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Submitted By

MD.ASIF

(As a part of the Master of Business Administration programme)


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

WE WOULD LIKE TO FIRST OF ALL GIVE OUR HEARTIEST GRATITUDE


AND SINCERE THANKS TO DR. DILIP ROY FOR ASSIGNING US THIS
INTERESTING PROJECT AND PROVIDING US ALL THE VALUABLE
INFORMATION NECESSARY FOR THE SUCCESS OF OUR PROJECT.

WE ARE THANKFUL TO MR. T.K.DUTTA, OWNER OF M/S NITYAKALI RICE


MILL, AND HIS SUBBORDINATES FOR HELPING AND GUIDING US TO DRAW
PARTICULAR IDEA REGARDING PRODUCTION OF PUFFED RICE. THEIR KIND
CO OPERATION AND HELPFULNESS IS HIGHLY APPRECIATED.

THE GROUP MEMBERS EXPRESSED SATISFACTION ON THE OPPORTUNITY


PROVIDED TO VISIT THE RICE MILL.

LASTLY WE WOULD LIKE TO MENTION THAT ,WHILE WE WERE


PREPARING OUR PROJECT, WE CAME TO KNOW ABOUT MANY
PROCEDURES INVOLVED IN THE PROCESS OF PRODUCTION OF PUFFED
RICE, AT THE SAME TIME IT PROVIDED US GREAT ENJOYMENT AND
PLEASURE.

Submited by :

________________________________________
Date :30:05:2009
________________________________________
Md. Asif MBA(general)1st sem.Roll no.25

place:Burdwan The University of Burdwan


CONTENTS

• PROJECT PREVIEW
• INTRODUCTION
• MARKETABILITY
• RAW MATERIALS
• MANUFACTURING PROCESS
• THE PRODUCTS
• LOCATION OF THE UNIT
• UTILITIES
• SCHEDULE OF INTEREST
• COMMENTS ON FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
• PUFFD RICE
• DESCRIPTION OF OPERATIONS
• PROCESS DEFINITION
• ENERGY CONSERVATION IN THE RICE MILL
• INTRODUCTION
• PROCESS
• PARBOILED RICE PROCESSING
• ENERGY SAVING OPPORTUNITIES
• POLLUTION CONTROL
• PROBLEMS FACED IN GENERAL
• OBSERVATIONS
• SUMMARY OF THE OUTPUTS OF THE STUDY VISIT
STUDY VISIT TO M/S NITYAKALI RICE MILL
23-30 MAY, 2009

PURPOSE

AS PART OF THE CENTRE FOR MANAGEMENT STUDIES, THE UNIVERSITY


OF BURDWAN, UNDERGOING THE MBA PROGRAM, NAMES LISTED BELOW,
WERE IDENTIFIED TO MAKE A BRIEF STUDY VISIT TO A RICE MILL, AS A
FOCUSED VISIT TO RICE MILL OPERATING ON COMMERCIAL SCALE.

THE INTENTION OF THE VISIT WAS TO UNDERSTAND OPERATIONAL


MODALITIES ON DIFFERENT CAPACITIES OF A COMMERCIALLY OPERATED
RICE MILL, AND TO FIND OUT SOLUTIONS TO ITS CONSTRAINTS.

PARTICIPANTS

THE PARTICIPANTS OF THE STUDY VISIT INCLUDED A GROUP OF FOUR


MEMBERS STUDYING MBA IN CENTRE FOR MANAGEMENT STUDIES, THE
UNIVERSITY OF BURDWAN.
THE PARTICIPANTS ARE:
1. SUNITA ROY
2. KAZI ABU ZAFAR MD. YASIN
3.SYED SAHIL RAHIM
4. MD. ASIF
PROJECT PREVIEW

NAME OF THE UNIT :M/S NITYAKALI RICE MILL

ADDRESS
FACTORY :ALAMGANJ,P.O-NUTANGANJ,
DIST – BURDWAN,WEST BENGAL

OFFICE : ALAMGANJ, P.O-NUTANGANJ,


DIST – BURDWAN,WEST BENGAL

CONSTTUTION :PARTNERSHIP FIRM

UNIT’S BACKGROUND :IT IS AN EXISTING RICE MILL .

THE RICE MILL WAS ORIGINALLY


SET UP BY LATE R.K DUTTA DURING
EARLY NINETIES LATER ON HIS SON
LATE B. N DUTTA BECAME THE
OWNER. FINALLY AFTER FAMILY
SETTLEMENT DURING THE YEAR
1989 THE PRESENT SUCCESSORS
BECAME THE OWNER OF THE RICE
MILL . THE PRESENT OWNERS ARE
SRI TAPAN KUMAR DUTTA ,SRI
SWAPAN KUMAR DUTTA ,SRI
JANARDAN DUTTA AND SMT ARUNA
DUTTA.

