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‘Bullying among children can be considered as a form of abuse’ (Dawkins, 1995). ! has been "u! forward !ha! bullying is a di#ision of aggressi#e beha#iour and has been fur!her charac!eri$ed as re"e!i!i#e and ‘an inabili!y on behalf of !he #ic!im !o defend him or herself’ (%arring!on ,199&, ci!ed i! 'a"ouna, ())*). +e learn from 'a"ouna (())*) !ha! bullying can !ake !he form of ‘#erbal (name calling), "hysical (hi!!ing, kicking) or rela!ional (delibera!e e,clusion from a grou", s"reading of malicious rumours).’ n defining bullying -ikes (19*9, ci!ed in .oo#er, /li#er 0 .a$ler,199() in!roduces !he idea of ‘mobbing’ . 1his refers !o ‘si!ua!ions where #ic!ims are chronically abused by se#eral "eers’ (-ikes,19*9, ci!ed in .oo#er e! al.,199(). 1herefore, bullying and mobbing can be !hough! of a cons!rain! of aggression and #iolence (/lweus, 192*, ci!ed in .oo#er e! al.,199(). 3f!er e,!ensi#e research in 'candina#ia, /lweus (199&, ci!ed in 4um"ulainen e! al.,199*) "ro"osed !ha! bullying can be carried ou! by one or more adolescen!s and usually occurs on re"ea!ed occasions, and !o some e,!en!, i! occurs in all schools. 5ecen!ly bullying amongs! young "eo"le has gain no!orie!y in !he "ress due !o !he e,!reme resul!s i! has had on cer!ain young indi#iduals. 3n e,am"le of !his is 'ian 6a!es, a 1& year old girl who commi!!ed suicide af!er re"ea!ed bullying (Daily 7ail, ())2). Des"i!e !he "ress a!!en!ion gi#en !o !hese cases, !he e,!reme conse8uence of suicide does no! occur in !he ma9ori!y of cases. :ic!ims can suffer from a range of harmful effec!s such as humilia!ion (;ro$ier and 'klio"idou, ())(), an,ie!y, de"ression (Bond e! al., ())1, ci!ed in Black and <ackson, ())2), difficul!y wi!h in!er"ersonal rela!ionshi"s (4um"ulainen e! al., 199*) and emo!ional ins!abili!y (<anson and .a$ler, ())=, ci!ed in Black and <ackson, ())2). 1his lead !o !he finding of 4um"ulainen e! al., (199* ) !ha! ‘bullying is a common "henomenon among children who are "sychologically dis!urbed.’ 1he wri!er wen! on !o say !ha! !here are ‘higher ra!es of "sychological dis!ress among bo!h bullies and #ic!ims’ !han !hose no! in#ol#e. .owe#er, !he li!era!ure is consis!en! in no!ing !ha! !he ‘bullied #ic!ims are !he mos! !roubled of !he bully, #ic!im, bully >#ic!im !riad’ (<u#onen e! al., ())&? 7a, ())1? -ellegrini, ())(? -ellegrini e! al., 1999? 'almi#alli 0 @ieminen, ())(, ci!ed in ;unningham, ())2). 'hould !his leads agencies !o focus more on !he "ro!ec!ing !he #ic!im A 'ome schools ha#e decided !ha! !he way forward is !o ha#e $ero !olerance "olicies. 1his may include e,clude all s!uden! who bully. .owe#er, if cer!ain researcher’s numbers are correc! i! could mean e,cluding from school, for!y "ercen! of !he school aged "o"ula!ion. Bi#en !he wides"read na!ure of !he "roblem can $ero !olerance really mean, C$ero !oleranceDA
