AIRLINE RESERVATION SYSTEM (ARS

)
A SEMINAR PRESENTED

BY

DICK PERE ILAYE
CS/06/076

SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE, FACULTY OF NATURAL SCIENCE, MADONNA UNIVERSITY, ELELE CAMPUS

IN PARTIAL FULLFILMENT OF THE REQUIRMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (B.Sc) DEGREE IN COMPUTER SCIENCE

SUPERVISOR:

EZEKWE, C. (MRS)

JANUARY, 2010

CERTIFICATION This is to certify that I, DICK PERE ILAYE, CS/06/076 carried out this seminar work on the topic “Airline Reservation System”, in Partial Fulfillment for the award of Bachelor of Science in Computer Science. I did this seminar work and it has not been submitted elsewhere for the award of a Certificate, Diploma or Degree.

________________________ DICK PERE ILAYE (Student)

_____________________ Date

________________________ Mrs. EZEKWE CHINWE (Supervisor)

_____________________ Date

________________________ Mr. ATABONG TIMOTHY A. (Head of Department)

_____________________ Date

DEDICATION This work is dedicated to God Almighty.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I thank God Almighty for his infinite love and mercy. I also seize this opportunity to thank my supervisor Mrs. Ezekwe C. for her immense contribution academically in approving this thesis and also being there to correct, suggest and support my ideas throughout the period of compilation. Furthermore, I thank my parents Cmdr. and Mrs. Pere Dick for their contributions spiritually, morally and financially. My entire siblings and friends are also not forgotten here; I appreciate all of you. God Bless you all.

ABSTRACT Airline Reservation Systems (ARS) used to be standalone systems. Each airline had its own system, disconnected from other airlines or ticket agents, and usable only by a designated number of airline employees. Travel agents in the 1970s pushed for access to the airlines' systems. Today, air travel information is linked, stored, and retrieved by a network of Computer Reservations Systems (CRS), accessible by multiple airlines and travel agents. The global distribution system (GDS) makes for an even larger web of airline information, not only merging the buying and selling of tickets for multiple airlines, but also making the systems accessible to consumers directly. GDS portals and gateways on the Web allow consumers to purchase tickets directly, select seats, and even book hotels and rental cars.Airline Reservation System (ARS) in conjunction with Global Distribution System (GDS) has led to ease of airline ticketing, flight scheduling and also provided a means for customers to access and book flights from their homes. It has also increased the speed with which information about customers are retrieved and handled for flight scheduling tasks.

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page
CERTIFICATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT CHAPTER ONE: Introduction 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Introduction to the Study Aim/Objective of the Study Justification of the Study Scope of the Study Significance and Limitation of the Study i ii iii iv 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 5 7 7 7 7 10 11 11

CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review 2.1 2.2 History of Airline Reservation System (ARS) Definition of Terms

CHAPTER THREE: Airline Reservation System (ARS) 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 What is ARS? Global Distribution Systems (GDS) Trends in Airline Reservation System (ARS) Major Computerized Reservation System (CRS) Operations of Computerized Reservation System (CRS) 3.5.1 3.5.2 3.5.3 Operation of Vendors to Air Carriers Operation of Vendors to Subscribers Regarding Commercial Arrangements Operation of Vendors Regarding Display

13 14 17 18

CHAPTER FOUR: Conclusion and Recommendation REFERENCE

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1. INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY

It is obvious that everything that issustainable would have to go through advancement. In science and technology, the desire for improvement is a constant subject which triggers advancements. This is visible in every ramification and the airline industry is not an exemption. Airline Reservation Systems (ARS) used to be standalone systems. Each airline had its own system, disconnected from other airlines or ticket agents, and usable only by a designated number of airline employees. Travel agents in the 1970s pushed for access to the airlines' systems. Today, air travel information is linked, stored, and retrieved by a network of Computer Reservations Systems (CRS), accessible by multiple airlines and travel agents. The global distribution system (GDS) makes for an even larger web of airline information, not only merging the buying and selling of tickets for multiple airlines, but also making the systems accessible to consumers directly. GDS portals and gateways on the Web allow consumers to purchase tickets directly, select seats, and even book hotels and rental cars.(Winston, Clifford 1995) 1.2 AIM/OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

This seminar is aimed at exposing the relevance and importance of Airline Reservation Systems (ARS). It is projected towards enhancing the relationship between customers and airline agencies through the use of ARSs, thereby easing the flight ticketing and selling process and all air traveling operations.