INITIALLY IT WAS A CHATAL TYPE


RICE MILL . GRADULLY THE
PRESENT PROMOTERS HAVE
DEVELOPED IT. NOW IT IS A RICE
MILL HAVING DRIER AND
PARBOILER FACILITY.THE UNIT HAS
A CAPACITY OF 72 M.T PER DAY
PADDY MILLING PER BATCH.

NOW THE PARTNERS OF THE FIRM


ARE GOING FOR MODERNISATION
AND EXPANSION OF EXISTING RICE
MILL BY INSTALLING
MACHINNERIES TO GET THE BETTER
QUALITY OF PRODUCTS AT LOW
PRODUCTION COST.
PROPOSED FIXED CAPITAL COST :RS. 437.72 LAKH

NATURE OF ACTIVITY :MODERN RICE MILL WITH DRIER AND


PARBOILER FACILITY.

INSTALLED CAPACITY :43200 M.T PADDY MILLING P.A IN 300


WORKING DAYS ON SINGLE SHIFT
BASIS OF 8 (EIGHT) HOURS IN EACH
SHIFT.

EXISTING 21600 M.T ON SINGLE

CAPACITY SHIFT

PROPOSED 21600 M.T ON SINGLE

CAPACITY SHIFT

CAPACITY UTILISATION :A PROBABLE PROGRESSIVE CAPACI


TY UTILISATION BOTH IN PERCEN
TAGE AND QUANTITATIVE TERM FOR
THREE YEARS IS FURNISHED BELOW:-

YEAR PADDY MILLING %OF

IN M.T INSTALLED

CAPACITY

2006-2007 21600 50%

2007-2008 25920 60%

2008-20009 28080 65%


INTRODUCTION :

RICE IS THE STAPLE FOOD OF INDIAN . ONCE UPON A TIME RICE WAS
PROUNDED IN DHEKIS WHICH PRODUCED BRAN COATED COLOURED RICE.
IN THE FIFTIES MECHANISM CAME INTO THIS INDUSTRY AND HULLERS
WERE INTRODUCED. WHILE POLISHEDRICE COULD BE BPRODUCED BY
REMOVING THE BRAN COATING BUT BRAN COULD NOT SAVE ON THIS
PROCESS. BROKEN RICE PERCENTTAGE WAS ALSO HIGH AND OVERALL
RECOVERY PERCENTAGE WAS LOW.
THERE WAS TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCE AND RUBBER ROLLER WERE
USED FOR MILLING PADDY AND BRAN COULD BE RECOVERED
SEPARATELY , BESIDES INCREASE IN RECOVERY PERCENTAGE .
PARBOILING AND DRIER SYSTEM WERE DEVELOPED WHICH SAVED THE
COST OF PRODUCTION AND ENABLED TO THE MILLS TO RUN 300 DAYS IN
A YEAR.
IN WEST BENGAL RICE MILLING INDUSTRY HAD A CHECKERED HISTORY .
IN WEST BENGAL MAZOR RICE MILL HAVE BEEN SET UP IN THE BURDWAN
DISTRICT . AS THIS DISTRICT HAS A WIDE FERTILE LAND SUITABLE FOR
PADDY PRODUCTION.
PROMOTERS OF THE EXISTING RICE MILL ARE THE LEADING BUSINESS
MEN OF THE LOCALITY AND SUCCESSSFULLY RUNNING THE EXISTING
UNIT SINCE BEGINNING. THEY HAVE DECIDED TO EXPAND AND UPGRADE
THE EXISTING UNIT WITH MODERN MACHINERIES TO GET THE EXPORT
QUALITY OF RICE AT A LOW PRODUCTION COST.

MARKETABILITY

RICE IS THE STAPLE FOOD IN THE EASTERN AND SOUTHERN PARTS OF


INDIA. WITH INCRESE IN POPULATION . THE DEMAND FOR RICE IS SET TO
INCRESE . THE MARKET FOR RICE HAS IMPROVED DURING THE LAST FEW
YEARS . WITH MORE OR LESS STEADY PRICES PREVAILING . RICE BRAN
BEING THE OTHER BY BPRODUCT ALSO HAS A WIDE DEMAND IN THE RICE
BRAN OIL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY . THE RICE BRAN OIL INDUSTRY IS
ALSO GROWING FAST DUE TO PRODUCTION OF CHOLESTEROL FREE
EDIBLE OIL. SO THERE IS A CONSTANT DEMAND OF RICE BRAN IN THE
MARKET AS PER THE GOVT POLICY RICE IS PROCURED EVERY YEAR BY
THE GOVT . AGENCIES VIZ. F.C.I AND D. C. F. S FOR SELL THROUGH GOVT .
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM AROUND 40% TO 50% OF THE TOTAL PRODUCTION
OF A RICE MILL IS PROCURED BY THE GOVT . UNDER ABOVE SYSTEM THE
RATE AND OTHER TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR PROCUREMENT OF RICE
IN A PROCUREMENT YEAR (NOVEMBER TO OCTOBER) ARE DECLARED BY
THE GOVT . IN DECEMBER / JANUARY IN EACH PROCUREMENT YEAR .
HENCE .THE GOVT . IS ALSO A BIG PURCHASER OF RICE.
AS PER THE NEW TRADE POLICY THE RICE IS ALSO BEING EXPORTED TO
COUNTRIES LIKE BANGLADESH ETC. THEREFORE THE MARKET IS OPEN.
RAW MATERIALS

