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Chapter 3, Solution 1.

Resolve 90 N force into vector components P and Q where Q = ( 90 N ) sin 40° = 57.851 N Then M B = − rA/BQ

**= − (0.225 m )(57.851 N ) = −13.0165 N ⋅ m
**

M B = 13.02 N ⋅ m

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics and Dynamics, 8/e, Ferdinand P. Beer, E. Russell Johnston, Jr., Elliot R. Eisenberg, William E. Clausen, David Mazurek, Phillip J. Cornwell © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

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Chapter 3, Solution 2.

Fx = ( 90 N ) cos 25°

= 81.568 N

Fy = ( 90 N ) sin 25° = 38.036 N x = ( 0.225 m ) cos 65° = 0.095089 m

**y = (0.225 m ) sin 65°
**

= 0.20392 m

M B = xFy − yFx

= ( 0.095089 m )( 38.036 N ) − ( 0.20392 m )( 81.568 N ) = −13.0165 N ⋅ m

M B = 13.02 N ⋅ m

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics and Dynamics, 8/e, Ferdinand P. Beer, E. Russell Johnston, Jr., Elliot R. Eisenberg, William E. Clausen, David Mazurek, Phillip J. Cornwell © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

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Chapter 3, Solution 3.

**Px = ( 3 lb ) sin 30°
**

= 1.5 lb

**Py = ( 3 lb ) cos 30°
**

= 2.5981 lb

M A = xB/ A Py + yB/ A Px

= ( 3.4 in.)( 2.5981 lb ) + ( 4.8 in.)(1.5 lb ) = 16.0335 lb ⋅ in.

M A = 16.03 lb ⋅ in.

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics and Dynamics, 8/e, Ferdinand P. Beer, E. Russell Johnston, Jr., Elliot R. Eisenberg, William E. Clausen, David Mazurek, Phillip J. Cornwell © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

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Chapter 3, Solution 4.

For P to be a minimum, it must be perpendicular to the line joining points A and B with rAB =

( 3.4 in.)2 + ( 4.8 in.)2

= 5.8822 in.

α = θ = tan −1 x

4.8 in. = tan −1 3.4 in.

y

= 54.689°

Then or

M A = rAB Pmin Pmin = M A 19.5 lb ⋅ in. = rAB 5.8822 in.

= 3.3151 lb ∴ Pmin = 3.32 lb

54.7°

or

Pmin = 3.32 lb

35.3°

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Chapter 3, Solution 5.

By definition where and

M A = rB/ A P sin θ

θ = φ + ( 90° − α ) φ = tan −1

4.8 in. 3.4 in.

= 54.689° Also

rB/ A =

( 3.4 in.)2 + ( 4.8 in.)2

= 5.8822 in.

Then or or

**(17 lb ⋅ in.) = ( 5.8822 in.)( 2.9 lb ) sin ( 54.689° + 90° − α )
**

sin (144.689° − α ) = 0.99658 144.689° − α = 85.260°; 94.740° ∴ α = 49.9°, 59.4°

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Chapter 3, Solution 6.

(a)

(a) M A = rB/ A × TBF

M A = xTBFy + yTBFx

= ( 2 m )( 200 N ) sin 60° + ( 0.4 m )( 200 N ) cos 60° = 386.41 N ⋅ m or M A = 386 N ⋅ m (b) (b) For FC to be a minimum, it must be perpendicular to the line joining A and C.

∴ M A = d ( FC )min

with

d =

( 2 m )2 + (1.35 m )2

= 2.4130 m

Then 386.41 N ⋅ m = ( 2.4130 m ) ( FC )min

( FC )min

and

= 160.137 N 1.35 m = 34.019° 2m

φ = tan −1

**θ = 90 − φ = 90° − 34.019° = 55.981°
**

∴ ( FC )min = 160.1 N

56.0°

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Chapter 3, Solution 7.

(a)

M A = xTBFy + yTBFx

**= ( 2 m )( 200 N ) sin 60° + ( 0.4 m )( 200 N ) cos 60° = 386.41 N ⋅ m
**

or M A = 386 N ⋅ m

(b)

Have or

M A = xFC

FC =

MA 386.41 N ⋅ m = 2m x

∴ FC = 193.2 N

= 193.205 N

(c)

For FB to be minimum, it must be perpendicular to the line joining A and B

∴ M A = d ( FB )min

with Then

d =

( 2 m )2 + ( 0.40 m )2

= 2.0396 m

386.41 N ⋅ m = ( 2.0396 m ) ( FC )min

( FC )min

and

= 189.454 N

θ = tan −1

2m = 78.690° 0.4 m

or

( FC )min

= 189.5 N

78.7°

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Chapter 3, Solution 8.

(a)

M B = rA/B cos15° W

(

)

= (14 in.)( cos15° )( 5 lb ) = 67.615 lb ⋅ in.

or

M B = 67.6 lb ⋅ in.

(b)

**M B = rD/B P sin 85° 67.615 lb ⋅ in. = ( 3.2 in.) P sin 85°
**

or

P = 21.2 lb

(c)

For ( F )min, F must be perpendicular to BC. Then,

M B = rC/B F 67.615 lb ⋅ in. = (18 in.) F

or

F = 3.76 lb

75.0°

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Chapter 3, Solution 9.

(a)

Slope of line EC =

35 in. 5 = 76 in. + 8 in. 12

Then

TABx =

12 (TAB ) 13

=

TABy =

**12 ( 260 lb ) = 240 lb 13
**

5 ( 260 lb ) = 100 lb 13

and Then

M D = TABx ( 35 in.) − TABy ( 8 in.)

**= ( 240 lb )( 35 in.) − (100 lb )( 8 in.) = 7600 lb ⋅ in.
**

or M D = 7600 lb ⋅ in. (b) Have

M D = TABx ( y ) + TABy ( x )

= ( 240 lb )( 0 ) + (100 lb )( 76 in.) = 7600 lb ⋅ in.

or M D = 7600 lb ⋅ in.

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Chapter 3, Solution 10.

Slope of line EC = Then and Have

35 in. 7 = 112 in. + 8 in. 24 TABx = TABy = 24 TAB 25 7 TAB 25

M D = TABx ( y ) + TABy ( x ) ∴ 7840 lb ⋅ in. =

**24 7 TAB ( 0 ) + TAB (112 in.) 25 25
**

TAB = 250 lb

or TAB = 250 lb

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Chapter 3, Solution 11.

The minimum value of d can be found based on the equation relating the moment of the force TAB about D: M D = (TAB max ) y ( d ) where M D = 1152 N ⋅ m

(TAB max ) y

Now

sin θ =

= TAB max sin θ = ( 2880 N ) sin θ

1.05 m

(d

+ 0.24 ) + (1.05 ) m

2 2

∴ 1152 N ⋅ m = 2880 N

1.05

(d

+ 0.24 ) + (1.05 )

2

2

(d )

or or or Since only the positive value applies here, d = 0.48639 m

( d + 0.24 )2 + (1.05)2

(d

2 2

= 2.625d

+ 0.24 ) + (1.05 ) = 6.8906d 2

5.8906d 2 − 0.48d − 1.1601 = 0

Using the quadratic equation, the minimum values of d are 0.48639 m and −0.40490 m. or d = 486 mm

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Chapter 3, Solution 12.

with d AB =

( 42 mm )2 + (144 mm )2

42 mm 150 mm 144 mm 150 mm

= 150 mm sin θ = cosθ =

and FAB = − FAB sin θ i − FAB cosθ j = 2.5 kN ( − 42 mm ) i − (144 mm ) j 150 mm

= − ( 700 N ) i − ( 2400 N ) j Also rB/C = − ( 0.042 m ) i + ( 0.056 m ) j Now M C = rB/C × FAB = ( − 0.042 i + 0.056 j) × ( − 700 i − 2400 j) N ⋅ m = (140.0 N ⋅ m ) k or

M C = 140.0 N ⋅ m

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Chapter 3, Solution 13.

with d AB =

( 42 mm )2 + (144 mm )2

42 mm 150 mm 144 mm 150 mm

= 150 mm sin θ = cosθ =

**FAB = − FAB sin θ i − FAB cosθ j
**

= 2.5 kN ( − 42 mm ) i − (144 mm ) j 150 mm

= − ( 700 N ) i − ( 2400 N ) j Also rB/C = − ( 0.042 m ) i − ( 0.056 m ) j Now M C = rB/C × FAB = ( − 0.042 i − 0.056 j) × ( − 700i − 2400 j) N ⋅ m = ( 61.6 N ⋅ m ) k or

M C = 61.6 N ⋅ m

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Chapter 3, Solution 14.

ΣM D :

88 105 M D = ( 0.090 m ) × 80 N − ( 0.280 m ) × 80 N 137 137 = −12.5431 N ⋅ m or

M D = 12.54 N ⋅ m

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Chapter 3, Solution 15.

Note: B = B ( cos β i + sin β j)

**B′ = B ( cos β i − sin β j) C = C ( cos α i + sin α j)
**

By definition:

B × C = BC sin (α − β ) B′ × C = BC sin (α + β )

(1) (2)

Now ... B × C = B ( cos β i + sin β j) × C ( cos α i + sin α j) = BC ( cos β sin α − sin β cos α ) k and (3)

**B′ × C = B ( cos β i − sin β j) × C ( cos α i + sin α j)
**

= BC ( cos β sin α + sin β cos α ) k (4)

Equating the magnitudes of B × C from equations (1) and (3) yields: BC sin (α − β ) = BC ( cos β sin α − sin β cos α ) Similarly, equating the magnitudes of B′ × C from equations (2) and (4) yields: BC sin (α + β ) = BC ( cos β sin α + sin β cos α ) Adding equations (5) and (6) gives: sin (α − β ) + sin (α + β ) = 2cos β sin α or sin α cos β = 1 1 sin (α + β ) + sin (α − β ) 2 2 (6) (5)

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Chapter 3, Solution 16.

Have d = λ AB × rO/ A where λ AB =

rB/ A rB/ A

**and rB/ A = ( −210 mm − 630 mm ) i
**

+ ( 270 mm − ( −225 mm ) ) j

= − ( 840 mm ) i + ( 495 mm ) j

rB/ A =

( −840 mm )2 + ( 495 mm )2

= 975 mm

− ( 840 mm ) i + ( 495 mm ) j 975 mm

Then λ AB =

=

1 ( −56i + 33j) 65

Also rO/ A = ( 0 − 630 ) i + ( 0 − (−225) ) j

= − ( 630 mm ) i + ( 225 mm ) j

∴d =

1 ( −56i + 33j) × − ( 630 mm ) i + ( 225 mm ) j 65

= 126.0 mm

d = 126.0 mm

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Chapter 3, Solution 17.

(a)

where Then

λ =

A×B A×B

A = 12i − 6 j + 9k B = − 3i + 9 j − 7.5k

i j k A × B = 12 − 6 9 − 3 9 − 7.5

**= ( 45 − 81) i + ( −27 + 90 ) j + (108 − 18 ) k = 9 ( − 4i + 7 j + 10k )
**

And A × B = 9 (− 4) 2 + (7)2 + (10)2 = 9 165

∴λ =

9 ( − 4i + 7 j + 10k ) 9 165

or λ =

1 ( − 4i + 7 j + 10k ) 165

(b) where

λ =

A×B A×B

A = −14i − 2 j + 8k B = 3i + 1.5j − k

Then

j k i A × B = −14 − 2 8 3 1.5 −1 = 5 ( −2i + 2 j − 3k )

and

= ( 2 − 12 ) i + ( 24 − 14 ) j + ( −21 + 6 ) k

A × B = 5 (−2)2 + (2)2 + (−3)2 = 5 17

∴λ =

or λ =

5 ( −2i + 2 j − 3k ) 5 17

1 ( − 2i + 2 j − 3k ) 17

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Chapter 3, Solution 18.

(a)

Have A = P × Q i j k P × Q = 3 7 −2 in.2 −5 1 3 = [ (21 + 2)i + (10 − 9) j + (3 + 35)k ] in.2

= 23 in.2 i + 1 in.2 j + 38 in.2 k ∴A= (23)2 + (1)2 + (38) 2 = 44.430 in.2 or A = 44.4 in.2 (b)

(

) (

) (

)

A = P×Q

i j k P × Q = 2 − 4 3 in.2 6 −1 5 = [ (−20 − 3)i + (−18 − 10) j + (−2 + 24)k ] in.2 = − 23 in.2 i − 28 in.2 j + 22 in.2 k ∴A= (− 23)2 + (−28)2 + (22) 2 = 42.391 in.2 or A = 42.4 in.2

(

) (

) (

)

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Chapter 3, Solution 19.

(a)

Have

MO = r × F

i

j

k

= − 6 3 1.5 N ⋅ m 7.5 3 − 4.5 = [ (−13.5 − 4.5)i + (11.25 − 27) j + (−18 − 22.5)k ] N ⋅ m = ( −18.00i − 15.75 j − 40.5k ) N ⋅ m or M O = − (18.00 N ⋅ m ) i − (15.75 Ν ⋅ m ) j − ( 40.5 N ⋅ m ) k (b) Have MO = r × F i j k = 2 − 0.75 −1 N ⋅ m 7.5 3 − 4.5 = [ (3.375 + 3)i + (−7.5 + 9) j + (6 + 5.625)k ] N ⋅ m = ( 6.375i + 1.500 j + 11.625k ) N ⋅ m or M O = ( 6.38 N ⋅ m ) i + (1.500 Ν ⋅ m ) j + (11.63 Ν ⋅ m ) k (c) Have

MO = r × F i j k = − 2.5 −1 1.5 N ⋅ m 7.5 3 4.5 = [ (4.5 − 4.5)i + (11.25 − 11.25) j + (−7.5 + 7.5)k ] N ⋅ m

or M O = 0

This answer is expected since r and F are proportional ( F = −3r ) . Therefore, vector F has a line of action passing through the origin at O.

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Chapter 3, Solution 20.

(a)

Have

MO = r × F i j k = − 7.5 3 − 6 lb ⋅ ft 3 −6 4 = [ (12 − 36)i + (−18 + 30) j + (45 − 9)k ] lb ⋅ ft

or M O = − ( 24.0 lb ⋅ ft ) i + (12.00 lb ⋅ ft ) j + ( 36.0 lb ⋅ ft ) k

(b)

Have

MO = r × F i j k = − 7.5 1.5 −1 lb ⋅ ft 3 −6 4 = [ (6 − 6)i + (−3 + 3) j + (4.5 − 4.5)k ] lb ⋅ ft

or M O = 0

(c)

Have

**MO = r × F i j k = − 8 2 −14 lb ⋅ ft 3 −6 4 = [ (8 − 84)i + (−42 + 32) j + (48 − 6)k ] lb ⋅ ft
**

or M O = − ( 76.0 lb ⋅ ft ) i − (10.00 lb ⋅ ft ) j + ( 42.0 lb ⋅ ft ) k

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Chapter 3, Solution 21.

With

**TAB = − ( 369 N ) j TAB = TAD
**

AD = ( 369 N ) AD

( 2.4 m ) i − ( 3.1 m ) j − (1.2 m ) k ( 2.4 m )2 + ( −3.1 m )2 + ( −1.2 m )2

**TAD = ( 216 N ) i − ( 279 N ) j − (108 N ) k
**

Then

R A = 2 TAB + TAD = ( 216 N ) i − (1017 N ) j − (108 N ) k

Also Have

rA/C = ( 3.1 m ) i + (1.2 m ) k M C = rA/C × R A i j k = 0 3.1 1.2 N ⋅ m 216 −1017 −108 = ( 885.6 N ⋅ m ) i + ( 259.2 N ⋅ m ) j − ( 669.6 N ⋅ m ) k M C = ( 886 N ⋅ m ) i + ( 259 N ⋅ m ) j − ( 670 N ⋅ m ) k

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Chapter 3, Solution 22.

Have where

M A = rC/ A × F rC/ A = ( 215 mm ) i − ( 50 mm ) j + (140 mm ) k

Fx = − ( 36 N ) cos 45° sin12°

Fy = − ( 36 N ) sin 45° Fz = − ( 36 N ) cos 45° cos12°

**∴ F = − ( 5.2926 N ) i − ( 25.456 N ) j − ( 24.900 N ) k
**

and

i j k M A = 0.215 − 0.050 0.140 N ⋅ m − 5.2926 − 25.456 − 24.900 = ( 4.8088 N ⋅ m ) i + ( 4.6125 N ⋅ m ) j − ( 5.7377 N ⋅ m ) k M A = ( 4.81 N ⋅ m ) i + ( 4.61 N ⋅ m ) j − ( 5.74 N ⋅ m ) k

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Chapter 3, Solution 23.

Have where

M O = rA/O × R rA/D = ( 30 ft ) j + ( 3 ft ) k

T1 = − ( 62 lb ) cos10° i − ( 62 lb ) sin10° j

= − ( 61.058 lb ) i − (10.766 lb ) j T2 = T2

AB AB

= ( 62 lb )

( 5 ft ) i − ( 30 ft ) j + ( 6 ft ) k ( 5 ft )2 + ( − 30 ft )2 + ( 6 ft )2

= (10 lb ) i − ( 60 lb ) j + (12 lb ) k ∴ R = − ( 51.058 lb ) i − ( 70.766 lb ) j + (12 lb ) k MO i j k = 0 30 3 lb ⋅ ft − 51.058 −70.766 12 = ( 572.30 lb ⋅ ft ) i − (153.17 lb ⋅ ft ) j + (1531.74 lb ⋅ ft ) k M O = ( 572 lb ⋅ ft ) i − (153.2 lb ⋅ ft ) j + (1532 lb ⋅ ft ) k

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Chapter 3, Solution 24.

(a)

Have where

**M O = rB/O × TBD rB/O = ( 2.5 m ) i + ( 2 m ) j TBD = TBD
**

BD BD

− (1 m ) i − ( 2 m ) j + ( 2 m ) k = ( 900 N ) 2 2 2 ( −1 m ) + ( − 2 m ) + ( 2 m )

**= − ( 300 N ) i − ( 600 N ) j + ( 600 N ) k
**

Then

MO

**i j k = 2.5 2 0 N⋅m − 300 − 600 600 M O = (1200 N ⋅ m ) i − (1500 N ⋅ m ) j − ( 900 N ⋅ m ) k
**

continued

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(b)

Have where

**M O = rB/O × TBE rB/O = ( 2.5 m ) i + ( 2 m ) j TBE = TBE
**

BE BE

− ( 0.5 m ) i − ( 2 m ) j − ( 4 m ) k = ( 675 N ) 2 2 ( 0.5 m ) + ( −2 m ) + ( − 4 m )2

= − ( 75 N ) i − ( 300 N ) j − ( 600 N ) k

Then

MO

i j k = 2.5 2 0 N⋅m − 75 − 300 − 600 M O = − (1200 N ⋅ m ) i + (1500 N ⋅ m ) j − ( 600 N ⋅ m ) k

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Chapter 3, Solution 25.

Have M C = rA/C × P where

rA/C = rB/C + rA/B

= (16 in.)( − cos80° cos15°i − sin 80° j − cos80° sin15°k )

**+ (15.2 in.)( − sin 20° cos15°i + cos 20° j − sin 20° sin15°k ) = − ( 7.7053 in.) i − (1.47360 in.) j − ( 2.0646 in.) k
**

and

P = (150 lb )( cos 5° cos 70°i + sin 5° j − cos 5° sin 70°k ) = ( 51.108 lb ) i + (13.0734 lb ) j − (140.418 lb ) k

Then

**i j k M C = −7.7053 −1.47360 −2.0646 lb ⋅ in. 51.108 13.0734 −140.418 = ( 233.91 lb ⋅ in.) i − (1187.48 lb ⋅ in.) j − ( 25.422 lb ⋅ in.) k
**

or M C = (19.49 lb ⋅ ft ) i − ( 99.0 lb ⋅ ft ) j − ( 2.12 lb ⋅ ft ) k

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Chapter 3, Solution 26.

