# Physics Lab Observation Sheet

CHARGING AND DISCHARGING OF A CAPACITOR

2009-2010

PREPARED BY: Mr. CHARIS ISRAEL ANCHA M.Sc., (Ph.D.) Asst. Prof. of PHYSICS Mob. No: +91-9866934653

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Physics Lab Observation Sheet

CHARGING AND DISCHARGING OF A CAPACITOR

2009-2010

Exp. No: Date:

CHARGING AND DICHARGING OF A CAPACITOR

Aim: To study the Charge & Discharge of a condenser and hence determine time constant (both voltage and current graphs are to be plotted). Apparatus: DC power supply, circuit board, 3 sets of resistances, 3 sets of capacitors, digital voltmeter, milliammeter, connecting wires and stop watch. Circuit:
K ch arg ing
mA R

B

K disch arg ing

C

V

Formulae: 1) During charging, the charge, voltage and current across the capacitor increases according to the relations q = qo (1 − e − t / RC )
V = Vo (1 − e −t / RC ) and I = I o e −t / RC where qo, Vo and Io are the maximum values of charge, voltage and current across the capacitor after charging. 2) During discharging, the charge, voltage and current across the capacitor decreases according to the relations q = qo e − t / RC V = Vo e −t / RC and I = − I o e − t / RC 3) Theoretical Time Constant, t = RC sec where R is the Resistance and C is the Capacitance used in the circuit. 4) Experimental Time Constant ‘t’ is the time for which the voltage ‘V’ rises to 0.63Vo during charging and decreases to 0.39Vo during discharging (where ‘Vo’ is the maximum voltage across the capacitor after charging), it is measured from the graph drawn by taking time ‘t’ on X-axis and Voltage ‘V’ on Y-axis.

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Physics Lab Observation Sheet
Graphs:

CHARGING AND DISCHARGING OF A CAPACITOR

2009-2010

V V 1) V-t graph: Two separate Vo Vo graphs are plotted with time 0.632Vo ‘t’ on X-axis and Voltage ‘V’ on Y-axis one for Charging of 0.37Vo the Capacitor and the other for the Discharging. The graphs t t 0 are as shown in the adjacent t 0 t during Ch arg ing figures from which the time during Disch arg ing constants corresponding to the 0.63Vo and 0.37Vo for charging and discharging are to be identified. 2) I-t graph: Two separate graphs are plotted with time ‘t’ on X-axis and Current ‘I’ on Y-axis, one for Charging of the Capacitor and the other I for the Discharging. The t t 0 graphs are as shown in the Io adjacent figures from which 0.632 I o the time constants 0.37 I o I corresponding to the 0.63Io and 0.37Io for charging and Io discharging are to be t 0 t during disch arg ing identified. during Ch arg ing

Procedure: 1) Make the connections with power supply OFF as shown in the figure. 2) Choose the R and C values such that the time constant RC is large (approximately 100sec). 3) Select the applied voltage ‘B’ and the key Kcharging is closed with the key Kdischarging open. 4) Put ON the power supply and the stop watch simultaneously, now the capacitor starts charging slowly. 5) Note the Voltmeter and Ammeter readings for every 20 sec till the Voltage in the voltmeter reads a constant value for at least 5 consequent readings. 6) For the same applied voltage ‘B’, close the key Kdischarging and open the key Kcharging with simultaneously resetting the stop watch to Zero, now the capacitor starts discharging slowly. 7) Note the Voltmeter and Ammeter readings for every 20 sec till the Voltage in the voltmeter reads a constant value for at least 5 consequent readings. 8) Plot the V-t and I-t graphs separately for charging & discharging and calculate the time constant values. Observations: Resistance, R = ___________ K . Capacitance, C = ____________ µF. Theoretical Time Constant, t = RC = __________ sec.

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Physics Lab Observation Sheet
Tabular: Trail. No. 1. 2. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Time ‘t’ in sec

CHARGING AND DISCHARGING OF A CAPACITOR

2009-2010

Voltmeter Readings ‘V’ in Volt Charging Discharging

Ammeter Readings in ‘I’ mA Charging Discharging

Calculations: From V-t graph: i. ii. iii. Maximum Voltage across the capacitor, Vo = __________ V. Time Constant during Charging, t = ________ sec. Time Constant during discharging, t = ________ sec.

From I-t graph: i. Maximum Current through the capacitor, Io = __________ mA.

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Physics Lab Observation Sheet

CHARGING AND DISCHARGING OF A CAPACITOR

2009-2010

ii. iii.

Time Constant during Charging, t = ________ sec. Time Constant during discharging, t = ________ sec.

Precautions: 1) 2) 3) 4) Choose R and C values such that the time constant is large. Reading on stop watch should be taken simultaneously. Voltmeter and ammeter of suitable range must be chosen. Voltmeter of high resistance must be used to avoid leakage of charge through it.

Result:

1) The variation of Voltage, Current and Charge with time are exponential in nature. 2) Theoretical Time Constant, t = ________ sec. 3) From V-t graph: i) ii) Time Constant during Charging, t = ________ sec. Time Constant during discharging, t = ________ sec.

4) From I-t graph: i) ii) Time Constant during Charging, t = ________ sec. Time Constant during discharging, t = ________ sec.

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