RAW PADDY , THE ONLY RAW MATERIAL WHICH IS ABUNDANTLY


AVAILABLE IN THE LOCALITY AND THE PARTIES ARE COLLECTING RAW
MATERIALS FOR THE EXISTING UNIT WITHOUT ANY PROBLEM.

MANUFACTURING PROCESS

UNIT IS A FULLY AUTOMATIC LATEST PLANT WHERE THE PROCESSING


STARTING FROM RAW MATERIALS TO FINISHED GOODS WOULD GO
THROUGH THE FOLLOWING OPERATION :
RAW PADDY IS FIRST CLEANED THROUGH SIEVING MACHINE AND THEN
PUT INTO THE PADDY PARBOILING PLANT AND STEAM FOR A FEW
MINUTES . THERE AFTER IT IS FILLED WITH WATER AND THE PADDY IS
ALLOWED TO REMAIN SOAKED FOR ABOUT 8 HOURS THEN THE WATER IS
DRAINED OUT AND PADDY IS TAKEN OUT AND PUT INTO DRIER . AFTER
PROPER DRYING THE PADDY IS COOLED ,CLEAND, AGAIN IN THE PADDY
CLEANER AND SENT TO RUBBER ROLL SHELLERS FOR DEHUSKING. AFTER
DEHUSKING IS OVER PADDY IS PUT INTO PADDY SEPARETOR WHERE THE
GRAIN AND HUSK ARE SEPARETED . AFTER SEPARATION THE RICE IS SENT
THROUGH CONE POLISHER MACHINE THEN THROUGH ELEVATOR AND
LASTLY THROUGH CLEANING FANS IN THE GODOWN FOR STORING THEM
AT DIFFERENT PLACES PARTICULARLY MADE FOR RICE , RICE BRAN AND
HUSK.

THE PRODUCTS

IN ADDITION TO RICE IT IS MANUFACTURED RICE BRAN AS BY PRODUCT .


HUSK PRODUCED IN THE PROCESS IS CONSUMED THE UNIT ITSELF.

LOCATION OF THE UNIT

UNIT IS LOCATED AT ALAMGANG ,P.O-NUTANGANG .DIST –BURDWAN.


PREMISES AT MOUZA ALAMGANG,J.L-,PLOT NO -65 MEASURING AREA 12
ACRE 54 SATAK.THE IDENTIFIED LAND IS BESIDE TRUCKABLE ROAD NH-2
WITHIN 500 MT OF THE UNIT . BURDWAN RAILWAY STATION IS ONLY 3
KM .AWAY OF THE UNIT . ALL THE PADDY GROWN AREAS OF THE
DISTRICT ARE WELL CONNECTED BY ROAD . THUS THE LOCATION OF THE
UNIT IS
VERY IDEAL.
UTILITIES

POWER
THE EXISTING POWER IS AVAILABLE FOR 450K.V.A W.B.S.E.D.C.L POWER
CONNECTION .THERE IS ALSO TWO NUMBER 500 KVA D.G SET AND ONE
NUMBER 365 K.V.A D.G SET. FOR THE EXPANDED UNIT POWER
CONNECTION WILL BE EXTENDED FROM 450 K.V.A TO 700 K.V.A AND AS
STAND BY ONE 600 K.V.A D.G SET WILL BE INSTALLED.

WATER
THE REQUIRED WATER IS AVAILABLE. THE SUBMERSIBLE WATER PUMP
ALREADY EXISTS WITHIN FACTORY PREMISES.

STEAM
THE PRESENT REQUIRMENT OF THE STEAM GENERATION CAPACITY
LANKSHIRE BOILER.THE UNIT HAS INSTALLED ONE 4M.T/ HOUR STEAM
GENERATION CAPACITY HUSK FIRED WATER TUBE BOILLER OF PRESSEL
MAKE

DEPRECIATION
DEPRICIATION ON FIXED ASSET P.A. HAS BEEN CHARGED AS UNDER
BUILDING & SHED@ 10%
PLANT & MACHINERY@ 10%
MICS.FIXED ASSEST 10%
CAR @ 15%

TECHNICAL KNOW-HOW
NO SOPHISTICATED TECHONOLOGY IS REQUIRED FOR RICE MILL
INDUSTRY.THE OWNERS ARE EXPERINCED IN THIS ACTIVITY. SKILLED
WORKERS ARE ALREADY ENGAGED FOR SMOOTH OPERATION. AS A
RESULT THE UNIT IS NOT FACING ANY TECHNICLE PROBLEM.