Have where and

**M C = rA/C × FBA rA/C = ( 0.96 m ) i − ( 0.12 m ) j + ( 0.72 m ) k FBA = λ BA FBA
**

− ( 0.1 m ) i + (1.8 m ) j − ( 0.6 m ) k ( 228 N ) = ( 0.1)2 + (1.8)2 + ( 0.6 )2 m

**= − (12.0 N ) i + ( 216 N ) j − ( 72 N ) k i j k ∴ M C = 0.96 −0.12 0.72 N ⋅ m −12.0 216 −72 = − (146.88 N ⋅ m ) i + ( 60.480 N ⋅ m ) j + ( 205.92 N ⋅ m ) k
**

or M C = − (146.9 N ⋅ m ) i + ( 60.5 N ⋅ m ) j + ( 206 N ⋅ m ) k

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Chapter 3, Solution 27.

Have where with and

M C = TAD d

d = Perpendicular distance from C to line AD

**M C = rA/C TAD rA/C = ( 3.1 m ) j + (1.2 m ) k TAD = TAD
**

AD AD

( 2.4 m ) i − ( 3.1 m ) j − (1.2 m ) k TAD = ( 369 N ) 2 2 ( 2.4 m ) + ( − 3.1 m ) + ( −1.2 m )2

= ( 216 N ) i − ( 279 N ) j − (108 N ) k

Then

**i j k 3.1 1.2 N ⋅ m MC = 0 216 − 279 −108
**

= ( 259.2 N ⋅ m ) j − ( 669.6 N ⋅ m ) k

and

MC =

( 259.2 N ⋅ m )2 + ( −669.6 N ⋅ m )2

= 718.02 N ⋅ m ∴ 718.02 N ⋅ m = ( 369 N ) d

or d = 1.946 m

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Chapter 3, Solution 28.

Have where with and

M O = TAC d

**d = Perpendicular distance from O to rope AC
**

M O = rA/O × TAC rA/O = ( 30 ft ) j + ( 3 ft ) k

TAC = − ( 62 lb ) cos10° i − ( 62 lb ) sin10° j

= − ( 61.058 lb ) i − (10.766 lb ) j

Then

MO

**i j k = 0 30 3 lb ⋅ ft − 61.058 −10.766 0
**

= ( 32.298 lb ⋅ ft ) i − (183.174 lb ⋅ ft ) j + (1831.74 lb ⋅ ft ) k

and

MO =

**( 32.298 lb ⋅ ft )2 + ( −183.174 lb ⋅ ft )2 + (1831.74 lb ⋅ ft )2
**

∴ 1841.16 lb ⋅ ft = ( 62 lb ) d

= 1841.16 lb ⋅ ft

or d = 29.7 ft

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Chapter 3, Solution 29.

Have where with and

M O = TAB d

**d = Perpendicular distance from O to rope AB
**

M O = rA/O × TAB rA/O = ( 30 ft ) j + ( 3 ft ) k TAB = TAB

AB AB

( 5 ft ) i − ( 30 ft ) j + ( 6 ft ) k = ( 62 lb ) 2 2 ( 5 ft ) + ( − 30 ft ) + ( 6 ft )2

= (10 lb ) i − ( 60 lb ) j + (12 lb ) k

Then

MO

i j k = 0 30 3 lb ⋅ ft 10 − 60 12

= ( 540 lb ⋅ ft ) i + ( 30 lb ⋅ ft ) j − ( 300 lb ⋅ ft ) k

and

MO =

( 540 lb ⋅ ft )2 + ( 30 lb ⋅ ft )2 + ( −300 lb ⋅ ft )2

∴ 618.47 lb ⋅ ft = ( 62 lb ) d

= 618.47 lb ⋅ ft

or d = 9.98 ft

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Chapter 3, Solution 30.

Have where with and

M C = TBD d

d = Perpendicular distance from C to cable BD

M C = rB/C × TB/D rB/C = ( 2 m ) j TBD = TBD

BD BD

− (1 m ) i − ( 2 m ) j + ( 2 m ) k = ( 900 N ) 2 2 ( −1 m ) + ( − 2 m ) + ( 2 m )2

= − ( 300 N ) i − ( 600 N ) j + ( 600 N ) k

**Then i j k 2 0 N⋅m MC = 0 −300 − 600 600
**

= (1200 N ⋅ m ) i + ( 600 N ⋅ m ) k

and

MC =

(1200 N ⋅ m )2 + ( 600 N ⋅ m )2

∴ 1341.64 = ( 900 N ) d

= 1341.64 N ⋅ m

or d = 1.491 m

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Chapter 3, Solution 31.

Have M C = Pd From the solution of problem 3.25 M C = ( 233.91 lb ⋅ in.) i − (1187.48 lb ⋅ in.) j − ( 25.422 lb ⋅ in.) k Then MC =

( 233.91)2 + ( −1187.48)2 + ( −25.422 )2

= 1210.57 lb ⋅ in. and d = MC 1210.57 lb.in. = 150 lb P or d = 8.07 in.

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Chapter 3, Solution 32.

Have

**| M D | = FBAd d = perpendicular distance from D to line AB. M D = rA/D × FBA
**

rA/D = − ( 0.12 m ) j + ( 0.72 m ) k

FBA = λ BA FBA =

where

( − ( 0.1 m ) i + (1.8 m ) j − ( 0.6 m ) k ) ( 228 N )

( 0.1)2 + (1.8)2 + ( 0.6 )2

m

= − (12.0 N ) i + ( 216 N ) j − ( 72 N ) k

∴ MD i j k = 0 −0.12 0.72 N ⋅ m −12.0 216 −72 = − (146.88 N ⋅ m ) i − ( 8.64 N ⋅ m ) j − (1.44 N ⋅ m ) k and |MD | =

(146.88)2 + (8.64 )2 + (1.44 )2

∴ 147.141 N ⋅ m = ( 228 N ) d

= 147.141 N ⋅ m

d = 0.64536 m

or d = 0.645 m

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Chapter 3, Solution 33.

Have where

| M C | = FBAd

**d = perpendicular distance from C to line AB.
**

M C = rA/C × FBA

rA/C = ( 0.96 m ) i − ( 0.12 m ) j + ( 0.72 m ) k

FBA = λ BA FBA =

( − ( 0.1 m ) i + (1.8 m ) j − ( 0.6 ) k ) ( 228 N )

( 0.1)2 + (1.8)2 + ( 0.6 )2

m

= − (12.0 N ) i + ( 216 N ) j − ( 72 N ) k

i j k ∴ M C = 0.96 −0.12 0.72 N ⋅ m −12.0 216 −72 = − (146.88 N ⋅ m ) i − ( 60.48 N ⋅ m ) j + ( 205.92 N ⋅ m ) k and | MC | =

(146.88)2 + ( 60.48)2 + ( 205.92 )2

∴ 260.07 N ⋅ m = ( 228 N ) d

= 260.07 N ⋅ m

d = 1.14064 m

or d = 1.141 m

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Chapter 3, Solution 34.

**(a) Have d = rC/ A sin θ = λ AB × rC/ A where d = Perpendicular distance from C to pipe AB with λ AB =
**

AB = AB 7i + 4 j − 32k

( 7 )2 + ( 4 )2 + ( −32 )2

1 ( 7i + 4 j − 32k ) 33

=

and rC/ A = − (14 ft ) i + ( 5 ft ) j + ( L − 22 ) ft k Then λ AB × rC/ A i j k 1 7 4 − 32 ft = 33 −14 5 L − 22 = 1 4 ( L − 22 ) + 32 ( 5 ) i + 32 (14 ) − 7 ( L − 22 ) j + 7 ( 5 ) + 4 (14 ) k ft 33 1 ( 4L + 72 ) i + ( −7 L + 602 ) j + 91k ft = 33

{

}

and For or or But (b) with

d =

1 33

( 4L + 72 )2 + ( −7 L + 602 )2 + ( 91)2

dd 2 1 = 2 2 ( 4 )( 4L + 72 ) + 2 ( −7 )( −7 L + 602 ) = 0 dL 33 65L − 3926 = 0 L = 60.400 ft (d ) min , L > Lgreenhouse L = 30 ft, d = 1 33 so L = 30.0 ft

( 4 × 30 + 72 )2 + ( −7 × 30 + 602 )2 + ( 91)2

or d = 13.51 ft

Note:

with

L = 60.4 ft,

d =

1 33

( 4 × 60.4 + 72 )2 + ( −7 × 60.4 + 602 )2 + ( 91)2

= 11.29 ft

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Chapter 3, Solution 35.

P ⋅ Q = ( − 4i + 8j − 3k ) ⋅ ( 9i − j − 7k )

= ( − 4 )( 9 ) + ( 8 )( −1) + ( − 3)( − 7 ) = − 23 or P ⋅ Q = −23

P ⋅ S = ( − 4i + 8 j − 3k ) ⋅ ( 5i − 6 j + 2k )

= ( − 4 )( 5 ) + ( 8 )( − 6 ) + ( − 3)( 2 ) = − 74 or P ⋅ S = −74

Q ⋅ S = ( 9i − j − 7k ) ⋅ ( 5i − 6 j + 2k )

= ( 9 )( 5 ) + ( −1)( − 6 ) + ( − 7 )( 2 )

= 37

or Q ⋅ S = 37

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Chapter 3, Solution 36.

By definition

B ⋅ C = BC cos (α − β )

where

B = B ( cos β ) i + ( sin β ) j

C = C ( cos α ) i + ( sin α ) j

**∴ ( B cos β )( C cos α ) + ( B sin β )( C sin α ) = BC cos (α − β ) or By definition
**

B′⋅ C = BC cos (α + β )

cos β cos α + sin β sin α = cos (α − β )

(1)

where

B′ = ( cos β ) i − ( sin β ) j

∴ ( B cos β )( C cos α ) + ( − B sin β )( C sin α ) = BC cos (α + β ) or cos β cos α − sin β sin α = cos (α + β ) 2 cos β cos α = cos (α − β ) + cos (α + β ) or cos α cos β = 1 1 cos (α + β ) + cos (α − β ) 2 2 (2)

Adding Equations (1) and (2),

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 37.

First note:

rB/ A = ( 0.56 m ) i + ( 0.9 m ) j rC/ A = ( 0.9 m ) j − ( 0.48 m ) k rD/ A = − ( 0.52 m ) i + ( 0.9 m ) j + ( 0.36 m ) k

rB/ A = rC/ A = rD/ A =

( 0.56 m )2 + ( 0.9 m )2

= 1.06 m = 1.02 m = 1.10 m

( 0.9 m )2 + ( − 0.48 m )2

( − 0.52 m )2 + ( 0.9 m )2 + ( 0.36 m )2

By definition

rB/ A ⋅ rD/ A = rB/ A rD/ A cosθ

or ( 0.56i + 0.9 j) ⋅ ( − 0.52i + 0.9 j + 0.36k ) = (1.06 )(1.10 ) cosθ

( 0.56 )( − 0.52 ) + ( 0.9 )( 0.9 ) + ( 0 )( 0.36 ) = 1.166 cosθ

cosθ = 0.44494

θ = 63.6°

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 38.

**From the solution to problem 3.37
**

rC/ A = 1.02 m with rC/ A = ( 0.9 m ) i − ( 0.48 m ) j rD/ A = 1.10 m with rD/ A = − ( 0.52 m ) i + ( 0.9 m ) j + ( 0.36 m ) k

Now by definition

rC/ A ⋅ rD/ A = rC/ A rD/ A cosθ

or ( 0.9 j − 0.48k ) ⋅ ( − 0.52i + 0.9 j + 0.36k ) = (1.02 )(1.10 ) cosθ 0 ( − 0.52 ) + ( 0.9 )( 0.9 ) + ( − 0.48)( 0.36 ) = 1.122cosθ

cosθ = 0.56791

or θ = 55.4°

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Chapter 3, Solution 39.

(a) By definition λ BC + λ EF = (1) (1) cosθ where λ BC =

( 32 ft ) i − ( 9 ft ) j − ( 24 ft ) k ( 32 )2 + ( − 9 )2 + ( − 24 )2 ft

1 ( 32i − 9 j − 24k ) 41 − (14 ft ) i − (12 ft ) j + (12 ft ) k

=

λ EF =

( −14 )2 + ( −12 )2 + ( 12 )2 ft

1 ( −7i − 6 j + 6k ) 11 = cosθ

=

Therefore

**( 32i − 9 j − 24k ) ⋅ ( −7i − 6 j + 6k )
**

41 11

( 32 )( −7 ) + ( −9 )( −6 ) + ( −24 )( 6 ) = ( 41)(11) cosθ

cosθ = − 0.69623 or (b) By definition

θ = 134.1°

(TEG ) BC

= (TEF ) cosθ = (110 lb )( −0.69623) = −76.585 lb or (TEF ) BC = −76.6 lb

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Chapter 3, Solution 40.

(a) By definition λ BC ⋅ λ EG = (1) (1) cosθ where λ BC =

( 32 ft ) i − ( 9 ft ) j − ( 24 ft ) k ( 32 )2 + ( − 9 )2 + ( − 24 )2 ft

1 ( 32i − 9 j − 24k ) 41

=

λ EG =

(16 ft ) i − (12 ft ) j + ( 9.75) k (16 )2 + ( −12 )2 + ( 9.75)2 ft

1 (16i − 12 j + 9.75k ) 22.25 = cosθ

=

Therefore

**( 32i − 9 j − 24k ) ⋅ (16i − 12 j + 9.75k )
**

41 22.25

**( 32 )(16 ) + ( −9 )( −12 ) + ( −24 )( 9.75) = ( 41)( 22.25) cosθ
**

cosθ = 0.42313

or (b) By definition

θ = 65.0°

(TEG )BC

= (TEG ) cosθ = (178 lb )( 0.42313) = 75.317 lb or (TEG ) BC = 75.3 lb

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 41.

**First locate point B:
**

d 3.5 = 22 14

or (a)

d = 5.5 m d BA =

( 5.5 + 0.5)2 + ( −22 )2 + ( −3)2

= 23 m

Locate point D:

( −3.5 − 7.5sin 45° cos15° ) , (14 + 7.5cos 45° ) ,

**( 0 + 7.5sin 45° sin15° ) m
**

or ( −8.6226 m, 19.3033 m, 1.37260 m ) Then

d BD =

( −8.6226 + 5.5)2 + (19.3033 − 22 )2 + (1.37260 − 0 )2

m

= 4.3482 m and cosθ ABD =

**( 6i − 22 j − 3k ) ⋅ ( −3.1226i − 2.6967 j + 1.37260k ) d BA ⋅ d BD = d BA d BD ( 23)( 4.3482 )
**

= 0.36471 or

θ ABD = 68.6°

(b)

(TBA )BD

= TBA cosθ ABD = ( 230 N )( 0.36471) or (TBA ) BD = 83.9 N

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 42.

First locate point B:

d 3.5 = 22 14

or

d = 5.5 m

(a) Locate point D:

( −3.5 − 7.5sin 45° cos10° ) , (14 + 7.5cos 45° ) ,

**( 0 + 7.5sin 45° sin10° ) m
**

or ( −8.7227 m, 19.3033 m, 0.92091 m ) Then

**d DC = ( 5.2227 m ) i − ( 5.3033 m ) j − ( 0.92091 m ) k
**

and

d DB =

( −5.5 + 8.7227 )2 + ( 22 − 19.3033)2 + ( 0 − 0.92091)2

m

= 4.3019 m and cos θ BDC =

**( 3.2227i + 2.6967 j − 0.92091k ) ⋅ ( 5.2227i − 5.3033j − 0.92091k ) d DB ⋅ d DC = d DB d DC ( 4.3019 )( 7.5)
**

θ BDC = 84.0°

= 0.104694 or (b)

(TBD )DC

= TBD cosθ BDC = ( 250 N )( 0.104694 ) or

(TBD )DC

= 26.2 N

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Chapter 3, Solution 43.

Volume of parallelopiped is found using the mixed triple product (a) Vol = P ⋅ ( Q × S ) 3 −4 1 = − 7 6 − 8 in.3 9 −2 −3 = ( −54 + 288 + 14 − 48 + 84 − 54 ) in.3 = 230 in.3 or Volume = 230 in.3 Vol = P ⋅ ( Q × S ) −5 −7 4 = 6 − 2 5 in.3 −4 8 −9 = ( −90 + 140 + 192 + 200 − 378 − 32 ) in.3 = 32 in.3 or Volume = 32 in.3

(b)

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Chapter 3, Solution 44.

For the vectors to all be in the same plane, the mixed triple product is zero.

P ⋅(Q × S ) = 0

−3 −7 5 ∴ 0 = −2 1 −4 8 Sy −6

**0 = 18 + 224 − 10S y − 12S y + 84 − 40 So that 22 S y = 286
**

S y = 13

or S y = 13.00

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Chapter 3, Solution 45.

rC = ( 2.25 m ) k TCE = TCE

CE CE

Have

( 0.90 m ) i + (1.50 m ) j − ( 2.25 m ) k TCE = (1349 N ) 2 2 2 ( 0.90 ) + (1.50 ) + ( −2.25 ) m

= ( 426 N ) i + ( 710 N ) j − (1065 N ) k

Now

**M O = rC × TCE i j k = 0 0 2.25 N ⋅ m 426 710 −1065
**

= − (1597.5 N ⋅ m ) i + ( 958.5 N ⋅ m ) j ∴ M x = −1598 N ⋅ m, M y = 959 N ⋅ m, M z = 0

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Chapter 3, Solution 46.

Have

rE = ( 0.90 m ) i + (1.50 m ) j TDE = TDE DE DE

− ( 2.30 m ) i + (1.50 m ) j − ( 2.25 m ) k = (1349 N ) 2 2 2 ( − 2.30 ) + (1.50 ) + ( − 2.25) m

= − ( 874 N ) i + ( 570 N ) j − ( 855 N ) k Now

M O = rE × TDE

i j k = 0.90 1.50 0 N ⋅ m − 874 570 − 855 = − (1282.5 N ⋅ m ) i + ( 769.5 N ⋅ m ) j + (1824 N ⋅ m ) k ∴ M x = −1283 N ⋅ m, M y = 770 N ⋅ m, M z = 1824 N ⋅ m

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Chapter 3, Solution 47.

Have where

M z = k ⋅ ( rB ) y × TBA + k ( rC ) y × TCD

M z = − ( 48 lb ⋅ ft ) k

( rB ) y

= ( rC ) y = ( 3 ft ) j

( 4.5 ft ) i − ( 3 ft ) j + ( 9 ft ) k BA = (14 lb ) 2 2 2 BA ( 4.5) + ( − 3) + ( 9 ) ft

TBA = TBA

= ( 6 lb ) i − ( 4 lb ) j + (12 lb ) k

TCD = TCD ( 6 ft ) i − ( 3 ft ) j − ( 6 ft ) k CD = TCD 2 2 2 CD ( 6 ) + ( − 3) + ( − 6 ) ft

= Then

TCD (2i − j − 2k ) 3

− ( 48 lb ⋅ ft ) = k ⋅ ( 3 ft ) j × ( 6 lb ) i − ( 4 lb ) j + (12 lb ) k T + k ⋅ ( 3 ft ) j × CD ( 2 i − j − 2 k ) 3

{

}

or

− 48 = −18 − 2TCD

TCD = 15.00 lb

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Chapter 3, Solution 48.

Have where

M y = j ⋅ ( rB ) z × TBA × j⋅ ( rC ) z × TCD M y = 156 lb ⋅ ft

( rB ) z

= ( 24 ft ) k;

( rC ) z

= ( 6 ft ) k

TBA = TBA

( 4.5 ft ) i − ( 3 ft ) j + ( 9 ft ) k BA = TBA 2 2 2 BA ( 4.5) + ( − 3) + ( 9 ) ft

=

TBA ( 4.5i − 3j + 9k ) 10.5

( 6 ft ) i − ( 3 ft ) j + ( 9 ft ) k CD = ( 7.5 lb ) 2 2 2 CD ( 6 ) + ( − 3) + ( 9 ) ft

TCD = TCD

= ( 5 lb ) i − ( 2.5 lb ) j − ( 5 lb ) k

T Then (156 lb ⋅ ft ) = j ⋅ ( 24 ft ) k × BA ( 4.5i − 3j + 9k ) 10.5 + j ⋅ ( 6 ft ) k × ( 5 lb ) i − ( 2.5 lb ) j − ( 5 lb ) k or

{

}

TBA = 12.25 lb

156 =

108 TBA + 30 10.5

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Chapter 3, Solution 49.

