Submitted By MD.

ASIF (As a part of the Master of Business Administration programme)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

WE WOULD LIKE TO FIRST OF ALL GIVE OUR HEARTIEST GRATITUDE AND SINCERE THANKS TO DR. DILIP ROY FOR ASSIGNING US THIS INTERESTING PROJECT AND PROVIDING US ALL THE VALUABLE INFORMATION NECESSARY FOR THE SUCCESS OF OUR PROJECT. WE ARE THANKFUL TO MR. T.K.DUTTA, OWNER OF M/S NITYAKALI RICE MILL, AND HIS SUBBORDINATES FOR HELPING AND GUIDING US TO DRAW PARTICULAR IDEA REGARDING PRODUCTION OF PUFFED RICE. THEIR KIND CO OPERATION AND HELPFULNESS IS HIGHLY APPRECIATED. THE GROUP MEMBERS EXPRESSED SATISFACTION ON THE OPPORTUNITY PROVIDED TO VISIT THE RICE MILL. LASTLY WE WOULD LIKE TO MENTION THAT ,WHILE WE WERE PREPARING OUR PROJECT, WE CAME TO KNOW ABOUT MANY PROCEDURES INVOLVED IN THE PROCESS OF PRODUCTION OF PUFFED RICE, AT THE SAME TIME IT PROVIDED US GREAT ENJOYMENT AND PLEASURE.

Submited by : ________________________________________ Date :30:05:2009 ________________________________________ Md. Asif MBA(general)1st sem.Roll no.25 place:Burdwan The University of Burdwan

CONTENTS

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

PROJECT PREVIEW INTRODUCTION MARKETABILITY RAW MATERIALS MANUFACTURING PROCESS THE PRODUCTS LOCATION OF THE UNIT UTILITIES SCHEDULE OF INTEREST COMMENTS ON FINANCIAL STATEMENTS PUFFD RICE DESCRIPTION OF OPERATIONS PROCESS DEFINITION ENERGY CONSERVATION IN THE RICE MILL INTRODUCTION PROCESS PARBOILED RICE PROCESSING ENERGY SAVING OPPORTUNITIES POLLUTION CONTROL PROBLEMS FACED IN GENERAL OBSERVATIONS SUMMARY OF THE OUTPUTS OF THE STUDY VISIT

STUDY VISIT TO M/S NITYAKALI RICE MILL
23-30 MAY, 2009

PURPOSE
AS PART OF THE CENTRE FOR MANAGEMENT STUDIES, THE UNIVERSITY OF BURDWAN, UNDERGOING THE MBA PROGRAM, NAMES LISTED BELOW, WERE IDENTIFIED TO MAKE A BRIEF STUDY VISIT TO A RICE MILL, AS A FOCUSED VISIT TO RICE MILL OPERATING ON COMMERCIAL SCALE. THE INTENTION OF THE VISIT WAS TO UNDERSTAND OPERATIONAL MODALITIES ON DIFFERENT CAPACITIES OF A COMMERCIALLY OPERATED RICE MILL, AND TO FIND OUT SOLUTIONS TO ITS CONSTRAINTS.

PARTICIPANTS
THE PARTICIPANTS OF THE STUDY VISIT INCLUDED A GROUP OF FOUR MEMBERS STUDYING MBA IN CENTRE FOR MANAGEMENT STUDIES, THE UNIVERSITY OF BURDWAN. THE PARTICIPANTS ARE: 1. SUNITA ROY 2. KAZI ABU ZAFAR MD. YASIN 3.SYED SAHIL RAHIM 4. MD. ASIF

PROJECT PREVIEW
NAME OF THE UNIT ADDRESS :M/S NITYAKALI RICE MILL

FACTORY OFFICE
CONSTTUTION UNIT’S BACKGROUND

:ALAMGANJ,P.O-NUTANGANJ, DIST – BURDWAN,WEST BENGAL : ALAMGANJ, P.O-NUTANGANJ, DIST – BURDWAN,WEST BENGAL :PARTNERSHIP FIRM :IT IS AN EXISTING RICE MILL . THE RICE MILL WAS ORIGINALLY SET UP BY LATE R.K DUTTA DURING EARLY NINETIES LATER ON HIS SON LATE B. N DUTTA BECAME THE OWNER. FINALLY AFTER FAMILY SETTLEMENT DURING THE YEAR 1989 THE PRESENT SUCCESSORS BECAME THE OWNER OF THE RICE MILL . THE PRESENT OWNERS ARE SRI TAPAN KUMAR DUTTA ,SRI SWAPAN KUMAR DUTTA ,SRI JANARDAN DUTTA AND SMT ARUNA DUTTA. INITIALLY IT WAS A CHATAL TYPE RICE MILL . GRADULLY THE PRESENT PROMOTERS HAVE DEVELOPED IT. NOW IT IS A RICE MILL HAVING DRIER AND PARBOILER FACILITY.THE UNIT HAS A CAPACITY OF 72 M.T PER DAY PADDY MILLING PER BATCH. NOW THE PARTNERS OF THE FIRM ARE GOING FOR MODERNISATION AND EXPANSION OF EXISTING RICE MILL BY INSTALLING MACHINNERIES TO GET THE BETTER QUALITY OF PRODUCTS AT LOW PRODUCTION COST.