EFFLUENT DISPOSAL
UNIT DOES NOT USE OR DISCHERGE ANY HARMFUL AND/OR DAMAGING
CHEMICAL WHICH MAY DAMAGE THE CROP FIELD AND WATER
RESORVOIR IN ANY WAY. REGRADING GASEOUS EFFLUENT THE SMOKE
COMES OUT IS VENTED THROUGH 110 FT . HEIGHT CHIMNEY . HOWEVER .
THE UNIT HAS ALREADY OBTAINED CLEARENCE CERTIFICATE FROM
POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD.

MANPOWER
THE UNIT HAS FULL IMPLEMENTATION OF 35 EMPLOYEES WHICH ARE
GIVEN HERE UNDER:
SL CATEGORY NO RATE(P.M) RS. IN LAKH
NO

1. MANAGER 2 6000/- 1.44


2. SUPERVISORRY 2 4500/- 1.08
3. OFFICE STAFF 3 3500/- 1.26
4. SKILLED WORKER 8 4000/- 3.84
5. UNSKILLED WORKER 20 3000/- 7.20
35 14.82
ADD:OTHER BENEFITS @20% 2.96

TOTAL 17.78

SCHEDULE OF INTEREST
RATE OF INTEREST ON TERM LOAN HAS BEEN CONSIDER @ 6% P.A. AND
ON WORKINGCAPITAL LOAN@6%P.A.

COMMENTS ON FINANCIAL STATEMENTS:

PROJECTED PROFITABILITY STATEMENT:

SELLING PRICES IS TAKEN ON MOST CONSERVATION BASIS TO SAVE


GUARD THE OPTIMASTIC PROJECTION . ACTUAL PRICE IS HIGHER BY A
LITTLE BIT THAN THAT IS TAKEN IN PROJECTION AND AS A RESULT
ACTUAL PROFITABILITY MAY BE HIGHER THAN WHAT IS PROJECTED.

PURCHASE PRICE OF RAW PADDY IS TAKEN ON HIGHER SIDE TO ABIDE BY


THE PRINCIPEL OF CONSERVATISM DETERMINING PROFITABILITY AND
FOR SUCH HIGHER PRICES PROFABILITY MIGHT BE INCREASED.

PROJECTED CASH FLOW STAMENT:


THE UNIT GENERATES ADEQUATE CASH BALANCE TO REPAY THE
INSTALLMENT AND INTEREST OBLIGATION FOR THE LOAN TAKEN.

DEBT SERVICE COVERAGE RATIO

THE AVERAGE DEBT SERVICE COVERAGE RATIO (GROSS) IN 5 YEARS IS


2.32:1
.
PUFFED RICE IS A TYPE OF PUFFED GRAIN MADE FROM RICE; USUALLY
MADE BY HEATING RICE KERNELS UNDER HIGH PRESSURE IN THE
PRESENCE OF STEAM, THOUGH THE METHOD OF MANUFACTURE VARIES
WIDELY.

PUFFED RICE IS USED IN SNACK FOODS AND BREAKFAST CEREALS, AND IS


ALSO A POPULAR STREET FOOD IN SOME PARTS OF THE WORLD. IT IS AN
INGREDIENT OF BHEL PURI, A POPULAR INDIAN CHAAT ITEM.

A TRADITIONAL PUFFED RICE CALLED MURI IS MADE BY HEATING RICE IN


A SAND-FILLED OVEN. MURI IS TO RICE AS POPCORN IS TO CORN. THE
PROCESSING INVOLVED MAKES RICE LESS PERISHABLE. MURI IS A STAPLE
FOOD IN MANY PARTS OF NORTH KARNATAKA,BENGAL AND
BANGLADESH. JHALMURI OR MASALAMURI/BHELPURI IS A VERY
POPULAR PREPARATION MADE FROM MURI.[1]

PUFFED RICE IS REFERRED TO AS MUR MURE IN SOME PARTS OF INDIA. IN


MANY PARTS OF NORTH KARNATAKA MANDALU VAGGARNI ALONG WIH
MENSINKAI BAJJI (CAPSICUM BAJJIS) ARE POPULAR.

Puffed rice in different languages


Language Puffed rice
Assamese Muri
Gujarati Mumra
Kannada Kadle poori , Mandalu and Mandakki
Konkani Chirmulyo
Malayalam Porei
Marathi Kurmure / Murmure
Tamil Pori
Telugu Borugulu or Mora moraalu (similar to "mur mure")
Tulu Churmuri and Kurlu
Slovene ekspandiran riž
íslenska uppblásin hrísgrjón
Hindi Parmal
Spanish Arroz croquante
DESCRIPTION OF OPERATIONS :

PADDY IN ITS RAW FORM CANNOT BE CONSUMED BY HUMAN BEINGS. IT


NEEDS TO BE SUITABLY PROCESSED FOR OBTAINING RICE. RICE MILLING
IS THE PROCESS WHICH HELPS IN REMOVAL OF HULLS AND BARNS FROM
PADDY GRAINS TO PRODUCE POLISHED RICE. RICE FORMS THE BASIC
PRIMARY PROCESSED PRODUCT OBTAINED FROM PADDY AND THIS IS
FURTHER PROCESSED FOR OBTAINING VARIOUS SECONDARY AND
TERTIARY PRODUCTS.

