Camden
UX
Research:

 Eye
tracking

March
2010
 

Table
of
content
 
 Suppliers
table
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 2
 3
 4
 5
 5
 5
 6
 6
 7
 8
 9



Alternative
platforms
/
technologies
 Articles
on
eye
tracking
 A.
Cost
of
eye
tracking
 
 
 
 


B.

2
ways
of
using
eye
tracking
for
web
usability
 
 C.

Should
you
use
eye
tracking?
 
 
 
 
 
 


D.

What
value
does
eye
tracking
provide?

 E.
Barriers
to
eye
tracking
 
 
 


F.

Why
some
companies
avoid
eye
tracking?


G.

Why
some
companies
are
motivated
to
use
eye
tracking?


H.

Problems
encountered
by
those
who
opted
to
use
complete
 
 eye
tracking
solution

 I.
Clicktale

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


9
 10
 10
 11


J.
Eye
tracking
Vs.
Mouse
Tracking
 


K.
Improvement
of
eye
tracking
over
the
years


L.
Eye
tracking
advantages
Vs.
the
‘Think
Aloud’
(TA)
usability

 
 testing
method




 
 
 1


User
Experience
Research:
Eye
tracking

Suppliers



No.
 1.
 2.
 3.
 4.
 5.
 6.

 7.
 8.
 9.
 10.
 11.
 12.
 13.
 Supplier
 We
are
London
 Tobii
 CS
Partners
(uses
Tobii
equipment)
 Etre

 Think
Eyetracking
(a
Bunnyfoot
company)
 ‐
small
and
specific
projects
 SimpleUsability
 Eye
tracker
 Webcredible
 User
Vision
 Mirametrix
 Vision
One
(uses
Tobii)

i‐Vision
 Web
Usability
Partnership
(WUP)


 openEyes
–
open‐source
open‐hardward
toolkit
for
 low‐cost
real‐time
eye
tracking
 Type
 3rd
party
services
 Complete
studio
 solution
 
 3rd
party
services
 3rd
party
services
 3rd
party
services
–
 starting
from
 £1500
 3rd
party
services
 3rd
party
services
 3rd
party
services
 3rd
party
services
 Complete
solution
 3rd
party
services
 3rd
party
services
 Complete
solution



 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


 2



Alternative
platforms
/
technologies

No.
 1.

 Product
 Clicktale
 Summary
 Independent
research
shows
that
there
is
an
 84%
to
88%
correlation
between
mouse
and
eye
 movements*,
allowing
Clicktale
to
create
high‐ precision
heatmaps
based
on
just
the
users’
 mouse
movements.
 
 In
addition,
their
heatmaps
don’t
require
the
 subjects
to
wear
a
special
headset
or
use
special
 equipment.
Indeed,
most
visitors
aren’t
even
 aware
they’re
being
recorded,
allowing
for
a
 completely
transparent
and
anonymous
usability
 testing
process.
 Gives
heatmaps
of
clicks
on
a
site
 Simulates
your
foveal
vision
 Replays
an
entire
user
session
as
if
you
were
 watching
over
their
shoulder.
 "Eye
Tracking
Without
the
Eyes"
‐
 AttentionWizard
uses
advanced
artificial
 intelligence
algorithms
to
simulate
human
visual
 processing
and
attention.
This
software
instantly
 creates
an
"attention
heatmap"
of
your
Web
page
 that
predicts
where
someone
would
look
during
 the
first
few
seconds
of
their
visit.


2.
 3.
 4.
 5.


Crazy
Egg
 Scrutinizer
 Robot
Replay
 Attention
Wizard



 
 
 


 
 
 
 
 
 


 3


Articles
on
Eye
tracking
 

No.

 Article
 1.
 Eye
tracking
‐
A
short‐sighted
future?
 
 2.
 Eye‐tracking
Proves
Real‐Time
Search
Not
 Useful
 
 3.
 Eye
tracking:
Eye
candy
vs.
I
can
do
 4.
 Is
Eye
Tracking
Out
of
Reach?
 5.
 Date
 Reviews
 th
Dec
09
 
 8 10th
 March
10
 June
2007
 April
 2008
 March
 2008
 June
2006
 Dec
2009
 March
 2010
 Negative
 Mixed

 Mixed
 Negative
 Negative
 Negative
 Positive


What
Adaptive
Path
Thinks
When
It
Thinks
 About
Eyetracking
 6.
 Eyetracking:
Worth
The
Expense?
 7.
 The
Cost
of
Eye
Tracking
 8.

