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S.N o

Energy and sources of energy Conventional sources :

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2-3 3 5 3-4 4-5 5


• Thermal energy • Hydle energy • Nuclear energy Non-conventional sources


• Wind • Solar • Biogas


4 5 6 7 8

Role of energy sources in the economic development of Pakistan Energy crises in Pakistan Impacts of these crises on Pakistan Solutions for the energy crises of Pakistan conclusion

7-9 9-10 1012 1213 13

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Table of content
Energy and sources of energy
Energy is the power to change things or in other words we can say that it is the ability to do work. It gives us light it runs our machines it keeps us warm and many other things. In other words we can say that it is impossible to survive without energy in the present time. Moreover energy also plays a great role in the economic development of a country. a country utilizing all its sources of energy has a better chance to grow economically as compared to a country where the sources of energy are less or not utilized properly. This is because energy has a direct impact on the standard of living of people and industrial side of the country and both of these are a good measure of economic development of a country. If people of a country are having a high standard of living and their industrial side is progressing well (means the exports are greater than the imports) than it is a clear sign that the country is making full use of its resources its growth rate is high.

The main sources of energy in Pakistan (for generating electricity)

A) Conventional sources :
Conventional energy sources are typically fully developed, nonrenewable resources It includes ; 1) Thermal energy 2) Hydel energy

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3)nuclear energy

B) Non conventional sources :
Nonconventional sources may be functional but are still undergoing development and use renewable resources. 1) Wind energy 2) Solar energy 3) Bio gas (energy animal &plant wastes)

A) Conventional sources
Conventional sources of energy are those sources which are generally used In the country for the production of heat , electricity , and power . Pakistan has the following conventional sources of energy that are as follows :

Thermal energy refers to the type of energy in which heat is used to produce energy . Thermal Energy is the oldest type of energy. With all known history available, Wood was always used for heating and cooking. In 2nd world war fossil fuels entered in the form of coal to get the energy, until liquid fuels were discovered and because of their convenience of transportation they took over as major contributors of the energy source. Once the steam engines were invented then the coal or liquid fuel was burnt in the boilers and the heat produces steam which is used to drive electrical generators, or any other mechanical device.

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Rudolph diesels invention of diesel engine revolutionaries the energy concept and today we see sine the majority of machines moving on diesel engines.

Thermal energy sources in Pakistan 1.Coal
Pakistan has huge reserves of coal which can be used to overcome the problem of energy crises in the country . The government of Pakistan is making hectic efforts to introduce the coal usage in the industrial sector. The machinery for these units is totally exempted from import duties and taxes. A coal based power plant of 150MW has been set up in the interior sindh.

Oil is one of the most important sources of energy through out the world and its importance is increasing day by day. many wars are being fought just tov get the reserves of the oil..the government of Pakistan is making sincere efforts to find out new oil fields in the country .the policy is to attain self sufficiency in oil because oil as a source of energy is expensive if it is imported from other countries and it greatly increases the import bills of the present the generation capacity of electricity through oil is 12340MW

3.Natural gas:
Natural gas is also a precious gift of Allah to our country. huge deposits of natural gas has been discovered in many parts of Baluchistan and sindh.natural gas is a cheap sources of energy in comparison to oil and it can also play a great role in the industrial sector because it is used as a raw material in many industries like fertilizers cement and plastics etc.


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Water flowing in the rivers has kinetic energy. Once they are used to drive the turbine and produce electricity the power generated as Hydel Energy. Power produced by the turbines depends on quantity of water flowing/minute and the head of water available. Mostly river flows by melting glaciers on high mountains. Once the water start flowing in the valleys it changes its head very rapidly. This energy can be converted into electrical energy. Two method are normally used:1. Dams 2. Run of River projects. In case of Dams the water flow is restricted by making a huge storage device and the head of water is increased, the water then is allowed to flow by means of gates and pass through the turbines, the head of reservoir level is maintained to provide uniform power, and the water stored in peak season additionally is used for irrigation purposes in dry seasons. In run of river projects the water is diverted through the tunnels and once it gains the head allowed to fall and pass through the turbines and back to river. the water in these projects is continuously flowing and not being stored. Geographical situation is paramount importance in choosing a suitable site for the hydro project and it evolves a very serious time and money consuming study. Once a site is located further detailed feasibility study is required before proceeding any serious effort to start the work. The feasibility study should include following field work. 1. Detailed Mapping of the area 5. Weather data containing, Temperatures, pressures, rain humidity 6. Water sampling and testing 7. Environmental study 8. Social impact 9. Wild life and fish study 10. Identification of stake holders of the area 11. Coring and getting samples of the soil at 50-200 meters depth 12. Laboratory testing of the cores samples 13. study to evaluate earth quake dangers

Hydel energy in Pakistan :

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In Pakistan hydel energy is usually generated through waterfalls (dams).there are many dams in the country which play a great role in the generation of electricity for household, business and industrial sector. since independence huge amounts have been allocated for the development of hydel energy as it is a main source of electricity generation in the country as a result of this the generation of electric power through hydel energy has been increased from 68MW in 1947 to 6555MW in 2009.