PADDY IS BROUGHT FROM VARIOUS STATES AND THE SURROUNDING


DISTRICTS AND TRADERS AND MIDDLEMEN ARE INVOLVED. LOCAL
FARMERS ALSO BRING THEIR PADDY DIRECTLY TO THE MILL AND THEY
STAND TO GAIN UP TO RS. 50 IN A 60 KG BAG. THIS MILL PURCHASES
LAGGHU, LALAT, GOAR, RICE 1010, LAL SITA, GOAR LAGGHU, ETC.

PADDY OR RICE GRAIN CONSISTS OF HUSK AND BROWN RICE. BROWN


RICE, IN TURN, CONTAINS BRAN WHICH COMPRISES THE OUTER LAYER
AND THE EDIBLE PORTION. RICE MILLING IS REMOVAL OR SEPARATION
OFHUSK (DEHUSKING) AND BRAN TO OBTAIN THE EDIBLE PORTION FOR
CONSUMPTION. THE PROCESS HAS TO BE ACCOMPLISHED WITH CARE TO
PREVENT EXCESSIVE BREAKAGE OF THE KERNEL AND IMPROVE
RECOVERYOF PADDY OR RICE. THE EXTENT OF RECOVERY DURING
MILLING DEPENDS ON MANY FACTORS LIKE VARIETY OF PADDY, DEGREE
OF MILLING REQUIRED, THE QUALITY OF EQUIPMENTS USED, THE
OPERATORS, ETC.

THE PROCESS IS VERY WELL STANDARDISED. FIRST OF ALL, PADDY IS


CLEANED TO REMOVE UNWANTED MATTERS LIKE MUD, STONES,
CHAFF ETC. THIS CLEANED LOT IS THEN FED TO DE-HUSKER WHERE
WITH THE
HELP OF RUBBER ROLLER, HUSK IS SEPARATED. THE BROWN RICE IS
THEN TAKEN TO HULLER WHERE POLISHING IS DONE BY MILD
FRICTION CREATED WITHIN THE POLISHING CHAMBER. THE RESULTING
POLISHED RICE AND BRAN ARE SEPARATED AND COLLECTED.
RECOVERY OF EDIBLE RICE IS AROUND 80%. BYPRODUCTS
CONSTITUTE ABOUT 15% WHEREAS BALANCE 5% IS WASTE AND
PROCESS LOSS.

WHAT COMES OUT DURING MILLING OPERATION ARE HUSK, MILLED


RICE OR EDIBLE PORTION, BRAN AND THE BROKEN RICE. DEPENDING
UPON THE TYPE OF RICE MILL, THE BY-PRODUCTS COME OUT IN MIXED
OR SEPARATED FORM. MILLING IS USUALLY DONE WHEN PADDY IS DRY
(AROUND 14% MOISTURE CONTENT). WET SOFT GRAINS ARE
POWERED AND VERY DRY BRITTLE GRAINS WOULD BREAK.

THE BASIC RICE MILLING PROCESSES CONSIST OF:

PROCESS DEFINITION

1. PRE CLEANING : REMOVING ALL IMPURITIES AND UNFILLED GRAINS


FROM PADDY

2. DE-STONING : SEPARATING SMALL STONES FROM PADDY

3. PARBOILING (OPTIONAL) : HELPS IN IMPROVING THE NUTRITIONAL


QUALITY BY GELATINIZATION OF STARCH INSIDE THE RICE GRAIN. IT
IMPROVES THE MILLING RECOVERY PERCENT DURING DESHELLING AND
POLISHING / WHITENING OPERATION 4. HUSKING : REMOVING HUSK FROM
PADDY

5. HUSK ASPIRATION : SEPARATING THE HUSK FROM BROWN RICE/


UNHUSKED PADDY

6. PADDY SEPARATION : SEPARATING THE UNHUSKED PADDY FROM


BROWN RICE

7. WHITENING : REMOVING ALL OR PART OF THE BRAN LAYER AND GERM


FROM BROWN RICE

8. POLISHING : IMPROVING THE APPEARANCE OF MILLED RICE BY


REMOVING THE REMAINING BRAN PARTICLES AND BY POLISHING THE
EXTERIOR OF THE MILLED KERNEL

9. LENGTH GRADING : SEPARATING SMALL AND LARGE BROKENS FROM


HEAD RICE

10. BLENDING : MIXING HEAD RICE WITH PREDETERMINED AMOUNT OF


BROKENS, AS REQUIRED BY THE CUSTOMER

11. WEIGHING AND BAGGING : PREPARING THE MILLED RICE FOR


TRANSPORT TO THE CUSTOMER
The flow diagram of the various unit operations are as follows:
Energy Conservation In The Rice Mill

INTRODUCTION

There are around 35000 rice mills in India. Most of the rice mills are small and
use very low cost low efficiency equipments.

