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Squirrel cage induction Motor

Squirrel cage induction Motor

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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• A Squirrel Cage Induction Motor is the most common 3 phase motor found in a mill

or plant. It is both rugged and simple in design, making it both economical and

reliable.

• The SCIM has 2 basic components, a stator (the stationary component) and a rotor

(the rotating element). In addition, a motor has bearings that allow the rotor to freely

rotate plus a frame to hold everything in place.

Stator

Rotor

Bearing

Frame

• The Stator consists of a core of thin, insulated laminations made of silicon steel.

These laminations are stacked and compressed and held in place by either banding

or welding beads along the length of the stack. The Stator has slots into which

copper wire is inserted. Leads are connected to the windings and brought out to a

junction box to connect to three-phase power.

• The Stator produces a rotating magnetic field. The speed of rotation of this magnetic

field is a function of the number of poles where:

RPM = (120 x Hz) ÷ Number of Poles

• The Rotor consists of a core made of the same thin laminations of silicon steel that

the stator uses, but instead of copper windings has several bars which run along its

length which are connected to end rings. If the steel laminations were to be

removed, these bars look like a squirrel cage, hence the name, Squirrel Cage

Induction Motor (SCIM).

• The rotating magnetic field from the stator “cuts” through the rotor bars and induces

current in them. The current flows through the bars to one of the end rings, through

the bar on the opposite side of the rotor then returns through the other end ring etc.

• The current flowing through the rotor bar creates a magnetic field in the rotor that

follows the stator’s magnetic field.

• The difference in speed between the rotor and the stator’s rotating magnetic field

determines how many lines of magnetic flux cut through the rotor bar. The greater

the difference in speed, the more current that is induced.

• During starting, the rotor is completely stationary, therefore the maximum amount of

current is induced into the rotor.

• This maximum current causes a tremendous amount of current to be induced in the

rotor, which generates the “Starting” or “Locked rotor” torque. This very large

amount of current produces a high amount of I2R heating in the rotor. (This is why a

motor that has been stalled for too long often shows damage or partial damage to

the rotor.) The stator also sees a large amount of current.

• Almost instantly after power is applied, the rotor starts to rotate, current starts to drop

and torque typically starts to drop slightly. Torque reaches a minimum value that is

referred to as “Pull-up” torque.

• When the motor gets closer to full rated speed torque increases to a peak value

referred to as “Breakdown” torque.

• When a SCIM reaches full speed and is running at no load, the rotor runs at very

close to its rated speed. During this condition, very few lines of magnetic force cut

through the rotor bars and therefore a minimal amount of current is induced in the

rotor.

• During normal running conditions, when the motor load increases, the rotor slows

down, more lines of magnetic force cut through the rotor bars and hence, generate

more torque (to a point).

• As current rises, the rotor and/or the stator starts to saturate and the amount of

torque generated per amp starts to diminish. For example, at 100% load torque, the

motor draws 100% rated current. At 250% torque, the motor example in fig.1 draws

approx. 300% of rated current. If the load torque increases past the breakdown

torque point, current continues to increase but torque starts to go down. When this

occurs, the motor stalls, the rotor heats up and will potentially be damaged unless

tripped off line in time. (The higher a motor’s breakdown torque, the less likely it will

stall.)

700

650

Current

600

PERCENT FULL LOAD ( TORQUE & CURRENT )

550

500

450

Breakdown

400

Torque

350

300

250

Torque

200

150

Locked

50

Rotor Torque

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

PERCENT SYNCHRONOUS SPEED

One interesting characteristic of motor torque is that it is quite linear with respect to

speed until the motor nears its breakdown torque point. This means that if you want to

determine the actual motor load, a fairly accurate method is to measure the shaft speed

with a tachometer. The following formula can then be used to determine the % load.

Nominal RPM – Full Load RPM

(Note - A high-resolution tachometer must be used to obtain accurate results.)

(Measuring the current and comparing it to full load current is not a linear comparison

method of determining percentage loading since efficiency and PF change with load.

This impacts the current that the motor draws. For example, a Toshiba 7.5HP,

1800RPM EQPIII, 575V motor draws 2.9A at no load, 4.5A at ½ load and 7.4A at full

load. If however, the PF and efficiency are known at various load points, a non-linear,

load versus current curve can be drawn which will provide an accurate correlation

between load and current.)

Motors draw two components of current. One component is in-phase or real current.

The other component is reactive or inductive current that is sometimes referred to as

magnetizing current. The cosine of the angle between these two components of current

is called the power factor.

Reactive or

Magnetizing

Current

The cosine of

this angle is the

motor’s power

factor (PF)

As load goes down, the in-phase component shrinks faster than the magnetizing

component therefore the phase angle gets larger and the PF gets lower.

Reactive or

Magnetizing

Current

Total Motor Current

The cosine of

this angle is the

motor’s power

factor (PF)

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