
this system there are three kinds of leaves. They are;
1. Sick Leave (SL). They are 8 per year.
2. Casual Leave (CL). They are 10 per year.
3. Annual Leave or Earned Leave. They are 14 per year. If a person is on leave, then
his salary is not deducted, but if a person has taken his all leaves and is now absent
then his salary would be deducted for that day. According to the government's law;
If a person has taken all the 18 (SL & CL) leaves in a year and is now absent, then he
cannot take 14 Annual leaves the next year, even he was absent only once apart from
his 18 leaves. But the company has extended this benefit to 4 absentees apart from 18
leaves. By working more than 8 hours a worker can take either;
1. Overtime or
2. CPL (Compensation Pay Leave).
When ever a worker works more than 8 hours and does not takes overtime, then his
CPL is noted and against this he can take one leave without marking himself absent.
When a worker is newly selected, he cannot take leave for the first three months, but
his leaves are deferred in the proceeding months

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Gratuity
Gratuity is another benefit which is given to the employees. It is the one month's
basic pay which is added to employees' Gratuity Account after completing his one
year in service. For example if the basic pay of an employee is Rs. 1000 per month,
then after one year Rs.1000 will be added to employees' Gratuity account but it will
not be given to him. When the employee will get resignation or he will get retirement
then the whole gratuity will be given to him. If the above employee has retired after
25 years then his gratuity after retirement will be 25,000 rupees. There is no contract
with the workers or managers for their job. However one has to inform one month
before his resignation so that the mills can arrange another worker or the manager.
Otherwise in case of no reporting, one month salary of that person is deducted. The
Personnel Management of the company is good but it is not like a Multinational
company. Especially the salaries of the middle managers are very low and the
rewards and fringe benefits are limited

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ORGANIZATION CULTURE

ORGANIZATION CULTURE

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The culture of the organization is very hard working where teamwork is appreciated
and there is no communication gap between the various levels of the hierarchy. As far
as the rules and regulations are concerned, employees are expected to stick closely
with them. No negligence on the part of the workers or the managers is tolerated. The
organization values a safe, stable, and predictable and rule oriented environment. All
the Owners of the mills have a very strong control on the behavior of the personnel.
No one is seen sitting idle and having a chat with someone, rather every one is seen
working hard and committed to the Quality. The organization encourages the workers
and the managers towards commitment to quality. Every department carries boards
and charts with beautiful messages like;
•HARD WORK IS A KEY TO SUCCESS.
•QUALITY IS THE ONLY WEAPON TO WIN CUSTOMERS'
•LOYALTY.
•COMMITMENT TO QUALITY IS OUR MOST DOMINANT TRAIT
•CUSTOMER IS THE ULTIMATE JUDGE
Hence whenever some one goes to the mills or at the Head Office, he finds every one
working in a much disciplined environment, the environment that is very important
for any good and successful organization.

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SWOT ANALYSIS
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SWOT ANALYSIS
STRENGTHS:

 The company has a vertical integration system

 Adopting Farm-to-fabric strategy

 Mahmood group consists of seven companies located in different cities of country

 Company has many distinction certificates over the entire textile industry of
Pakistan by ISO, Supima, Lycra and Oko-tex.

 Its annual turnover ratio is US $ 215 million.

 Company is playing a significant role in textile exports with 90% export ratio.

 MTM has a strong dealer ship network and large sales force to cater to its needs.

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 Company is carrying its operations with the help of updated modern technology.

 Broad production range.

 Excellent environmental and working conditions.

 Safety measures of international standard are exercised.

 Significant contribution towards the economic and agricultural development of


the country.

 No deceptive n unethical practices in management.

 It is also member of responsible corporate citizenship.

 Company has own testing labs to maintain strict quality controls.

 MTM enjoy fair dealing with competitive prices

 It provides pre and post services to its customers.

 Company also made an employee welfare and motivation association.

WEAKNESSES:
 Lack of long term planning, decisions are made keeping in view the short term
benefits.

 Monetary sensitiveness to foreign exchange exposure.

 Too much centralization beurucratic control effects timely decision making.

 Less mobilization of resources.

 There is a lack of joint research and development activities.

 Company has dearth of trained manpower.

 Some little exposure of high-tech technology.

 Improper methods of inventory management.

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 Declines sales in economic zones of competitors.

 More dependence on loans.

 Fewer trends in long or short term investments in other sectors.

OPPORTUNITIES:
 Great opportunities for joint ventures.

 More ease for internationally integration because of the lower tariff barriers and

 Removal of quantitative trade restrictions.

 Proper placement of warehouses, automated in future.

 With the help of government subsidiaries, purchase of raw material in bulk form
will cut company’s cost.

 Company can hire specialized people with innovative approach will help to
Differentiate its products and maintain an edge over competitors.

 Opportunity to appear as a multifunctional textile mill because of globalization


factor.

 Expansion of plants to meet the demand more efficiently.

THREATS:
 Crises of gas and water can effect its production.

 High production cost can create problems for company.

 Threat of entry of new competitors in market.

 Low price of market share as compared to competitors’ will effect investments.

 No strong brand name can decrease company’s sales level.

 Company’s registered office located away from main business cities so it creates
hurdles for company to carry its operations efficiently.

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 As company has its own cotton forms, so in case of low input, it can effect its
production.

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PEST ANALYSIS

PEST ANALYSIS OF Mahmood Textiles

Political instability
The political situation of Pakistan is not stable and after the war on terror it
has gone worse especially for the business sector, and due to inconsistent
policies of government every new government set different trade policies
with make difficult for the businesses to grow and be consistent in their
performance.