PROPOSED FIXED CAPITAL COST NATURE OF ACTIVITY INSTALLED CAPACITY

:RS. 437.72 LAKH :MODERN RICE MILL WITH DRIER AND PARBOILER FACILITY. :43200 M.T PADDY MILLING P.A IN 300 WORKING DAYS ON SINGLE SHIFT BASIS OF 8 (EIGHT) HOURS IN EACH SHIFT. EXISTING CAPACITY PROPOSED CAPACITY 21600 M.T ON SINGLE SHIFT 21600 M.T ON SINGLE SHIFT

CAPACITY UTILISATION

:A PROBABLE PROGRESSIVE CAPACI TY UTILISATION BOTH IN PERCEN TAGE AND QUANTITATIVE TERM FOR THREE YEARS IS FURNISHED BELOW:YEAR PADDY MILLING IN M.T %OF

INSTALLED CAPACITY

2006-2007 2007-2008 2008-20009

21600 25920 28080

50% 60% 65%

INTRODUCTION :
RICE IS THE STAPLE FOOD OF INDIAN . ONCE UPON A TIME RICE WAS PROUNDED IN DHEKIS WHICH PRODUCED BRAN COATED COLOURED RICE. IN THE FIFTIES MECHANISM CAME INTO THIS INDUSTRY AND HULLERS WERE INTRODUCED. WHILE POLISHEDRICE COULD BE BPRODUCED BY REMOVING THE BRAN COATING BUT BRAN COULD NOT SAVE ON THIS PROCESS. BROKEN RICE PERCENTTAGE WAS ALSO HIGH AND OVERALL RECOVERY PERCENTAGE WAS LOW. THERE WAS TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCE AND RUBBER ROLLER WERE USED FOR MILLING PADDY AND BRAN COULD BE RECOVERED SEPARATELY , BESIDES INCREASE IN RECOVERY PERCENTAGE . PARBOILING AND DRIER SYSTEM WERE DEVELOPED WHICH SAVED THE COST OF PRODUCTION AND ENABLED TO THE MILLS TO RUN 300 DAYS IN A YEAR. IN WEST BENGAL RICE MILLING INDUSTRY HAD A CHECKERED HISTORY . IN WEST BENGAL MAZOR RICE MILL HAVE BEEN SET UP IN THE BURDWAN DISTRICT . AS THIS DISTRICT HAS A WIDE FERTILE LAND SUITABLE FOR PADDY PRODUCTION. PROMOTERS OF THE EXISTING RICE MILL ARE THE LEADING BUSINESS MEN OF THE LOCALITY AND SUCCESSSFULLY RUNNING THE EXISTING UNIT SINCE BEGINNING. THEY HAVE DECIDED TO EXPAND AND UPGRADE THE EXISTING UNIT WITH MODERN MACHINERIES TO GET THE EXPORT QUALITY OF RICE AT A LOW PRODUCTION COST. MARKETABILITY RICE IS THE STAPLE FOOD IN THE EASTERN AND SOUTHERN PARTS OF INDIA. WITH INCRESE IN POPULATION . THE DEMAND FOR RICE IS SET TO INCRESE . THE MARKET FOR RICE HAS IMPROVED DURING THE LAST FEW YEARS . WITH MORE OR LESS STEADY PRICES PREVAILING . RICE BRAN BEING THE OTHER BY BPRODUCT ALSO HAS A WIDE DEMAND IN THE RICE BRAN OIL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY . THE RICE BRAN OIL INDUSTRY IS ALSO GROWING FAST DUE TO PRODUCTION OF CHOLESTEROL FREE EDIBLE OIL. SO THERE IS A CONSTANT DEMAND OF RICE BRAN IN THE MARKET AS PER THE GOVT POLICY RICE IS PROCURED EVERY YEAR BY THE GOVT . AGENCIES VIZ. F.C.I AND D. C. F. S FOR SELL THROUGH GOVT . DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM AROUND 40% TO 50% OF THE TOTAL PRODUCTION OF A RICE MILL IS PROCURED BY THE GOVT . UNDER ABOVE SYSTEM THE RATE AND OTHER TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR PROCUREMENT OF RICE IN A PROCUREMENT YEAR (NOVEMBER TO OCTOBER) ARE DECLARED BY THE GOVT . IN DECEMBER / JANUARY IN EACH PROCUREMENT YEAR . HENCE .THE GOVT . IS ALSO A BIG PURCHASER OF RICE. AS PER THE NEW TRADE POLICY THE RICE IS ALSO BEING EXPORTED TO COUNTRIES LIKE BANGLADESH ETC. THEREFORE THE MARKET IS OPEN.