However, for a majority of these Indian Rice mills, the connected load is less than
or around 500 KW and steam demand is lower than 3- 4 TPH.

NITYAKALI RICE MILL is having an area of 34 acres of land with an enormous


production capacity. Three shifts of work is carried out per day in which 1000
bags of puffed rice is produced in each shift, each bag weighing 60 kgs. Thus on
an average 1,80,000kgs of puffed rice is produced in 3000 bags per day. One of
the major constraints in the production process is energy consumption. A huge
amount of energy is consumed in the production process which costs a lot. The
Rice Mill pays an average electricity bill of Rs. 8,00,000 every month.

If energy conservation in the process of production is done, then there would be


a minimization of cost. As far as the energy conservation is concerned, we would
like to share our learnings & experiences from these assignments.

PROCESS

RICE has to be processed in mill for removing their husk before it can be
consumed. There are two types of processing- RAW RICE PROCESSING and
PARBOILED RICE PROCESSING. Here, PARBOILED RICE PROCESSING is
carried out.

PARBOILED RICE PROCESSING


Partial cooking of grain, to impart required hardness to withstand milling
operation, with husk intact, is Parboiling. Thus, it is a process of treatment of
paddy by soaking, gelatinizing and drying prior to milling.

There are mainly two systems of parboiling on commercial scale:


ο Once Steamed Paddy: In this system, paddy is soaked in large vessels
(handies); no direct steaming of paddy is done. This system is now being
replaced by second system.
ο Twice Steamed Paddy: Here, paddy is steamed both before & after soaking in
handies. This system is most commonly used these days as it has numerous
advantages over the previous system.
Par Boiling Process flow in rice mills generally consists of following steps in
sequence:
• Paddy Procurement
• Dust Paddy Cleaner
• Storage Tank
• Bottles/Handies
• Direct Steam for 20 Min.
• Soaking Of Paddy in Hot Water (At 800 C) For 4-6 Hrs.
• Draining Hot Water From The Bottles
• Direct Steam for 10 To 15 Min.
• Drying in Closed Dryers for 6-8 Hrs.
• De-huskers/Milling
• Screening Of Rice And Separation Of Husk & Dust, Husk Bagging
• Rice Grain Screening
• Polishing
• Magnetic Separation & Screening, Rice Bran Bagging
• Grading & Sorting
• De-toning
• White Quality Rice Screening
• Bagging & Dispatch

Average Cycle Time, hrs

Drying 12

Final Steam ing 1.45

Soaking 10

Pre Steam ing 1

- 5 10 15 20 25

The typical graphical representation of par-boiling process is as shown


above & described as under:
Procured paddy is fed into paddy dust cleaner to remove all dust & stones etc.
This cleaned paddy is fed to a storage tank through a conveyor. (Conveyor
capacity determines amount of paddy that can be fed into the handies).

Energy Saving Opportunity – Paddy Cleaner blower operates


throughout the yr & hence its system efficiency should be analyzed.

Pre-Steaming: Raw paddy is fed into handies where it is steamed for 15-20
minutes. This is done to raise temperature of paddy initially before soaking in hot
water at about 800 C. This helps produce high quality rice. In some rice mills
(especially mills catering to export market), small handies are specially installed
for this purpose above the main handies.

Soaking: After direct steaming, hot water at 800 C is circulated into the handies
through pumps for 15 minutes to make temperature uniform throughout the tank.
This is followed by soaking the paddy in handies for about 4 hours. Water
temperature during the entire period is not allowed to fall below 60 0 C. If the
temperature of water falls, a small amount of water is drained and fresh hot water
is circulated to raise the temperature in the handies.

Freshly harvested paddy has a lower rate of water absorption than stored paddy
and the rate of moisture absorption increases with increasing temperature.
Soaking temperature of 700 C represents the transition point, below which paddy
absorbs water at a slow rate and above which the rate increases sharply and
progressively.

Depending on paddy variety, optimal soaking time varies between 7.5 & 9.5
hours for a soaking temperature of 500 C, from 5 to 6 hrs for a soaking
temperature of 600 C and from 2.75 to 4 hours for a soaking temperature of 700
C.
Energy Saving Opportunity: The hot water after soaking may be
wasted as a drain that represents enthalpy loss.

Steaming: After soaking the paddy, water is drained out through discharge drain.
Hot & soaked paddy is steamed in the same handies for 15-20 minutes. In some
rice mills (especially mills catering to export market), small handies are specially
installed for this purpose below the main handies.

Soaked paddy is normally parboiled either by open steaming or under pressure.