3. Nuclear energy
The importance of nuclear energy as a source of electricity generation is increasing very rapidly throughout the world as many developed as well as developing countries are making use of nuclear enery to generate electricity. the main fuel which is required to run the nuclear reactor is called uranium.with the grace of all mighty uranium is found in excess in Pakistan. at present there are two nuclear electric power generation plants in Pakistan namely Karachi nuclear power plant and chasma nuclear power plant

B) Non-conventional sources of energy
The less developing countries are now developing other renewable sources of energy . these sources are comparatively cheaper to those of conventional sources of energy and these sources have a simplified technology , the non-conventional sources of energy are as follows :

1. Wind energy
Wind energy is a very cheap source of generating windy areas,the windmills can be used for supplying electricity on a small scale the windmill can be used for pumping water for crops,grinding corn,crushing sugar cane,thrashing,cutting of wood etc present there are four mechanical wind pumpers and one wind power generation system has been set up

2. Solar energy

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The sun provides 170000MW of power to earth on daily basis.the sunshine can also be used a cheap source of energy.many developed countries as well as developing countries are now making use of the solar energy in order to fulfill their energy demand as it is a very cheap and easily available source of energy

3. Biogas
It is produced from animal and plant wastes although it is a very cheap source of energy but it can not be used on the large scale like the solar and wind energy. However it can be utilized very well in the rural 72% of our population live in villages they make the best use of this source of energy .

Role of energy sources in the economic development of Pakistan
Energy sources plays a very important role in the economic development of a country. A country having well developed sources of energy has a better chance of development rather than a country having less energy sources. There are the following main roles of energy sources in the economic development :

1. Productivity increases :
Energy sources greatly increase the productive capacity of the country. For example we can take the example of china. China has dominated the world economy because of its cheap sources of energy.

2. Per capita income increases :
Greater productivity leads to greater per capita income. People work more and earn more due to which the overall national income increases

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3. Geographical specialization :
Effective sources of energy leads to geographical specialization. for example if a region has natural gas in excess than we can install those industries there in which natural gas is used like fertilizers

4. Variety of products :
Due to the well developed sources of energy people get more variety in terms of goods and services.

5. Cost of production decreases :
Cheap sources of energy reduces the per unit cost. We can take the example of china where industrial electricity is exempted from tax and is free as a result they produce more and their per unit cost is low as compared to our country

6. Higher living standards :
Living standards of people enhances as they earn more and spent more and consume more money. Moreover their savings increases too.

7. Agricultural production increases :
Hydel sources of energy can greatly increase the agricultural production of the country only when they are planned properly. annals tunnels of waters can be used to water the corps

8. Less dependence on imports :
Due to well developed and cheap sources of energy a country is able to fulfill the demands of its own people as a result of this the reliance on imported goods decreases.

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9. Export increases :
Due to the increased level of production, the supply of goods exceeds the demand due to which goods are exported to other countries. As a result of this the the foreign exchange increases

10. Government revenue increases :
Well developed sources of energy leads to more business and more businesses give more taxes to the government which increases the government revenues

11. More employment opportunities :
If these sources will be utilized effectively and efficiently than they will produce more employment opportunities for the citizens of Pakistan ,and the graph of unemployment will reduce .

12. Reduces difference between rural and urban areas :
It also reduces the difference of earning money and living life style between the people living in rural and urban areas

Energy crises in Pakistan
The latest crisis that has Pakistani’s from all walks of life up in arms is the lack of electrical power throughout the country. While rolling blackouts or load shedding as its locally known has always been a staple of daily life in Pakistan, the problem has become acute in the last couple of years. In the second half of December, the situation got so bad that WAPDA & KESC (power generation entities in Pakistan) resorted to draconian levels of load shedding. The power cuts during

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this time amounted to 20-22 hours a day in most small cities and even cities like Karachi were seeing 18+ hours of load shedding. Notwithstanding the systemic issues such as the failure to build new dams and previous Government’s inability to add even a single megawatt of new power to the grid during 9 years of its rule, it seems that the present crisis is a result of bad management and the lack of foresight. The total installed capacity of WAPDA and KESC totals around 19,500 megawatts. Almost two third of this power comes from thermal power plants (fossil fuels), one third is generated by water and about 2% comes from nuclear power plants. The demand for electricity in Pakistan during the winter months actually goes down and this winter has not been an exception. Throughout the month of December, the electricity consumption in Pakistan hovered around 11,000 MW, down from the peak levels of 17,500 MW seen in summer. This demand was well within the installed capacity of WAPDA & KESC yet they were only generating a meager one third (6500MW) of their maximum capacity during this period leaving a huge gap between supply and demand. Their are two main reasons for this: 1. The water flow from all major dams was halted starting mid December to allow the annual cleaning of canals in January. This action effectively took all the hydro power off line. 2. The thermal power plants were working far below their potential due to the lack of money caused by the circular debt between various government agencies reaching a staggering 400 billion Rupees. None of these issues could have possibly come as a surprise to the present government yet they choose to do nothing until violent anti government protests erupted in all major cities. A couple of days ago the President of Pakistan finally convened a summit of all stakeholders and since then the situation has improved somewhat but this fiasco provides another example of the misplaced priorities of our democratically elected leaders. Instead of issuing stamps and coins bearing Benazir’s logo and dedicating existing airports to her name, they should focus on the plight of everyday people and try to make their lives a little bit better. Everyone understands that Pakistan is facing serious problems requiring long term solutions and the present government can’t be expected to make significant headway in the short term, yet there are