1.3

JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

The outcome of this study will provide a basis for developing the appropriate approach to the problems associated with air traveling operations in relation toAirline Reservation Systems (ARSs). 1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This seminar is not only restricted to Computer Reservation Systems (ARSes), but also other systems dedicated to the optimal performance in the airline industry; airline agencies and their customers inclusive. 1.5 SIGNIFICANCE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This presentation will be beneficial to all those who make use of Airline Reservation Systems (ARSs), flight operators, air traveling operators, travel agents and airline agencies. In addition, it will assist all those in computer-related disciplines who may want to appreciate the system and also those doing research on similar topic.

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW In the early days of American commercial aviation, passengers were relatively few, and each airline's routes and fares were tightly regulated by the Civil Aeronautics Board. These were published in a volume entitled The Official Airline Guide, from which travel agents or consumers could construct an itinerary, then call or telex airline staff, who would mark the reservation on a card and file it. This manual system is still used by relativelyfew travel agents who do not use ARS. As demand for air travel increased and schedules grew more complex, this process became impractical, hence, giving rise to the need of an automated reservation system called Airline Reservation System (ARS). (Wikipedia, 2010) 2.1 HISTORY OF AIRLINE RESERVATION SYSTEM (ARS)

American Airlines was the first to establish an automated booking system in 1946. Using a system to track information and improve efficiency was a highly appealing aim in the industry, and drew the attention of other airlines worldwide. The system endured years of development and alterations. Trans-Canada Airlines developed a computer-based system with remote terminals that eventually took over operations in 1953. The same year, American Airlines worked closely with IBM to develop an improved system, and the Airline Reservation System (ARS) and the Semi-Automatic Business Research System (SABRE) launched thereafter in 1960. The network completed set-up in 1964, and it was recognized as the largest data processing system in existence. Later, other airlines invested more in research and development to launch improved systems, and through the late 1960s and early 1970s, airlines established their own systems. United Airlines developed the Apollo Reservation System, and shortly after allowed travel agents access. The Apollo system was the foundation for many further developments, which spread from just US airlines to European airlines as well. The research and development of Airline Reservation System became a significant

aspect of the industry and all its air carrier companies, and partnerships between airlines and technology gurus emerged. (Morrison, Winston 1995)

Other airlines soon established their own systems. Delta Air Lines launched the Delta Automated Travel Account System (DATAS) in 1968. United Airlines and Trans World Airlines followed in 1971 with the Apollo Reservation System and Programmed Airline Reservation System (PARS), respectively. Soon, travel agents began pushing for a system that could automate their side of the process by accessing the various ARSes directly to make reservations. Fearful this would place too much power in the hands of agents, American Airlines executive Robert Crandall proposed creating an industry-wide Computer Reservation System to be a central clearinghouse for U.S. travel; other airlines demurred, citing fear of antitrust prosecution. (Wikipedia, 2010)

Airline deregulation occurred in 1978, magnifying the importance of computerized airline reservation systems and their accessibility. During the early 1970s, as travel agents pushed for access to reservation systems, and certain airline executives made investments for the sake of accessing the systems of other airlines, antitrust laws came into focus. The purpose of the 1978 Airline Deregulation Act in the U.S. was to eliminate government control over commercial aviation, and ensure competitive behavior and fair business practices in the airline industry. Passengers could gain knowledge of market forces and new market entry in the industry. Information on specific airlines and the industry as a whole became more widely and readily accessible, evolving the airline reservation systems from "standalone" operations toward GDS. (European Parliament, 2008)

Of the major types of airline reservation systems, most are linked to GDS to provide information to travel agents, employees of other airlines, and the passengers or potential customers, directly. The major systems include SABRE, Worldspan, Galileo, Patheo, and Abacus. American Airlines now uses SABRE, also used by Expedia, Lastminute.com, and