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Govt. should apply sustainable policies for the beneficial of the exporters as
well as the investors.
Economic situation
The economic condition of Pakistan affect the textile industry directly and
due to week economic condition textile industry is also not performing well.
Increasing inflation rate make the cost of production high and thus reduce
the profit margin of the investor.
Social situation
The change in the lifestyle of the people affects the demand of MTM
product and especially the demand for exports is affected by the changing
fashions and style in the importing countries so the company is needed to be
contemporary to meet the changing demand of customers.
Technological factor
Technological advancement in all the sectors of the country has changed the
entire socio-economic environment. Especially in the textile sector there is a
lot of technological development, but we still need more development to
meet the demand of outside world.

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BCG MATRIX

THE BOSTON CONSULTING GROUP


(BCG) MATRIX
The BCG Matrix method is the most well-known portfolio management tool. It is
based on product life cycle theory. It was developed in the early 70s by the Boston
Consulting Group. The BCG Matrix can be used to determine what priorities should be
given in the product portfolio of a business unit. To ensure long-term value creation, a
company should have a portfolio of products that contains both high-growth products in
need of cash inputs and low-growth products that generate a lot of cash. The Boston
Consulting Group Matrix has 2 dimensions:

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 Market share
 Market growth

The
basic idea
behind it is:
if a

product has a bigger


market share, or if the product's
market grows faster, it is better for the company.

The four segments of the BCG Matrix


Placing products in the BCG matrix provides 4 categories in a portfolio of a
company:
• Stars (high growth, high market share)
o Stars are using large amounts of cash. Stars are leaders in the business.
Therefore they should also generate large amounts of cash.
o Stars are frequently roughly in balance on net cash flow. However if
needed any attempt should be made to hold your market share in Stars,
because the rewards will be Cash Cows if market share is kept.
• Cash Cows (low growth, high market share)

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o Profits and cash generation should be high. Because of the low growth,
investments which are needed should be low.
o Cash Cows are often the stars of yesterday and they are the foundation of a
company.
• Dogs (low growth, low market share)
o Avoid and minimize the number of Dogs in a company.
o Watch out for expensive ‘rescue plans’.
o Dogs must deliver cash, otherwise they must be liquidated.
• Question Marks (high growth, low market share)
o Question Marks have the worst cash characteristics of all, because they have high cash
demands and generate low returns, because of their low market share.
o If the market share remains unchanged, Question Marks will simply absorb great
amounts of cash.
o Either invests heavily, or sells off, or invests nothing and generates any cash that you can.
Increase market share or deliver cas

The BCG Matrix and one size fit all strategies


The BCG Matrix method can help to understand a frequently made strategy
mistake: having a one size fits all strategy approach, such as a generic growth target (9
percent per year) or a generic return on capital of say 9.5% for an entire corporation.
In such a scenario:
• Cash Cows Business Units will reach their profit target easily. Their management
have an easy job. The executives are often praised anyhow. Even worse, they are
often allowed to reinvest substantial cash amounts in their mature businesses.
• Dogs Business Units are fighting an impossible battle and, even worse, now and
then investments are made. These are hopeless attempts to "turn the business
around".
• As a result all Question Marks and Stars receive only mediocre investment funds.
In this way they can never become Cash Cows. These inadequate invested sums
of money are a waste of money. Either these SBUs should receive enough

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investment funds to enable them to achieve a real market dominance and become
Cash Cows (or Stars), or otherwise companies are advised to disinvest. They can
then try to get any possible cash from the Question Marks that were not selected.

Other uses and benefits of the BCG Matrix


• If a company is able to use the experience curve to its advantage, it should be able
to manufacture and sell new products at a price that is low enough to get early
market share leadership. Once it becomes a star, it is destined to be profitable.
• BCG model is helpful for managers to evaluate balance in the firm’s current
portfolio of Stars, Cash Cows, Question Marks and Dogs.
• BCG method is applicable to large companies that seek volume and experience
effects.
• The model is simple and easy to understand.
• It provides a base for management to decide and prepare for future actions.

Limitations of the BCG Matrix


Some limitations of the Boston Consulting Group Matrix include:
• It neglects the effects of synergy between business units.
• High market share is not the only success factor.
• Market growth is not the only indicator for attractiveness of a market.
• Sometimes Dogs can earn even more cash as Cash Cows.
• The problems of getting data on the market share and market growth.
• There is no clear definition of what constitutes a "market".
• A high market share does not necessarily lead to profitability all the time.
• The model uses only two dimensions – market share and growth rate. This may
tempt management to emphasize a particular product, or to divest prematurely.
• A business with a low market share can be profitable too.
• The model neglects small competitors that have fast growing market shares
BCG Matrix of Mahmood Textiles Mills

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Mahmood Textiles Mills has strong market position in Pakistan because of their
evergreen selling nature throughout the year that’s why it has large market share and its
products has till very strong potential to grow and penetrate not only in local markets but
also in foreign markets. Therefore according to BCG matrix product lines of Mahmood
textiles lies in Cash Cows due to large market share and high potential to grow.