RAW MATERIALS
RAW PADDY , THE ONLY RAW MATERIAL WHICH IS ABUNDANTLY AVAILABLE IN THE LOCALITY AND THE PARTIES ARE COLLECTING RAW MATERIALS FOR THE EXISTING UNIT WITHOUT ANY PROBLEM.

MANUFACTURING PROCESS
UNIT IS A FULLY AUTOMATIC LATEST PLANT WHERE THE PROCESSING STARTING FROM RAW MATERIALS TO FINISHED GOODS WOULD GO THROUGH THE FOLLOWING OPERATION : RAW PADDY IS FIRST CLEANED THROUGH SIEVING MACHINE AND THEN PUT INTO THE PADDY PARBOILING PLANT AND STEAM FOR A FEW MINUTES . THERE AFTER IT IS FILLED WITH WATER AND THE PADDY IS ALLOWED TO REMAIN SOAKED FOR ABOUT 8 HOURS THEN THE WATER IS DRAINED OUT AND PADDY IS TAKEN OUT AND PUT INTO DRIER . AFTER PROPER DRYING THE PADDY IS COOLED ,CLEAND, AGAIN IN THE PADDY CLEANER AND SENT TO RUBBER ROLL SHELLERS FOR DEHUSKING. AFTER DEHUSKING IS OVER PADDY IS PUT INTO PADDY SEPARETOR WHERE THE GRAIN AND HUSK ARE SEPARETED . AFTER SEPARATION THE RICE IS SENT THROUGH CONE POLISHER MACHINE THEN THROUGH ELEVATOR AND LASTLY THROUGH CLEANING FANS IN THE GODOWN FOR STORING THEM AT DIFFERENT PLACES PARTICULARLY MADE FOR RICE , RICE BRAN AND HUSK.

THE PRODUCTS
IN ADDITION TO RICE IT IS MANUFACTURED RICE BRAN AS BY PRODUCT . HUSK PRODUCED IN THE PROCESS IS CONSUMED THE UNIT ITSELF.

LOCATION OF THE UNIT
UNIT IS LOCATED AT ALAMGANG ,P.O-NUTANGANG .DIST –BURDWAN. PREMISES AT MOUZA ALAMGANG,J.L-,PLOT NO -65 MEASURING AREA 12 ACRE 54 SATAK.THE IDENTIFIED LAND IS BESIDE TRUCKABLE ROAD NH-2 WITHIN 500 MT OF THE UNIT . BURDWAN RAILWAY STATION IS ONLY 3 KM .AWAY OF THE UNIT . ALL THE PADDY GROWN AREAS OF THE DISTRICT ARE WELL CONNECTED BY ROAD . THUS THE LOCATION OF THE UNIT IS VERY IDEAL.

UTILITIES POWER
THE EXISTING POWER IS AVAILABLE FOR 450K.V.A W.B.S.E.D.C.L POWER CONNECTION .THERE IS ALSO TWO NUMBER 500 KVA D.G SET AND ONE NUMBER 365 K.V.A D.G SET. FOR THE EXPANDED UNIT POWER CONNECTION WILL BE EXTENDED FROM 450 K.V.A TO 700 K.V.A AND AS STAND BY ONE 600 K.V.A D.G SET WILL BE INSTALLED.

WATER
THE REQUIRED WATER IS AVAILABLE. THE SUBMERSIBLE WATER PUMP ALREADY EXISTS WITHIN FACTORY PREMISES. STEAM THE PRESENT REQUIRMENT OF THE STEAM GENERATION CAPACITY LANKSHIRE BOILER.THE UNIT HAS INSTALLED ONE 4M.T/ HOUR STEAM GENERATION CAPACITY HUSK FIRED WATER TUBE BOILLER OF PRESSEL MAKE DEPRECIATION DEPRICIATION ON FIXED ASSET P.A. HAS BEEN CHARGED AS UNDER BUILDING & SHED@ 10% PLANT & MACHINERY@ 10% MICS.FIXED ASSEST 10% CAR @ 15% TECHNICAL KNOW-HOW NO SOPHISTICATED TECHONOLOGY IS REQUIRED FOR RICE MILL INDUSTRY.THE OWNERS ARE EXPERINCED IN THIS ACTIVITY. SKILLED WORKERS ARE ALREADY ENGAGED FOR SMOOTH OPERATION. AS A RESULT THE UNIT IS NOT FACING ANY TECHNICLE PROBLEM. EFFLUENT DISPOSAL UNIT DOES NOT USE OR DISCHERGE ANY HARMFUL AND/OR DAMAGING CHEMICAL WHICH MAY DAMAGE THE CROP FIELD AND WATER RESORVOIR IN ANY WAY. REGRADING GASEOUS EFFLUENT THE SMOKE COMES OUT IS VENTED THROUGH 110 FT . HEIGHT CHIMNEY . HOWEVER . THE UNIT HAS ALREADY OBTAINED CLEARENCE CERTIFICATE FROM POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD. MANPOWER THE UNIT HAS FULL IMPLEMENTATION OF 35 EMPLOYEES WHICH ARE GIVEN HERE UNDER:

SL CATEGORY NO 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. MANAGER SUPERVISORRY OFFICE STAFF SKILLED WORKER UNSKILLED WORKER

NO 2 2 3 8 20 35

RATE(P.M) 6000/4500/3500/4000/3000/-

RS. IN LAKH 1.44 1.08 1.26 3.84 7.20 14.82 2.96 17.78

ADD:OTHER BENEFITS @20% TOTAL

SCHEDULE OF INTEREST
RATE OF INTEREST ON TERM LOAN HAS BEEN CONSIDER @ 6% P.A. AND ON WORKINGCAPITAL LOAN@6%P.A. COMMENTS ON FINANCIAL STATEMENTS: PROJECTED PROFITABILITY STATEMENT: SELLING PRICES IS TAKEN ON MOST CONSERVATION BASIS TO SAVE GUARD THE OPTIMASTIC PROJECTION . ACTUAL PRICE IS HIGHER BY A LITTLE BIT THAN THAT IS TAKEN IN PROJECTION AND AS A RESULT ACTUAL PROFITABILITY MAY BE HIGHER THAN WHAT IS PROJECTED. PURCHASE PRICE OF RAW PADDY IS TAKEN ON HIGHER SIDE TO ABIDE BY THE PRINCIPEL OF CONSERVATISM DETERMINING PROFITABILITY AND FOR SUCH HIGHER PRICES PROFABILITY MIGHT BE INCREASED. PROJECTED CASH FLOW STAMENT: THE UNIT GENERATES ADEQUATE CASH BALANCE TO REPAY THE INSTALLMENT AND INTEREST OBLIGATION FOR THE LOAN TAKEN. DEBT SERVICE COVERAGE RATIO THE AVERAGE DEBT SERVICE COVERAGE RATIO (GROSS) IN 5 YEARS IS 2.32:1 .

PUFFED RICE IS A TYPE OF PUFFED GRAIN MADE FROM RICE; USUALLY MADE BY HEATING RICE KERNELS UNDER HIGH PRESSURE IN THE PRESENCE OF STEAM, THOUGH THE METHOD OF MANUFACTURE VARIES WIDELY. PUFFED RICE IS USED IN SNACK FOODS AND BREAKFAST CEREALS, AND IS ALSO A POPULAR STREET FOOD IN SOME PARTS OF THE WORLD. IT IS AN INGREDIENT OF BHEL PURI, A POPULAR INDIAN CHAAT ITEM. A TRADITIONAL PUFFED RICE CALLED MURI IS MADE BY HEATING RICE IN A SAND-FILLED OVEN. MURI IS TO RICE AS POPCORN IS TO CORN. THE PROCESSING INVOLVED MAKES RICE LESS PERISHABLE. MURI IS A STAPLE FOOD IN MANY PARTS OF NORTH KARNATAKA,BENGAL AND BANGLADESH. JHALMURI OR MASALAMURI/BHELPURI IS A VERY POPULAR PREPARATION MADE FROM MURI.[1] PUFFED RICE IS REFERRED TO AS MUR MURE IN SOME PARTS OF INDIA. IN MANY PARTS OF NORTH KARNATAKA MANDALU VAGGARNI ALONG WIH MENSINKAI BAJJI (CAPSICUM BAJJIS) ARE POPULAR. Puffed rice in different languages Language Puffed rice Assamese Muri Gujarati Mumra Kannada Kadle poori , Mandalu and Mandakki Konkani Chirmulyo Malayalam Porei Marathi Kurmure / Murmure Tamil Pori Telugu Borugulu or Mora moraalu (similar to "mur mure") Tulu Churmuri and Kurlu Slovene ekspandiran riž íslenska uppblásin hrísgrjón Hindi Parmal Spanish Arroz croquante

DESCRIPTION OF OPERATIONS :
PADDY IN ITS RAW FORM CANNOT BE CONSUMED BY HUMAN BEINGS. IT NEEDS TO BE SUITABLY PROCESSED FOR OBTAINING RICE. RICE MILLING IS THE PROCESS WHICH HELPS IN REMOVAL OF HULLS AND BARNS FROM PADDY GRAINS TO PRODUCE POLISHED RICE. RICE FORMS THE BASIC PRIMARY PROCESSED PRODUCT OBTAINED FROM PADDY AND THIS IS FURTHER PROCESSED FOR OBTAINING VARIOUS SECONDARY AND TERTIARY PRODUCTS.