Based on M x = ( P cos φ ) ( 0.225 m ) sin θ − ( P sin φ ) ( 0.225 m ) cosθ

(1) (2) (3)

**M y = − ( P cos φ )( 0.125 m ) M z = − ( P sin φ )( 0.125 m )
**

By

Equation ( 3) M z − ( P sin φ )( 0.125 ) : = Equation ( 2 ) M y − ( P cos φ )( 0.125 ) or −4 = tan φ ∴ − 23

φ = 9.8658°

or

φ = 9.87°

**From Equation (2) − 23 N ⋅ m = − ( P cos 9.8658° )( 0.125 m ) P = 186.762 N or P = 186.8 N From Equation (1)
**

26 N ⋅ m = (186.726 N ) cos 9.8658° ( 0.225 m ) sin θ − (186.726 N ) sin 9.8658° ( 0.225 m ) cosθ

or 0.98521sin θ − 0.171341cosθ = 0.61885 Solving numerically,

θ = 48.1°

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Chapter 3, Solution 50.

Based on M x = ( P cos φ ) ( 0.225 m ) sin θ − ( P sin φ ) ( 0.225 m ) cosθ M y = − ( P cos φ )( 0.125 m ) M z = − ( P sin φ )( 0.125 m ) By Equation ( 3) M z − ( P sin φ )( 0.125 ) : = Equation ( 2 ) M y − ( P cos φ )( 0.125 ) or − 3.5 = tan φ ; φ = 9.9262° − 20 − 3.5 N ⋅ m = − ( P sin 9.9262° )( 0.125 m ) P = 162.432 N From Equation (1): M x = (162.432 N )( 0.225 m )( cos 9.9262° sin 60° − sin 9.9262° cos 60° ) = 28.027 N ⋅ m or M x = 28.0 N ⋅ m

(1) (2)

From Equation (3):

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Chapter 3, Solution 51.

First note:

TBA = TBA

BA BA

= ( 70 lb )

( 4 ) i + 1.5 − ( LBC

+ 1) j + ( − 6 ) k + 1) + ( − 6 )

2

2 2

( 4 )2 + 1.5 − ( LBC

52 + ( 0.5 − LBC )

= ( 70 lb )

4 i + ( 0.5 − LBC ) j − 6 k

rA = ( 4 ft ) i + (1.5 ft ) j − (12 ft ) k

Have M O = rA × TBA = 70 lb 52 + ( 0.5 − LBC )

2

i 4 ft 4

j k 1.5 ft −12 ft ( 0.5 − LBC ) − 6

For the i components: − 763 lb ⋅ ft =

70 52 + ( 0.5 − LBC )

2 2

1.5 ( − 6 ) + 12 ( 0.5 − LBC ) lb ⋅ ft

or or

10.9 52 + ( 0.5 − LBC ) = 3 + 12 LBC

**(10.9 )2 52 + ( 0.5 − LBC )2 = 9 + 72LBC
**

25.19L2 + 190.81LBC − 6198.8225 = 0 BC LBC = −190.81 ±

+ 144 L2 BC

or Then Taking the positive root

**(190.81)2 − 4 ( 25.19 )( − 6198.8225) 2 ( 25.19 )
**

LBC = 12.35 ft

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 52.

First note:

TBA = TBA

BA BA

= ( 70 lb )

( 4 ) i + 1.5 − ( LBC

+ 1) j + ( − 6 ) k + 1) + ( − 6 )

2 2 2

( 4 )2 + 1.5 − ( LBC

52 + ( 0.5 − LBC )

= ( 70 lb )

4 i + ( 0.5 − LBC ) j − 6 k

rA = ( 4 ft ) i + (1.5 ft ) j − (12 ft ) k

Have M O = rA × TBA = TBA 52 + ( 0.5 − LBC ) TBA 52 + ( 0.5 − LBC ) TBA 52 + ( 0.5 − LBC ) 4TBA 52 + ( 0.5 − LBC )

2 2 2 2

TBA 52 + ( 0.5 − LBC )

2

i 4 ft 4

j k −12 ft 1.5 ft ( 0.5 − LBC ) − 6

For the i components: − 900 lb ⋅ ft = 300 =

1.5 ( − 6 ) + 12 ( 0.5 − LBC ) lb ⋅ ft (1)

or

(1 + 4LBC )

4 ( 0.5 − LBC ) − 1.5 ( 4 ) lb ⋅ ft

For the k components: − 315 lb ⋅ ft = 315 =

or

(1 + LBC )

(2)

Then, or

(1) ( 2)

⇒

300 1 + 4LBC = 315 4 (1 + LBC ) LBC = 59 ft 4 LBC = 14.75 ft

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Chapter 3, Solution 53.

Have where

M AD = λ AD ⋅ rB/ A × TBH

(

)

= 0.8 i − 0.6 k

λ AD =

( 0.8 m ) i − ( 0.6 m ) k ( 0.8 m )2 + ( − 0.6 m )2

rB/ A = ( 0.4 m ) i

TBH = TBH ( 0.3 m ) i + ( 0.6 m ) j − ( 0.6 m ) k BH = (1125 N ) 2 2 2 BH ( 0.3) + ( 0.6 ) + ( − 0.6 ) m

Then

M AD

0.8 0 − 0.6 = 0.4 0 0 = −180 N ⋅ m 375 750 − 750 or M AD = −180.0 N ⋅ m

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 54.

Have where

M AD = λ AD ⋅ rB/ A × TBG

(

)

λ AD = ( 0.8 m ) i − ( 0.6 m ) k rB/ A = ( 0.4 m ) i

TBG = TBG − ( 0.4 m ) i + ( 0.74 ) j − ( 0.32 m ) k BG = (1125 N ) 2 2 BG ( − 0.4 m ) + ( 0.74 m ) + ( − 0.32 m )2

**= − ( 500 N ) i + ( 925 N ) j − ( 400 N ) k Then
**

M AD

0.8 0 − 0.6 = 0.4 0 0 − 500 925 − 400 or M AD = − 222 N ⋅ m

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 55.

Have

M AD = λ AD ⋅ rE/ A × FEF

(

)

where

λ AD = λ AD =

AD AD

( 7.2 m ) i + ( 0.9 m ) j ( 7.2 m )2 + ( 0.9 m )2

= 0.99228 i + 0.124035 j

rE/ A = ( 2.1 m ) i − ( 0.9 m ) j

FEF = FEF ( 0.3 m ) i + (1.2 m ) j + ( 2.4 m ) k EF = ( 24.3 kN ) 2 2 2 EF ( 0.3 m ) + (1.2 m ) + ( 2.4 m )

= ( 2.7 kN ) i + (10.8 kN ) j + ( 21.6 kN ) k Then

0.99228 0.124035 M AD = 2.1 2.7 − 0.9 10.8

0 0 kN ⋅ m 21.6

= −19.2899 − 5.6262 = − 24.916 kN ⋅ m or M AD = − 24.9 kN ⋅ m

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Chapter 3, Solution 56.

Have Where

M AD = λ AD ⋅ rG/ A × E EF

λ AD =

(

)

( 7.2 m ) i + ( 0.9 m ) j ( 7.2 m )2 + ( 0.9 m )2

= 0.99228 i + 0.124035 j

rG/ A = ( 6 m ) i − (1.8 m ) j

FGH = FGH ( −1.2 m ) i + ( 2.4 m ) j + ( 2.4 m ) k GH = ( 21.3 kN ) 2 2 2 GH ( −1.2 m ) + ( 2.4 m ) + ( 2.4 m )

= − ( 7.1 kN ) i + (14.2 kN ) j + (14.2 kN ) k Then 0.99228 0.124035 0 6 0 kN ⋅ m = −1.8 14.2 14.2 − 7.1 = − 25.363 − 10.5678 = − 35.931 kN ⋅ m or M AD = − 35.9 kN ⋅ m

M AD

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 57.

Have where From triangle OBC M OA = λ OA ⋅ rC/O × P

(

)

( OA) x

( OA) z

Since or

=

a 2

a 1 a = 2 3 2 3

2

2

= ( OA ) x tan 30° =

2 2

( OA)2

2

= ( OA ) x + ( OA ) y + ( OAz )

2

a 2 a a = + ( OA ) y + 2 2 3

∴

( OA) y

=

a2 −

a2 a2 2 − =a 4 12 3

Then

rA/O = λ OA =

P = λ BC P

a 2 a i +a j+ k 2 3 2 3 1 i+ 2 2 1 j+ k 3 2 3

and

= =

**( a sin 30°) i − ( a cos30° ) k
**

a

( P)

P i − 3k 2

(

)

rC/O = ai

1 2 = 1 1

=

∴ M OA

2 1 3 2 3 P (a) 0 0 2 0 − 3

aP 2 − (1) − 3 2 3

(

)

=

aP aP M OA = 2 2

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Chapter 3, Solution 58.

(a) For edge OA to be perpendicular to edge BC, uuu uuu r r OA ⋅ BC = 0 where From triangle OBC

( OA) x

( OA) z

=

a 2

a 1 a = 2 3 2 3

= ( OA ) x tan 30° =

and

**uuu r BC = ( a sin 30° ) i − ( a cos 30° ) k
**

= = a a 3 i− k 2 2

uuu a r a ∴ OA = i + ( OA )y j + k 2 2 3

a i − 3k 2

(

)

Then

a a a =0 i + ( OA) y j + k ⋅ i − 3k 2 2 2 3

(

)

or

so that

a2 a2 + ( OA )y ( 0 ) − =0 4 4 uuu uuu r r ∴ OA ⋅ BC = 0 uuu r uuu r OA is perpendicular to BC.

(b) Have M OA = Pd , with P acting along BC and d the uuu uuu r r perpendicular distance from OA to BC. From the results of Problem 3.57,

M OA = ∴

or

Pa 2

Pa = Pd 2 d = a 2

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Chapter 3, Solution 59.

Have where

M DI = λ DI ⋅ rF /I × TEF λ DI = DI = DI

(

)

( 4.8 ft ) i − (1.2 ft ) j ( 4.8 ft )2 + ( −1.2 ft )2

= 0.97014 i − 0.24254 j rF /I = (16.2 ft ) k

TEF = TEF

( 3.6 ft ) i − (10.8 ft ) j + (16.2 ft ) k EF = ( 29.7 lb ) 2 2 EF ( 3.6 ft ) + ( −10.8 ft ) + (16.2 ft )2

= ( 5.4 lb ) i − (16.2 lb ) j + ( 24.3 lb ) k Then M DI 0.97014 − 0.24254 0 0 0 16.2 lb ⋅ ft = 5.4 −16.2 24.3 = − 21.217 + 254.60 = 233.39 lb ⋅ ft or M DI = 233 lb ⋅ ft

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 60.

Have where

M DI = λ DI ⋅ rG/I × TEG λ DI = DI = DI

(

)

( 4.8 ft ) i − (1.2 ft ) j ( 4.8 ft )2 + ( −1.2 ft )2

= 0.97014 i − 0.24254 j rG/I = − ( 35.1 ft ) k

TEG = TEG

( 3.6 ft ) i − (10.8 ft ) j − ( 35.1 ft ) k EG = ( 24.6 lb ) 2 2 EG ( 3.6 ft ) + ( −10.8 ft ) + ( − 35.1 ft )2

**= ( 2.4 lb ) i − ( 7.2 lb ) j − ( 23.4 lb ) k Then M DI 0.97014 − 0.24254 0 0 0 = − 35.1 lb ⋅ ft 2.4 − 7.2 − 23.4
**

= 20.432 − 245.17 = − 224.74 lb ⋅ ft

or

M DI = − 225 lb ⋅ ft

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 61.

First note that

F1 = F1λ1

and

F2 = F2λ 2

Let M1 = moment of F2 about the line of action of M1

and M 2 = moment of F1 about the line of action of M 2

Now, by definition

M1 = λ1 ⋅ rB/ A × F2 = λ1 ⋅ rB/ A × λ 2 F2 M 2 = λ 2 ⋅ rA/B × F1 = λ 2 ⋅ rA/B × λ1 F1

(

)

(

)

(

)

(

)

Since

F1 = F2 = F

and

rA/B = −rB/ A

M1 = λ1 ⋅ rB/ A × λ 2 F M 2 = λ 2 ⋅ −rB/ A × λ1 F

(

)

(

)

Using Equation (3.39)

λ1 ⋅ rB/ A × λ 2 = λ 2 ⋅ −rB/ A × λ1

(

)

(

)

so that

M 2 = λ1 ⋅ rB/ A × λ 2 F ∴ M12 = M 21

(

)

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 62.

**From the solution of Problem 3.53:
**

λ AD = 0.8i − 0.6k TBH = ( 375 N ) i + ( 750 N ) j − ( 750 N ) k; M AD = −180 N ⋅ m TBH = 1125 N

Only the perpendicular component of TBH contributes to the moment of TBH about line AD. The parallel component of TBH will be used to find the perpendicular component. Have

( TBH )Parallel

= λ AD ⋅ TBH

= [ 0.8i − 0.6k ] ⋅ ( 375 N ) i + ( 750 N ) j − ( 750 N ) k

= ( 300 + 450 ) N = 750 N TBH = ( TBH )Perpendicular + ( TBH )Parallel

Since Then

(TBH )Perpendicular

=

( TBH )2 − ( TBH )2Parallel

=

(1125 N )2 − ( 750 N )2

= 838.53 N

and

M AD = ( TBH )Perpendicular d

180 N ⋅ m = ( 838.53 N ) d

d = 0.21466 m

or

d = 215 mm

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 63.

**From the solution of Problem 3.54:
**

λ AD = 0.8i − 0.6k

TBG = − ( 500 N ) i + ( 925 N ) j − ( 400 N ) k TBG = 1125 N

M AD = − 222 N ⋅ m

Only the perpendicular component of TBG contributes to the moment of TBG about line AD. The parallel component of TBG will be used to find the perpendicular component. Have

( TBG )Parallel

= λ AD ⋅ TBG

= [ 0.8i − 0.6k ] ⋅ − ( 500 N ) i + ( 925 N ) j − ( 400 N ) k

= ( − 400 + 240 ) N = −160 N TBG = ( TBG )Perpendicular + ( TBG )Parallel

Since Then

(TBG )Perpendicular

=

**(TBG )2 − (TBG )2Parallel
**

(1125 N )2 − ( −160 N )2

=

= 1113.56 N

and

M AD = (TBG )Perpendicular d

222 N ⋅ m = (1113.56 N ) d

d = 0.199361 m

or d = 199.4 mm

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 64.

**From the solution of Problem 3.59:
**

λ DI = 0.97014 i − 0.24254 j

TEF = ( 5.4 lb ) i − (16.2 lb ) j + ( 24.3 lb ) k TEF = 29.7 lb

M DI = 233.39 lb ⋅ ft

Only the perpendicular component of TEF contributes to the moment of TEF about line DI. The parallel component of TEF will be used to find the perpendicular component. Have

( TEF )Parallel

= λ DI ⋅ TEF

= [ 0.97014 i − 0.24254 j] ⋅ ( 5.4 lb ) i − (16.2 lb ) j + ( 24.3 lb ) k

= ( 5.2388 + 3.9291) = 9.1679 lb

Since Then

TEF = ( TEF )Perpendicular + ( TEF )Parallel

(TEF )Perpendicular

=

( TEF )2 − ( TEF )2Parallel

=

( 29.7 )2 − ( 9.1679 )2

= 28.250 lb

and

M DI = ( TEF )Perpendicular d

233.39 lb ⋅ ft = ( 28.250 lb ) d

d = 8.2616 ft

or d = 8.26 ft

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 65.

**From the solution of Problem 3.60:
**

λ DI = 0.97014 i − 0.24254 j

TEG = ( 2.4 lb ) i − ( 7.2 lb ) j − ( 23.4 lb ) k TEG = 24.6 lb

M DI = − 224.74 lb ⋅ ft

Only the perpendicular component of TEG contributes to the moment of TEG about line DI. The parallel component of TEG will be used to find the perpendicular component. Have

( TEG )Parallel

= λ DI ⋅ TEG

= [ 0.97014 i − 0.24254 j] ⋅ ( 2.4 lb ) i − ( 7.2 lb ) j − ( 23.4 lb ) k

= ( 2.3283 + 1.74629 ) = 4.0746 lb

Since Then

TEG = ( TEG )Perpendicular + (TEG )Parallel

(TEG )Perpendicular

=

**(TEG )2 − (TEG )2Parallel
**

( 24.6 )2 − ( 4.0746 )2

=

= 24.260 lb

and

M DI = (TEG )Perpendicular d

224.74 lb ⋅ ft = ( 24.260 lb ) d

d = 9.2638 ft

or d = 9.26 ft

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 66.

**From the solution of Prob. 3.55:
**

λ AD = 0.99228 i + 0.124035 j FEF = ( 2.7 kN ) i + (10.8 kN ) j + ( 21.6 kN ) k

FEF = 24.3 kN M AD = − 24.916 kN ⋅ m

Only the perpendicular component of FEF contributes to the moment of FEF about edge AD. The parallel component of FEF will be used to find the perpendicular component. Have

( FEF )Parallel

= λ AD ⋅ FEF

= [ 0.99228 i + 0.124035 j] ⋅ ( 2.7 kN ) i + (10.8 kN ) j + ( 21.6 kN ) k

= 4.0187 kN

Since Then

FEF = ( FEF )Perpendicular + ( FEF )Parallel

( FEF )Perpendicular

=

( FEF )2 − ( FEF )2Parallel ( 24.3)2 − ( 4.0187 )2

=

= 23.965 kN

and

M AD = ( FEF )Perpendicular d

**24.916 kN ⋅ m = ( 23.965 kN ) d
**

d =1.039683m

or

d = 1.040 m

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 67.

**From the solution of Prob. 3.56:
**

λ AD = 0.99228 i + 0.124035 j FGH = − ( 7.1 kN ) i + (14.2 kN ) j + (14.2 kN ) k

FGH = 21.3 kN M AD = − 35.931 kN ⋅ m

Only the perpendicular component of FGH contributes to the moment of FGH about edge AD. The parallel component of FGH will be used to find the perpendicular component. Have

( FGH )Parallel

= λ AD ⋅FGH

= ( 0.99228 i + 0.124035 j) ⋅ − ( 7.1 kN ) i + (14.2 kN ) j + (14.2 kN ) k

= − 5.2839 kN

Since Then

FGH = ( FGH )Perpendicular + ( FGH )Parallel

( FGH )Perpendicular

=

**( FGH )2 − ( FGH )2Parallel
**

( 21.3)2 − ( 5.2839 )2

=

= 20.634 kN

and

M AD = ( FGH )Perpendicular d

**35.931 kN ⋅ m = ( 20.634 kN ) d
**

d = 1.741349m

or

d = 1.741 m

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 68.

(a)

Have Where

M1 = d1F1 d1 = 0.6 m and F1 = 40 N

∴ M1 = ( 0.6 m )( 40 N )

or M1 = 24.0 N ⋅ m (b) Have

M Total = M1 + M 2

8 N ⋅ m = 24.0 N ⋅ m − ( 0.820 m )( cos α )( 24 N )

∴ cos α = 0.81301

or (c) Have

M1 + M 2 = 0

α = 35.6°

24 N ⋅ m − d 2 ( 24 N ) = 0 or

d 2 = 1.000 m

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 69.

(a)

M = Fd

12 N ⋅ m = F ( 0.45 m ) or F = 26.7 N (b)

M = Fd

12 N ⋅ m = F ( 0.24 m ) or F = 50.0 N (c)

M = Fd

Where d =

( 0.45 m )2 + ( 0.24 m )2

= 0.51 m

12 N ⋅ m = F ( 0.51 m ) or F = 23.5 N

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 70.

(a)

**Note when a = 8 in., rC/F is perpendicular to the inclined 10 lb forces. Have
**

M = ΣFd (

)

= − (10 lb ) a + 8 in. + 2 (1 in.) − (10 lb ) 2a 2 + 2 (1 in.)

For

a = 8 in., M = − (10 lb )(18 in. + 24.627 in.)

= − 426.27 lb ⋅ in.

**or M = 426 lb ⋅ in. (b) Have Also
**

M = 480 lb ⋅ in.