BALANCE SHEET
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MAHMOOD TEXTILE MILLS LTD

MAHMOOD TEXTILE LIMITED


Balance Sheet

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Assets 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Current Assets Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs
Cash and bank 172,814,896 16,049,950 9,686,177 7,584,259 1,486,068,648
balances
MAHMOOD TEXTILE MILLS LTD
Advances, 97,068,120 169,580,242 117,185,853 88,430,076 2,310,941
deposits and
other receivables
Trade debtors 48,589,001 67,760,129 44,812,703 69,394,339 187,557,975
(net)
Stock-in-trade
Raw material 69,433,646 239,587,504 678,544,478 813,116,252 1,085,638,458
Work in process 24,855,609 31,738,172 29,227,518 30,807,354 21,007,454
Finished goods 126,440,912 117,640,324 146,632,574 95,951,990 92,354,018
Stock-in- 220,730,167 388,966,000 854,404,570 939,875,596 1,198,999,930
trade(net)
Sales tax 45,952,942 9,680,642
refundable
Short term 169,036,865 138,494,733
investments
Stores, spares 55,484,417 53,646,568 65,443,171 97,176,451 57,739,692
and loose tools
Total current 696,002,889 1,260,569,339 1,386,908,396
Assets 594,686,601 2,942,357,828
Fixed Assets
Operating Fixed 708,267,837 701,075,042 738,093,535 1,665,827,350
Assets
Investment 14,058 14,058 1,563,628,509
Property
capital work-in- 19,626,598 11,370,049 444,708,159
progress
Long term 146,806,000 146,806,000 146,806,000 134,804,956 207,547,729
Investment
Long term 1,644,030 1,833,030 1,180,685 3,771,143 4,347,499
Deposits
Total fixed 876,344,465 861,098,179 1,330,802,437 1,804,403,449 1,775,523,737
Assets
Total Assets 1,471,031,066 1,557,101,06 2,591,371,77 3,191,311,84 6,493,405,302
8 6 5
Liabilities
Short term
liabilities
interest/markup 1,908,804 1,411,284 15,995,363 13,793,090 4 9,005,607
on loans
current portion of 75,310,394 26,536,600 53,108,029 74,679,405 136,689,609
long term
liabilities
Short term 297,885 134,520,221 584,313,022 768,552,579 1,394,354,879
finances
Creditors 42,281,203 47,569,156 53,767,978 66,037,846 40,664,725
accruals and 86,325,079 94,848,370 177,473,542 131,461,316 27,062,791
other payables
Provision for 1,745,999 2,291,263 3,266,410 1,300,650 6,900,809
taxation
Dividends 40,326,746
Total Current 248,196,110 307,176,894 887,924,344 1,055,824,886 1,605,672,813
Liabilities
Long Term
Liabilities
Long term loans 66,341,447 39,804,847 366,446,223 550,618,900 304,349,426
and finances
Long term 20,164,685 17,741,861 18,638,048 33,043,700 12,879,015
Payables
Total Long term 86,506,132 57,546,708 385,084,271 583,662,600 317,228,441
Liabilities
Capital and
UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION OKARA CAMPUS [SUMAD PURA ROAD OKARA]
Reserves 82
Issued’ 99,739,890 99,739,890 99,739,890 99,849,890 715,520,000
subscribed and
paid-up capital
MAHMOOD TEXTILE MILLS LTD

TREND ANALYSIS
Assets 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Current Assets Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs
Cash and bank balances 100 9.287364904 5.604943338 4.388660454 859.92
Advances, deposits and
other receivables 100 174.7023039 120.7253762 91.10104945 2.38
Trade debtors (net) 100 139.4556949 92.22808059 142.8190281 386.01
Stock-in-trade
Raw material 100 345.0596617 977.2560093 1171.069501 1,563.56
Work in process 100 127.6901805 117.589225 123.9452793 84.52
Finished goods 100 93.03976232 115.9692474 75.88682214 73.04
Stock-in-trade(net) 100 176.2178706 387.0810146 425.8029651 543.20
Stores, spares and loose
tools 100 96.68763033 117.9487405 175.1418799 104.06
Total current Assets 100 117.0369213 211.9720432 233.2166882 494.77
Fixed Assets
Operating Fixed Assets 100 98.98445269 104.2110762 235.1973735 -
Investment Property
capital work-in-progress 100 57.93183821 2265.844335 0 -
Long term Investment 100 100 100 91.82523603 141.38
Long term Deposits 100 111.4961406 71.81651186 229.3840745 264.44
Total fixed Assets 100 98.26024051 151.8583719 205.9011634 202.61
Total Assets 100 105.8509983 176.1602345 216.9438783 441.42
Liabilities
Short term liabilities
interest/markup on loans 100 73.93551145 837.9782838 722.6037875
current portion pf long term
liabilities 100 35.23630483 70.51885693 99.16214885 181.50
Short term finances 100 45158.44067 196153.8923 258003.115 468,084.96
Creditors 100 112.5066285 127.167569 156.1872447 96.18
accruals and other payables 100 109.8734818 205.5874655 152.2863547 31.35
Provision for taxation 100 131.2293421 187.0797177 74.49316981 395.24
Dividends 100 0 0 0 -
Total Current Liabilities 100 123.7637826 357.7511122 425.3994497 646.94
Long Term Liabilities
Long term loans and
finances 100 59.99996804 552.3639287 829.9772237 458.76
Long term Payables 100 87.98481603 92.42915523 163.8691604 63.87
Total Long term Liabilities 100 66.52327028 445.1525714 674.7066208 366.71
Capital and Reserves
Issued’ subscribed and paid-
up capital 100 100 100 100.1102869 717.39
capital reserve
Inappropriate Profit 100 105.4070269 117.5608991 139.3854229 25.46
86
Total capital and reserves 100 104.9324316 116.0195124 136.5647272 .20
Total Liabilities and 197
owner's equity 100 105.8509983 176.1602345 216.9438783 .30

UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION OKARA CAMPUS [SUMAD PURA ROAD OKARA] 83


MAHMOOD TEXTILE MILLS LTD

VERTICAL ANALYSIS OF BALANCE SHEET

UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION OKARA CAMPUS [SUMAD PURA ROAD OKARA] 84


MAHMOOD TEXTILE MILLS LTD

Assets 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009


Current Assets
Cash and bank balances 11.74787535 1.030758396 0.373785695 0.237653334 22.88581382
Advances, deposits and other 6.598645144 10.89076653 4.52215518 2.770963174 0.035589046
receivables
Trade debtors (net) 3.303057435 4.351684704 1.729304279 2.174476904
Stock-in-trade
Raw material 4.720066599 15.3867664 26.18475991 25.47905976 16.72
Work in process 1.68967261 2.038285931 1.127878225 0.965350787 1.42
Finished goods 8.595393729 7.555085949 5.658492361 3.006662923 1.422274041
Stock-in-trade(net) 15.00513294 24.98013828 32.9711305 29.45107347 18.46488667
Sales tax refundable 0 0 0 1.439938941 0.14908421
Short term investments 0 0 6.523064987 4.339743019 0
Stores, spares and loose tools 3.771804572 3.445284902 2.525425784 3.045031502 0.889205114

Total current Assets 40.42651544 44.69863282 48.64486642 43.45888034 45.31301669


Fixed Assets 0 0 0 0 0
Operating Fixed Assets 48.14771444 45.02437616 28.4827342 52.19882703 0
Investment Property 0 0.000902832 0.000542493 0 24.08025429
capital work-in-progress 1.334206901 0.73020623 17.16110992 0 0
Long term Investment 9.979802833 9.428161281 5.665184801 4.224123575 3.196284836
Long term Deposits 0.111760386 0.117720682 0.045562162 0.118169053 0.066952528
Total fixed Assets 3129801661 3075350639 4752865846 6444298032 6341156204
Total Assets 100 100 100 100 100
Liabilities 0 0 0 0 0
Short term liabilities 0 0 0 0 0
interest/markup on loans 0.129759598 0.09063535 0.617254658 0.432207527 0
current portion pf long term 5.119565164 1.704231058 2.04941759 2.34008485 2.105052783
liabilities
Short term finances 0.020250082 8.639145125 22.54840573 24.08265366 21.47339977
creditors 2.874256294 3.054981913 2.074884758 2.06930094 0.626246524
accruals and other payables 6.091343199 6.848632977 4.119350361 5.868338269

Provision for taxation 0.118692191 0.147149279 0.126049455 0.040755967 0.106274115


Dividends 2.741393226 0 0 0 0
Total Current Liabilities 16.87225482 19.72748592 34.26464517 33.08435331 24.72774666
Long Term Liabilities
Long term loans and finances 4.509860365 2.556343183 14.14101313 17.25368522 4.687054201

Long term Payables 1.370785802 1.139416147 0.719234815 1.035426859 0.198339922


Total Long term Liabilities 5.880646167 3.69575933 14.86024794 18.28911208 4.885394123

Capital and Reserves


Issued’ subscribed and paid-up 6.780270812 6.405485941 3.848922448 3.128803917 11.01917972
capital
capital reserve 0 0 0 0.223124544 0
Inappropriate Profit 70.4668282 70.17126881 47.02618444 45.27460615 4.064814203
Total capital and reserves 77.24709901 76.57675475 48.62653462 15.08399392

Total Liabilities and owner's 100 100 100 100 100


equity

UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION OKARA CAMPUS [SUMAD PURA ROAD OKARA] 85


MAHMOOD TEXTILE MILLS LTD

UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION OKARA CAMPUS [SUMAD PURA ROAD OKARA] 86


MAHMOOD TEXTILE MILLS LTD

INCOME STATEMENT

MAHMOOD TEXTILE LIMITED

INCOME STATEMENT

UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION OKARA CAMPUS [SUMAD PURA ROAD OKARA] 87