PADDY IS BROUGHT FROM VARIOUS STATES AND THE SURROUNDING DISTRICTS AND TRADERS AND MIDDLEMEN ARE INVOLVED. LOCAL FARMERS ALSO BRING THEIR PADDY DIRECTLY TO THE MILL AND THEY STAND TO GAIN UP TO RS. 50 IN A 60 KG BAG. THIS MILL PURCHASES LAGGHU, LALAT, GOAR, RICE 1010, LAL SITA, GOAR LAGGHU, ETC. PADDY OR RICE GRAIN CONSISTS OF HUSK AND BROWN RICE. BROWN RICE, IN TURN, CONTAINS BRAN WHICH COMPRISES THE OUTER LAYER AND THE EDIBLE PORTION. RICE MILLING IS REMOVAL OR SEPARATION OFHUSK (DEHUSKING) AND BRAN TO OBTAIN THE EDIBLE PORTION FOR CONSUMPTION. THE PROCESS HAS TO BE ACCOMPLISHED WITH CARE TO PREVENT EXCESSIVE BREAKAGE OF THE KERNEL AND IMPROVE RECOVERYOF PADDY OR RICE. THE EXTENT OF RECOVERY DURING MILLING DEPENDS ON MANY FACTORS LIKE VARIETY OF PADDY, DEGREE OF MILLING REQUIRED, THE QUALITY OF EQUIPMENTS USED, THE OPERATORS, ETC. THE PROCESS IS VERY WELL STANDARDISED. FIRST OF ALL, PADDY IS CLEANED TO REMOVE UNWANTED MATTERS LIKE MUD, STONES, CHAFF ETC. THIS CLEANED LOT IS THEN FED TO DE-HUSKER WHERE WITH THE HELP OF RUBBER ROLLER, HUSK IS SEPARATED. THE BROWN RICE IS THEN TAKEN TO HULLER WHERE POLISHING IS DONE BY MILD FRICTION CREATED WITHIN THE POLISHING CHAMBER. THE RESULTING POLISHED RICE AND BRAN ARE SEPARATED AND COLLECTED. RECOVERY OF EDIBLE RICE IS AROUND 80%. BYPRODUCTS CONSTITUTE ABOUT 15% WHEREAS BALANCE 5% IS WASTE AND PROCESS LOSS. WHAT COMES OUT DURING MILLING OPERATION ARE HUSK, MILLED RICE OR EDIBLE PORTION, BRAN AND THE BROKEN RICE. DEPENDING

UPON THE TYPE OF RICE MILL, THE BY-PRODUCTS COME OUT IN MIXED OR SEPARATED FORM. MILLING IS USUALLY DONE WHEN PADDY IS DRY (AROUND 14% MOISTURE CONTENT). WET SOFT GRAINS ARE POWERED AND VERY DRY BRITTLE GRAINS WOULD BREAK.

THE BASIC RICE MILLING PROCESSES CONSIST OF: PROCESS DEFINITION 1. PRE CLEANING : REMOVING ALL IMPURITIES AND UNFILLED GRAINS FROM PADDY 2. DE-STONING : SEPARATING SMALL STONES FROM PADDY 3. PARBOILING (OPTIONAL) : HELPS IN IMPROVING THE NUTRITIONAL QUALITY BY GELATINIZATION OF STARCH INSIDE THE RICE GRAIN. IT IMPROVES THE MILLING RECOVERY PERCENT DURING DESHELLING AND POLISHING / WHITENING OPERATION 4. HUSKING : REMOVING HUSK FROM PADDY 5. HUSK ASPIRATION : SEPARATING THE HUSK FROM BROWN RICE/ UNHUSKED PADDY 6. PADDY SEPARATION : SEPARATING THE UNHUSKED PADDY FROM BROWN RICE 7. WHITENING : REMOVING ALL OR PART OF THE BRAN LAYER AND GERM FROM BROWN RICE 8. POLISHING : IMPROVING THE APPEARANCE OF MILLED RICE BY REMOVING THE REMAINING BRAN PARTICLES AND BY POLISHING THE EXTERIOR OF THE MILLED KERNEL 9. LENGTH GRADING : SEPARATING SMALL AND LARGE BROKENS FROM HEAD RICE 10. BLENDING : MIXING HEAD RICE WITH PREDETERMINED AMOUNT OF BROKENS, AS REQUIRED BY THE CUSTOMER 11. WEIGHING AND BAGGING : PREPARING THE MILLED RICE FOR TRANSPORT TO THE CUSTOMER