M = Σ ( M + Fd ) (

)

**= Moment of couple due to horizontal forces at A and D + Moment of force-couple systems at C and F about C. Then
**

− 480 lb ⋅ in. = −10 lb a + 8 in. + 2 (1 in.) + M C + M F + FX ( a + 8 in.) + Fy ( 2a )

M F = M C = −10 lb ⋅ in.

Fx =

Fy =

Where M C = − (10 lb )(1 in.) = −10 lb ⋅ in.

−10 lb 2

−10 lb 2 10 lb 10 lb ( a + 8 in.) − ( 2a ) 2 2

∴ − 480 lb ⋅ in. = −10 lb ( a + 10 in.) − 10 lb ⋅ in. − 10 lb ⋅ in.

−

303.43 = 31.213 a or a = 9.72in.

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 71.

(a)

Have

M = ΣFd (

)

= ( 9 lb )(13.8 in.) − ( 2.5 lb )(15.2 in.) = ( 86.2 lb ⋅ in.) M = 86.2 lb ⋅ in.

(b)

Have

M = Td = 86.2 lb ⋅ in.

**For T to be a minimum, d must be maximum.
**

∴ Tmin must be perpendicular to line AC.

tan θ =

15.2 in. 11.4 in. or θ = 53.1°

θ = 53.130°

(c) Have

M = Tmin d max Where M = 86.2 lb ⋅ in. d max =

(15.2 in.)2 + (11.4 in.)2

+ 2 (1.2 in.)

= 21.4 in. ∴ 86.2 lb ⋅ in. = Tmin ( 21.4 in.)

Tmin = 4.0280 lb

or Tmin = 4.03 lb

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 72.

Based on M = M1 + M 2

M1 = (18 N ⋅ m ) k M 2 = ( 7.5 N ⋅ m ) i ∴ M = ( 7.5 N ⋅ m ) i + (18 N ⋅ m ) k

and

M =

( 7.5 N ⋅ m )2 + (18 N ⋅ m )2

or M = 19.50 N ⋅ m

= 19.5 N ⋅ m

With

λ =

=

( 7.5 N ⋅ m ) i + (18 N ⋅ m ) k M = M 19.5 N ⋅ m

5 12 i+ k 13 13

Then

cos θ x =

5 13 12 13

∴ θ x = 67.380° ∴ θ y = 90° ∴ θ z = 22.620° or θ x = 67.4°,

cosθ y = 0 cosθ z =

θ y = 90.0°,

θ z = 22.6°

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 73.

Have

M = M1 + M 2 rC/B = ( 38.4 in.) i − (16 in.) j PIC = − ( 25 lb ) k

Where M1 = rC/B × PIC

**i j k ∴ M1 = 38.4 −16 0 lb ⋅ in. 0 0 −25 = ( 400 lb ⋅ in.) i + ( 960 lb ⋅ in.) j and M 2 = rD/ A × PZE rD/ A = ( 8 in.) j − ( 22 in.) k
**

PZ E = PZE − (19.2 in.) i + ( 22 in.) k ED = ( 36.5 lb ) 2 2 ED ( −19.2 in.) + ( 22 in.)

= − ( 24 lb ) i + ( 27.5 lb ) k i j k ∴ M 2 = 0 8 −22 lb ⋅ in. −24 0 27.5 M 2 = ( 220 lb ⋅ in.) i + ( 528 lb ⋅ in.) j + (192 lb ⋅ in.) k

and

M = M1 + M 2

= ( 400 lb ⋅ in.) i + ( 960 lb ⋅ in.) j + ( 220 lb ⋅ in.) i + ( 528 lb ⋅ in.) j + (192 lb ⋅ in.) k

= ( 620 lb ⋅ in.) i + (1488 lb ⋅ in.) j + (192 lb ⋅ in.) k

continued

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

M =

**( 620 )2 + (1488)2 + (192 )2 lb ⋅ in.
**

= 1623.39 lb ⋅ in.

**or M = 1.623 kip ⋅ in.
**

λ=

**( 620 lb ⋅ in.) i + (1488 lb ⋅ in.) j + (192 lb ⋅ in.) k M = M 1623.39 lb ⋅ in.
**

= 0.38192 i + 0.91660 j + 0.118271k

cosθ x = 0.38192 cosθ y = 0.91660 cosθ z = 0.118271

or θ x = 67.5° or θ y = 23.6° or θ z = 83.2°

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 74.

Have

M = M1 + M 2

Where M1 = rE/D × FD

= − ( 0.7 m ) k × ( 80 N ) j = ( 56.0 N ⋅ m ) i

And Now

M 2 = rG/F × FB

d BF =

( −0.300 m )2 + ( 0.540 m )2 + ( 0.350 m )2

= 0.710 m

Then

FB = λBF FB

=

**( −0.300 m ) i + ( 0.540 m ) j + ( 0.350 m ) k
**

0.710 m

( 71 N )

= − ( 30 N ) i + ( 54 N ) j + ( 35 N ) k

∴

M 2 = ( 0.54 m ) j × − ( 30 N ) i + ( 54 N ) j + ( 35 N ) k

= (18.90 N ⋅ m ) i + (16.20 N ⋅ m ) k

Finally M = ( 56.0 N ⋅ m ) i + (18.90 N ⋅ m ) i + (16.20 N ⋅ m ) k

= ( 74.9 N ⋅ m ) i + (16.20 N ⋅ m ) k

and

M =

( 74.9 N ⋅ m )2 + (16.20 N ⋅ m )2

or M = 76.6 N ⋅ m cosθ y = 0 76.632 cosθ z = 16.20 76.632 74.9 76.632

= 76.632 N ⋅ m

cosθ x =

or θ x = 12.20°

θ y = 90.0°

θ z = 77.8°

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 75.

Have

M = ( M1 + M 2 ) + M P

From the solution to Problem 3.74

( M1 + M 2 ) = ( 74.9 N ⋅ m ) i + (16.20 N ⋅ m ) k

Now

M P = rD / E × PE

= ( 0.54 m ) j + ( 0.70 m ) k × ( 90 N ) i

= ( 63.0 N ⋅ m ) j − ( 48.6 N ⋅ m ) k

∴

M = ( 74.9 i + 16.20 k ) + ( 63.0 j − 48.6 k )

= ( 74.9 N ⋅ m ) i + ( 63.0 N ⋅ m ) j − ( 32.4 N ⋅ m ) k

and M =

( 74.9 N ⋅ m )2 + ( 63.0 N ⋅ m )2 + ( − 32.4 N ⋅ m )2

or M = 103.1 N ⋅ m

= 103.096 N ⋅ m

and

cosθ x =

74.9 103.096

cosθ y =

63.0 103.096

cosθ z = or θ x = 43.4°

− 32.4 103.096

θ y = 52.3°

θ z = 108.3°

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 76.

Have

M = M1 + M 2 + M P

From Problem 3.73 solution: M1 = ( 400 lb ⋅ in.) i + ( 960 lb ⋅ in.) j M 2 = ( 220 lb ⋅ in.) i + ( 528 lb ⋅ in.) j + (192 lb ⋅ in.) k Now M P = rE/ A × PE

rE/ A = (19.2 in.) i + ( 8 in.) j − ( 44 in.) k PE = ( 52.5 lb ) j Therefore

i j k M P = 19.2 8 − 44 0 52.5 0 = ( 2310 lb. in.) i + (1008 lb. in.) k and M = M1 + M 2 + M P

= [(400 + 220 + 2310)i + (960 + 528)j + (192 + 1008)k ] lb ⋅ in. = ( 2930 lb ⋅ in.) i + (1488 lb ⋅ in.) j + (1200 lb ⋅ in.) k M =

**( 2930 )2 + (1488)2 + (1200 )2
**

or M = 3.50 kip ⋅ in.

continued

= 3498.4 lb ⋅ in.

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

λ =

M 2930i + 1488j + 1200k = M 3498.4

**= 0.83753i + 0.42534 j + 0.34301k
**

cosθ x = 0.83753 or cosθ y = 0.42534 or θ y = 64.8° cosθ z = 0.34301 or θ z = 69.9°

θ x = 33.1°

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 77.

Have Where

M = M1 + M 2 + M 3 M1 = − (1.2 lb ⋅ ft ) cos 25° j − (1.2 lb ⋅ ft ) sin 25°k M 2 = − (1.3 lb ⋅ ft ) j M 3 = − (1.4 lb ⋅ ft ) cos 20° j + (1.4 lb ⋅ ft ) sin 20°k

∴

M = ( −1.08757 − 1.3 − 1.31557 ) j + ( − 0.507142 + 0.478828 ) k = − ( 3.7031 lb ⋅ ft ) j − ( 0.028314 lb ⋅ ft ) k

and

M =

( −3.7031)2 + ( − 0.028314 )2

= 3.7032 lb ⋅ ft

or M = 3.70 lb ⋅ ft

λ =

M −3.7031j − 0.028314k = M 3.7032

= − 0.99997 j − 0.0076458k

cosθ x = 0 or cosθ y = − 0.99997 or cosθ z = −0.0076458 or

θ x = 90° θ y = 179.6° θ z = 90.4°

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 78.

(a)

FB = P : M B = −rBA P cos10° = − ( 0.355 m )(160 N ) cos10° = −55.937 N ⋅ m

∴ FB = 160.0 N

50.0°

or M B = 55.9 N ⋅ m (b)

FC = P :

M C = M B − rCB ( FB )⊥ = M B − rCB FB sin 55° = −55.937 N ⋅ m − ( 0.305 m )(160 N ) sin 55°

∴ FC = 160.0 N

50.0°

or M C = 95.9 N ⋅ m

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 79.

(a)

ΣF :

FB = 135 N

or FB = 135 N

ΣM :

M B = P dB = (135 N )( 0.125 m ) = 16.875 N ⋅ m

or M B = 16.88 N ⋅ m (b)

ΣM B : M B = FC d

**16.875 N ⋅ m = FC ( 0.075 m )
**

FC = 225 N

or FC = 225 N

ΣF :

0 = − FB + FC

FB = FC = 225 N

or FB = 225 N

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Chapter 3, Solution 80.

(a) Based on

ΣF : PC = P = 700 N

or PC = 700 N

ΣM C : M C = − Px dCy + Py dCx

60°

where

**Px = ( 700 N ) cos60° = 350 N
**

Py = ( 700 N ) sin 60° = 606.22 N dCx = 1.6 m dCy = 1.1 m ∴ M C = − ( 350 N )(1.1 m ) + ( 606.22 N )(1.6 m ) = −385 N ⋅ m + 969.95 N ⋅ m = 584.95 N ⋅ m or M C = 585 N ⋅ m

(b) Based on

ΣFx : PDx = P cos60° = ( 700 N ) cos 60°

= 350 N

ΣM D :

( P cos 60°)( d DA ) =

PB = 87.5 N

PB ( d DB )

( 700 N ) cos 60° ( 0.6 m ) = PB ( 2.4 m )

or PB = 87.5 N

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ΣFy : P sin 60° = PB + PDy

**( 700 N ) sin 60° = 87.5 N + PDy
**

PDy = 518.72 N PD = =

( PDx )2 + ( PDy )

2

( 350 )2 + ( 518.72 )2

= 625.76 N

θ = tan −1

PDy −1 518.72 = tan = 55.991° 350 PDx or PD = 626 N

56.0°

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 81.

ΣFx :

2.8cos 65° = FA cos θ + FC cos θ = ( FA + FC ) cosθ (1)

ΣFy :

2.8sin 65° = FA sin θ + FC sin θ = ( FA + FC ) sin θ (2)

Then

(2) ⇒ tan 65° = tan θ (1) or θ = 65.0° ΣM A :

**( 27 m )( 2.8 kN ) sin 65° = ( 72 m ) ( FC ) sin 65°
**

or FC = 1.050 kN

From Equation (1): 2.8 kN = FA + 1.050 kN or FA = 1.750 kN ∴ FA = 1.750 kN 65.0° 65.0°

FC = 1.050 kN

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Chapter 3, Solution 82.

Based on ΣFx : − ( 54 lb ) cos 30° = − FB cos α − FC cos α

( FB + FC ) cosα

ΣFy :

= ( 54 lb ) cos 30° FB sin α + FC sin α

(1)

( 54 lb ) sin 30° =

**or ( FB + FC ) sin α = ( 54 lb ) sin 30° From Eq ( 2 ) : tan α = tan 30° Eq (1) ∴ α = 30° Based on
**

ΣM C : ( 54 lb ) cos ( 30° − 20° ) (10 in.) = ( FB cos10° )( 24 in.)

(2)

∴ FB = 22.5 lb or FB = 22.5 lb From Eq. (1), 30°

**( 22.5 + FC ) cos 30° = ( 54 ) cos 30°
**

FC = 31.5 lb or FC = 31.5 lb 30°

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 83.

(a) Based on ΣFx : ∴

ΣM C :

**− ( 54 lb ) cos 30° = − FC cos 30° FC = 54 lb or FC = 54.0 lb
**

( 54 lb ) cos10° (10 in.) = M C

30°

∴ (b) Based on ΣFy :

ΣM B :

M C = 531.80 lb ⋅ in. or

M C = 532 lb ⋅ in.

( 54 lb ) sin 30° =

or

FB sin α (1)

FB sin α = 27

= − FC ( 24 in.) cos 20°

531.80 lb ⋅ in. − ( 54 lb ) cos10° ( 24 in.)

**FC = 33.012 lb or And ΣFx : − ( 54 lb ) cos 30° = − 33.012 lb − FB cos α FB cos α = 13.7534 From From Eq. (1), Eq (1) : Eq ( 2 )
**

FB =

FC = 33.0 lb

(2)

tan α =

27 13.7534

∴ α = 63.006°

27 = 30.301 lb sin ( 63.006° ) or FB = 30.3 lb 63.0°

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 84.

(a) Have ΣFy :

**FC + FD + FE = F F = −200 lb + 150 lb − 150 lb F = − 200 lb
**

or F = 200 lb

Have

ΣM G :

FC ( d − 4.5 ft ) − FD ( 6 ft ) = 0

( 200 lb )( d − 4.5 ft ) − (150 lb )( 6 ft ) = 0

d = 9 ft

or d = 9.00 ft (b) Changing directions of the two 150-lb forces only changes the sign of the couple.

∴ F = − 200 lb

or F = 200 lb And

ΣM G :

FC ( d − 4.5 ft ) + FD ( 6 ft ) = 0

− 4.5 ft ) + (150 lb )( 6 ft ) = 0

d =0

( 200 lb )( d

or d = 0

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Chapter 3, Solution 85.

(a)

Based on ΣFz : − 200 N + 200 N + 240 N = FA FA = 240 N or FA = ( 240 N ) k Based on ΣM A :

(b)

( 200 N )( 0.7 m ) − ( 200 N )( 0.2 m ) = M A

M A = 100 N ⋅ m or M A = (100.0 N ⋅ m ) j Based on ΣFz : − 200 N + 200 N + 240 N = F F = 240 N or F = ( 240 N ) k Based on ΣM A :

(c)

100 N ⋅ m = ( 240 N )( x ) x = 0.41667 m or x = 0.417 m From A along AB Based on ΣM B : − ( 200 N )( 0.3 m ) + ( 200 N )( 0.8 m ) − P (1 m ) = R ( 0 ) P = 100 N or P = 100.0 N

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Chapter 3, Solution 86.

Let R be the single equivalent force... ΣF :

R = FA + FC

= ( 260 N )( cos10° i − sin10° k ) + ( 320 N )( − cos8° i − sin 8° k ) = − ( 60.836 N ) i − ( 89.684 N ) k or R = − ( 60.8 N ) i − ( 89.7 N ) k

ΣM A :

rAD Rx = rAC FC cos8° rAD ( 60.836 N ) = ( 0.690 m )( 320 N ) cos8° rAD = 3.5941 m ∴ R Would have to be applied 3.59 m to the right of A on an extension of handle ABC.

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Chapter 3, Solution 87.

(a)

Have Since

ΣF :

FB + FC + FD = FA FA = FC = 22 lb

FB = − FD

∴

20°

or FA = 22.0 lb 20°

Have

ΣM A :

**− FBT ( r ) − FCT ( r ) + FDT ( r ) = M A
**

− ( 28 lb ) sin15° ( 8 in.) − ( 22 lb ) sin 25° ( 8 in.) + ( 28 lb ) sin 45° ( 8 in.) = M A

M A = 26.036 lb ⋅ in. or M A = 26.0 lb ⋅ in. (b) Have ΣF :

FA = FE

or FE = 22.0 lb 20° M A = [ FE cos 20°] ( a )

26.036 lb ⋅ in. = ( 22 lb ) cos 20° ( a )

ΣM :

∴

a = 1.25941 in. or a = 1.259 in. Below A

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Chapter 3, Solution 88.

(a)

Let R be the single equivalent force. Then

R = (120 N ) k

ΣM B : − a (120 N ) = − ( 0.165 m )( 90 N ) cos15° + ( 0.201 m )( 90 N ) sin15° a = 0.080516 m

R = 120 N

∴ The line of action is y =

201 mm − 80.516 mm = 19.984 mm 2 or y = 19.98 mm

(b)

ΣM B :

− ( 0.201 − 0.040 ) m (120 N ) = − ( 0.165 m )( 90 N ) cosθ + ( 0.201 m )( 90 N ) sin θ

or or or or Then

**cosθ − 1.21818sin θ = 1.30101
**

cos 2 θ = (1.30101 + 1.21818sin θ )

2

1 − sin 2 θ = 1.69263 + 3.1697sin θ + 1.48396sin 2 θ 2.48396sin 2 θ + 3.1697 sin θ + 0.69263 = 0 sin θ = −3.1697 ±

**( 3.1697 )2 − 4 ( 2.48396 )( 0.69263) 2 ( 2.48396 )
**

or θ = −16.26° and

θ = −85.0°

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Chapter 3, Solution 89.

(a)

First note that F = P and that F must be equivalent to (P, MD) at point D, Where For F = ( F )min

**M D = 57.6 N ⋅ m F must act as far from D as possible
**

∴ Point of application is at point B

(b) For ( F )min Now

F must be perpendicular to BD

d DB =

( 630 mm )2 + ( −160 mm )2

= 650 mm

tan α =

63 16

α = 75.7°

Then

M D = d DB F

57.6 N ⋅ m = ( 0.650 m ) F

F = 88.6 N

or F = 88.6 N

75.7°

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Chapter 3, Solution 90.

Have

ΣF :

− ( 250 kN ) j = F or F = − ( 250 kN ) j

Also have

ΣM G :

rP × P = M

**i j k − 0.030 0 0.060 kN ⋅ m = M 0 − 250 0
**

∴ M = (15 kN ⋅ m ) i + ( 7.5 kN ⋅ m ) k or M = (15.00 kN ⋅ m ) i + ( 7.50 kN ⋅ m ) k

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Chapter 3, Solution 91.

Have ΣF :

TAB = F

AB AB

where TAB = TAB

= ( 54 lb )

2.25i − 18 j + 9k

( 2.25)2 + ( −18)2 + ( 9 )2

F = ( 6.00 lb ) i − ( 48.0 lb ) j + ( 24.0 lb ) k

= ( 6 lb ) i − ( 48 lb ) j + ( 24 lb ) k So that Have ΣM E :

rA/E × TAB = M

i j k 0 22.5 0 lb ⋅ ft = M 6 − 48 24 ∴ M = ( 540 lb ⋅ ft ) i − (135 lb ⋅ ft ) k or M = ( 540 lb ⋅ ft ) i − (135.0 lb ⋅ ft ) k

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Chapter 3, Solution 92.

Have ΣF :

TCD = F

CD CD

where TCD = TCD

= ( 61 lb )

− 0.9i − 16.8j + 7.2k

( − 0.9 )2 + ( −16.8)2 + ( 7.2 )2

F = − ( 3.00 lb ) i − ( 56.0 lb ) j + ( 24.0 lb ) k

= − ( 3 lb ) i − ( 56 lb ) j + ( 24 lb ) k So that

Have ΣM O = rC/D × TCD = M i j k 0 22.5 0 lb ⋅ ft = M − 3 − 56 24 ∴ M = ( 540 lb ⋅ ft ) i + ( 67.5 lb ⋅ ft ) k M = ( 540 lb ⋅ ft ) i + ( 67.5 lb ⋅ ft ) k

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Chapter 3, Solution 93.