 Eye
Tracking:
Best
Way
to
Test
Rich
App
 Usability
 http://www.uxmag.com/technology/eye‐ tracking‐the‐best‐way‐to‐test‐rich‐app‐usability
 
 9.
 Eyetracking:
Is
It
Worth
It?
 October
 2009
 10.
 Eyetracking
Studies
—
7
Traps
to
Avoid
 Dec
2009
 11.
 Mouse
Tracking
vs.
Eye
Tracking
 Feb
2010


Mixed
 Info
 Mixed



 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


 4


A. Cost
of
eye
tracking
 a. A
new
eye
tracking
system
is
£30,000
to
£40,000.
 b. Rental
prices
can
be
up
to
£2000
per
day.
 c. Cost
of
hiring
people
to
carry
out
eye
tracking
for
you
starts
from
 £1500
depending
on
research
/
study
requirements.
 B. 2
Ways
of
using
eye
tracking
for
web
usability
 a. Whole
setup/solution
(Complete
solution)
 b. Hire
a
company
that
already
has
the
equipment,
and
specialized
in
 using
and
providing
you
a
report.
(3rd
party
services)
 
 C. Should
you
use
eye
tracking
in
your
usability
studies
according
to
 Nielsen
Norman
Group?

 
 a. For
average
companies
 
 ‐ Probably
not.
The
average
company
does
so
little
usability
that
 it
is
better
served
by
sticking
to
simpler
(and
much
cheaper)
 usability
methods,
such
as
thinking
aloud
and
paper
 prototyping
(see
 http://www.nngroup.com/reports/prototyping).

 
 
 b. When
to
use
eye
tracking
in
your
usability
studies?
 ‐ Only
after
you’ve
conducted
about
a
hundred
rounds
of
regular
 usability
testing
do
you
reach
the
stage
of
insight
where
you
 need
to
dig
even
deeper
and
pay
closer
attention
to
those
 details
that
are
only
revealed
through
eyetracking.

 All
the
big
things—like
people
getting
lost
on
your
site,
not
 understanding
the
content,
or
not
even
understanding
your
 value
proposition
in
the
first
place—can
be
found
without
 eyetracking,
and
that’s
where
you
should
focus
first,
if
you’re
 only
going
to
run
a
couple
of
rounds
of
user
research.




 ‐


 
 c. Why
methodology
is
crucial
in
eye
tracking
usability
testing
 ‐ Some
companies
do
have
a
full‐fledged
usability
process
in
 place
and
conduct
large
numbers
of
usability
studies.
For
such
 companies,
eye
tracking
can
become
a
valuable
component
of
 the
usability
toolkit,
if
it’s
used
correctly.
Sadly,
most
eye
 tracking
studies
are
done
wrong,
which
is
why
we
decided
to
 publish
this
report
to
help
you
gain
more
value
from
eye
 tracking
by
employing
valid
methodology.




 
 
 
 


5


d. Practicalities
 ‐ To
produce
meaningful
heat
maps
or
gaze
plots
requires
large
 sample
sizes
‘
Nielsen
Norman
Group
(2006)
argue
at
least
30
 testers
are
needed
to
produce
meaningful
heat
maps;
these
 large
sample
sizes
then
generate
loads
of
data
and
a
lot
of
post
 session
analysis.
Larger
sample
sizes
and
extensive
data
 analysis
both
have
implications
in
the
commercial
environment
 on
speed
of
turnaround
of
a
project
and
the
project
cost.


D. What
Value
Does
Eye
tracking
Provide?
 Helping
to
Identify
Usability
Problems
 “We
should
not
use
eye
tracking
data
alone,
but
in
conjunction
with
careful
 observation
of
participant
behavior
and
discussion.”
 Eye
tracking
provides
additional
information
to
help
you
find
and
interpret
 design
and
usability
problems.
It
is
important
to
note
that
we
should
not
use
 eye
tracking
data
alone,
but
in
conjunction
with
careful
observation
of
 participant
behavior
and
discussion.
Within
this
context,
seeing
where
 participants
looked
during
a
task
provides
additional
insights
into
what
they
 were
doing
and
why.
 Knowing
where
participants
looked
during
a
task
is
especially
helpful
in
 answering
certain
types
of
questions.
For
example,
eye
tracking
data
can
help
 you
determine
the
following:
 ‐ ‐ ‐ why
participants
had
problems
performing
a
task
 where
participants
expected
to
find
certain
elements
 whether
participants
noticed
a
particular
element—such
as
a
 link,
button,
advertising,
or
something
new
added
to
a
user
 interface
 whether
elements
are
distracting
in
a
negative
way
 how
efficiently
a
design
guides
participants
through
a
task
 whether
there
are
differences
in
task
performance
by
user
 group—for
example,
between
new
users
and
experienced
 users
 which
content
participants
read—including
articles,
 instructions,
contextual
Help,
and
error
messages
 how
participants
read—in
detail
or
by
scanning
 whether
a
particular
design
is
more
effective
than
another—in
 terms
of
user
or
business
goals


‐ ‐ ‐

‐ ‐ ‐ 
 
 


6


E. Barriers
to
Eye
tracking
 1. Cost
 2. Lack
of
knowledge
 a. lack
of
expertise
in
using
an
eye
tracker
and

 b. lack
of
understanding
of
the
benefits.
 3. Interpreting
eye
tracking
data.