The moisture content in grains is 28-31 % after completion of soaking. But on
open steaming, moisture content increases by 2-5 % depending on the duration
and severity of steaming, whereas in closed heating, moisture content at the
close of parboiling is less. Temperature of parboiling is 70-1000 C for closed
heating, 110-1200 C for autoclaved heating and 1000 C for open steaming.
Parboiling process is now complete and paddy is ready for discharge to the
dryer. Though parboiling heals all pre-existing defects in kernel to resist
breakage, mild to normally parboiled paddy requires appropriate drying
conditions. Whiteness of parboiled rice is reduced while increasing drying
temperature of parboiled paddy. E. g., for parboiled paddy dried at 90 0 C,
whiteness for milled rice is 7.21 while that dried at 500 C, whiteness is 8.64.
Among different drying methods, influence of shade drying on parboiled rice
quality is least. Retention of parboiled paddy in hot condition decreases its
palatability and adversely downgrades quality But in case of pressure parboiled
rice, mechanical drying even under adverse conditions (dried at 110 0 C for 30
minutes, followed by 800 C for 30 minutes and tempered for 8 hrs before milling)
is permissible due to completion of gelatinization during parboiling. Again,
palatability of cooked kernels of hot-air dried samples is poorer than that of
shade or sun-dried samples.

DRYING: A typical graph of drying cycle is as shown below:


Average Dryer Temp Cycle

At 50 1
Dryer Air Temp, deg C

60 - 50 1

85 - 60 3

110 - 85 5

0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Hrs

One of the most important aspects of paddy processing is controlled drying so as


to achieve uniform moisture level in order to minimize milling losses.

Rapid drying with hot air leads to heavy breakage during milling as the damage
to milling quality starts at 15% moisture level of paddy and increases sharply with
further drying. So, most convenient way of drying lightly parboiled paddy would
be to dry in two passes with tempering in moisture range of 15-19%, followed by
conditioning after final drying.
Tempering also increases drying rate, so that in-dryer drying time can be
reduced. Tempering below critical moisture level is advantageous only if it is
done at elevated temperatures but not at room temperature. For example, with a
drying air temperature of 800 C and dried to a moisture content of 14 %, minimum
breakage of 0.9% on milling will occur if the paddy, during drying, is conditioned
at 500 C. Again, with a drying air temperature of 60 0C and dried to a moisture
content of 13.5 %, minimum breakage of 0.6 % on milling will occur if paddy,
during drying, is conditioned at 500 C. In both cases, however, a reduction in
mentioned moisture content will require paddy to be conditioned at a higher
temperature (not above the drying temp) to achieve minimum breakage on
milling.

Energy Saving Opportunity#1: The dryer blowers should be studied


& efficiency of the system established & depending upon the site
conditions, best remedial action needs to be evaluated.

Energy Saving Opportunity#2: The condensate from the dryers could


well be flashing away which represents heat loss that is recoverable.

Dried Paddy is then taken to de-stoner & pre-cleaner for separating out any
foreign material, dust, dirt, etc. Associated with the pre-cleaner & de-husker are
their individual blowers that blow away the foreign matter.

Energy Saving Opportunity: The system efficiency of the de-husker


& pre-cleaner blowers should be studied & depending upon the site
conditions, best remedial action needs to be evaluated.

Clean paddy is then taken to de-huskers where milling of paddy is done. Here,
husk is removed by blowing compressed air. After de-husking, dust & husk are
separated out and screening of rice (using magnetic separators) is done to
separate out brown rice and other varieties of rice. Major % of brown rice is again
sent for screening and small % is directly sent in brown rice graders (depending
upon order booking & demand).

To separate the powder that is generated at the time of de-husking, there is a


powder blower. Powder blower is associated with a cyclone that operates on the
principle of density difference. The cyclone drains off the powder & the air is
vented away by the blower through a silencer.

Energy Saving Opportunity: The efficiency of the powder blower


should be studied & depending upon the site conditions, best
remedial action needs to be evaluated.
Also there may be a huge pressure drop across the silencer &
system modification may be required to avoid the same.
After screening, brown rice is taken to polishers, where yellow covering over the
rice grain, which is also called Rice Bran, is removed mechanically by grinders.
The rice bran is separated, packed in bags and sold off to solvent extraction
plants.

Energy Saving opportunity: The compressed air

Polished (white) rice is sent to graders where grading of rice is done, depending
on grain size. After final screening and quality checks, rice is packed in bags and
dispatched.

Energy Saving Opportunity: The polishers are big rated motors. A motor load

survey should be carried out. Also associated with these polishers are their

blowers whose system efficiency can be analyzed.

POLLUTION CONTROL
THERE IS NO MAJOR POLLUTION PROBLEM ASSOCIATED WITH THIS
INDUSTRY EXCEPT FOR DISPOSAL OF WASTE WHICH SHOULD BE
MANAGED APPROPRIATELY. THE ENTREPRENEURS ARE HAVING "NO
OBJECTION CERTIFICATE" FROM THE STATE POLLUTION CONTROL
BOARD.