Have ΣF :

TAB = F

AB AB

where TAB = TAB

= (10.5 kN )

− i − 4.75j + 2k

( −1)2 + ( − 4.75)2 + ( 2 )2

= − ( 2 kN ) i − ( 9.5 kN ) j + ( 4 kN ) k So that Have ΣM O : F = − ( 2.00 kN ) i − ( 9.50 kN ) j + ( 4.00 kN ) k rA × TAB = M

i j k 3 4.75 0 kN ⋅ m = M − 2 − 9.5 4 ∴ M = (19 kN ⋅ m ) i − (12 kN ⋅ m ) j − (19 kN ⋅ m ) k M = (19.00 kN ⋅ m ) i − (12.00 kN ⋅ m ) j − (19.00 kN ⋅ m ) k

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Chapter 3, Solution 94.

**Let ( R, M O ) be the equivalent force-couple system Then R = ( 220 N )( − sin 60° j − cos 60° k )
**

= (110 N ) − 3 j − k

(

)

or R = − (190.5 N ) j − (110 N ) k

Now Where

ΣM O :

M O = rOC × R

rOC = ( 0.2 m ) i + ( 0.1 − 0.4sin 20° ) m j + ( 0.4 cos 20° m ) k

Then

MO

i j k = − ( 0.1)(110 N ) 2 (1 − 4sin 20° ) 4 cos 20° ( m ) 0 3 1

= − (11 N ⋅ m ) (1 − 4sin 20° )(1) − ( 4cos 20° ) or

{

( 3 ) i − 2 j + 2

3k

}

M O = ( 75.7 N ⋅ m ) i + ( 22.0 N ⋅ m ) j − ( 38.1 N ⋅ m ) k

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Chapter 3, Solution 95.

Have ΣF : where F = F

F = FD

AI AI

= ( 63 lb ) So that Have ΣM D :

14.4i − 4.8j + 7.2k

(14.4 )2 + ( − 4.8)2 + ( 7.2 )2

F = ( 54.0 lb ) i − (18.00 lb ) j + ( 27.0 lb ) k

M + rI /O × F = M D

AC AC

where M = M

= ( 560 lb ⋅ in.)

9.6 i − 7.2 k

( 9.6 )2 + ( − 7.2 )2

= ( 448 lb ⋅ in.) i − ( 336 lb ⋅ in.) k Then M D i j k = ( 448 lb ⋅ in.) i − ( 336 lb ⋅ in.) k + 0 0 14.4 lb ⋅ in. 54 −18 27

= ( 448 lb ⋅ in.) i − ( 336 lb ⋅ in.) k + ( 259.2 lb ⋅ in.) i + ( 777.6 lb ⋅ in.) j

or

M D = ( 707 lb ⋅ in.) i + ( 778 lb ⋅ in.) j − ( 336 lb ⋅ in.) k

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Chapter 3, Solution 96.

First assume that the given force W and couples M1 and M 2 act at the origin. Now and

W = − Wj M = M1 + M 2 = − ( M 2 cos 25° ) i + ( M1 − M 2 sin 25° ) k

Note that since W and M are perpendicular, it follows that they can be replaced with a single equivalent force. (a) Have

F =W

or

F = − Wj = − ( 2.4 N ) j or F = − ( 2.40 N ) j

(b) Assume that the line of action of F passes through point P (x, 0, z). Then for equivalence M = rP/O × F where ∴ rP/O = xi + zk − ( M 2 cos 25° ) i + ( M1 − M 2 sin 25° ) k

= x 0 z = (Wz ) i − (Wx ) k 0 −W 0

i

j

k

Equating the i and k coefficients,

z = (b) For

−M z cos 25° W

and

M − M 2 sin 25° x = − 1 W

**W = 2.4 N, M1 = 0.068 N ⋅ m, M 2 = 0.065 N ⋅ m x= 0.068 − 0.065sin 25° = − 0.0168874 m − 2.4 or x = −16.89 mm
**

z = − 0.065cos 25° = − 0.024546 m 2.4 or z = − 24.5 mm

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Chapter 3, Solution 97.

(a) Have

ΣM Bz : M 2 z = 0

k ⋅ rH /B × F1 + M1z = 0

where

(

)

(1)

rH /B = ( 31 in.) i − ( 2 in.) j F1 = λ EH F1 = =

( 6 in.) i + ( 6 in.) j − ( 7 in.) k

11.0 in. 20 lb ( 6i + 6 j − 7k ) 11.0

( 20 lb )

M1z = k ⋅ M1

M1 = λ EJ M1

= Then from Equation (1), 0 0 1 31 −2 0 6 6 −7 20 lb ⋅ in. ( −7 )( 480 lb ⋅ in.) + =0 11.0 d 2 + 58

continued

−di + ( 3 in.) j − ( 7 in.) k d 2 + 58 in.

( 480 lb ⋅in.)

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**Solving for d, Equation (1) reduces to
**

20 lb ⋅ in. 3360 lb ⋅ in. =0 (186 + 12 ) − 2 11.0 d + 58

From which

d = 5.3955 in.

or d = 5.40 in.

(b)

F2 = F1 =

20 lb ( 6i + 6 j − 7k ) 11.0

= (10.9091i + 10.9091j − 12.7273k ) lb or F2 = (10.91 lb ) i + (10.91 lb ) j − (12.73 lb ) k M 2 = rH /B × F1 + M1 i j k 20 lb ⋅ in. ( − 5.3955 ) i + 3j − 7k = 31 − 2 0 + ( 480 lb ⋅ in.) 11.0 9.3333 6 6 −7 = ( 25.455i + 394.55j + 360k ) lb ⋅ in. + ( − 277.48i + 154.285j − 360k ) lb ⋅ in. M 2 = − ( 252.03 lb ⋅ in.) i + ( 548.84 lb ⋅ in.) j or M 2 = − ( 21.0 lb ⋅ ft ) i + ( 45.7 lb ⋅ ft ) j

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Chapter 3, Solution 98.

(a) a : ΣFy :

Ra = − 400 N − 600 N

or R a = 1000 N ΣM B :

M a = ( 2 kN ⋅ m ) + ( 2 kN ⋅ m ) + ( 5 m )( 400 N )

or M a = 6.00 kN ⋅ m

b : ΣFy : Rb = −1200 N + 200 N

or R b = 1000 N ΣM B :

M b = ( 0.6 kN ⋅ m ) + ( 5 m )(1200 N )

or M b = 6.60 kN ⋅ m

c : ΣFy : Rc = 200 N − 1200 N

or R c = 1000 N ΣM B :

M c = − ( 4 kN ⋅ m ) − (1.6 kN ⋅ m ) − ( 5 m )( 200 N )

or M c = 6.60 kN ⋅ m

d : ΣFy : Rd = − 800 N − 200 N

or R d = 1000 N ΣM B :

M d = − (1.6 kN ⋅ m ) + ( 4.2 kN ⋅ m ) + ( 5 m )( 800 N )

or M d = 6.60 kN ⋅ m

continued

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e : ΣFy :

Re = − 500 N − 400 N

or R e = 900 N ΣM B :

M e = ( 3.8 kN ⋅ m ) + ( 0.3 kN ⋅ m ) + ( 5 m )( 500 N )

or M e = 6.60 kN ⋅ m

f : ΣFy : R f = 400 N − 1400 N

or R f = 1000 N ΣM B :

M f = ( 8.6 kN ⋅ m ) − ( 0.8 kN ⋅ m ) − ( 5 m )( 400 N )

or M f = 5.80 kN ⋅ m

g : ΣFy : Rg = −1200 N + 300 N

or R g = 900 N ΣM B :

M g = ( 0.3 kN ⋅ m ) + ( 0.3 kN ⋅ m ) + ( 5 m )(1200 N )

or M g = 6.60 kN ⋅ m

h : ΣFy :

**Rh = − 250 N − 750 N
**

or R h = 1000 N

ΣM B :

M h = − ( 0.65 kN ⋅ m ) + ( 6 kN ⋅ m ) + ( 5 m )( 250 N )

or M h = 6.60 kN ⋅ m (b) The equivalent loadings are (b), (d), (h)

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Chapter 3, Solution 99.

The equivalent force-couple system at B is... ΣFy :

R = − 650 N − 350 N

or R = 1000 N

ΣM B :

M = (1.6 m )( 800 N ) + (1.27 kN ⋅ m ) + ( 5 m )( 650 N )

or M = 5.80 kN ⋅ m

∴ The equivalent loading of Problem 3.98 is (f)

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Chapter 3, Solution 100.

Equivalent force system... (a) ΣFy :

R = − 400 N − 200 N

or R = 600 N

ΣM A :

− d ( 600 N ) = − ( 200 N ⋅ m ) + (100 N ⋅ m ) − ( 4 m )( 200 N ) or d = 1.500 m

(b) ΣFy :

R = − 400 N + 100 N

or R = 300 N

ΣM A :

− d ( 300 N ) = − ( 200 N ⋅ m ) − ( 600 N ⋅ m ) + ( 4 m )(100 N ) or d = 1.333 m

(c) ΣFy :

R = − 400 N − 100 N

or R = 500 N

ΣM A :

− d ( 500 N ) = − ( 200 N ⋅ m ) − ( 200 N ⋅ m ) − ( 4 m )(100 N ) or d = 1.600 m

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Chapter 3, Solution 101.

The equivalent force-couple system at A for each of the five force-couple systems will be determined and compared to F = ( 2 lb ) j To determine if they are equivalent Force-couple system at B: Have ΣF : and ΣM A : F = ( 2 lb ) j M = ΣM B + rB/ A × FB M = ( 48 lb ⋅ in.) i + ( 32 lb ⋅ in.) k

(

)

M = ( 32 lb ⋅ in.) i + (16 lb ⋅ in.) k + ( 8 in.) i × ( 2 lb ) j = ( 32 lb ⋅ in.) i + ( 32 lb ⋅ in.) k

∴ is not equivalent

Force-couple system at C: Have ΣF : And ΣM A : F = ( 2 lb ) j M = M C + rC/ A × FC

(

)

M = ( 68 lb ⋅ in.) i + ( 8 in.) i + (10 in.) k × ( 2 lb ) j

= ( 48 lb ⋅ in.) i + (16 lb ⋅ in.) k ∴ is not equivalent

continued

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Force-couple system at E: Have ΣF : and ΣM A : F = ( 2 lb ) j M = M E + rE/ A × FE

(

)

M = ( 48 lb ⋅ in.) i + (16 in.) i − ( 3.2 in.) j × ( 2 lb ) j

= ( 48 lb ⋅ in.) i + ( 32 lb ⋅ in.) k ∴ is equivalent

Force-couple system at G: Have ΣF : F = ( 2 lb ) i + ( 2 lb ) j

F has two force components

∴ is not equivalent

**Force-couple system at I: Have ΣF : and ΣM A : F = ( 2 lb ) j
**

ΣM I + rI / A × FI

(

)

M = ( 80 lb ⋅ in.) i − (16 in.) k

+ (16 in.) i − ( 8 in.) j + (16 in.) k × ( 2 lb ) j

M = ( 48 lb ⋅ in.) i + (16 lb ⋅ in.) k

∴ is not equivalent

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Chapter 3, Solution 102.

First

WA = mA g = ( 38 kg ) g WB = mB g = ( 29 kg ) g

(a)

WC = mC g = ( 27 kg ) g

For resultant weight to act at C, Then

ΣM C = 0

( 38 kg ) g ( 2 m ) − ( 27 kg ) g ( d ) − ( 29 kg ) g ( 2 m ) = 0

∴ d =

76 − 58 = 0.66667 m 27

or d = 0.667 m

(b)

WC = mC g = ( 24 kg ) g

For resultant weight to act at C, Then

ΣM C = 0

( 38 kg ) g ( 2 m ) − ( 24 kg ) g ( d ) − ( 29 kg ) g ( 2 m ) = 0

∴ d =

76 − 58 = 0.75 m 24 or d = 0.750 m

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Chapter 3, Solution 103.

(a) Have ΣF :

− WC − WD − WE = R

**∴ R = − 200 lb − 175 lb − 135 lb = − 510 lb
**

or R = 510 lb Have ΣM A :

**− ( 200 lb )( 4.5 ft ) − (175 lb )( 7.8 ft ) − (135 lb )(12.75 ft ) = − R ( d ) ∴ − 3986.3 lb ⋅ ft = ( − 510 lb ) d
**

or d = 7.82 ft (b) For equal reactions at A and B, The resultant R must act at midspan.

From

**L ΣM A = − R 2 ∴ − ( 200 lb )( 4.5 ft ) − (175 lb )( 4.5 ft + a ) − (135 lb )( 4.5 ft + 2.5 a ) = − ( 510 lb )( 9 ft )
**

or 2295 + 512.5 a = 4590 and a = 4.48 ft

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Chapter 3, Solution 104.

Have ΣF :

−12 kN − WL − 18 kN = − 40 kN − 40 kN

WL = 50 kN

or WL = 50.0 kN

ΣM B :

(12 kN )( 5 m ) + ( 50 kN ) d

= ( 40 kN )( 5 m )

d = 2.8 m

or heaviest load ( 50 kN ) is located 2.80 m from front axle

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Chapter 3, Solution 105.

(a) ΣF :

**R = ( 80 N ) i − ( 40 N ) j − ( 60 N ) j + ( 90 N )( − sin 50°i − cos 50° j)
**

= (11.0560 N ) i − (157.851 N ) j

R=

**(11.0560 N )2 + ( −157.851 N )2
**

−157.851 11.0560

= 158.2 N

tan θ =

θ = 86.0°

or R = 158.2 N (b) 86.0°

ΣM F : d − (157.851 N ) = ( 0.32 m )( 80 N ) − ( 0.15 m )( 40 N ) − ( 0.35 m )( 60 N ) − ( 0.61 m )( 90 N ) cos 50° − ( 0.16 m )( 90 N ) sin 50°

or d = 302 mm to the right of F

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Chapter 3, Solution 106.

(a) ΣM I :

0 = ( 0.32 m )( 80 N ) + ( 0.1 m )( 40 N ) − ( 0.1 m )( 60 N ) − ( 0.36 m )( 90 N ) cos α − ( 0.16 m )( 90 N ) sin α

or 4sin α + 9cos α = 6.5556

( 9cosα )2

= ( 6.5556 − 4sin α )

2

**81 1 − sin 2 α = 42.976 − 52.445sin α + 16sin 2 α
**

97sin 2 α − 52.445sin α − 38.024 = 0

Solving by the quadratic formula gives for the positive root

sin α = 0.95230

(

)

α = 72.233°

or α = 72.2° Note: The second root (α = − 24.3° ) is rejected since 0 < α < 90°. (b) ΣF :

R = ( 80 N ) i − ( 40 N ) j − ( 60 N ) j

+ ( 90 N )( − sin 72.233°i − cos 72.233° j) = − ( 5.7075 N ) i − (127.463 N ) j R= = 127.6 N

( − 5.7075 N )2 + ( −127.463 N )2

tan θ =

−127.463 − 5.7075

θ = 87.4°

or

R = 127.6 N

87.4°

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Chapter 3, Solution 107.

(a) Have

ΣM D :

**0 = M − ( 0.8 in.)( 40 lb ) − ( 2.9 in.)( 20 lb ) cos 30° − ( 3.3 in.)( 20 lb ) sin 30° or M = 115.229 lb ⋅ in. or
**

M = 115.2 lb ⋅ in.

Now, R is oriented at 45° as shown (since its line of action passes through B and D). Have ΣFx′ : 0 = ( 40 lb ) cos 45° − ( 20 lb ) cos15°

**− ( 90 lb ) cos (α + 45° ) or α = 39.283° or (b) ΣFx :
**

Rx = 40 − 20sin 30° − 90cos 39.283°

α = 39.3°

= − 39.663 lb Now

R=

2 Rx

or

R = 56.1 lb

45.0°

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Chapter 3, Solution 108.

(a) Reduce system to a force and couple at B:

Have R = ΣF = − (10 lb ) j + ( 25 lb ) cos 60°i + ( 25 lb ) sin 60° j − ( 40 lb ) i = − ( 27.5 lb ) i + (11.6506 lb ) j or R =

( − 27.5 lb )2 + (11.6506 lb )2

11.6506

= 29.866 lb

θ = tan −1 = 22.960° 27.5

or

R = 29.9 lb

23.0°

Also M B = ΣM B = ( 80 lb ⋅ in.) k − (12 in.) i × ( −10 lb ) j − ( 8 in.) j × ( − 40 lb ) i = − (120 lb ⋅ in.) k (b)

**Have M B = − (120 lb ⋅ in.) k = − ( u ) i × (11.6506 lb ) j − (120 lb ⋅ in.) k = − (11.6506 lb )( u ) k
**

u = 10.2999 in. and x = 12 in. − 10.2999 in.

= 1.7001 in.

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**Have M B = − (120 lb ⋅ in.) k = − ( v ) j × ( − 27.5 lb ) i − (120 lb ⋅ in.) k = − ( 27.5 lb )( v ) k
**

v = 4.3636 in.

and y = 8 in. − 4.3636 in. = 3.6364 in. or 1.700 in. to the right of A and 3.64 in. above C

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**Chapter 3, Solution 109.
**

(a) Position origin along centerline of sheet metal at the intersection with line EF. (a) Have

ΣF = R

R = − 0.52 j − 1.05 j − 2.1( sin 45° i + cos 45° j) − 0.64 i kips

**R = − ( 2.1249 kips ) i − ( 3.0549 kips ) j
**

R=

( − 2.1249 )2 + ( − 3.0549 )2

− 3.0549 = 55.179° − 2.1249

= 3.7212 kips

θ = tan −1

or Have

R = 3.72 kips

55.2°

M EF = ΣM EF

Where M EF = ( 0.52 kip )( 3.6 in.) + (1.05 kips )(1.6 in.)

**− ( 2.1 kips )( 0.8 in.) − ( 0.64 kip ) (1.6 in.) sin 45° + 1.6 in. = 0.123923 kip ⋅ in.
**

To obtain distance d left of EF, Have

**M EF = dRy = d ( − 3.0549 kips )
**

d = 0.123923 kip ⋅ in. = −0.040565 in. − 3.0549 kips

or (b) Have

M EF = ΣM EF = 0

d = 0.0406 in. left of EF

M EF = ( 0.52 kip )( 3.6 in.) + (1.05 kips )(1.6 in.)

− ( 2.1 kips )( 0.8 in.) − ( 0.64 kip ) (1.6 in.) sin α + 1.6 in. ∴

**(1.024 kip ⋅ in.) sin α
**

or

= 0.848 kip ⋅ in.

α = 55.9°

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Chapter 3, Solution 110.

(a)

Have

ΣF = R

R = − 0.52 j − 1.05j − 2.1( sin α i + cos α j) − 0.64i kips = − 0.64 kip + ( 2.1 kips )( sin α ) i − 1.57 kips + ( 2.1 kips ) cos α j

Then

tan α =

Rx 0.64 + 2.1sin α = Ry 1.57 + 2.1cos α

**1.57 tan α + 2.1sin α = 0.64 + 2.1sin α
**

tan α = 0.64 1.57

α = 22.178°

**or (b) From α = 22.178°
**

Rx = − 0.64 kip − ( 2.1 kips ) sin 22.178°

= −1.43272 kips

α = 22.2°

**Ry = −1.57 kips − ( 2.1 kips ) cos 22.178°
**

= − 3.5146 kips

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R=

( −1.43272 )2 + ( − 3.5146 )2

or

R = 3.80 kips

= 3.7954 kips 67.8°

Then

M EF = ΣM EF

**Where M EF = ( 0.52 kip )( 3.6 in.) + (1.05 kips )(1.6 in.) − ( 2.1 kips )( 0.8 in.)
**

− ( 0.64 kip ) (1.6 in.) sin 22.178° + 1.6 in.

= 0.46146 kip ⋅ in.

**To obtain distance d left of EF, Have
**

M EF = dRy

= d ( − 3.5146 kips )

d =

0.46146 kip ⋅ in. − 3.5146 kips

= − 0.131298 in.

or

d = 0.1313 in. left of EF

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Chapter 3, Solution 111.

