 THE SERVUCTION MODEL (Hoffman & Bateson


This model used to illustrate factors that influence service experience, including those that are visible and invisible to consumer. Invisible component consists of invisible organizations and systems. It refers to the rules, regulations and processes upon which the organization is based. Although they are invisible to the customers, they have a very profound effect on the consumers service experience. Visible part consists of 3 parts: Serviscape (inanimate environment), contact personnel/service providers, and other consumers. Servicescape- It refers to the use of physical evidence to design service environments. It consists of ambient conditionssuch as music, inanimate objects that assist the frm in completing is tasks, such as furnishing and business equipment. All non-living features present during service encounter. Contact personnel: :Employees other than primary providers that interact with consumer. Service Provider: Primary provider of core service, such as dentist, physician or instructor. Other Customers- Customer A : Recipient of bundle of benefits created through service experience and customer B : Other customers who are part of Customers A’s experience. Servuction model demonstrates consumers are an integral part of service process. The Slevel of participation may be active or passive, but always there. Managers must understand the interactive nature of services and customer involvement in production process. The four components of the servuction model combine to create the experience for the consumer and it is the experience that creates the bundle of benefits for the consumer.

 A model to illustrate the factors influencing the service experience  Includes those factors that are visible to the customer and those that are not  Visible component is of three parts: inanimate environment, contact personnel / service providers and other customers  Invisible component consists of the invisible organisation and the systems  Demonstrates that consumers are an integral part of the service process, through either active or passive participation  THE INANIMATE ENVIRONMENT:  All non-living features present in the service encounter  Create tangibility in intangible service parameters  Consumers look for tangible cues surrounding the service on which to base their service performance evaluation  Furniture, flooring, lighting, music, carpets, stationery, clothes worn by service providers  CONTACT PERSONNEL / SERVICE PROVIDERS:  Contact personnel: employees other than the service provider briefly interacting with the customer (parking attendant, receptionist, telephone operator, floor manager)  Service providers: primary service providers (waiters, dentist, painter)  Could be at service provider’s location or at consumer’s location  Whether the service is provided at the provider’s location or the customer’s location, the impact of the service is huge  OTHER CUSTOMERS:  Consumption of services are called as “Shared Experiences” since they often occur in the presence of other customers

 Other customer (Customer B) experiences can impact the service experience of the first customer (Customer A)  Customer B’s influence on the experience of Customer A can be active or passive and either positive or negative  INVISIBLE ORGANISATION AND SYSTEMS:  Visible components of service firms have to be complemented with invisible components  The invisible components reflect the rules, regulations and processes of the organisation  Though invisible, they have a great impact on the customers experience