The flow diagram of the various unit operations are as follows:

Energy Conservation In The Rice Mill

INTRODUCTION
There are around 35000 rice mills in India. Most of the rice mills are small and use very low cost low efficiency equipments. However, for a majority of these Indian Rice mills, the connected load is less than or around 500 KW and steam demand is lower than 3- 4 TPH. NITYAKALI RICE MILL is having an area of 34 acres of land with an enormous production capacity. Three shifts of work is carried out per day in which 1000 bags of puffed rice is produced in each shift, each bag weighing 60 kgs. Thus on an average 1,80,000kgs of puffed rice is produced in 3000 bags per day. One of the major constraints in the production process is energy consumption. A huge amount of energy is consumed in the production process which costs a lot. The Rice Mill pays an average electricity bill of Rs. 8,00,000 every month. If energy conservation in the process of production is done, then there would be a minimization of cost. As far as the energy conservation is concerned, we would like to share our learnings & experiences from these assignments.

PROCESS RICE has to be processed in mill for removing their husk before it can be consumed. There are two types of processing- RAW RICE PROCESSING and PARBOILED RICE PROCESSING. Here, PARBOILED RICE PROCESSING is carried out. PARBOILED RICE PROCESSING Partial cooking of grain, to impart required hardness to withstand milling operation, with husk intact, is Parboiling. Thus, it is a process of treatment of paddy by soaking, gelatinizing and drying prior to milling. There are mainly two systems of parboiling on commercial scale:

ο Once Steamed Paddy: In this system, paddy is soaked in large vessels (handies); no direct steaming of paddy is done. This system is now being replaced by second system. ο Twice Steamed Paddy: Here, paddy is steamed both before & after soaking in handies. This system is most commonly used these days as it has numerous advantages over the previous system.

Par Boiling Process flow in rice mills generally consists of following steps in sequence: • Paddy Procurement • Dust Paddy Cleaner • Storage Tank • Bottles/Handies • Direct Steam for 20 Min. • Soaking Of Paddy in Hot Water (At 800 C) For 4-6 Hrs. • Draining Hot Water From The Bottles • Direct Steam for 10 To 15 Min. • Drying in Closed Dryers for 6-8 Hrs. • De-huskers/Milling • Screening Of Rice And Separation Of Husk & Dust, Husk Bagging • Rice Grain Screening • Polishing • Magnetic Separation & Screening, Rice Bran Bagging • Grading & Sorting • De-toning • White Quality Rice Screening • Bagging & Dispatch

Average Cycle Time, hrs

Drying

12

Final Steam ing

1.45

Soaking

10

Pre Steam ing

1

-

5

10

15

20

25

The typical graphical representation of par-boiling process is as shown above & described as under:

Procured paddy is fed into paddy dust cleaner to remove all dust & stones etc. This cleaned paddy is fed to a storage tank through a conveyor. (Conveyor capacity determines amount of paddy that can be fed into the handies). Energy Saving Opportunity – Paddy Cleaner blower operates throughout the yr & hence its system efficiency should be analyzed. Pre-Steaming: Raw paddy is fed into handies where it is steamed for 15-20 minutes. This is done to raise temperature of paddy initially before soaking in hot water at about 800 C. This helps produce high quality rice. In some rice mills (especially mills catering to export market), small handies are specially installed for this purpose above the main handies. Soaking: After direct steaming, hot water at 800 C is circulated into the handies through pumps for 15 minutes to make temperature uniform throughout the tank. This is followed by soaking the paddy in handies for about 4 hours. Water temperature during the entire period is not allowed to fall below 60 0 C. If the temperature of water falls, a small amount of water is drained and fresh hot water is circulated to raise the temperature in the handies. Freshly harvested paddy has a lower rate of water absorption than stored paddy and the rate of moisture absorption increases with increasing temperature. Soaking temperature of 700 C represents the transition point, below which paddy absorbs water at a slow rate and above which the rate increases sharply and progressively. Depending on paddy variety, optimal soaking time varies between 7.5 & 9.5 hours for a soaking temperature of 500 C, from 5 to 6 hrs for a soaking temperature of 600 C and from 2.75 to 4 hours for a soaking temperature of 700 C. Energy Saving Opportunity: The hot water after soaking may be wasted as a drain that represents enthalpy loss. Steaming: After soaking the paddy, water is drained out through discharge drain. Hot & soaked paddy is steamed in the same handies for 15-20 minutes. In some rice mills (especially mills catering to export market), small handies are specially installed for this purpose below the main handies. Soaked paddy is normally parboiled either by open steaming or under pressure. The moisture content in grains is 28-31 % after completion of soaking. But on open steaming, moisture content increases by 2-5 % depending on the duration and severity of steaming, whereas in closed heating, moisture content at the close of parboiling is less. Temperature of parboiling is 70-1000 C for closed heating, 110-1200 C for autoclaved heating and 1000 C for open steaming.