Travelocity. Abacus is used by over 450 individual airlines, over 80,000 hotels, and over 25 countries in Asia. Companies like Expedia share their system accessibility directly with consumers.Today, about six major airline reservations systems are used by international airlines. (Winston, Clifford 1995)

2.2

DEFINITION OF TERMS This is an area of commerce that uses aircraft to

Airline Industry(Air Transport Industry):

transport people, cargo, and mail. The air transport industry encompasses flights of common carriers (government-certified companies that offer cargo and passenger services to the public) and general aviation (private aircraft used for recreation or business). (Microsoft Encarta 2009, Microsoft Corporation) Reservation: The written record or promise of an arrangement by which accommodations are secured in advance. (WordWeb 5.1, WordNet Database) System: task. NB: In computer science, System is used in a variety of contexts. A computer System is a hardware system consisting of a microprocessor and allied chips and circuitry, plus an input device (keyboard, mouse, disk drive), an output device (monitor, disk drive), and any peripheral devices (printer, modem). Within this hardware system is an operating system, often called system software, which is an essential set of programs that manage hardware and data files and work with application programs. External to the computer, system also refers to any collection or combination of programs, procedures, data, and equipment utilized in processing information: an accounting system, a billing system, a database management system. (Microsoft Encarta 2009, Microsoft Corporation) This is any collection of component elements that work together to perform a

Deregulation: The act of freeing from regulation (especially from governmental regulations). (WordWeb 5.1, WordNet Database) Network: In computer science network is a system used to link two or more computers.

Network users are able to share files, printers, and other resources; send electronic messages; and run programs on other computers. (Microsoft Encarta 2009, Microsoft Corporation) Computerize: To control a function, process, or creation by a computer. (WordWeb 5.1, WordNet Database)

CHAPTER THREE AIRLINE RESERVATION SYSTEM (ARS) 3.1 WHAT IS ARS?

AirlineReservations System(ARS) is a computerized system used to store and retrieve information and conduct transactions related to air travel. The systems was originally designed and operated by airlines, but were later extended for the use of travel agencies. Major ARS operations that book and sell tickets for multiple airlines are known as Global Distribution Systems (GDS). Airlines have divested most of their direct holdings to dedicated GDS companies, who make their systems accessible to consumers through Internet gateways. Modern GDSes typically allow users to book hotel rooms and rental cars as well as airline tickets. 3.2 GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS (GDS)

Global Distribution Systems (GDS) are subsystems connected to Airline Reservation Systems (ARS) which allows users access to information on flight scheduling and reservation stored in the Airline Reservation System (ARS) database. 3.3 TRENDS IN AIRLINE RESERVATION SYSTEMS (ARS)

In 1946, American Airlines installed the first automated booking system, the experimental electromechanical Reservisor. A newer machine with temporary storage based on a magnetic drum, the Magnetronic Reservisor, soon followed. This system proved successful, and was soon being used by several airlines, as well as Sheraton Hotels and Goodyear for inventory control. It was seriously hampered by the need for local human operators to do the actual lookups; ticketing agents would have to call a booking office, whose operators would direct a small team operating the Reservisor and then read the results over the telephone. There was no way for agents to directly query the system.

In 1953, Trans-Canada Airlines (TCA) started investigating a computer-based system with remote terminals, testing one design on the University of Toronto's Manchester Mark 1 machine that summer. Though successful, the researchers found that input and output was a major problem. Ferranti Canada became involved in the project and suggested a new system using punch cards and a transistorized computer in place of the unreliable tube-based Mark I. The resulting system, ReserVec, started operation in 1962, and took over all booking operations in January 1963. Terminals were placed in all of TCA's ticketing offices, allowing all queries and bookings to complete in about one second with no remote operators needed. In 1953, American Airlines CEO C. R. Smith chanced to sit next to R. Blair Smith, a senior IBM sales representative. C. R. Smith invited Blair to visit their Reservisor system and look for ways that IBM could improve the system. Blair alerted Thomas Watson Jr. that American was interested in a major collaboration, and a series of low-level studies started. Their idea of an automated Airline Reservation System (ARS) resulted in a 1959 venture known as the Semi-Automatic Business Research Environment (SABRE), launched the following year. By the time the network was completed in December 1964, it was the largest civil data processing system in the world. Other airlines soon established their own systems. Delta Air Lines launched the Delta Automated Travel Account System (DATAS) in 1968. United Airlines and Trans World Airlines followed in 1971 with the Apollo Reservation System and Programmed Airline Reservation System (PARS), respectively. Soon, travel agents began pushing for a system that could automate their side of the process by accessing the various ARSes directly to make reservations. Fearful this would place too much power in the hands of agents, American Airlines executive Robert Crandall proposed creating an industry-wide Computer Reservation System to be a central clearinghouse for U.S. travel; other airlines demurred, citing fear of antitrust prosecution.