 A
number
of
commentators
(e.g.
Spool,
2006,
Graphpaper.com
2006)
 have
questioned
the
value
of
eye
tracking,
partly
because
of
the
 practicalities
but
also
because
the
results
can
be
misinterpreted:
 a. Eye
tracking
can
show
us
where
someone
was
looking
on
a
 screen,
but
it
can’t
tell
us
what
they
were
seeing
or
thinking
 whilst
looking
at
it
‘
did
they
register
what
they
were
 looking
at,
did
they
understand
it?
And
if
the
tester
did
not
 look
at
something
directly,
did
they
see
it
with
their
 peripheral
vision?
 b. Does
a
long
fixation
mean
that
someone
is
looking
at
 something
because
it
is
interesting
to
them,
or
because
it’s
 very
confusing
and
they’re
having
to
spend
time
making
 sense
of
it?
 c. Does
a
busy
gaze
plot
tell
us
that
there
are
lots
of
 interesting
things
to
look
at
on
a
page,
or
that
a
user
is
 confused
about
where
to
go
to
achieve
their
goals?
 F. Why
some
companies
avoid
using
eye
tracking
technology
 i. Lack
of
availability
of
it
and
familiarity
with
it
as
a
research
tool.




ii. Find
it
difficult
to
interpret
the
data.
The
colorful
heatmaps
are
 cool
(or
warm?)
to
look
at,
but
what
are
they
actually
telling
you?
 When
someone
is
gazing
at
something,
is
it
because
they
want
to
 look
there?
Or
because
the
page
made
them
look
there?
Or
because
 they
are
resting
their
eyes
there?
 iii. It’s
not
really
worth
the
expense
except
in
very
specific
situations.
 iv. Not
every
participant
can
work
with
an
eye
tracker.
 v. They
reduce
the
amount
of
time
you
actually
collect
data
from
 your
users.
Getting
a
participant
set
up
and
calibrated
with
the
 device
can
take
time
away
from
learning
about
your
design.
The
 most
valuable
piece
of
any
usability
test
is
the
time
the
participant
 is
interacting
with
your
design,
not
setting
up
the
measurement
 equipment.
What’s
worse
is
many
devices
lose
calibration
quickly,
 forcing
the
test
to
stop
and
the
participant
to
spend
more
time
 futzing
with
recalibrating.
This
tool
time
is
distracting
and
not
 adding
to
the
session’s
value.
 
 7


G.
Why
some
companies
are
motivated
to
use
eye
tracking
 i. Eye
tracking
can
useful
in
specific
type
of
research
like
determining
 whether
text
is
more
important
than
images
on
a
page.
Eye
tracking
 helped
to
figure
out
that
text
was
still
more
important
to
them
than
a
still
 image.



ii. It
gives
you
statistics
and
cool
images
of
sight
paths
therefore
providing
 evidence.
 iii. Eye
tracking
is
helpful
when
you
need
to
know
something
extremely
 tactical
at
a
very
precise
level
of
detail.
 iv. Identify
where
the
hotspots
–
based
on
eye
fixations
–
are
on
your
 web
pages.
Where
are
the
majority
of
users
focusing
their
attention?

 v. Identify
and
Determine
sections
of
the
web
page
that
users
are
 ignoring.
You
will
be
able
to
determine
what
sections
of
your
pages
users
 may
be
overlooking.
As
a
result
you
can
design
your
site
layout
to
be
more
 attractive
to
the
user.

 vi. Identify
Banner
Blindness.
Are
users
ignoring
banners
or
more
 importantly
other
ads
on
your
site
pages?
Eye
tracking
can
provide
the
 answers.

 vii. Identify
Navigation
Issues.
You
can
use
eye
tracking
to
see
exactly
how
 the
users
are
navigating
your
site.
Why
is
your
internal
site
search
being
 ignored?
Are
the
users
clicking
on
text
links
or
image
links?
Eye
tracking
 can
help
you
develop
site‐wide
navigation
strategies
to
create
a
richer
 experience
for
your
site
visitors.

 viii. Improve
Site
Stickiness.
By
using
eye
tracking,
you
can
identify
 the
areas
of
your
web
page
and/or
site
that
the
users
are
actively
 engaging
with.
From
here
you
can
improve
the
site
experience
by
 designing
the
site
to
include
similar
elements
throughout.

 ix. Improve
Content.
From
an
SEO
and
search
marketing
point
of
view,
we
 all
understand
the
importance
of
content
on
your
site.
Using
eye
tracking
 as
part
of
your
website
design
can
allow
you
to
identify
types
of
content
 that
your
users
are
interested
in.
Present
your
content
in
a
manner
that
 users
will
appreciate.
Maybe
this
means
using
bullet
lists
over
 paragraphs.
Eye
tracking
can
provide
insight
into
the
type
of
content
that
 you
display
on
your
web
pages.

 x. Identify
the
need
for
a
Site
Redesign.
Using
eye
tracking
can
help
 identify
whether
you
need
to
redesign
your
site
or
whether
you
just
need
 to
make
a
few
minor
changes.
This
can
save
you
thousands
of
dollars
in
 redesign
costs
and
allows
you
to
focus
efforts
on
areas
of
the
site
that
 require
the
most
attention.
 