Parboiling process is now complete and paddy is ready for discharge to the dryer. Though parboiling heals all pre-existing defects in kernel to resist breakage, mild to normally parboiled paddy requires appropriate drying conditions. Whiteness of parboiled rice is reduced while increasing drying temperature of parboiled paddy. E. g., for parboiled paddy dried at 90 0 C, whiteness for milled rice is 7.21 while that dried at 500 C, whiteness is 8.64. Among different drying methods, influence of shade drying on parboiled rice quality is least. Retention of parboiled paddy in hot condition decreases its palatability and adversely downgrades quality But in case of pressure parboiled rice, mechanical drying even under adverse conditions (dried at 110 0 C for 30 minutes, followed by 800 C for 30 minutes and tempered for 8 hrs before milling) is permissible due to completion of gelatinization during parboiling. Again, palatability of cooked kernels of hot-air dried samples is poorer than that of shade or sun-dried samples. DRYING: A typical graph of drying cycle is as shown below:
Average Dryer Temp Cycle

At 50

1

Dryer Air Temp, deg C

60 - 50

1

85 - 60

3

110 - 85

5

0

1

2

3 Hrs

4

5

6

One of the most important aspects of paddy processing is controlled drying so as to achieve uniform moisture level in order to minimize milling losses. Rapid drying with hot air leads to heavy breakage during milling as the damage to milling quality starts at 15% moisture level of paddy and increases sharply with further drying. So, most convenient way of drying lightly parboiled paddy would be to dry in two passes with tempering in moisture range of 15-19%, followed by conditioning after final drying. Tempering also increases drying rate, so that in-dryer drying time can be reduced. Tempering below critical moisture level is advantageous only if it is

done at elevated temperatures but not at room temperature. For example, with a drying air temperature of 800 C and dried to a moisture content of 14 %, minimum breakage of 0.9% on milling will occur if the paddy, during drying, is conditioned at 500 C. Again, with a drying air temperature of 60 0C and dried to a moisture content of 13.5 %, minimum breakage of 0.6 % on milling will occur if paddy, during drying, is conditioned at 500 C. In both cases, however, a reduction in mentioned moisture content will require paddy to be conditioned at a higher temperature (not above the drying temp) to achieve minimum breakage on milling. Energy Saving Opportunity#1: The dryer blowers should be studied & efficiency of the system established & depending upon the site conditions, best remedial action needs to be evaluated. Energy Saving Opportunity#2: The condensate from the dryers could well be flashing away which represents heat loss that is recoverable. Dried Paddy is then taken to de-stoner & pre-cleaner for separating out any foreign material, dust, dirt, etc. Associated with the pre-cleaner & de-husker are their individual blowers that blow away the foreign matter. Energy Saving Opportunity: The system efficiency of the de-husker & pre-cleaner blowers should be studied & depending upon the site conditions, best remedial action needs to be evaluated. Clean paddy is then taken to de-huskers where milling of paddy is done. Here, husk is removed by blowing compressed air. After de-husking, dust & husk are separated out and screening of rice (using magnetic separators) is done to separate out brown rice and other varieties of rice. Major % of brown rice is again sent for screening and small % is directly sent in brown rice graders (depending upon order booking & demand). To separate the powder that is generated at the time of de-husking, there is a powder blower. Powder blower is associated with a cyclone that operates on the principle of density difference. The cyclone drains off the powder & the air is vented away by the blower through a silencer. Energy Saving Opportunity: The efficiency of the powder blower should be studied & depending upon the site conditions, best remedial action needs to be evaluated. Also there may be a huge pressure drop across the silencer & system modification may be required to avoid the same.

After screening, brown rice is taken to polishers, where yellow covering over the rice grain, which is also called Rice Bran, is removed mechanically by grinders. The rice bran is separated, packed in bags and sold off to solvent extraction plants. Energy Saving opportunity: The compressed air Polished (white) rice is sent to graders where grading of rice is done, depending on grain size. After final screening and quality checks, rice is packed in bags and dispatched. Energy Saving Opportunity: The polishers are big rated motors. A motor load survey should be carried out. Also associated with these polishers are their blowers whose system efficiency can be analyzed.

POLLUTION CONTROL
THERE IS NO MAJOR POLLUTION PROBLEM ASSOCIATED WITH THIS INDUSTRY EXCEPT FOR DISPOSAL OF WASTE WHICH SHOULD BE MANAGED APPROPRIATELY. THE ENTREPRENEURS ARE HAVING "NO OBJECTION CERTIFICATE" FROM THE STATE POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD.