In 1976, United began offering its Apollo system to travel agents; while it would allow the agents to book tickets on United's competitors, the marketing value of the convenient terminal proved indispensable. SABRE, PARS, and DATAS were soon released to travel agents as well. Following airline deregulation in 1978, an efficient ARS proved particularly important; by some counts, Texas Air executive Frank Lorenzo purchased money-losing Eastern Air Lines specifically to gain control of its SystemOne ARS. Also in 1976 Videcom international with British Airways, British Caledonian and CCL launched Travicom, the world's first multi-access reservations system (wholly based on Videcom technology), forming a network providing distribution for 49 subscribing international airlines (including British Airways, British Caledonian, TWA , Pan American World Airways, Qantas, Singapore Airlines, Air France, Lufthansa, SAS, Air Canada, KLM, Alitalia, Cathay Pacific and JAL) to thousands of travel agents in the UK. It allowed agents and airlines to communicate via a common distribution language and network, handling 97% of UK airline business trade bookings by 1987. The system went on to be replicated by Videcom in other areas of the World including the Middle East (DMARS), New Zealand, Kuwait (KMARS), Ireland, Caribbean, United Sates and Hong Kong. The Travicom UK multi access system airlines eventually migrated into the system called Galileo ARS in the UK today and in 1988 Travicom Ltd was migrated into the distribution company Galileo UK. European airlines also began to invest in the field in the 1980s, propelled by growth in demand for travel as well as technological advances which allowed GDSes to offer everincreasing services and searching power. In 1987, a consortium led by Air France and West Germany's Lufthansa developed Amadeus, modeled on SystemOne. In 1990, Delta, Northwest Airlines, and Trans World Airlines formed Worldspan, and in 1993, another consortium (including British Airways, KLM, and United Airlines, among others) formed the competing company Galileo International based on Apollo. Numerous smaller companies as KIU, have also formed, aimed at niche markets the four largest networks do not cater to; as

the Low Cost Carrier (LCC) segment and small and medium size domestic and regional airlines as well. 3.4 Name
Amadeus

MAJOR AIRLINE RESERVATION SYSTEM (ARS) Created By
   

Also Used by

Air France Iberia Lufthansa SAS

              

SABRE

    

All Nippon Airways American Airlines Cathay Pacific Airways China Airlines Singapore Airlines Aer Lingus Air Canada Alitalia British Airways Swiss TAP United Airlines US Airways Delta Northwest TWA Air China China Southern China Eastern Hainan Airlines Finnair KLM Lufthansa - > Moved to Amadeus VA All Nippon Airways Cathay Pacific

Galileo by Travelport

Worldspan by Travelport

                  

Online travel agencies including o Anyfares o CheapOair o ebookers o Expedia o Flights o Opodo Over 500 individual airlines Over 120 individual airline websites Over 90,000 travel agencies Over 76,000 hotels Expedia CheapOair Godard Lastminute.com Mobissimo Travelocity Over 20 individual airlines CheapOair CheapTickets ebookers Orbitz

TravelSky

    

Patheo

Abacus

 

 

Hotwire Hotels Priceline Orbitz Online travel agencies including o Ctrip o eLong o mangocity Online travel agencies including o Airgorrila o American Express o Anyfares o Flights Online travel agencies Over 450 individual airlines

KIU

                    

Airways China Airlines Dragonair EVA Airways Garuda Indonesia Malaysia Airlines Philippine Airlines Royal Brunei Airlines SABRE SilkAir Singapore Airlines Sol LineasAereas Aerogal Star Peru LC Busre Peruvian Airlines CielosAndinos Easyfly Laser Airlines LADE - LineasAereas Del Estado Amaszonas Maya Air