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things where it can make a difference. Eliminating load shedding during the winter months could just be one of them.

Impacts of these crises on Pakistan :
There are the following impacts of these energy crises on Pakistan :

Employment decreased:
By the energy crises in Pakistan from last few years, they impacts on the employment rate of Pakistan is that the number of people that are employed are decreased. The dependability of the income is increased, now in one home there are more people to consume than those who earn money

Per capita income decreased:
The income earned by each one decreases if there is energy crises in any country , so as we have these crises in our country Pakistan so the larger impact of that was that the income of each individual is decreased .

Foreign debts increase:
As these crises also affect on the debts or loans that Pakistan get from the foreign countries, the amount of debts that are owned is increased and in result of that the economy of Pakistan is very much harmed.

GDP is decreased:
The gross domestic product (G.D.P) of Pakistan is also decreased because that production is decreased and result to that the earnings of the country are getting lower and lower.

Poverty increased:
The crises also enhances the level of poverty in the country , as we can see in Pakistan the energy crises made it very hard for those people that living in the country below the poverty line .

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Literacy rate decreased:
The crises also impacts on the literacy rate , as there is less earnings by the people so they leave the education for earning the money , and they focus on earning money so the circle of life is ruined smoothly . for that purpose children leaves their education and start earning , hence that decreases the literacy rate of Pakistan .

Child labor increased:
The child labor is also increased with the increase in the crises of power in Pakistan , the children from the very small age start earning and they leave their education for fulfilling the need of their life .

Production decreased:
The production sector is very much harmed because of the increase in the crises level of the country , if we look for Pakistan so it is recognized that the industrial sector is effected by the energy crises ,as they are not fulfilling the needs and demands of the public , that further increases the cost on production as well .

Solutions for the energy crises of Pakistan
The energy shortage is increasing day by day and the resources of Pakistan are limited and this year we are witnessing increasing of imported fuel bill. This is time that Pakistan should explore all its available resources. We see a limited progress in alternate energy sector. But so far little efforts are being made to explore and use the coal reserves in Sind. This is claimed that coal quality is inferior and having low BTU. This is a challenging task. Today technology and boilers are available

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that can burn any kind of coal. Therefore all possible measures should be adopted to utilize existing resources. The smaller size power plants near the coal mines which can get direct feed and connect to National Grid will be an ideal configuration.

More dams should be made
To meet the energy crises their should be more dams to be made, and this is not required that they should only be made on large scale, rather they can be on the small scale as well. If their will be dams on small and large scale than they will cover our more part of the production

Attitude of people should change
The one main thing is that the attitude of the people should be changed, if it will be done so the awareness for the power savage will grow up in the minds of the people ,the change in attitude means that people should start saving the power by keeping that view in minds that these are we have very scare resources in Pakistan ,

Effective plans for energy should be made
The plans that are made for the reduction of the energy crises should be effective and efficient, this is required that those people that are living in the rural areas should utilize the nonconventional sources of energy and the conventional sources should be used by the urban areas because the urban areas have more Industrial production than rural areas in the country like Pakistan

Proper funds to utilize natural resources
The funds that are passed by the government for the utilization of resources are not enough that they meet the requirements of our country, so it is required that proper funds should be allocated for them .most of the people in our government are corrupt and because of that the funds that are allocated in the utilization of the resources is not invested in efficient manner.

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New resources should be explored
This is also very important for the country Pakistan that those resources that are gifted to us by nature should be explored effectively; new technology should be used to explore these resources. Keeping these things in the mind that we have resources but they are not utilized and explored efficiently.

More non-conventional sources should be used
For the fulfillment of the crises of Pakistan it is important that more nonconventional sources should be utilized and used. Mostly in those rural areas where they are easily possible because in urban areas we have not that circumstances that can use the nonconventional sources to produce the energy.

The conclusion which we have made from this assignment is that our country is facing a lot of problems regarding to the energy resources, but yet there are ways by which these resources can be utilized. All the thing that is need to be done is that efficient technology , proper funds , government interest and effective plans for utilizing the underutilized resources .if Pakistan will not take steps for the development of energy and power resources than it will have the worse result on the further years .

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