ENERGY CONSERVATION
ONLY ELECTRICITY IS USED AS A SOURCE OF ENERGY.

PROBLEMS FACED IN GENERAL
IT IS ESTIMATED ABOUT 10 PERCENT OF PADDY/RICE IS DAMAGED AND/OR LOST IN PROCESSING, STORAGE AND TRANSPORT WITH THE PRESENT METHODS AND MACHINERY. SIXTY TO EIGHTY PERCENT HEAD YIELD IS OBTAINED WITH 10-25 BROKEN AND ADMIXTURE OF BRAN AND HUSK WHEREAS WITH MODERN TECHNIQUES, 68-72 PERCENT HEAD RICE WITH 5-7 PERCENT BROKEN AND BETTER UTILIZABLE BY-PRODUCTS.

Process flow vis-à-vis Areas Studied
Paddy procurement Paddy cleaning Paddy cleaner system efficiency study Hot water being drained out can be used for waste Paddy steaming
Cond en from sate dr flashi yer ng aw ay. Can b e captu re HP V d in a essel

heat recovery water waste heat

Paddy soaking

Paddy drying

recovery Dryer Blowers system efficiency study Pre-cleaner blower system

Paddy pre-cleaning
De-stoner blower system eff iciency study

efficiency study

Paddy de-stoning

Paddy de-husking
Powder blo w silencer pr er drop & efficiency study

Powder & Bran removal

Compressed air & motor load survey

Polishing Compressed air system

Grading & Sorting ANNEXURE

OBSERVATIONS

Packing & dispatch

INPUT OF PER 60 KG OF RAW PADDY GIVES OUTPUT OF 40 KG OF PUFFED RICE, BRAN 4.5 KG, BROKEN 3 KG [ SIZER/GRADER(COSTLY)], HUSK 12.5 KG ( HUSK CAN BE USED AS FUEL). WAREHOUSE HAS A CAPACITY OF 40000 BAGS EACH OF 60 KG. LABOUR USED ARE 200 APPROXIMATELY IN NUMBER. UNLOADING RAW MATERIAL AND CLEANING REQUIRES 60 LABOURS. LOADING AND PARBOILING SECTION HAS 6 OWN STAFFS. IT REQUIRES 60 LABOURS. MILLING SECTION NEEDS 21 LABOURS IN THREE SHIFTS, WORKING 8 HOURS PER DAY. THEY MAY WORK OVERTIME. 4 STAFFS WORK IN EACH SHIFT 12 HOURS A DAY IN BOILER SECTION. 3 STAFFS IN EACH SHIFT WORK 8 HOURS A DAY IN DRYER SECTION. WORKING STAFF CONSISTS OF 20 MEMBERS. IN CASE OF NATURAL DRYING IN CONCRETE FIELD, 2 STAFFS ARE APPOINTED AND MORE THAN 120 LABOURS ARE EMPLOYED, DRYING IN CONCRETE FIELD IS A PROCES OF NATURAL DRYING. IT GIVES A SUPERIOR QUALITY OF RICE BUT INVOLVES MORE COST AS IT REQUIRES MANY LABOURS. IF DRYING IS DONE IN CLOSED DRYER, IT WILL BE COST EFFECTIVE. THE MILL OWNERS AND THE MANAGERS WERE NOT OPEN IN PROVIDING INFORMATION ON PURCHASE AND SALE PRICES AND OR OTHER RELEVANT DATA.

SUMMARY OF OUTPUTS OF THE STUDY VISIT 1. THE GROUP MEMBERS EXPRESSED SATISFACTION ON THE OPPORTUNITY PROVIDED TO VISIT THE RICE MILL. 2. FIELD REALITY ON OPERATION AND FUNCTIONAL MILL OF HUGE CAPACITY WAS FIRST OF ITS KIND FOR ALL THE GROUP MEMBERS. 3. FAIRLY A GOOD IDEA RECEIVED IN THE COLLECTION, MILLING AND MARKETING OF RICE 4. CONTACT POINTS FOR BUSINESS WAS UNDERSTOOD 5. GROSS EXPENDITURES REQUIRED FOR RUNNING A MILL WAS VISUALIZED 7. ROLE OF MIDDLE MAN IN RICE TRADING WAS NOTE TO BE IMPORTANT TO EXPAND THE RICE BUSINESS WAS UNDERSTOOD. 8. RICE AS CASH GENERATING CROP WAS YET ANOTHER KNOWLEDGE GAINED BY THE GROUP 9. BESIDES, FIELD WITH PRODUCTION OF PUFFED RICE AT THE TIME OF THE VISIT WAS ENCOURAGING. 10. THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY IS WELL ACHIEVED

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