 
 
 
 8


H.
Problems
encountered
by
those
who
opted
to
use
eye
tracking
complete
 solution
 i. Spent
a
lot
of
money
and
time
getting
it
to
work.



ii. The
systems
are
horribly
complex
and
unreliable.
 iii. There’s
a
great
deal
of
overhead
and
it’s
difficult
to
make
this
a
flexible,
 nimble
process.
 iv. Participants
often
would
acquire
the
scroll
bar
without
looking
at
it.
They’d
 move
their
mouse
over
to
the
right
edge
of
the
screen
and
start
scrolling,
 but
their
gaze
wouldn’t
leave
the
center
of
display.
It
seemed
they
were
 using
their
peripheral
vision
to
acquire
and
use
the
scroll
bar.
 v. Participants
would
orally
tell
us
they
couldn’t
see
something
their
gaze
was
 focused
on.
(Women
in
my
life
have
referred
to
this
as
“Male
Refrigerator
 Blindness”
—
the
inability
to
see
something
right
in
front
of
you.)
 vi. Participants
often
would
click
on
objects
they
barely
gazed
at.
They’d
focus
 their
vision
on
some
part
of
the
screen,
then
move
their
mouse
to
some
 place
else
to
actually
click.
 
 I.

Clicktale
–
the
alternative
to
eye
tracking
for
a
fraction
of
the
price
 In
November
2009,
Clicktale
launched
its
new
Mouse
move
Heatmap.
This
will
 enable
testers
to
test
thousands
of
users
for
a
fraction
of
a
dollar
each.

 Independent
research
shows
that
there
is
an
84%
to
88%
correlation
 between
mouse
and
eye
movements*,
allowing
us
to
create
high‐precision
 heatmaps
based
on
just
the
users’
mouse
movements.
In
addition,
our
heatmaps
 don’t
require
the
subjects
to
wear
a
special
headset
or
use
special
equipment.
 Indeed,
most
visitors
aren’t
even
aware
they’re
being
recorded,
allowing
for
a
 completely
transparent
and
anonymous
usability
testing
process.
 It
will
also
allow:‐
 ‐ ‐ To
keep
the
data
for
every
version
of
the
page
allowing
for
 effortless
A/B
testing
of
multiple
page
elements.
 See
which
content,
elements
and
layout
increase
conversion
 rates,
where
your
customers
look
before
they
purchase
a
 product,
and
how
many
people
miss
your
call
to
action
buttons.




 
 
 
 
 
 
 9


J.

Eye
Tracking
Vs
Mouse
Tracking
(i.e.

Clicktale)



 
 K

Improvements
of
eye
tracking
technology
over
the
years
 ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ 
 
 
 
 
 
 10
 It
is
now
quick
to
calibrate
 reliable
(people
can
look
away
from
the
screen
without
disturbing
the
 results)
 unobtrusive
(you
do
not
need
to
wear
any
special
headgear)
and
 works
with
most
people
(including
those
who
like
to
wear
lashings
of
 mascara
or
thick
specs).


L

Eye
tracking
advantages
Vs.
the
‘Think
Aloud’
(TA)
usability
testing
 method
 Eye
tracking
offers
unique
advantages
above
and
beyond
traditional
TA.
Other
 widely
known
advantages
include:
 a. A
more
relaxed
testing
environment
where
participants
give
feedback
in
 their
own
time,
and
actually
find
more
usability
errors.
 b. Executives
like
eye
tracking
because
it
produces
compelling
physiological
 data
that
can't
be
argued
with.
 c. Real
time
eye
tracking
data
also
provides
for
a
better
observation
 experience.

 In
TA,
sometimes
it
can
be
very
hard
to
see
what
a
person
is
talking
about
during
 the
test.
A
TA
proponent
and
they
suggested
that
if
the
TA
is
managed
well
it
 wouldn't
be
a
problem.
During
the
test,
they
would
have
the
test
facilitator
ask
 the
participant
to
hover
their
mouse
over
the
part
of
the
screen
they
are
 describing
so
that
the
observers
can
see
what
is
being
discussed.
This
just
means
 the
participant
gets
even
more
distracted
from
the
task
at
hand.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


11


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