 

Over 25 countries in Asia Pacific Over 80,000 hotels

  

Over 12 individual airlines Over 10 countries in Latin and North America Travel agencies and wholesale tour operators worldwide

Table 3.1:

Major Airline Reservation System (ARS)
Source: (Wikipedia, 2010)

3.5

OPERATIONS OF AIRLINE RESERVATION SYSTEM (ARS)

The following are some of the operations regulated by Airline Reservation System: 3.5.1 Operation of Vendors to Air Carriers A system vendor shall:

a)

Permit participation in its ARS by any carrier prepared to pay the requisite fees and to accept the system vendor's standard conditions;

b)

Not require carriers to participate in its ARS exclusively or for a certain proportion of their activities;

c)

Not impose any conditions on participation in its ARS that are not directly related to the process of distributing a carrier's air transport products through the ARS;

d)

Not discriminate among participating carriers in the ARS services it offers, including timely and non- discriminatory access to service enhancements, subject to technical or other constraints outside the control of the system vendor;

e)

Ensure that any fees it charges are:

i) ii)

non-discriminatory; not structured in such a way that carriers are unfairly precluded from participation; and

iii)

reasonably structured and reasonably related to the cost of the service provided and used and shall, in particular, be the same for the same level of service;

f)

Provide information on billing for the services of a system in a form (including, if requested, via or on electronic media) and in sufficient detail to allow participating carriers to verify promptly the accuracy of the bills;

g)

Include in contracts a provision permitting an air carrier to terminate a contract by giving notice:

i)

which need not exceed six months, to expire not before the end of the first year; or

ii)

as prescribed by national law;

h)

Load information provided by participating carriers with consistent and nondiscriminatory standards of care, accuracy and timeliness, subject to any constraints imposed by the loading method selected by the participating carrier;

i)

Not manipulate the information provided by carriers in any way that would lead to information being displayed in an inaccurate or discriminatory manner;

j)

Make any information in its ARS that directly concerns a single reservation available on an equal basis to the subscriber concerned and to all the carriers involved in the service covered by the reservation but to no other parties without the written consent of such carriers and the air transport user; and

k)

Not discriminate among participating carriers in making available any information, other than financial information relating to the ARS itself, generated by its ARS in an aggregated or anonymous form. (CODE OF CONDUCTfor the Regulation and Operation of Computer Reservation Systems)

3.5.2 Operations of Vendors to Subscribers Regarding Commercial Arrangements

A system vendor shall not:

a)

Discriminate among subscribers in the ARS services it offers;

b)

Restrict access by subscribers to other ARSs by requiring them to use its ARS exclusively or by any other means;

c)

Charge prices conditioned in whole or in part on the identity of carriers whose air transport services are sold by the subscriber;

d)

Require subscribers to use its ARS for sales of air transport services provided by any particular carrier;

e)

Tie any commercial arrangements regarding the sale of air transport services provided by any particular carrier to the subscriber's selection or use of the system vendor's ARS;

f)

Require subscribers to use its terminal equipment or prevent them from using computer hardware or software that enables them to switch from the use of one ARS to another, although it may require technical compatibility with its ARS; and

g)

Require subscribers to enter into contracts which:

i)

exceed five years; or

ii)

cannot be cancelled by the subscriber at any time after one year, with notice and without prejudice to recovery of actual cost; and

iii)

contain provisions that undermine contract termination. (CODE OF CONDUCTfor the Regulation and Operation of Computer

Reservation Systems)

3.5.3 Operations of Vendors Regarding Displays

A system vendor shall:

a)

Make available a principal display or displays of schedules, space availability and tariffs of air carriers which are fair, non-discriminatory, comprehensive, and neutral in terms of:

i)

not being influenced, directly or indirectly, either by the identity of participating carriers or by airport identity; and

ii)

the information being ordered in a manner which is consistently applied to all participating carriers and to all city-pair markets;

b)

Ensure that any principal display made available is as fully functional and at least as easy to use as any other display it offers;

c)