Equivalent force-couple at A due to belts on pulley A Have ΣF : −120 N − 160 N = RA ∴ R A = 280 N Have ΣM A : − 40 N ( 0.02 m ) = M A ∴ M A = 0.8 N ⋅ m Equivalent force-couple at B due to belts on pulley B Have ΣF :

( 210 N + 150 N )

25° = R B 25°

∴ R B = 360 N Have

ΣM B : − 60 N ( 0.015 m ) = M B ∴ M B = 0.9 N ⋅ m

**Equivalent force-couple at F Have ΣF : R F = ( −280 N ) j + ( 360 N )( cos 25°i + sin 25° j) = ( 326.27 N ) i − (127.857 N ) j
**

R = RF =

2 2 RFx + RFy =

( 326.27 )2 + (127.857 )2

= 350.43 N

θ = tan −1

RFy −1 −127.857 = tan = −21.399° 326.27 RFx

or R F = R = 350 N

21.4°

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Have ΣM F : M F = − ( 280 N )( 0.06 m ) − 0.80 N ⋅ m

− ( 360 N ) cos 25° ( 0.010 m ) + ( 360 N ) sin 25° ( 0.120 m ) − 0.90 N ⋅ m

M F = − ( 3.5056 N ⋅ m ) k

To determine where a single resultant force will intersect line FE,

M F = dR y

∴ d = MF −3.5056 N ⋅ m = = 0.027418 m = 27.418 mm Ry −127.857 N

or d = 27.4 mm

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**Chapter 3, Solution 112.
**

(a) Have

R = ΣF

**R = ( 25 N )( cos 40°i + sin 40° j) − (15 N ) i − (10 N ) j = ( 4.1511 N ) i + ( 6.0696 N ) j
**

R =

( 4.1511)2 + ( 6.0696 )2

6.0696

= 7.3533 N

θ = tan −1 4.1511

= 55.631°

or (a) and (b) (b) From where

R = 7.35 N

55.6°

M B = ΣM B = dRy

M B = − ( 25 N ) cos 40° ( 0.375 m ) sin 50° − ( 25 N ) sin 40° ( 0.375 m ) cos 50° + (15 N ) ( 0.150 m ) sin 50° − (10 N )( 0.150 m ) + 6.25 N ⋅ m ∴ M B = −2.9014 N ⋅ m

and

d =

MB Ry

=

−2.9014 N ⋅ m 6.0696 N

= 0.47802 m

or

d = 478 mm to the left of B

(c)

From M B = rD/B × R

**− ( 2.9014 N ⋅ m ) k = ( −d1 cos 50°i + d1 sin 50° j) × ( 4.1511 N ) i + ( 6.096 N ) j − ( 2.9014 N ⋅ m ) k = − ( 7.0814 d1 ) k
**

∴ d1 = 0.40972 m

**or d1 = 410 mm from B along line AB or 34.7 mm above and to left of A
**

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics and Dynamics, 8/e, Ferdinand P. Beer, E. Russell Johnston, Jr., Elliot R. Eisenberg, William E. Clausen, David Mazurek, Phillip J. Cornwell © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

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Chapter 3, Solution 113.

Based on

ΣFx = 0

P cos α − 15 N = 0 ∴ P cos α = 15 N

and ΣFy = 0 (1)

P sin α − 10 N = 0

∴ P sin α = 10 N Dividing Equation (2) by Equation (1), tan α = 10 15 (2)

∴ α = 33.690° Substituting into Equation (1), P= or (a) Based on 15 N = 18.0278 N cos33.690° 33.7°

P = 18.03 N

ΣM B = 0

− (18.0278 N ) cos 33.690° ( d + 0.150 m ) sin 50° − (18.0278 N ) sin 33.690° ( d + 0.150 m ) cos 50° + (15 N ) ( 0.150 m ) sin 50° − (10 N )( 0.150 m ) + 6.25 N ⋅ m = 0

−17.9186d = −3.7858 ∴ d = 0.21128 m or d = 211 mm

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(b) Based on

ΣM D = 0

− (18.0278 N ) cos 33.690° ( d + 0.150 m ) sin 50° − (18.0278 N ) sin 33.690° ( d + 0.150 m ) cos50° + 0.150 m + (15 N ) ( 0.150 m ) sin 50° + 6.25 N ⋅ m = 0

**−17.9186d = −3.7858
**

∴ d = 0.21128 m or d = 211 mm This result is expected, since R = 0 and M R = 0 for B d = 211 mm implies that R = 0 and M = 0 at any other point for the value of d found in part a.

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Chapter 3, Solution 114.

(a)

Let ( R, M D ) be the equivalent force-couple system at D. First note... At For

x = b; y = h y = k x2

We have h = k b 2 h or k = 2 b h ∴ y = 2 x2 b h y = 2 x2 For any contact point c alone the surface b dy h =2 2x dx b

R = F

and

**ΣΜ D : M D = − ( x ) F sin θ + ( h − y ) F cosθ
**

b2 = −x F b 4 + 4h 2 x 2 2h x + h − h x2 F 2 4 b b + 4h 2 x 2

b2 tan −1 2hx

or

MD

h 2 2 − xb + h − 2 x ( 2hx ) b = F 4 2 2 b + 4h x

2h 2 x 3 2 2 − xb + 2h x − b2 = F b 4 + 4h 2 x 2

or M D

2h 2 x3 2 2 2h − b x − b2 = F b 4 + 4h 2 x 2

(

)

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(b) With

b = 1 ft, h = 2 ft

7 x − 8x3 MD = F 2 1 + 16 x

For M D to be a maximum

dM D dx 7 − 24 x 2 = 0 = F

Then

(

)

1 1 + 16 x 2 − 7 x − 8x3 ( 32 x ) 1 + 16 x 2 2 2 1 + 16 x

( (

) )

(

)

−

1 2

**For the non-trivial solution:
**

0 = 7 − 24 x 2 1 + 16 x 2 − 16 x 7 x − 8 x3

0 = 256 x 4 + 24 x 2 − 7

(

)(

)

(

)

x = 0.354 ft

Solving by the quadratic formula gives for the positive root.

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Chapter 3, Solution 115.

For equivalence ΣF : FB + FC + FD = R A

**R A = − ( 240 N ) j − (125 N ) k − ( 300 N ) i + (150 N ) k
**

∴ R A = − ( 300 N ) i − ( 240 N ) j + ( 25 N ) k

Also for equivalence ΣΜ Α : rB/ A × FB + rC/ A × FC + rD/ A × FD = M A

or M A

**i j k i j k i j k = 0 0.12 m 0 + 0.06 m 0.03 m − 0.075 m + 0.06 m 0.08 m − 0.75 m 0 − 240 N −125 N −300 N 0 0 0 0 150 N
**

= − (15 N ⋅ m ) i + ( 22.5 N ⋅ m ) j + ( 9 N ⋅ m ) k + (12 N ⋅ m ) i − ( 9 N ⋅ m ) j

or M A = − ( 3 N ⋅ m ) i + (13.5 N ⋅ m ) j + ( 9 N ⋅ m ) k

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Chapter 3, Solution 116.

**Let ( R, M D ) be the equivalent force-couple system at O. Now ΣF : R = ΣF
**

= (1.8 lb )( − sin 40°i − cos 40°k ) + (11 lb )( − sin12° j − cos12°k ) + (18 lb )( − sin15° j − cos15°k ) or R = − (1.157 lb ) i − ( 6.95 lb ) j − ( 29.5 lb ) k Note that each belt force may be replaced by a force-couple that is equivalent to the same force plus the moment of the force about the shaft (x axis) of the sander. Then ... ΣM O : M O = ΣM O i j k = (1.8 lb ) 0 0.75 in. 2.2 in. − sin 40° 0 − cos 40°

− ( 2.5 in.)(11 lb ) i − ( 9 in.) i × (11 lb )( − sin12° j − cos12°k ) + ( 2.5 in.)(18 lb ) i − ( 9 in.) i × (18 lb )( − sin15° j − cos15°k ) = (1.8 )( −0.75cos 40°i − 2.2sin 40° j + 0.75sin 40°k ) − 27.5i + ( 99 )( sin12°k − cos12° j) + 45i + (162 )( sin15°k − cos15° j) ( lb ⋅ in.) = ( −1.03416 − 27.5 + 45 ) i + ( −2.5454 − 96.837 − 156.480 ) j + ( 0.86776 + 20.583 + 41.929 ) k ( lb ⋅ in.)

or M O = (16.47 lb ⋅ in.) i − ( 256 lb ⋅ in.) j + ( 63.4 lb ⋅ in.) k

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Chapter 3, Solution 117.

Have

ΣFx : ΣFy : ΣFz :

−10 N = Ax + Bx 0 = Ay + By 6 N = Az + Bz

⇒ Bx = −10 − Ax ⇒ By = − Ay ⇒ Bz = 6 − Az

and Now

ΣM O :

d BA :

M O = rO/ A × A + rO/B × B

372 mm =

( 60 mm )2 + ( −72 mm )2 + ( d BA )2 z

or ( d BA ) z = 360 mm

Then

rO/ A = (135 mm ) i − ( 72 mm ) j + ( 310 mm ) k rO/B = ( 75 mm ) i − ( 50 mm ) k

( 60 N ⋅ m ) i + ( 0.05 N ⋅ m ) j − (10 N ⋅ m ) k

i j k i j k = 0.135 − 0.72 0.310 ( N ⋅ m ) + 0.075 0 − 0.050 ( N ⋅ m ) Ax Ay Az Bx By Bz

i:

60 = −0.072 Az − 0.310 Ay + ( 0.050 ) By or 60 = −0.072 Az − 0.360 Ay (1)

(

)

j:

0.05 = ( 0.310 Ax − 0.135 Az ) + ( −0.050 Bx − 0.075 Bz ) = 0.310 Ax − 0.050 ( −10 − Ax ) − 0.135 Az − 0.075 ( 6 − Az ) or 0 = 0.360 Ax − 0.060 Az Az = 6 Ax

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Now

Ax = 2 N

∴ Az = 12.00 N 60 = −0.072 (12.00 ) − 0.360 Ay or Ay = −169.1 N

From equation (1)

Then

Bx = −12.00 N By = 169.1 N Bz = −6.00 N ∴ A = ( 2.00 N ) i − (169.1 N ) j + (12.00 N ) k B = − (12.00 N ) i + (169.1 N ) j − ( 6.00 N ) k

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Chapter 3, Solution 118.

Have

ΣF : B + C = R ΣFx : Bx + C x = 3.9 lb ΣFy : C y = Ry ΣFz : C z = −1.1 lb or (2) (3) Bx = 3.9 lb − Cx (1)

Have

ΣM A : rB/ A × B + rC/ A × C + M B = M R A

i j k i j k 1 1 4 0 2.0 + ( 2 lb ⋅ ft ) i = M xi + (1.5 lb ⋅ ft ) j − (1.1 lb ⋅ ft ) k ∴ x 0 4.5 + 12 12 Bx 0 0 C x C y −1.1

**( 2 − 0.166667C y ) i + ( 0.375Bx + 0.166667Cx + 0.36667 ) j + ( 0.33333C y ) k
**

= M xi + (1.5 ) j − (1.1) k From i - coefficient j - coefficient k - coefficient (a) 2 − 0.166667C y = M x 0.375Bx + 0.166667Cx + 0.36667 = 1.5 0.33333C y = −1.1 or C y = −3.3 lb (4) (5) (6)

From Equations (1) and (5): 0.375 ( 3.9 − Cx ) + 0.166667Cx = 1.13333 Cx = 0.32917 = 1.58000 lb 0.20833 From Equation (1): ∴ B = ( 2.32 lb ) i C = (1.580 lb ) i − ( 3.30 lb ) j − (1.110 lb ) k Bx = 3.9 − 1.58000 = 2.32 lb

(b)

From Equation (2): or R y = − ( 3.30 lb ) From Equation (4): M x = −0.166667 ( −3.30 ) + 2.0 = 2.5500 lb ⋅ ft or M x = ( 2.55 lb ⋅ ft )

Ry = C y = −3.30 lb

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**Chapter 3, Solution 119.
**

(a) Duct AB will not have a tendency to rotate about the vertical or y-axis if:

R R M By = j ⋅ ΣM B = j ⋅ rF /B × FF + rE/B × FE = 0

(

)

where

rF /B = (1.125 m ) i − ( 0.575 m ) j + ( 0.7 m ) k

rE/B = (1.35 m ) i − ( 0.85 m ) j + ( 0.7 m ) k

FF = 50 N ( sin α ) j + ( cos α ) k

FE = − ( 25 N ) k

ΣM R B j k i j k i = ( 50 N ) 1.125 m −0.575 m 0.7 m + ( 25 N ) 1.35 m −0.85 m 0.70 0 sin α cos α 0 0 −1 = ( −28.75cos α − 35sin α + 21.25 ) i − ( 56.25cos α − 33.75 ) j + ( 56.25sin α ) k N ⋅ m

Thus,

R M By = −56.25cos α + 33.75 = 0

∴

cos α = 0.60

α = 53.130°

or α = 53.1°

(b) R = FE + FF where

**FE = − ( 25 N ) k FF = ( 50 N )( sin 53.130° j + cos 53.130°k ) = ( 40 N ) j + ( 30 N ) k
**

∴ R = ( 40 N ) j + ( 5 N ) k

and

**M = ΣM R = − 28.75 ( 0.6 ) + 35 ( 0.8 ) − 21.25 i − 56.25 ( 0.6 ) − 33.75 j + 56.25 ( 0.8 ) k B
**

= − ( 24 N ⋅ m ) i − ( 0 ) j + ( 45 N ⋅ m ) k

or M = − ( 24.0 N ⋅ m ) i + ( 45.0 N ⋅ m ) k

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Chapter 3, Solution 120.

(a) Have where

R = ΣF = FF + FE

FF = 50 N ( sin 60° ) j + ( cos 60° ) k = ( 43.301 N ) j + ( 25 N ) k

**FE = − ( 25 N ) k ∴ R = ( 43.301 N ) j or R = ( 43.3 N ) j Have where
**

R M C = Σ ( r × F ) = rF /C × FF + rE/C × FE

**rF /C = ( 0.225 m ) i − ( 0.050 m ) j rE/C = ( 0.450 m ) i − ( 0.325 m ) j i ∴
**

R MC

j

k

i

j

k

**= 0.225 −0.050 0 N ⋅ m + 0.450 −0.325 0 N ⋅ m 0 43.301 25 0 0 −25 = ( 6.875 N ⋅ m ) i + ( 5.625 N ⋅ m ) j + ( 9.7427 N ⋅ m ) k
**

R or M C = ( 6.88 N ⋅ m ) i + ( 5.63 N ⋅ m ) j + ( 9.74 N ⋅ m ) k

**(b) To determine which direction duct section CD has a tendency to turn, have
**

R R M CD = λ DC ⋅ M C

where λ DC = Then − ( 0.45 m ) i + ( 0.1 m ) j

( −0.45)2 + ( 0.1)2

= −0.97619i + 0.21693j

R M CD = ( −0.97619i + 0.21693j) ⋅ ( 6.875i + 5.625 j + 9.7427k ) N ⋅ m

**= ( −6.7113 + 1.22023) N ⋅ m = −5.4911 N ⋅ m
**

R Since λ DC ⋅ M C < 0, duct DC tends to rotate counterclockwise relative to elbow C as viewed from D to C.

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Chapter 3, Solution 121.

Have where

ΣF : R = R A = Rλ BC λ

λ BC =

( 42 in.) i − ( 96 in.) j − (16 in.) k

106 in.

∴ RA =

21.2 lb ( 42i − 96j − 16k ) 106

or R A = ( 8.40 lb ) i − (19.20 lb ) j − ( 3.20 lb ) k

Have where

ΣM A : rC/ A × R + M = M A

rC/ A = ( 42 in.) i + ( 48 in.) k = 1 ( 42i + 48k ) ft 12

= ( 3.5 ft ) i + ( 4.0 ft ) k R = ( 8.40 lb ) i − (19.20 lb ) j − ( 3.20 lb ) k

M = −λ BC M

=

−42i + 96 j + 16k (13.25 lb ⋅ ft ) 106

= − ( 5.25 lb ⋅ ft ) i + (12 lb ⋅ ft ) j + ( 2 lb ⋅ ft ) k

Then

i j k 3.5 0 4.0 lb ⋅ ft + ( −5.25i + 12 j + 2k ) lb ⋅ ft = M A 8.40 −19.20 −3.20 ∴ M A = ( 71.55 lb ⋅ ft ) i + ( 56.80 lb ⋅ ft ) j − ( 65.20 lb ⋅ ft ) k

or M A = ( 71.6 lb ⋅ ft ) i + ( 56.8 lb ⋅ ft ) j − ( 65.2 lb ⋅ ft ) k

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Chapter 3, Solution 122.

From

− ( 0.6 ft ) i + ( 4.2 ft ) j − (1.5 ft ) k R C = R = ( 60 lb ) λ AB = 60 lb 2 2 2 ( − 0.6 ft ) + ( 4.2 ft ) + ( −1.5 ft )

R C = − ( 8.00 lb ) i + ( 56.0 lb ) j − ( 20.0 lb ) k From where

rA/C = ( 7.8 ft ) i + (1.5 ft ) k

M = ( 22.5 lb ⋅ ft ) λ BA = ( 22.5 lb ⋅ ft )

M C = rA/C × R + M

( 0.6 ft ) i − ( 4.2 ft ) j + (1.5 ft ) k ( 0.6 ft )2 + ( − 4.2 ft )2 + (1.5 ft )2

= ( 3 lb ⋅ ft ) i − ( 21 lb ⋅ ft ) j + ( 7.5 lb ⋅ ft ) k

∴ MC i j k = 7.8 0 1.5 lb ⋅ ft + ( 3 i − 21 j + 7.5 k ) lb ⋅ ft −8 56 −20

= ( − 84 + 3) lb ⋅ ft i + (144 − 21) lb ⋅ ft j + ( 436.8 + 7.5 ) lb ⋅ ft k

or M C = − ( 81.0 lb ⋅ ft ) i + (123.0 lb ⋅ ft ) j + ( 444 lb ⋅ ft ) k

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Chapter 3, Solution 123.

Have:

ΣF :

FA + FC + FD + FE = R R = − ( 80 kN ) j − ( 40 kN ) j − (100 kN ) j − ( 60 kN ) j = − ( 280 kN ) j or R = 280 kN

Have:

ΣM x :

FA ( z A ) + FC ( zC ) + FD ( z D ) + FE ( z E ) = R ( zG )

(80 kN )( 0 ) + ( 40 kN ) ( 3 m ) sin 60° + 60 kN ( 0 )

+ ( 60 kN ) − ( 3 m ) sin 60° = ( 280 kN ) Z G

∴

Z G = − 0.185577 m

or Z G = − 0.1856 m ΣM z :

FA ( x A ) + FC ( xC ) + FD ( xD ) + FE ( xE ) = R ( xG )

(80 kN ) − ( 3 m ) cos 60° − 1.5 m + ( 40 kN )(1.5 m ) + 60 kN (1.5 m )

+ (100 kN ) ( 3 m ) cos 60° + 1.5 m = ( 280 kN ) xG

or xG = 0.750 m

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Chapter 3, Solution 124.

Have:

ΣM x :

FA ( z A ) + FB ( z B ) + FC ( zC ) + FD ( z D ) + FE ( z E ) + FF ( z F ) = R ( zG )

**(80 kN )( 0 ) + FB ( 3 m ) sin 60° + ( 40 kN ) ( 3 m ) sin 60° + (100 kN )( 0 )
**

+ ( 60 kN ) − ( 3 m ) sin 60° + FF − ( 3 m ) sin 60° = R ( 0 )

FB − FF = 20 kN

(1)

Also

ΣM z :

FA ( x A ) + FB ( xB ) + FC ( xC ) + FD ( xD ) + FE ( xE ) + FF ( xF ) = R ( xG )

**(80 kN ) − ( 3 m ) cos 60° − 1.5 m + FB ( −1.5 m ) + ( 40 kN )(1.5 m ) ( 3 m ) cos 60° + 1.5 m + ( 60 kN ) (1.5 m ) + FF ( − 1.5 m ) = R ( 0 ) + (100 kN )
**

FB + FF = 140 kN

(2)

FB = 80.0 kN FF = 60.0 kN

Solving equations (1) and (2):

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Chapter 3, Solution 125.