MAHMOOD TEXTILE MILLS LTD

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009


Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs.
Sales (Net) 3,172,585,332 3,909,712,718 2,878,130,066 3,839,168,820 1,708,153,092
Cost of goods
sold
Material 2,213,630,692 3,173,235,325 2,111,626,689 2,730,669,961 1 ,036,163,837
Labor 133,297,738 132,789,205 121,751,406 193,020,389 131,332,709
Foh 436,781,177 351,691,836 270,811,260 466,581,883 432,691,811
total factory cost 2,783,709,607 3,657,716,366 2,504,189,355 3,390,272,233 564,024,520
Work in process (4,450,373) (6,882,563) 4,936,003 (1,579,836) 21,007,454
Finished Goods (2,720,508) 1,735,461 (21,397,559) 46,424,394 92,354,018
Cost of goods 2,776,538,726 3,652,569,264 2,487,727,799 3,435,116,791 1 ,450,247,795
sold
Gross profit 396,046,606 257,143,454 390,402,267 404,052,029 257,905,297
Less Operating
Expenses
Admin expenses 29,651,107 32,247,865 28,621,516 46,198,337 20,909,963
Selling expenses 89,978,928 95,151,804 88,692,539 73,696,732 63,697,327
other operating 5,879,609 36,433,230 22,201,896 497,111
expenses
total operating 119,630,035 133,279,278 153,747,285 142,096,965 135,072,569
expenses
Operating Profit 276,416,571 123,864,176 236,654,982 261,955,064 122,832,728
Add Other
incomes
Export rebate on 3,424,297 1,657,745 697,730 4,321 5,437
packing material
Exchange 1,324,990 59,957 153,432 20,419 135,759
fluctuation gain-
net
Income on bank 1,255,303 438,693 75,546 123,921 321,834
deposits
dividend income 7,078,700 4,121,025
others 3,407,400 6,169,977 280,967 38,699,414 4,704,749
total other 9,411,990 8,326,372 8,286,375 42,969,100 5,167,779
incomes
Less Other 14,079,92 16,125,11 15,461,70 20,326,63 17,623,607
Expenses 8 4 6 0
Profit before 271,748,63 116,065,43 229,479,65 284,597,53 110,376,90
Interest and 3 4 1 4 0
taxes
Less Interest 50,075,47 18,295,80 42,349,30 106,915,86 19,349,547
Expense 5 0 6 8
profit before 221,673,15 97,769,63 187,130,34 177,681,66 91,027,35
taxation 8 4 5 6 3
Less provision for 28,683,08 41,720,99 36,209,67 67,553,74 15,549,420
taxation 8 2 5 4
Profit after 192,990,07 56,048,64 150,920,67 110,127,92 75,477,93
taxation 0 2 0 2 3
Add inappropriate 883,494,82
profit 0
Profit available 1,076,484,89
for appropriation 0
Less Appropriation 39,895,95
6
Inappropriate 1,036,588,93 OKARA CAMPUS [SUMAD PURA ROAD OKARA]
UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION 88
profit (carried to 4 - - - -
B/S)
EPS 19.35 5.62 15.13 11.03 9.56
MAHMOOD TEXTILE MILLS LTD

TREND ANALYSIS

INCOME STATEMENT

200 2006 2007 2008 2009


5
Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs.
Sales (Net) 100 3909712718 2878130066 3839168820 1,708,153,092
Cost of goods sold

Material 100 3173235325 2111626689 2730669961 1 ,036,163,837


Labour 100 132789205 121751406 193020389 131,332,709

UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION OKARA CAMPUS [SUMAD PURA ROAD OKARA] 89


MAHMOOD TEXTILE MILLS LTD

Foh 100 351691836 270811260 466581883 432,691,811


total factory cost 100 3657716366 2504189355 3390272233 564,024,520
Work in process 100 -6882563 4936003 -1579836 21,007,454
Finished Goods 100 1735461 -21397559 46424394 92,354,018
Cost of goods sold 100 3652569264 2487727799 3435116791 1 ,450,247,795

Gross profit 100 257143454 390402267 404052029 257,905,297

Less Operating
Expenses
Admin expenses 100 32247865 28621516 46198337 20,909,963
Selling expenses 100 95151804 88692539 98500306 63,697,327
other operating 100 5879609 36433230 22201896 497,111
expenses
total operating 100 133279278 153747285 166900539 135,072,569
expenses
Operating Profit 100 123864176 236654982 237151490 122832728
Add Other incomes 100

Export rebate on 100 1657745 697730 4321 5,437


packing material
Exchange fluctuation 100 59957 153432 20419 135,759
gain-net
Income on bank 100 438693 75546 123921 321,834
deposits
dividend income 100 7078700 4121025
others 100 6169977 280967 38699414 4,704,749
total other incomes 100 8326372 8286375 42969100 5,167,779

Less Other 100 34420914 57811012 102438924 17,623,607


Expenses
Profit before 100 97769634 187130345 177681666 110376900
Taxation
Less provision for 100 41720992 36209675 67553744 15,549,420
taxation
Profit after taxation

Add unappropriated
profit

Profit available for


appropriation
Less Appropriation
Unappropriated 100 56048642 150920670 110127922 263,944,861
profit (carried to
B/S)
EPS 100 5.62 15.13 11.03 9.56

UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION OKARA CAMPUS [SUMAD PURA ROAD OKARA] 90


MAHMOOD TEXTILE MILLS LTD

UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION OKARA CAMPUS [SUMAD PURA ROAD OKARA] 91


MAHMOOD TEXTILE MILLS LTD

RATIO ANALYSIS

UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION OKARA CAMPUS [SUMAD PURA ROAD OKARA] 92


MAHMOOD TEXTILE MILLS LTD

Liquidity Ratios:

1. Net Working Capital Ratio:

Formula: Current Assets - Current Liabilities

Years 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009


Ratio 346,490,491 388825995 372644995 331083510 1336685015

"Working Capital"

1,600,000,000
1336685015
1,400,000,000
1,200,000,000
1,000,000,000
800,000,000
600,000,000
346,490,491 388825995 372644995 331083510
400,000,000
200,000,000
0
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

INTERPRETATION:
The working Capital is showing decreasing trend for the last two years because of rapid
increase in account payable and also due to short-term borrowings, hence decreasing its
profitability. In year 2009 there is high increase in liabilities as compare to the current
assets. Working capital is decreased in 2009 as compare to previous years

UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION OKARA CAMPUS [SUMAD PURA ROAD OKARA] 93


MAHMOOD TEXTILE MILLS LTD

2. Current Ratio:

Formula: Current Assets / Current Liabilities

Years 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009


Ratio 2.39 2.26 1.42 1.31 1.83

Current Ratio

2.39
2.5 2.26

2 1.83

1.42
1.5 1.31

0.5

0
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

Interpretation:

Current Ratio of the company has a decreasing trend. It was quite good in 2005 but then
current liabilities of the company increased in the proceeding years so it went down. Over
all although the current ratio is decreasing yet it is showing the good ability of firm to pay
its current liabilities from current assets.

UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION OKARA CAMPUS [SUMAD PURA ROAD OKARA] 94


MAHMOOD TEXTILE MILLS LTD

3. Quick (Acid-test) Ratio:

Formula: Current Assets + marketable securities + A/R / Current Liabilities

Years 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009


Ratio 0.89 0.27 0.06 0.07 0.05

Quick/Acid test ratio

1 0.89
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.27
0.3
0.2
0.06 0.07 0.05
0.1
0
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

INTERPRETATION:

Quick ratio of the company has a decreasing trend. In 2006 there is a significant decrease
in the quick ratio which shows company has a very large portion of least liquid asset
(inventory) in its current assets. It shows that the most liquid assets of the company are
not in a position to payoff the current liabilities.

UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION OKARA CAMPUS [SUMAD PURA ROAD OKARA] 95


MAHMOOD TEXTILE MILLS LTD

4. Cash Ratio:

Formula: Cash+ Cash equivalent+ marketable securities / Current Assets

Years 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009


Ratio 0.7 0.052 0.01 0.007 0.08

Cash Ratio

0.8
0.7
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.08
0.1 0.052
0.01 0.007
0
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

INTERPRETATION:

Cash ratio is showing a decreasing trend. A significant decrease can be seen in 2006.
After this there is a continuous decrease which shows firm is using cash up to its best and
maximum advantage.

UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION OKARA CAMPUS [SUMAD PURA ROAD OKARA] 96


MAHMOOD TEXTILE MILLS LTD

4. Accounts Receivable Turnover Ratio:

Formula: Net Sales / Average Gross Receivables

Years 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009


Ratio 62.59 64.86 49.29 64.83 64.98

A/R Turn Over

70 62.59 64.86 64.83 64.98


60
49.29
50
40
30
20
10
0
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

INTERPRETATION:

A consistent trend in account receivable ratio can be seen. As this ratio tells that hoe
many times the credit sales are being converted into cash. So, the company is showing a
very good trend which shows the good management of the company.

UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION OKARA CAMPUS [SUMAD PURA ROAD OKARA] 97


MAHMOOD TEXTILE MILLS LTD

6. Accounts Receivable Turnover in Days:

Formula :( Average Gross Receivables / Net Sales) x365

Years 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009


Ratio 5.83 6.52 5.94 6.8 8.9

"Day's sales in A/R"

10 8.9
9
8 6.8
7 6.52
5.83 5.94
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

INTERPRETATION:

A mix trend can be seen. It is 5.83 days in 2005. Then in 2006 it is increased and became
6.52 days. Then it is again decreased and it became 6.8 days in 2008. The company’s
overall collection period is good as there is a slight difference in figures.

UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION OKARA CAMPUS [SUMAD PURA ROAD OKARA] 98


MAHMOOD TEXTILE MILLS LTD

7. Inventory Turnover Ratio:

Formula: Cost of Goods Sold / Average Inventory

Years 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009


Ratio 12.58 9.39 2.91 3.65 2.89

Inventory Turnover Ratio

14 12.58
12
9.39
10
8
6
3.65
4 2.91 2.89
2
0
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

INTERPRETATION:

Inventory turnover ratio is showing random trend. This ratio has decreased in 2006.
There is a significant decrease in 2007. Then in 2008 a slight increase can be seen. The
reason behind this low turnover is the high fluctuation in cost of sales. The cost of sales
showed a massive fluctuation because of intensive change in total factory cost.

UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION OKARA CAMPUS [SUMAD PURA ROAD OKARA] 99


MAHMOOD TEXTILE MILLS LTD

8. Inventory Turnover in days:

Formula:
(Average Inventory / Cost of Goods Sold) x365

Years 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009


Ratio 29.01 38.86 125.36 99.86 89.67

Day’s sales in inventory

140 125.36
120
99.86
100 89.67

80
60
38.86
40 29.01
20
0
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

INTERPRETATION:
A continuous increase can be seen. It is 29.01days in 2005. Then it is increased to 38.86
days in 2006. A significant increase can be seen in 2007 i.e. 125.36 days. Then there is a
slight decrease in 2008 and it became 99.86 days. This shows the firms poor management
to convert its inventory into sales.

UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION OKARA CAMPUS [SUMAD PURA ROAD OKARA] 100


MAHMOOD TEXTILE MILLS LTD

Long Term Debt Paying Ability:

1. Time Interest Earned Ratio:

Formula: Earning Before Interest and Tax / Fixed Finance charges

Years 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009


Ratio 5.43 6.34 5.42 2.66 3.66

Time Interest Earned Ratio

7 6.34
6 5.43 5.42
5

4 3.66

3 2.66

0
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

INTERPRETATION:
The times interest earned ratio of the company was good in 2005 and in 2006. After 2006
a decreasing trend is shown in the ratio up to 2008. It is because of the increase in the
interest expenses of the company. But in 2006, instead of massive decrease, company is
still able to generate 2 times the expense of interest from its operations. In 2009 it’s again
increasing.

UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION OKARA CAMPUS [SUMAD PURA ROAD OKARA] 101


MAHMOOD TEXTILE MILLS LTD

2. Debt Ratio:

Formula: Total Debts / Total Assets

Years 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009


Ratio 22.75% 23.42% 49.12% 51.37% 52.37%

Debt Ratio

60.00%
51.37% 52.37%
49.12%
50.00%

40.00%

30.00%
22.75% 23.42%
20.00%

10.00%

0.00%
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

INTERPRETATION:
Debt ratio of the company is increasing in all the years. It reached its highest of 52.37%
in 2009. In 2006 there is a slight increase but in 2007 a significant increase can be seen. It
is all because of a massive increase in the liabilities of the company.

UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION OKARA CAMPUS [SUMAD PURA ROAD OKARA] 102


MAHMOOD TEXTILE MILLS LTD

3. Debt Equity Ratio:

Formula: Total Debts / (L.T.Liabilities + Equity)

Years 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009


Ratio 335% 365% 1276% 1642% 1376%

Debt to Equity Ratio

1800% 1642%
1600%
1376%
1400% 1276%
1200%
1000%
800%
600%
335% 365%
400%
200%
0%
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

INTERPRETATION:
The ratio indicates the proportionate claims of owners and the outsiders against the firm’s
assets. This ratio shows that company is continuously increasing the debt portion in the
business. This shows that the business is risky to make investments in such business.

UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION OKARA CAMPUS [SUMAD PURA ROAD OKARA] 103


MAHMOOD TEXTILE MILLS LTD

Profitability Ratios:

1. Gross Profit Margin:

Formula :( Gross Profit / Net Sales) x100

Years 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009


Ratio 12.48% 6.58% 13.56% 10.52% 9.54%

Gross Profit Margin

16.00%
13.56%
14.00% 12.48%
12.00% 10.52%
9.54%
10.00%
8.00% 6.58%
6.00%
4.00%
2.00%
0.00%
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

INTERPRETATION:

An Irregular trend of gross profit can be seen. In 2006 it is decreased to 6.50%. In 2007 it
is increased to 13.56%. This increase is due to decrease in sales and in cost of goods sold.
In 2008 it is again decreased. The reason behind this fluctuation is the change in cost of
goods sold and in sales.

UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION OKARA CAMPUS [SUMAD PURA ROAD OKARA] 104


MAHMOOD TEXTILE MILLS LTD

2. Operating Income Margin:

Formula :( Operating Profit / Net Sales) x100

Years 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009


Ratio 8.71% 3.17% 8.22% 6.82% 5.17%

Operating Income Margin

10.00%
8.71%
9.00% 8.22%
8.00% 6.82%
7.00%
6.00% 5.17%
5.00%
4.00% 3.17%
3.00%
2.00%
1.00%
0.00%
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

INTERPRETATION:

An irregular trend can be seen. In 2005 the operating profit is 8.71%. It is decreased
significantly in 2006 to 3.71%. The reason behind this decrease is the increase in
operating expenses of the company. In 2007 a great increase of 8.22% can be seen.
Although the operating expenses are increasing but low cost of goods sold supported this
increase. And in 2008 there is a slight decrease of 6.82%. and in 2009 its again
decreasing from previous year. The reason behind this decrease is the increased cost of
goods sold.

UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION OKARA CAMPUS [SUMAD PURA ROAD OKARA] 105


MAHMOOD TEXTILE MILLS LTD

Net Profit Margin:

Formula :( Net Profit / Net Sales) x100

Years 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009


Ratio 32.67% 1.43% 5.43% 2.87% 3.98%

Net Profit Margin

35.00% 32.67%
30.00%
25.00%
20.00%
15.00%
10.00% 5.43%
2.87% 3.98%
5.00% 1.43%
0.00%
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

INTERPRETATION:

A great Variation can be seen in net profit ratio. It is 32.67% in 2005. A significant
decrease can be seen in 2006. Then there is a slight increase of 5.43%. Then it is again
reduced to 2.87%. The reason is the great fluctuation in interest and tax expenses of the
company. Another reason of this fluctuation can be that after 2003 there is no
inappropriate profit.

UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION OKARA CAMPUS [SUMAD PURA ROAD OKARA] 106


MAHMOOD TEXTILE MILLS LTD

4. Total Assets Turnover Ratio:

Formula: Net Sales / Average Total Assets

Years 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009


Ratio 2.16 2.51 1.11 1.2 1.3

Total Assets Turnover

3
2.51
2.5 2.16
2

1.5 1.2 1.3


1.11
1

0.5

0
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

INTERPRETATION:

An irregular trend can be seen. A good increase in turnover can be seen in 2006 which
shows that the assets are being effectively used to generate sales. The reason of decrease
in turnover in 2007 is that the assets have been increased but company is unable to
increase its sales volume. In 2008 and 2009 there is a little bit improvement in turnover.

UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION OKARA CAMPUS [SUMAD PURA ROAD OKARA] 107


MAHMOOD TEXTILE MILLS LTD

5. Fixed Assets Turnover Ratio:

Formula: Net Sales / Fixed Assets

Years 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009


Ratio 4.48 5.58 3.9 2.31 0.96

"Operating Assets Turnover"

6 5.58

5 4.48
3.9
4

3
2.31
2
0.96
1

0
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

INTERPRETATION:

The ratio has shown an increasing trend in 2006 but then it again started to decrease and
it reached to 3.9 in 2007 and then in 2008 and 2009 there is again decrease but its not
significant decrease. It is all because of the greater increase in fixed assets as compared to
the sales of the company. This all shows that company is making productive use of its
fixed assets by generating good volume of sales.

UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION OKARA CAMPUS [SUMAD PURA ROAD OKARA] 108


MAHMOOD TEXTILE MILLS LTD

6. Return on Assets:

Formula: Net Income / Average Total Assets *100

Years 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009


Ratio 70.50% 3.60% 5.80% 3.40% 3.97%

"Return on Assets"

80.00%
70.50%
70.00%
60.00%
50.00%
40.00%
30.00%
20.00%
10.00% 3.60% 5.80% 3.40% 3.97%
0.00%
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

Interpretation:

A random trend can be seen in this ratio. There is significant decrease in return in 2006 of
3.60%. In 2007 a slight increase can be seen. And in 2008 there is again decrease in
return and it is 3.40% and in 2009 it is slightly increased. This fluctuation is due to the
continuous increase in assets and an irregular change in income.

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Investors Analysis:

1. Degree of Financial Leverage:

% change in net income / % change in EBIT


Years 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Ratio 3.81 0.483 0.658 0.387 0.376

"Degree of Financial Leverage"

4.5
4 3.81
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1 0.658
0.483 0.387 0.376
0.5
0
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

INTERPRETATION:
The degree of financial in the year 2005 is 3.81 which indicate that as EBIT changes Net
income will change y 3.81 times that amount. If EBIT increases the financial leverage ill
be favorable and if EBIT decreases the financial leverage will be unfavorable. But in
2006 financial leverage decreased to 0.483 which shows that company is earning less on
the borrowed funds than it pays to use them. A conservative investor would look for
favorable financial leverage. In next years the degree of financial leverage has slight
changes that are in 2007 it has slightly increased to 0.658 the in 2008 and 2009 again
decreased to 0.387 and 0.376.

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2. Earning per Common Share:

Formula: Net income –Preferred Dividend / Wt. average no. of c/s, o/s

Years 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009


Ratio 103.93 5.62 15.13 11.03 9.56

"Earnings Per Common Share"

120
103.93
100

80

60

40

20 15.13
11.03 9.56
5.62
0
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

INTERPRETATION:

A mix trend is there. In 2006 the E.P.S. has decreased. The reason is a huge reduction in
net income. As the no. of shares is almost same over the years, the increase in E.P.S. is
due to increase in net income. The income in 2008 is slightly decreased and there is small
increase in number of shares that’s why E.P.S. has decreased.

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3. Percentage of Retained Earnings:


Formula: Net Income – All Dividends / Net Income * 100

Years 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009


Ratio 96% 100% 100% 100% 100%

"Percentage of Retained Earnings"

101%
100% 100% 100% 100%
100%

99%

98%

97%
96%
96%

95%

94%
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

INTERPRETATION:

The percentage of retained earnings is almost same in all the years. It is 96% in 2005
because the company has declared the dividend to its share holders. No dividend has been
declared in rest of the years. That’s why a consistent trend can be seen.

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4. Book Value per Share:

Formula: Total share’s holder equity – p.s. equity / No. of c/c, o/s

Years 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009


Ratio 10 10 10 10 10

"Book Value Per Share"

12
10 10 10 10 10
10

0
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

INTERPRETATION:

There is no change in the company’s book value per share.

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5. Price / Earning Ratio

Market price per share


Diluted EPS
Years 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Ratio 3.1 13.34 6.48 10.9 9.89

"Price/Earning Ratio"

16

14 13.34

12 10.9
9.89
10

8 6.48
6

4 3.1

0
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

INTERPRETATION:

In the year 2005 the price earning ratio is 3.1. In 2006it has jumped up to 13.4. This
increasing trend is favorable for these investors who are interested in capital gain. But in
2007 there is again decrease of 6.48 which is favorable for those investors who are
interested in dividends. In the year 2008 it has again increased to 10.9 and in 2009 it
decreased to 9.89.

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RECOMMENDATIONS

RECOMMENDATIONS

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Followings are the suggestions that we recommend to company:

 The Company should utilize its resources properly.

 The company must consider the long term benefits and should do long term
planning for that.

 The company should involve the low level management in decision making.

 They should hire highly qualified and well trained people.

 Training opportunity should be provided to the employees.

 Modern methods of production must be used by the company to compete the


others.

 Inventory should be managed properly.

 The company should be self sufficient in gas and water storage.

 The company should cut its cost of production.

 The company should not only depend on its own input resources rather it should
make contacts with outside suppliers to meet any contingency.

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CONCLUSION

CONCLUSION
From this report I conclude that company is vertically based on integrated industries and
started business in 1935, by setting up a tanning unit. Since then, the group has grown
immensely in the fields of cotton ginning, spinning and weaving. Cotton is regarded as an

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important crop of Pakistan. The Company is engaged in cotton ginning for the last 50
years and is running a number of ginning factories located in various parts of the country
where best quality cotton is produced.
Instead of all this, if we see the profitability of the company it is not satisfactory. A huge
amount is being paid by the company in the form of interest; also the company is
depending more on debts to run the business that’s why we can say the company position
is very risky. The company is not using its debts in a proper manner to make any
expansion in the business that’s why the investors are hesitant to invest in such a risky
business. The company is not using its all assets efficiently that’s why they are not
generating proper return. the company’s operating outflows are much more than their
cash inflows. In short, the overall financial position of the company is not satisfactory.

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