(1999. ci!ed in 7arsh. 'u!!on e! al. 1his #iew is no! shared by all.ra#en. n !he search for a "ersonali!y cons!ruc!.. ())=). . 0 %inger.rick and Dodge (199=. recidi#is! crime’.!ensi#e body of li!era!ure !ha! sugges!s !ha! boys are more likely !han girls !o be bullies as well as #ic!ims (@ansel e! al. and 'imon (1999..’ +hi!ney and 'mi!h. ())=) sugges!ed !ha! ‘al!hough bullying is an aggressi#e ac!. bullyG#ic!ims. 1hese !rai!s were also found by 'ourander. an. en#ironmen! where !hey are re8uire !o ‘nego!ia!e and a!!ribu!e men!al s!a!es !o !hemsel#es and o!hers !o e. 1his being !he case. anger.' ‘websi!e !eens for heal!h’ (())*) !ha! ‘anyone can be singled ou! by bullies. ())1? Boul!on 0 'mi!h. ci!ed in 7arsh e! al. !his does no! im"ly !ha! bullies and aggressi#e or conduc!Gdisordered indi#iduals are a homogenous grou". ci!ed in 7arsh e! al. ())=).. Is"elage. ())=). 3re criminal con#ec!ions la!er in life a fair "unishmen! for !heir ac!ions A /r should some!hing be done !o hel" !he bullyA 1his leads !o !he 8ues!ion as wha! is !he na!ure of !hese young "eo"le !ha! make !hem "rone !o being a #ic!im or a bully. ())=) when ‘a sam"le of adolescen! high school s!uden!s showed !ha! misconduc!.. 199* ) found !ha! girls as well as boys fi!!ed in!o !he ‘fi#e main grou"s of "eo"le in#ol#ed in bullying’.elenius and -iha (()))) !o ha#e clinical im"lica!ions. 1hese are F ‘domina!ing bullies. . ())=). and beliefs su""or!i#e of #iolence were significan!ly rela!ed !o bullying beha#iors’.els!elH. 199*) found ‘bullies !o be more "rone !o ha#e criminal con#ic!ions la!er in life. ci!ed in 7arsh. 'u!!on e! al (1999. found !ha! &1 "er cen! of children had been bullied a! some "oin! (1eens for heal!h. '!e"henson and 'mi!h (19*9.’ 1his idea con!ra#enes !he no!ion !ha! ‘bullies are cogni!i#ely ine"! or sim"le in !heir in!erac!ions wi!h "eers’ ('u!!on e! al 1999. 1he work of . 'ourander e! al. ‘1he bully is s!ronger !hrough social s!a!us. age.. ci!ed in 7arsh e! al. ())*).+e learn from !he @.199(. 1his was also seen !o be !he case in Boswor!h. -arada.. classical #ic!ims. ())=) "u! forward !ha! bullies were "ar! of a com"le. ())=) e. ci!ed in 4um"ulainen e! al.. 2 . 1his doesn’! mean girls canno! be bullies. and more likely !o be in#ol#ed in serious. "hysical "rowess. cogni!i#e abili!ies or skill.(()))) no!ed !ha! ‘Bullying is es"ecially associa!ed wi!h aggressi#e and an!isocial beha#iour while #ic!imi$a!ion is associa!ed wi!h in!ernali$ing "roblems. ci!ed in 4um"ulainen e! al. and "ro#oca!i#e #ic!ims. many researchers ha#e come !o !he agreemen! !ha! ‘bullies are deficien! in social informa!ion "rocessing or may be in!ellec!ually disad#an!aged’ (Besag.’ s !his imbalance of "ower !he same across !he genders A 1here is an e. 1his ‘cogni!i#e fil!er’ is based on an aggressi#e indi#idual ‘ in!er"re!ing neu!ral or ambiguous cues as hos!ile and !herefore. making !hem more likely !o engage in aggressi#e beha#iors’ (7arsh e! al.."lain or "redic! !heir beha#iour.’. 19*9."lained !ha! bullies res"onses !o social si!ua!ions are being me! wi!h a fil!ra!ion "rocess. can anyone be bullied. 199=? Boul!on 0 Enderwood. ci!ed in 7arsh. (19*9. Black and <ackson (())2) ha#e "u! forward !ha! !here lies and ‘an imbalance of "ower’ be!ween !he "ar!ies in#ol#ed in bullying.’ 1he @'-.ious bullies. .. ci!ed in 7arsh.