Have

ΣF : FA + FB + FC + FD = R − (116 kips ) j − ( 470 kips ) j − ( 66 kips ) j − ( 28 kips ) j = R ∴ R = − ( 680 kips ) j R = 680 kips

Have

ΣM x : FA ( z A ) + FB ( z B ) + FC ( zC ) + FD ( z D ) = R ( z E )

**(116 kips )( 24 ft ) + ( 470 kips )( 48 ft ) + ( 66 kips )(18 ft ) + ( 28 kips )(100.5 ft ) = ( 680 kips )( zE )
**

∴ z E = 43.156 ft or z E = 43.2 ft Have ΣM z : FA ( x A ) + FB ( xB ) + FC ( xC ) + FD ( xD ) = R ( xE )

**(116 kips )( 30 ft ) + ( 470 kips )( 96 ft ) + ( 66 kips )(162 ft ) + ( 28 kips )( 96 ft ) = ( 680 kips )( xE )
**

∴ xE = 91.147 or xE = 91.1 ft

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Chapter 3, Solution 126.

Have

ΣF : FB + FC + FD + FE = R − ( 470 kips ) j − ( 66 kips ) j − ( 28 kips ) j − (116 kips ) j = R ∴ R = − ( 680 kips ) j

Have

ΣM x : FB ( z B ) + FC ( zC ) + FD ( z D ) + FE ( z E ) = R ( z B )

**( 470 kips )( 48 ft ) + ( 66 kips )(18 ft ) + ( 28 kips )(100.5 ft ) + (116 kips )( b ) = ( 680 kips )( 48 ft )
**

∴ b = 52.397 ft or b = 52.4 ft Have ΣM z : FB ( xB ) + FC ( xC ) + FD ( xD ) + FE ( xE ) = R ( xB )

**( 470 kips )( 96 ft ) + ( 66 kips )(162 ft ) + ( 28 kips )( 96 ft ) + (116 kips )( a ) = ( 680 kips )( 96 ft )
**

∴ a = 58.448 ft or a = 58.4 ft

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Chapter 3, Solution 127.

For the smallest weight on the trailer so that the resultant force of the four weights acts over the axle at the intersection with the center line of the trailer, the added 0.6 × 0.6 × 1.2-m box should be placed adjacent to one of the edges of the trailer with the 0.6 × 0.6-m side on the bottom. The edges to be considered are based on the location of the resultant for the three given weights. Have ΣF : − ( 200 N ) j − ( 400 N ) j − (180 N ) j = R ∴ R = − ( 780 N ) j Have ΣM z :

**( 200 N )( 0.3 m ) + ( 400 N )(1.7 m ) + (180 N )(1.7 m ) = ( 780 N )( x )
**

∴ x = 1.34103 m

Have

ΣM x :

**( 200 N )( 0.3 m ) + ( 400 N )( 0.6 m ) + (180 N )( 2.4 m ) = ( 780 N )( z )
**

∴ z = 0.93846 m

From the statement of the problem, it is known that the resultant of R from the original loading and the lightest load W passes through G, the point of intersection of the two center lines. Thus, ΣM G = 0. Further, since the lightest load W is to be as small as possible, the fourth box should be placed as far from G as possible without the box overhanging the trailer. These two requirements imply

( 0.3 m ≤

x ≤ 1 m ) (1.8 m ≤ z ≤ 3.7 m )

continued

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Let x = 0.3 m,

ΣM Gz :

**( 200 N )( 0.7 m ) − ( 400 N )( 0.7 m ) − (180 N )( 0.7 m ) + W ( 0.7 m ) = 0
**

∴ W = 380 N

ΣM Gx : − ( 200 N )(1.5 m ) − ( 400 N )(1.2 m ) + (180 N )( 0.6 m ) + ( 380 N )( z − 1.8 m ) = 0 ∴ z = 3.5684 m < 3.7 m Let z = 3.7 m, ∴ acceptable

ΣM Gx : − ( 200 N )(1.5 m ) − ( 400 N )(1.2 m ) + (180 N )( 0.6 m ) + W (1.7 m ) = 0

∴ W = 395.29 N > 380 N

Since the weight W found for x = 0.3 m is less than W found for z = 3.7 m, x = 0.3 m results in the smallest weight W. or W = 380 N at

( 0.3 m, 0, 3.57 m )

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Chapter 3, Solution 128.

For the largest additional weight on the trailer with the box having at least one side coinsiding with the side of the trailer, the box must be as close as possible to point G. For x = 0.6 m, with a small side of the box touching the z-axis, satisfies this condition. Let x = 0.6 m, ΣM Gz :

**( 200 N )( 0.7 m ) − ( 400 N )( 0.7 m ) − (180 N )( 0.7 m ) + W ( 0.4 m ) = 0
**

∴ W = 665 N

and

ΣM GX : − ( 200 N )(1.5 m ) − ( 400 N )(1.2 m ) + (180 N )( 0.6 m ) + ( 665 N )( z − 1.8 m ) = 0 ∴ z = 2.8105 m

(2 m <

z < 4 m)

∴ acceptable

or W = 665 N at

( 0.6 m, 0, 2.81 m )

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Chapter 3, Solution 129.

First, reduce the given force system to a force-couple system at the origin. Have ΣF :

( 2P ) i − ( P ) j + ( P ) j = R

∴ R = ( 2P ) i

Have

R ΣM O : Σ ( rO × F ) = M O

R MO

i j k i j k = Pa 2 2 2.5 + 0 0 4 = Pa ( −1.5i + 5j − 6k ) 2 −1 0 0 1 0 R = 2Pi or Magnitude of R = 2P Direction of R : θ x = 0°, θ y = −90°, θ z = 90°

(a)

(b) Have

R M1 = λ R ⋅ MO

λR =

R R

= i ⋅ ( −1.5Pai + 5Paj − 6Pak )

= −1.5Pa

and pitch

P= M1 −1.5Pa = = −0.75a 2P R

or P = −0.75a

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(c) Have

R M O = M1 + M 2 R ∴ M 2 = M O − M1 = ( 5Pa ) j − ( 6Pa ) k

Require

M 2 = rQ/O × R

**( 5Pa ) j − ( 6Pa ) k = ( yj + zk ) × ( 2Pi ) = − ( 2Py ) k + ( 2Pz ) j
**

From i : 5Pa = 2Pz

∴ z = 2.5a

From k : − 6Pa = −2Py ∴ y = 3a

∴ The axis of the wrench is parallel to the x-axis and intersects the yz-plane at y = 3a, z = 2.5a

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Chapter 3, Solution 130.

**First, reduce the given force system to a force-couple at the origin. Have
**

ΣF : Pi − Pi − Pk = R ∴ R = − Pk

R ΣM O : − P ( 3a ) k − P ( 3a ) j + P ( −ai + 3aj) = MO R ∴ MO = Pa ( −i − 3k )

Have

Then let vectors ( R, M1 ) represent the components of the wrench, where their directions are the same. (a) R = − Pk or Magnitude of R = P Direction of R : θ x = 90°, θ y = 90°, θ z = −180° (b) Have

R M1 = λ R ⋅ M O

= −k ⋅ Pa ( −i − 3k )

= 3Pa

and pitch (c) Have P=

R M O = M1 + M 2 R ∴ M 2 = M O − M1 = Pa ( −i − 3k ) − ( −3Pak ) = − Pai

M1 3Pa = = 3a R P

or P = 3a

Require

M 2 = rQ/O × R

− Pai = ( xi + yj) × ( − P ) k = Pxj − Pyi

From

i : − Pa = − Py j: x = 0

or

y =a

∴ The axis of the wrench is parallel to the z-axis and intersects the xy plane at x = 0, y = a

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Chapter 3, Solution 131.

**First, reduce the given force system to a force-couple at the origin. Have ΣF : − (10 N ) j − (11 N ) j = R ∴ R = − ( 21 N ) j
**

R Have ΣM O : Σ ( rO × F ) + ΣM C = M O

R MO

i j k i j k = 0 0 0.5 N ⋅ m + 0 0 −0.375 N ⋅ m − (12 N ⋅ m ) j 0 −10 0 0 −11 0 = ( 0.875 N ⋅ m ) i − (12 N ⋅ m ) j

(a) R = − ( 21.0 N ) j (b)

R = − ( 21 N ) j

or

R Have M1 = λ R ⋅ M O

λR =

R R

= ( − j) ⋅ ( 0.875 N ⋅ m ) i − (12 N ⋅ m ) j

= 12 N ⋅ m and pitch P = (c)

and

M1 = − (12 N ⋅ m ) j or P = 0.571 m

R M O = M1 + M 2

M1 12 N ⋅ m = = 0.57143 m R 21 N Have

R ∴ M 2 = M O − M1 = ( 0.875 N ⋅ m ) i

Require

∴

M 2 = rQ/O × R

( 0.875 N ⋅ m ) i = ( xi + zk ) × − ( 21 N ) j

0.875i = − ( 21x ) k + ( 21z ) i

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From i:

0.875 = 21z

∴ z = 0.041667 m

From k: 0 = −21x ∴ z =0

∴ The axis of the wrench is parallel to the y-axis and intersects the xz-plane at x = 0, z = 41.7 mm

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Chapter 3, Solution 132.

(a) Have

**First, reduce the given force system to a force-couple system. ΣF : − ( 50 N ) k − ( 50 N ) j + ( 50 N ) k = R R = − ( 50 N ) j;
**

R = − ( 50.0 N ) j

R = 50 N

Have ΣM O :

( 0.1 N ⋅ m ) k − ( 0.1 N ⋅ m ) j + ( 0.1 N ⋅ m ) k

R = MO

R M O = − ( 0.1 N ⋅ m ) j + ( 0.2 N ⋅ m ) k

(b)

Have

R M1 = λ R × MO =

R R ⋅ MO R

= − j ⋅ − ( 0.1 N ⋅ m ) j + ( 0.2 N ⋅ m ) k

= 0.1 N ⋅ m

and pitch

P=

M1 0.1 N ⋅ m = = 0.002 m R 50 N

or P = 2.00 mm (c)

Have

M1 = PR = ( 0.002 m ) − ( 50 N ) j

= − ( 0.1 N ⋅ m ) j

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Note that because M z = ( 0.2 N ⋅ m ) k , the line of action of the wrench must pass through the x-axis to compensate for M z as shown above: With

R M1 + ( r × R ) = M O

Then

− ( 0.1 N ⋅ m ) j + − ( d ) i × − ( 50N ) j

= − ( 0.1 N ⋅ m ) j + ( 0.2 N ⋅ m ) k

or ( 50 N )( d ) k = ( 0.2 N ⋅ m ) k and

x = − d = − 0.004 m d = 0.004 m

or x = − 4.00 mm, z = 0

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Chapter 3, Solution 133.

B First replace the given couples with an equivalent force-couple system R, M O at the origin.

(

)

ΣF :

ΣM O :

R = − ( 35 lb ) i − (12 lb ) k

R M O = − ( 200 lb ⋅ in.) i + ( 8 in.) j + ( 8 in.) k × − ( 35 lb ) i

− (140 lb ⋅ in.) k + (10 in.) i + ( 4 in.) j × − (12 lb ) k

**= ( − 200 − 48 ) i + ( − 280 + 120 ) j + ( 280 − 140 ) k = − ( 248 lb ⋅ in.) i − (1600 lb ⋅ in.) j + (140 lb ⋅ in.) k
**

Now

R=

( − 35 lb )2 + ( −12 lb )2

1 ( − 35 i − 12 k ) 37 R = − ( 35.0 lb ) i − (12.00 ) k

= 37 lb

Then (a) (b)

R M1 = λ axis ⋅ M O

λ axis =

= = =

1 ( − 35 i − 12 k ) ⋅ ( − 248 i − 160 j + 140 k )( lb ⋅ in.) 37 1 ( 35 × 248 − 12 × 140 )( lb ⋅ in.) 37 7000 lb ⋅ in. 37 7000 lb ⋅ in. 37 37 lb or P = 5.11 in.

Then

M P= 1 = R

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(c)

Have

M1 = λ axis M1

=

Then or

7000 lb ⋅ in. ( − 35 i − 12 k ) 37 2

R M O = M1 + M 2

M 2 = ( − 248 i − 160 j + 140 k ) −

7000 ( − 35 i − 12 k ) 37 2

= − ( 69.037 lb ⋅ in.) i − (160 lb ⋅ in.) j + ( 201.36 lb ⋅ in.) k

Require

M z = rO/P × R

i j k or − 69.037i − 160 j + 201.36k = 0 y z −35 0 −12 j: or k: or

−160 = − 35 z

z = 4.57 in.

201.36 = 35 y

y = 5.75 in.

∴

**The point of intersection is defined by
**

y = 5.75 in. z = 4.57 in.

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Chapter 3, Solution 134.

First reduce the given force system to a force-couple at the origin at B. (a)

**15 8 Have ΣF : − ( 79.2 lb ) k − ( 51 lb ) i + j = R 17 17 ∴ R = − ( 24.0 lb ) i − ( 45.0 lb ) j − ( 79.2 lb ) k and R = 94.2 lb
**

ΣM B : rA/B

Have × FA + M A + M B = M R B

MR B

i j k 15 8 = 0 −20 0 − 660k − 714 i + j = 1584i − 660k − 42 ( 8i + 15 j) 17 17 0 0 −79.2 ∴ M R = (1248 lb ⋅ in.) i − ( 630 lb ⋅ in.) j − ( 660 lb ⋅ in.) k B

(b)

Have

R M1 = λ R ⋅ MO

λR =

R R

=

−24.0i − 45.0 j − 79.2k ⋅ (1248 lb ⋅ in.) i − ( 630 lb ⋅ in.) j − ( 660 lb ⋅ in.) k 94.2 = 537.89 lb ⋅ in.

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and

**M1 = M1λ R = − (137.044 lb ⋅ in.) i − ( 256.96 lb ⋅ in.) j − ( 452.24 lb ⋅ in.) k Then pitch p = or p = 5.71 in.
**

M1 537.89 lb ⋅ in. = = 5.7101 in. R 94.2 lb

(c)

Have

M R = M1 + M 2 B

∴ M 2 = M R − M1 = (1248i − 630 j − 660k ) − ( −137.044i − 256.96 j − 452.24k ) B = (1385.04 lb ⋅ in.) i − ( 373.04 lb ⋅ in.) j − ( 207.76 lb ⋅ in.) k Require i j k 1385.04i − 373.04 j − 207.76k = x 0 z −24 −45 −79.2 = ( 45 z ) i − ( 24 z ) j + ( 79.2 x ) j − ( 45 x ) k From i: From k: at

x = 4.62 in., z = 30.8 in.

M 2 = rQ/B × R

1385.04 = 45z

−207.76 = −45x

∴ z = 30.779 in.

∴ x = 4.6169 in. ∴ The axis of the wrench intersects the xz-plane

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Chapter 3, Solution 135.

(a)

**First reduce the given force system to a force-couple at the origin. Have ΣF : Pλ BA + Pλ DC + Pλ DE = R 4 12 3 3 4 −9 4 R = P j − k + i − j + i − j+ k 5 25 5 5 5 25 5 ∴ R =
**

R=

3P ( 2i − 20 j − k ) 25 = 27 5 P 25

3P 25

( 2 )2 + ( 20 )2 + (1)2

Have R ΣM : Σ ( rO × P ) = M O

( 24a ) j ×

**−4 P 3P 4P 4P 12 P 3P −9 P R j− k + ( 20a ) j × i− j + ( 20a ) j × i− j+ k = MO 5 5 5 25 5 5 25
**

R ∴ MO =

24 Pa ( −i − k ) 5 Have R M1 = λ R ⋅M O

(b)

where λ R =

3P 25 1 R = = ( 2i − 20 j − k ) ( 2i − 20 j − k ) R 25 27 5 P 9 5

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**Then M 1 = and pitch (c)
**

M1 = M 1λ R =

1 9 5

( 2i − 20 j − k ) ⋅

24 Pa −8Pa ( −i − k ) = 5 15 5

p=

M1 −8Pa 25 −8a = = R 81 15 5 27 5 P

or p = −0.0988a

−8Pa 1 8Pa ( −2i + 20 j + k ) ( 2i − 20 j − k ) = 675 15 5 9 5

Then

R M 2 = M O − M1 =

24Pa 8Pa 8Pa ( −i − k ) − ( −2i + 20 j + k ) = ( −403i − 20 j − 406k ) 5 675 675 Require M 2 = rQ/O × R

8Pa 3P ( −403i − 20 j − 406k ) = ( xi + zk ) × ( 2i − 20 j − k ) 675 25 3P = 20 zi + ( x + 2 z ) j − 20 xk 25 From i: From k: 8 ( −403) 8 ( −406 )

Pa 3P = 20 z 675 25 Pa 3P = −20 x 675 25

∴ z = −1.99012a ∴ x = 2.0049a

**∴ The axis of the wrench intersects the xz-plane at
**

x = 2.00a, z = −1.990a

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Chapter 3, Solution 136.

First reduce the given force-couple system to an equivalent force-couple system ( R, M B ) at point B. d BD =

( − 480 mm )2 + ( 560 mm )2 + ( − 480 mm )2

= 880 mm

FBD = FBDλBD =

132 N ( − 480i + 560 j − 480k ) 880

= (12 N )( − 6i + 7 j − 6k ) d EB =

**( 240 mm )2 + ( − 220 mm )2 + ( 480 mm )2
**

145 N ( 240i − 220 j + 480k ) 580

= 580 mm

FEB = FEBλEB =

= ( 5 N )(12i − 11j + 24k )

ΣF :

**R = FBD + FEB = (12 N )( − 6i + 7 j − 6k ) + 5 N (12i − 11j + 24k ) = − (12 N ) i + ( 29 N ) j + ( 48 N ) k
**

d BF =

( 340 mm )2 + ( 240 mm )2 + ( − 60 mm )2

20 N ⋅ m ( 340i + 240 j − 60k ) 20 442 20 N ⋅ m (17i + 12 j − 3k ) 442

= 20 442 mm Then

MB = =

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**Now determine whether R and M B are perpendicular
**

R ⋅ M B = ( −12 j + 29 j + 48k ) ⋅ = 20 (17i + 12 j − 3k ) 442

20 ( −12 × 17 + 29 × 12 − 48 × 3) 442

=0 ∴ R and M B are perpendicular so that ( R, M B ) can be reduced to the single equivalent force

R = − (12.00 N ) i + ( 29.0 N ) j + ( 48.0 N ) k

Now require M B = rB/P × R or

i j k 20 N ⋅ m (17i + 12 j − 3k ) = − 0.480 y z − 0.480 ( N ⋅ m ) 442 −12 29 48

j:

20 × 12 = −12 ( z − 0.480 ) + 0.480 ( 48 ) 442

or

k:

z = 1.449 m

− 20 × 3 = − 0.480 ( 29 ) + 12 y 442

or

y = 0.922 m

**∴ The point of intersection is defined by
**

y = 0.922 m z = 1.449 m

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Chapter 3, Solution 137.

**First, reduce the given force system to a force-couple at the origin. Have ΣF : FA + FG = R
**

( 4 in.) i + ( 6 in.) j − (12 in.) k ∴ R = (10 lb ) k + 14 lb = ( 4 lb ) i + ( 6 lb ) j − ( 2 lb ) k 14 in.

and Have

R=

56 lb

R ΣM O : ∑ ( rO × F ) + ∑ M C = MO

R M O = (12 in.) j × (10 lb ) k + (16 in.) i × ( 4 lb ) i + ( 6 lb ) j − (12 lb ) k

{

}

(16 in.) i − (12 in.) j ( 4 in.) i − (12 in.) j + ( 6 in.) k + ( 84 lb ⋅ in.) + ( 120 lb ⋅ in.) 20 in. 14 in.

R ∴ M 0 = ( 221.49 lb ⋅ in.) i + ( 38.743 lb ⋅ in.) j + (147.429 lb ⋅ in.) k

= (18.4572 lb ⋅ ft ) i + ( 3.2286 lb ⋅ ft ) j + (12.2858 lb ⋅ ft ) k

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R The force-couple at O can be replaced by a single force if the direction of R is perpendicular to M O . R To be perpendicular R ⋅ M O = 0

Have

R R ⋅ M O = ( 4i + 6 j − 2k ) ⋅ (18.4572i + 3.2286 j + 12.2858k ) = 0?