ENERGY CONSERVATION
ONLY ELECTRICITY IS USED AS A SOURCE OF ENERGY.

PROBLEMS FACED IN GENERAL

IT IS ESTIMATED ABOUT 10 PERCENT OF PADDY/RICE IS DAMAGED


AND/OR LOST IN PROCESSING, STORAGE AND TRANSPORT WITH THE
PRESENT METHODS AND MACHINERY. SIXTY TO EIGHTY PERCENT
HEAD YIELD IS OBTAINED WITH 10-25 BROKEN AND ADMIXTURE OF
BRAN AND HUSK WHEREAS WITH MODERN TECHNIQUES, 68-72
PERCENT HEAD RICE WITH 5-7 PERCENT BROKEN AND BETTER
UTILIZABLE BY-PRODUCTS.
Process flow vis-à-vis Areas Studied
Paddy cleaner
system
Paddy procurement efficiency
Hot water study
being

drained out can be


Paddy cleaning
used for waste

Paddy steaming heat recovery


ay.

water waste heat


from sate

HP V d in a
flashi yer
ng aw

Paddy soaking
en

recovery
dr

essel

Dryer Blowers
Cond

e
re
Can b

system
captu

efficiency study
Paddy drying Pre-cleaner

blower system

Paddy pre-cleaning efficiency

study
iciency study
system eff
blower
De-stoner Paddy de-stoning

Paddy de-husking

study
efficiency
drop &
silencer pr er Powder & Bran removal
Compressed air &
w
Powder blo
motor load survey

Polishing
Compressed air
system
Grading & Sorting

ANNEXURE

OBSERVATIONS Packing & dispatch


INPUT OF PER 60 KG OF RAW PADDY GIVES OUTPUT OF 40 KG OF PUFFED
RICE, BRAN 4.5 KG, BROKEN 3 KG [ SIZER/GRADER(COSTLY)], HUSK 12.5 KG
( HUSK CAN BE USED AS FUEL).

WAREHOUSE HAS A CAPACITY OF 40000 BAGS EACH OF 60 KG.


LABOUR USED ARE 200 APPROXIMATELY IN NUMBER. UNLOADING RAW
MATERIAL AND CLEANING REQUIRES 60 LABOURS. LOADING AND
PARBOILING SECTION HAS 6 OWN STAFFS. IT REQUIRES 60 LABOURS.
MILLING SECTION NEEDS 21 LABOURS IN THREE SHIFTS, WORKING 8
HOURS PER DAY. THEY MAY WORK OVERTIME. 4 STAFFS WORK IN EACH
SHIFT 12 HOURS A DAY IN BOILER SECTION. 3 STAFFS IN EACH SHIFT
WORK 8 HOURS A DAY IN DRYER SECTION. WORKING STAFF CONSISTS OF
20 MEMBERS. IN CASE OF NATURAL DRYING IN CONCRETE FIELD, 2
STAFFS ARE APPOINTED AND MORE THAN 120 LABOURS ARE EMPLOYED,

DRYING IN CONCRETE FIELD IS A PROCES OF NATURAL DRYING. IT GIVES


A SUPERIOR QUALITY OF RICE BUT INVOLVES MORE COST AS IT REQUIRES
MANY LABOURS. IF DRYING IS DONE IN CLOSED DRYER, IT WILL BE COST
EFFECTIVE.

THE MILL OWNERS AND THE MANAGERS WERE NOT OPEN IN PROVIDING
INFORMATION ON PURCHASE AND SALE PRICES AND OR OTHER
RELEVANT DATA.

SUMMARY OF OUTPUTS OF THE STUDY VISIT


1. THE GROUP MEMBERS EXPRESSED SATISFACTION ON THE
OPPORTUNITY PROVIDED TO VISIT THE RICE MILL.
2. FIELD REALITY ON OPERATION AND FUNCTIONAL MILL OF HUGE
CAPACITY WAS FIRST OF ITS KIND FOR ALL THE GROUP MEMBERS.
3. FAIRLY A GOOD IDEA RECEIVED IN THE COLLECTION, MILLING AND
MARKETING OF RICE
4. CONTACT POINTS FOR BUSINESS WAS UNDERSTOOD
5. GROSS EXPENDITURES REQUIRED FOR RUNNING A MILL WAS
VISUALIZED
7. ROLE OF MIDDLE MAN IN RICE TRADING WAS NOTE TO BE IMPORTANT
TO EXPAND THE RICE BUSINESS WAS UNDERSTOOD.
8. RICE AS CASH GENERATING CROP WAS YET ANOTHER KNOWLEDGE
GAINED BY THE GROUP
9. BESIDES, FIELD WITH PRODUCTION OF PUFFED RICE AT THE TIME OF
THE VISIT WAS ENCOURAGING.
10. THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY IS WELL ACHIEVED

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