Always provide a principal display except where there is a specific request from an air transport user which requires the use of another display;

d)

Base the ordering of services in a principal display and the selection and construction of connecting services on objective criteria (such as departure/ arrival times, total elapsed time between initial flight departure at origin and final flight arrival at destination, routing, number of stops, number of connections and fares);

e)

Provide to subscribers:

i)

a principal display of flight options ranked in the order of all non-stop flights by departure time, other direct flights not involving a change of aircraft and all connecting flights by elapsed journey time; or

ii)

a principal display of flight options ranked in any other order based on objective criteria; or

iii)

principal displays based on i) and ii)

f)

In the ordering of services in a principal display, take care that no carrier obtains an unfair advantage;

g)

In any principal display of schedule information:

i)

clearly identify non-scheduled flights, scheduled en-route changes of equipment, use of the designator code of one air carrier by another air carrier, the name of the operator of each flight, the number of scheduled en-route stops, and any surface sectors or changes of airport required; and

ii)

clearly indicate that the information displayed regarding direct services is not comprehensive if information on participating carriers' direct services is incomplete for technical reasons or if any direct services operated by non-participating carriers are known to exist and are omitted;

h)

In the selection and construction of connecting services in a principal display, select as many alternative (single or multiple) connecting points on a nondiscriminatory basis as is necessary to ensure a wide range of options;

i)

Not intentionally or negligently display inaccurate or misleading information;

j)

In cases where States do not find it practicable to ensure that subscribers comply with Article 10, include appropriate provisions regarding compliance in its contract with each subscriber; and

k)

Where participating carriers have joint venture or other contractual arrangements requiring two or more of them to assume separate responsibility for the offer and sale of air transport products on a flight or combination of flights, permit each carrier concerned—up to a maximum of three—to have a separate display using its individual designator code. (CODE OF CONDUCTfor the Regulation and Operation of Computer Reservation Systems)

CHAPTER FOUR

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 4.1 CONCLUSION

Airline Reservation System (ARS) has led to ease of airline ticketing, flight scheduling and also provided a means for customers to access and book flights from their homes. It has also increased the speed with which information about customers are retrieved and handled and flight scheduling is tasked. 4.2 RECOMMENDATION

Owing to the ease and comfort of Airline Reservation Systems, local flights which are not on the system should be encouraged to compensate the system. Secondly, the system should be made affordable so as to encourage consumers and travel agents on patronizing the system.

REFERENCE 1. “Airline”. Retrieved on January 11, 2010 fromhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airline.htm. 2. “Aviation and Space”. Retrieved on December 18, 2009 from Microsoft Encarta Premium 2009 Encyclopedia. 3. C. Winston, S. Morrison(1995): "The Evolution of the Airline Industry", Brookings Institution Press, South Dakota, Cf. p. 61-62, Computer Reservation Systems. 4. “Computerized Reservation System”. Retrieved on January 14, 2010 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_reservations_system.htm. 5. European Parliament: “More Competition in Airline Reservation System – With Protection for Consumers,” Sept. 4, 2008. Retrieved on November 26, 2009 from http://www.ehow.com/about_5122697_airline-reservation-systems.html. 6. ICAO, Policy and Guidance Material on the Economic Regulation of International Air Transport, 2nd ed. – 1999, Doc. 9587. Retrieved on November 10, 2009, from http://www.aviation.go.th/airtrans/airlaw/CRST.html. 7. M. J. Smith (2002): “The Airline Encyclopedia, 1909 – 2000”. Scarecrow Press, New York. 8. Microsoft Encarta Premium 2009. 9. P. N. Seth, S. S. Bhat (2002): “An Introduction to Travel and Tourism”, Prentice Hall, London. 10. R. E. G. Davies (1964): “A History of the World’s Airlines”. Oxford University Press, London. 11. R. Doganis, C. Routledge (2001): “The Airline Business in the 21st Century.” McGrawHill, New York. 12. R. Doganis, C. Routledge (2002): “Flying Off Course: The Economics of International Airlines,” 3rd Edition. McGraw-Hill, New York. 13. WordWeb 5.1 (2006): WordNet Database by Princeton University, Princeton.

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