= 73.829 + 19.3716 − 24.572 ≠0 ∴ System cannot be reduced to a single equivalent force. To reduce to an equivalent wrench, the moment component along the line of action of P is found.

R M1 = λ R ⋅ M O

λR =

R R

( 4i + 6 j − 2k ) = ⋅ (18.4572i + 3.2286 j + 12.2858k ) 56

**= 9.1709 lb ⋅ ft and And pitch M1 = M1λ R = ( 9.1709 lb ⋅ ft )( 0.53452i + 0.80178 j − 0.26726k )
**

p= M1 9.1709 lb ⋅ ft = = 1.22551 ft R 56 lb

**or p = 1.226 ft Have
**

R M 2 = M O − M1 = (18.4572i + 3.2286 j + 12.2858k ) − ( 9.1709 )( 0.53452i + 0.80178 j − 0.26726k )

= (13.5552 lb ⋅ ft ) i − ( 4.1244 lb ⋅ ft ) j + (14.7368 lb ⋅ ft ) k Require M 2 = rQ/O × R

**(13.5552i − 4.1244 j + 14.7368k ) = ( yj + zk ) × ( 4i + 6 j − 2k )
**

= − ( 2 y + 6z ) i + ( 4z ) j − ( 4 y ) k From j: From k: −4.1244 = 4 z 14.7368 = −4 y or or

z = −1.0311 ft y = −3.6842 ft

**∴ line of action of the wrench intersects the yz plane at
**

y = −3.68 ft, z = 1.031 ft

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Chapter 3, Solution 138.

Define

FA = ( FA ) x i + ( FA ) y j FB = ( FB ) x i + ( FB ) y j

Then

ΣFx :

( FA ) x + ( FB ) x = 0

( FA ) x = − ( FB ) x

( FA ) y + ( FB ) y = R ( FA ) y

= R − ( FB ) y

ΣFy :

and

i: or Then

ΣM A :

bk × ( FB ) x i + ( FB ) y j = − ak + R j + M j

− b ( FB ) y = aR

( FB ) y = −

( FA ) y

a R b

a = R − − R b a = R 1 + b

j:

or Then

b ( FB ) x = M

( FB ) x =

M b M b ∴ FA = − M a i + R 1 + j b b FB = M a i − Rj b b

( FA ) x = −

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Chapter 3, Solution 139.

First, choose a coordinate system so that the xy plane coincides with the given plane. Also, position the coordinate system so that the line of action of the wrench passes through the origin as shown in Figure a. Since the orientation of the plane and the components (R, M) of the wrench are known, it follows that the scalar components of R and M are known relative to the shown coordinate system. A force system to be shown as equivalent is illustrated in Figure b. Let A be the force passing through the given point P and B be the force that lies in the given plane. Let b be the x-axis intercept of B. The known components of the wrench can be expressed as R = Rxi + Ry j + Rzk and M = M xi + M y j + M zk

while the unknown forces A and B can be expressed as A = Axi + Ay j + Azk and B = Bxi + Bzk

Since the position vector of point P is given, it follows that the scalar components (x, y, z) of the position vector rP are also known. Then, for equivalence of the two systems ΣFx : Rx = Ax + Bx ΣFy : Ry = Ay (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)

continued

(1)

ΣFz : Rz = Az + Bz ΣM x : M x = yAz − zAy ΣM y : M y = zAx − xAz − bBz ΣM z : M z = xAy − yAx

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Based on the above six independent equations for the six unknowns Ax , Ay , Az , Bx , Bz , b , there exists a unique solution for A and B. From Equation (2) Equation (6)

(

)

Ay = Ry

1 Ax = xRy − M z y

(

) )

Equation (1)

1 Bx = Rx − xRy − M z y

(

Equation (4)

1 Az = M x + zRy y

(

) )

Equation (3)

1 Bz = Rz − M x + zRy y

(

Equation (5)

b=

( xM x + yM y + zM z ) ( M x − yRz + zRy )

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Chapter 3, Solution 140.

First, observe that it is always possible to construct a line perpendicular to a given line so that the constructed line also passes through a given point. Thus, it is possible to align one of the coordinate axes of a rectangular coordinate system with the axis of the wrench while one of the other axes passes through the given point. See Figures a and b. Have R = Rj and M = Mj and are known.

The unknown forces A and B can be expressed as A = Axi + Ay j + Azk and B = Bxi + By j + Bzk

The distance a is known. It is assumed that force B intersects the xz plane at (x, 0, z). Then for equivalence ∑ Fx : 0 = Ax + Bx ∑ Fy : R = Ay + By ∑ Fz : 0 = Az + Bz ∑ M x : 0 = − zBy (4) ∑ M y : M = −aAz − xBz + zBx ∑ M z : 0 = aAy + xBy Since A and B are made perpendicular, A⋅B = 0 There are eight unknowns: or (5) (6) (1) (2) (3)

Ax Bx + Ay By + Az Bz = 0

(7)

Ax , Ay , Az , Bx , By , Bz , x, z

**But only seven independent equations. Therefore, there exists an infinite number of solutions.
**

continued

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Next consider Equation (4): If By = 0, Equation (7) becomes Using Equations (1) and (3) this equation becomes

0 = − zBy

Ax Bx + Az Bz = 0

2 2 Ax + Az = 0

Since the components of A must be real, a nontrivial solution is not possible. Thus, it is required that By ≠ 0, so that from Equation (4), z = 0. To obtain one possible solution, arbitrarily let Ax = 0. (Note: Setting Ay , Az , or Bz equal to zero results in unacceptable solutions.) The defining equations then become. 0 = Bx (1)′ (2) (3) (5)′ (6)

R = Ay + By

0 = Az + Bz

M = −aAz − xBz

0 = aAy + xBy

Ay By + Az Bz = 0 (7)′

Then Equation (2) can be written Equation (3) can be written Equation (6) can be written Substituting into Equation (5)′,

R − By M = −aAz − −a ( − Az ) By

Ay = R − By Bz = − Az

x=− aAy By

or Substituting into Equation (7)′,

Az = −

M By (8) aR

M M ( R − By ) By + − aR By aR By = 0

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**or Then from Equations (2), (8), and (3) Ay = R −
**

Az = −

By =

a 2 R3 a2R2 + M 2

a 2 R3 RM 2 = 2 2 a2R2 + M 2 a R + M2

M a 2 R3 aR 2 M =− 2 2 2 2 2 aR a R + M a R + M2

Bz = In summary

aR 2 M a R2 + M 2

2

A= B=

RM ( Mj − aRk ) a R2 + M 2

2

aR 2 ( aRj + Mk ) a R2 + M 2

2

Which shows that it is possible to replace a wrench with two perpendicular forces, one of which is applied at a given point. Lastly, if R > 0 and M > 0, it follows from the equations found for A and B that Ay > 0 and By > 0. From Equation (6), x < 0 (assuming a > 0). Then, as a consequence of letting Ax = 0, force A lies in a plane parallel to the yz plane and to the right of the origin, while force B lies in a plane parallel to the yz plane but to the left of the origin, as shown in the figure below.

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Chapter 3, Solution 141.

First, choose a rectangular coordinate system where one axis coincides with the axis of the wrench and another axis intersects the prescribed line of action ( AA′ ) . Note that it has been assumed that the line of action of force B intersects the xz plane at point P ( x, 0, z ) . Denoting the known direction of line AA′ by λ A = λxi + λ y j + λzk it follows that force A can be expressed as

A = Aλ A = A λxi + λ y j + λz k

(

)

**Force B can be expressed as
**

B = Bxi + By j + Bzk

Next, observe that since the axis of the wrench and the prescribed line of action AA′ are known, it follows that the distance a can be determined. In the following solution, it is assumed that a is known. Then, for equivalence ΣFx : 0 = Aλx + Bx (1) ΣFy : R = Aλ y + By (2) ΣFz : 0 = Aλz + Bz (3) ΣM x : 0 = − zBy (4) (5) (6)

ΣM y : M = −aAλz + zBx − xBz ΣM z : 0 = aAλ y + xBy Since there are six unknowns obtain a solution.

( A, Bx , By , Bz , x, z )

and six independent equations, it will be possible to

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Case 1: Let z = 0 to satisfy Equation (4) Now Equation (2) Equation (3) Equation (6) Substitution into Equation (5) a M = −aAλz − − By ∴ A=− Substitution into Equation (2) R=− 1 M By λ y + By λz aR R − By ( − Aλz ) x=− By Aλ y = R − By Bz = − Aλz aAλ y a = − R − By By

(

)

(

)

1 M B λz aR y

∴ By = Then

A=−

λz aR 2 λz aR − λ y M

MR =

R aR λy − λz M λx MR Bx = − Aλx = λz aR − λ y M

λz aR − λ y M

Bz = − Aλz =

λz MR λz aR − λ y M

P λA aR λy − λz M

In summary

A=

B=

R ( λ Mi + λz aRj + λz Mk ) λz aR − λ y M x

and

λz aR − λ y M R x = a 1 − = a 1 − R By λz aR 2

or x =

λy M λz R

**Note that for this case, the lines of action of both A and B intersect the x axis.
**

continued

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics and Dynamics, 8/e, Ferdinand P. Beer, E. Russell Johnston, Jr., Elliot R. Eisenberg, William E. Clausen, David Mazurek, Phillip J. Cornwell © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

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**Case 2: Let By = 0 to satisfy Equation (4) Now Equation (2)
**

A= R

λy

Equation (1)

λ Bx = − R x λy λ Bz = − R z λy aAλ y = 0

Equation (3) Equation (6) Substitution into Equation (5) λ M = z −R x λy In summary

which requires a = 0

λ − x −R z λy

or

λz x − λx z = λ y R

M

This last expression is the equation for the line of action of force B. R A = λ A λy R B= λy ( −λ x i − λ z k )

Assuming that λx , λ y , λz > 0, the equivalent force system is as shown below.

Note that the component of A in the xz plane is parallel to B.

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Chapter 3, Solution 142.

(a) Have

M B = rC/B FN = ( 0.1 m )( 800 N ) = 80.0 N ⋅ m or M B = 80.0 N ⋅ m

(b) By definition M B = rA/B P sin θ where

**θ = 90° − ( 90° − 70° ) − α
**

= 90° − 20° − 10° = 60° ∴ 80.0 N ⋅ m = ( 0.45 m ) P sin 60°

P = 205.28 N

or P = 205 N

(c) For P to be minimum, it must be perpendicular to the line joining points A and B. Thus, P must be directed as shown. Thus or M B = dPmin = rA/B Pmin 80.0 N ⋅ m = ( 0.45 m ) Pmin ∴ Pmin = 177.778 N or Pmin = 177.8 N

20°

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Chapter 3, Solution 143.

Have

M C = rB/C × FB

Noting the direction of the moment of each force component about C is clockwise, M C = xFBy + yFBx where x = 144 mm − 78 mm = 66 mm y = 86 mm + 108 mm = 194 mm and FBx =

78

( 78)2 + (86 )2

86

( 580 N ) = 389.65 N

FBy =

( 78)

2

+ ( 86 )

2

( 580 N ) = 429.62 N

**∴ M C = ( 66 mm )( 429.62 N ) + (194 mm )( 389.65 N ) = 103947 N ⋅ mm = 103.947 N ⋅ m
**

or M C = 103.9 N ⋅ m

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 144.

(a) Have where

M A = rE/ A × TDE rE/ A = ( 92 in.) j TDE = λ DETDE =

( 24 in.) i + (132 in.) j − (120 in.) k 360 lb ( ) ( 24 )2 + (132 )2 + (120 )2 in.

**= ( 48 lb ) i + ( 264 lb ) j − ( 240 lb ) k i j k ∴ M A = 0 92 0 lb ⋅ in. = − ( 22,080 lb ⋅ in.) i − ( 4416 lb ⋅ in ) k 48 264 −240
**

or M A = − (1840 lb ⋅ ft ) i − ( 368 lb ⋅ ft ) k (b) Have where

M A = rG/ A × TCG rG/ A = (108 in.) i + ( 92 in.) j − ( 24 in.) i + (132 in.) j − (120 in.) k

TCG = λ CGTCG =

( 24 )2 + (132 )2 + (120 )2 in.

j k

( 360 lb )

= − ( 48 lb ) i + ( 264 lb ) j − ( 240 lb ) k

i ∴ M A = 108 92 0 lb ⋅ in. −48 264 −240 = − ( 22, 080 lb ⋅ in.) i + ( 25,920 lb ⋅ in.) j + ( 32,928 lb ⋅ in.) k or M A = − (1840 lb ⋅ ft ) i + ( 2160 lb ⋅ ft ) j + ( 2740 lb ⋅ ft ) k

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 145.

First note

AC = rC/ A =

( −2.4 )2 + (1.8)2

m = 3m

AD = rD/ A =

and

(1.2 )2 + ( −2.4 )2 + ( 0.3)2

m = 2.7 m

rC/ A = − ( 2.4 m ) j + (1.8 m ) k rD/ A = (1.2 m ) i − ( 2.4 m ) j + ( 0.3 m ) k

By definition rC/ A ⋅ rD/ A = rC/ A rD/ A cosθ or

( −2.4 j + 1.8k ) ⋅ (1.2i − 2.4 j + 0.3k ) = ( 3)( 2.7 ) cosθ ( 0 )(1.2 ) + ( −2.4 )( −2.4 ) + (1.8)( 0.3) = 8.1cosθ

and

cosθ =

6.3 = 0.77778 8.1

θ = 38.942°

or θ = 38.9°

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 146.

Based on where

M O = rA/O × TBA

**M O = M xi + M y j + M zk = M xi + (100 lb ⋅ ft ) j − ( 400 lb ⋅ ft ) k rA/O = ( 6 ft ) i + ( 4 ft ) j TBA = λ BATBA
**

=

( 6 ft ) i − (12 ft ) j − ( a ) k T

d BA

BA

T ∴ M xi + 100 j − 400k = 6 4 0 BA d 6 −12 −a BA = From j-coefficient: From k -coefficient: TBA − ( 4a ) i + ( 6a ) j − ( 96 ) k d BA 100 d BA 6a 400 d BA 96 (1) (2)

i

j

k

100d AB = 6aTBA or TBA =

−400d AB = −96TBA or TBA = a=

Equating Equations (1) and (2) yields

100 ( 96 ) 6 ( 400 ) or a = 4.00 ft

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 147.

Have where

λ DB =

M DB = λ DB ⋅ rC/D × TCF

(

)

( 48 in.) i − (14 in.) j

50 in.

= 0.96i − 0.28 j

rC/D = ( 8 in.) j − (16 in.) k

TCF = λ CF TCF =

( 24 in.) i − ( 36 in.) j − (8 in.) k

44 in.

(132 lb )

= ( 72 lb ) i − (108 lb ) j − ( 24 lb ) k 0.96 −0.28 ∴ M DB = 0 72 0

8 −16 lb ⋅ in. −108 −24

= 0.96 ( 8 )( −24 ) − ( −16 )( −108 ) + ( −0.28 ) ( −16 )( 72 ) − 0

= −1520.64 lb ⋅ in. or M DB = −1521 lb ⋅ in.

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 148.

(a) Based on

ΣF : FA = T = 1000 N or FA = 1000 N ΣM A : M A = (T sin 50° )( dA ) = (1000 N ) sin 50° ( 2.25 m ) = 1723.60 N ⋅ m or M A = 1724 N ⋅ m 20°

(b) Based on

ΣF : FB = T = 1000 N or FB = 1000 N ΣMB : M B = (T sin 50° )( d B ) = (1000 N ) sin 50° (1.25 m ) = 957.56 N ⋅ m or M B = 958 N ⋅ m 20°

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 149.

Require the equivalent forces acting at A and C be parallel and at an angle of α with the vertical. Then for equivalence, ΣFx :

( 250 lb ) sin 30° =

FA sin α + FB sin α

(1)

ΣFy : − ( 250 lb ) cos 30° = − FA cos α − FB cos α (2) Dividing Equation (1) by Equation (2),

**( 250 lb ) sin 30° − ( 250 lb ) cos 30°
**

Simplifying yields α = 30° Based on

=

( FA + FB ) sin α − ( FA + FB ) cos α

ΣM C : ( 250 lb ) cos 30° (12 ft ) = ( FA cos 30° )( 32 ft )

∴ FA = 93.75 lb or FA = 93.8 lb Based on

ΣM A : − ( 250 lb ) cos 30° ( 20 ft ) = ( FC cos 30° ) ( 32 ft )

60°

∴ FC = 156.25 lb or FC = 156.3 lb

60°

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 150.

Have ΣF : PAB = FC where PAB = λ AB PAB =

( 2.0 in.) i + ( 38 in.) j − ( 24 in.) k

44.989 in.

( 45 lb )

**or FC = ( 2.00 lb ) i + ( 38.0 lb ) j − ( 24.0 lb ) k Have ΣM C : rB/C × PAB = M C i j k M C = 2 29.5 −33 0 lb ⋅ in. 1 19 −12
**

= ( 2 lb ⋅ in.) {( −33)( −12 ) i − ( 29.5 )( −12 ) j

+ ( 29.5 )(19 ) − ( −33)(1) k

}

or M C = ( 792 lb ⋅ in.) i + ( 708 lb ⋅ in.) j + (1187 lb ⋅ in.) k

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 151.

For equivalence ΣFx : − ( 90 N ) sin 30° + (125 N ) cos 40° = Rx or Rx = 50.756 N ΣFy : − ( 90 N ) cos30° − 200 N − (125 N ) sin 40° = Ry or Ry = −358.29 N Then and tan θ = R= Ry Rx =

( 50.756 )2 + ( −358.29 )2

−358.29 = −7.0591 50.756

= 361.87 N ∴ θ = −81.937°

or R = 362 N

Also

81.9°

ΣM A : M − ( 90 N ) sin 35° ( 0.6 m ) − ( 200 N ) cos 25° ( 0.85 m ) − (125 N ) sin 65° (1.25 m ) = 0

∴ M = 326.66 N ⋅ m or M = 327 N ⋅ m

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 152.

**For equivalence Σ F: FA + FB + FC + FD = R C R C = − ( 5 lb ) j − ( 3 lb ) j − ( 4 lb ) k − ( 7 lb ) i ∴ R C = ( −7 lb ) i − ( 8 lb ) j − ( 4 lb ) k Also for equivalence ΣM C : rA′/C × FA + rB′/C × FB + rD′/C × FD = M C or MC i j k i j k i j k = 0 0 −1.5 in. + 1 in. 0 −1.5 in. + 0 1.5 in. 1.5 in. 0 5 lb 0 0 −3 lb 0 −7 lb 0 0
**

= ( −7.50 lb ⋅ in. − 0 ) i + ( 0 − 4.50 lb ⋅ in.) i + ( −3.0 lb ⋅ in. − 0 ) k + (10.5 lb ⋅ in. − 0 ) j + ( 0 + 10.5 lb ⋅ in.) k

or M C = − (12.0 lb ⋅ in.) i + (10.5 lb ⋅ in.) j + ( 7.5 lb ⋅ in.) k

COSMOS: Complete Online Solutions Manual Organization System

Chapter 3, Solution 153.

Have

ΣF : FA + FB + FC + FD = R − ( 85 lb ) j − ( 60 lb ) j − ( 90 lb ) j − ( 95 lb ) j = R ∴ R = − ( 330 lb ) j

Have

ΣM x : FA ( z A ) + FB ( z B ) + FC ( zC ) + FD ( z D ) = R ( z H )

(85 lb )( 9 ft ) + ( 60 lb )(1.5 ft ) + ( 90 lb )(14.25 ft ) + ( 95 lb )( zD ) = ( 330 lb )( 7.5 ft )

∴ z D = 3.5523 ft Have ΣM z : FA ( x A ) + FB ( xB ) + FC ( xC ) + FD ( xD ) = R ( xH ) or z D = 3.55 ft

(85 lb )( 3 ft ) + ( 60 lb )( 4.5 ft ) + ( 90 lb )(14.25 ft ) + ( 95 lb )( xD ) = ( 330 lb )( 7.5 ft )

∴ xD = 7.0263 ft or xD = 7.03 ft

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