! has been recognised by !he DfI' in !he E4 as a growing area of bullying due !o !he "re#alen! access of !echnology !o young "eo"le (DfI'. 1his has been described by 'mi!h e! al. ())2).. ())2).! messages or emails ‘once in a while’ or more. re"ea!edly and o#er !ime agains! a #ic!im who canno! easily defend him or herself’. in!en!ional ac! carried ou! by a grou" or indi#idual... (())=) !ha! ‘being a #ic!im has as much !o do wi!h !he social milieu in which !he s!uden!s find !hemsel#es as i! does !o !heir "ersonal charac!eris!ics’. o!her forms of !radi!ional bullying are decreasing in !he E4 ('mi!h e! al.. 1991). 199J. i! can be seen from 7arsh e! al.))) "u"ils by @ore! and 5i#ers (())J. Due !o !he sensi!i#e na!ure of !he issues. using elec!ronic forms of con!ac!. A possible solution ? 3 . ())=). ci!ed in 7arsh e! al. social s!ruc!ures such as schools. Bullies !end !o be "hysically s!ronger !han !heir #ic!ims. (())2) as ‘an aggressi#e. Bullying in the 21st Century n recen! years. 3n!i bullying cam"aigns in !he E4 ha#e no! solely encouraged !eenagers !o s!o" general bullying and con!inue wi!h cyber bullying. n E4 a s!udy of 11. ! has been found !ha! !he only "hysical charac!eris!ic associa!ed wi!h #ic!imi$a!ion is "hysical s!reng!h (/lweus. 1his had increased from 5. 1his may be a reason why boys !end !o bully more !ha! girls and !he ra!e of bully decrease wi!h age.). /r is i! !he inheren! na!ure of !he bully and #ic!im !o !ake !heir roles in !he new #ir!ual en#ironmen!. 3n indica!ion of !his grow!h is found in 1he 7obile Kife 5e"or! (())J) where 91L of 1(GyearGolds in !he E4 ha#e a mobile "hone.. 3"ar! from !his si!ua!ion.( "er cen! in ())(. cyber bullying would also decrease. ci!ed in 7arsh e! al. . if !his was !he case.owe#er. 1992. n direc! con!ras! !o !he rise in cyber bullying. how a bully reac!s !oward a "erson is indi#idual and se! in com"le.) "er cen! had recei#ed nas!y or !hrea!ening !e. religion or gender (/lweus. research has no! focused on !he social as"ec!s in rela!ion !o !he "ersonali!y !y"e !o de!ermine why cer!ain indi#iduals ge! bullied and o!hers don’!. (5igby. ())(). cyber bullying has become more "re#alen!. ())=). 1his may sugges! !ha! !his dro" is due !o !he im"ac! of high "rofile an!iGbullying cam"aigns. ci!ed in 3B3 %ac!shee!..owe#er. s i! because !his kind of !echnological bullying can be carried ou! wi!hou! !he need for direc! con!ac!. ())J) found !ha! 2. 1his increase in mobile "hone ownershi" may ha#e led !o !he s!eady increase in !he ra!e of cyber bullying ('mi!h e! al.1he idea !ha! !here are cer!ain "ersonali!y charac!eris!ics and !y"ical reac!ion "a!!erns !ha! leads a "erson !o be in#ol#ed in bullying challenges !he common ideas !ha! bullying is a resul! of "hysical cons!rain!s such as class si$e or race. .
1he /lweus Bullying -resen!a!ions -rogram (B--) is !he mos! widely used "rogram in !he E'3 and !he one recommended by !he De"ar!men! of . s!uden!s.1his commi!!ees organisers and runs !he core a""ara!us of !he "rogramme. !eachers. 1his key !o !he success of !he "rogram is !he ‘needs assessmen! sur#ey‘ (Black and <ohnson. a working sys!em of "osi!i#e and nega!i#e conse8uences and indi#idual in!er#en!ions’ (Black and <ackson. im"ro#ing su"er#ision. ())2).an "rograms like !he B-. ci!ed in Black and <ackson. a bullying awareness day.oordina!ing .really hel" in sol#ing !he "roblem of bullying or is i! be!!er !o ha#e a $ero !olerance a""roach A 4 .uman 'er#ices . ())2).1he gra#e ou!comes of bullying ha#e lead !o a number of cam"aigns and s!ra!egies being de#elo"ed. 5esearch from Black and <ohnson. (())2) e#alua!ed !he ac!ual success of !he B-and found !ha! !here were huge #ariances in how a school im"lemen!ed !he "rogram. 199&. ())2).eal!h and . 1his is re"ea!ed each year !o de!ermine !he success of !he "rogram.'3 model "rogram %ac!shee!. !hese are ‘rules agains! bullying.())2) a! !he beginning of !he "rogram. 1he B-relies hea#ily on all !eachers !aking an ac!i#e role and in some cases i! changes !heir #iew on how !o deal wi!h bullying. "aren!s..is ‘one of !he few e#idenceGbased bullying "re#en!ion "rogrammes for schools’ (/lweus.ommi!!ee com"osed of adminis!ra!ors. . 1he B-.’ ('37. ‘1heir effor!s are direc!ed !oward im"ro#ing "eer rela!ions and making !he school a safe and "osi!i#e "lace for s!uden!s !o learn and de#elo". and !he "rogram’s onsi!e coordina!or’ (Black and <ackson. "aren! in#ol#emen!. class councils. ‘1he firs! s!e" is es!ablishing a Bullying -re#en!ion . ())2).
References 5 .
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