PROBLEM 2.

1
Two forces are applied to an eye bolt fastened to a beam. Determine
graphically the magnitude and direction of their resultant using (a) the
parallelogram law, (b) the triangle rule.

SOLUTION
(a)









(b)






We measure: 8.4 kN R =
19 α = °
8.4 kN = R 19°
1



PROBLEM 2.2
The cable stays AB and AD help support pole AC. Knowing that the
tension is 500 N in AB and 160 N in AD, determine graphically the
magnitude and direction of the resultant of the forces exerted by the stays
at A using (a) the parallelogram law, (b) the triangle rule.

SOLUTION







We measure: 51.3 , 59 α β = ° = °
(a)







(b)






We measure: 575 N, 67 α = = ° R
575 N = R 67°
2





PROBLEM 2.3
Two forces P and Q are applied as shown at point A of a hook support.
Knowing that P = 15 lb and Q = 25 lb, determine graphically the
magnitude and direction of their resultant using (a) the parallelogram law,
(b) the triangle rule.

SOLUTION
(a)









(b)










We measure: 37 lb, 76 α = = ° R
37 lb = R 76°
3




PROBLEM 2.4
Two forces P and Q are applied as shown at point A of a hook support.
Knowing that P = 45 lb and Q = 15 lb, determine graphically the
magnitude and direction of their resultant using (a) the parallelogram law,
(b) the triangle rule.

SOLUTION
(a)









(b)








We measure: 61.5 lb, 86.5 α = = ° R
61.5 lb = R 86.5°
4





PROBLEM 2.5
Two control rods are attached at A to lever AB. Using trigonometry and
knowing that the force in the left-hand rod is F
1
= 120 N, determine
(a) the required force F
2
in the right-hand rod if the resultant R of the
forces exerted by the rods on the lever is to be vertical, (b) the
corresponding magnitude of R.

SOLUTION





Graphically, by the triangle law
We measure:
2
108 N F ≅
77 N R ≅
By trigonometry: Law of Sines
2
120
sin sin38 sin
F R
α β
= =
°

90 28 62 , 180 62 38 80 α β = ° − ° = ° = ° − ° − ° = °
Then:
2
120 N
sin 62 sin38 sin80
F R
= =
° ° °

or (a)
2
107.6 N F =
(b) 75.0 N R =
5




PROBLEM 2.6
Two control rods are attached at A to lever AB. Using trigonometry and
knowing that the force in the right-hand rod is F
2
= 80 N, determine
(a) the required force F
1
in the left-hand rod if the resultant R of the
forces exerted by the rods on the lever is to be vertical, (b) the
corresponding magnitude of R.

SOLUTION

Using the Law of Sines
1
80
sin sin38 sin
F R
α β
= =
°

90 10 80 , 180 80 38 62 α β = ° − ° = ° = ° − ° − ° = °
Then:
1
80 N
sin80 sin38 sin62
F R
= =
° ° °

or (a)
1
89.2 N F =
(b) 55.8 N R =
6





PROBLEM 2.7
The 50-lb force is to be resolved into components along lines - a a′ and
- . b b′ (a) Using trigonometry, determine the angle α knowing that the
component along - a a′ is 35 lb. (b) What is the corresponding value of
the component along - ? b b′

SOLUTION

Using the triangle rule and the Law of Sines
(a)
sin sin 40
35 lb 50 lb
β °
=
sin 0.44995 β =
26.74 β = °
Then: 40 180 α β + + ° = °
113.3 α = °
(b) Using the Law of Sines:
50 lb
sin sin 40
bb
F
α

=
°

71.5 lb
bb
F

=
7




PROBLEM 2.8
The 50-lb force is to be resolved into components along lines - a a′ and
- . b b′ (a) Using trigonometry, determine the angle α knowing that the
component along - b b′ is 30 lb. (b) What is the corresponding value of
the component along - ? a a′

SOLUTION





Using the triangle rule and the Law of Sines
(a)
sin sin 40
30 lb 50 lb
α °
=
sin 0.3857 α =
22.7 α = °
(b) 40 180 α β + + ° = °
117.31 β = °

50 lb
sin sin 40
aa
F
β

=
°


sin
50 lb
sin 40
β

 
=
 
°
 
aa
F
69.1lb
aa
F

=
8





PROBLEM 2.9
To steady a sign as it is being lowered, two cables are attached to the sign
at A. Using trigonometry and knowing that α = 25°, determine (a) the
required magnitude of the force P if the resultant R of the two forces
applied at A is to be vertical, (b) the corresponding magnitude of R.

SOLUTION

Using the triangle rule and the Law of Sines
Have: ( ) 180 35 25 α = ° − ° + °
120 = °
Then:
360 N
sin35 sin120 sin 25
P R
= =
° ° °

or (a) 489 N P =
(b) 738 N R =
9




PROBLEM 2.10
To steady a sign as it is being lowered, two cables are attached to the sign
at A. Using trigonometry and knowing that the magnitude of P is 300 N,
determine (a) the required angle α if the resultant R of the two forces
applied at A is to be vertical, (b) the corresponding magnitude of R.

SOLUTION

Using the triangle rule and the Law of Sines
(a) Have:
360 N 300 N
sin sin35 α
=
°

sin 0.68829 α =
43.5 α = °
(b) ( ) 180 35 43.5 β = − ° + °
101.5 = °
Then:
300 N
sin101.5 sin35
R
=
° °

or 513 N R =

10




PROBLEM 2.11
Two forces are applied as shown to a hook support. Using trigonometry
and knowing that the magnitude of P is 14 lb, determine (a) the required
angle α if the resultant R of the two forces applied to the support is to be
horizontal, (b) the corresponding magnitude of R.

SOLUTION
Using the triangle rule and the Law of Sines

(a) Have:
20 lb 14 lb
sin sin30 α
=
°

sin 0.71428 α =
45.6 α = °
(b) ( ) 180 30 45.6 β = ° − ° + °
104.4 = °
Then:
14 lb
sin104.4 sin30
R
=
° °

27.1 lb R =
11




PROBLEM 2.12
For the hook support of Problem 2.3, using trigonometry and knowing
that the magnitude of P is 25 lb, determine (a) the required magnitude of
the force Q if the resultant R of the two forces applied at A is to be
vertical, (b) the corresponding magnitude of R.
Problem 2.3: Two forces P and Q are applied as shown at point A of a
hook support. Knowing that P = 15 lb and Q = 25 lb, determine
graphically the magnitude and direction of their resultant using (a) the
parallelogram law, (b) the triangle rule.

SOLUTION
Using the triangle rule and the Law of Sines

(a) Have:
25 lb
sin15 sin30
Q
=
° °

12.94 lb Q =
(b) ( ) 180 15 30 β = ° − ° + °
135 = °
Thus:
25 lb
sin135 sin30
R
=
° °

sin135
25 lb 35.36 lb
sin30
R
° | |
= =
|
°
\ .

35.4 lb R =
12




PROBLEM 2.13
For the hook support of Problem 2.11, determine, using trigonometry,
(a) the magnitude and direction of the smallest force P for which the
resultant R of the two forces applied to the support is horizontal,
(b) the corresponding magnitude of R.
Problem 2.11: Two forces are applied as shown to a hook support. Using
trigonometry and knowing that the magnitude of P is 14 lb, determine
(a) the required angle α if the resultant R of the two forces applied to the
support is to be horizontal, (b) the corresponding magnitude of R.

SOLUTION
(a) The smallest force P will be perpendicular to R, that is, vertical

( ) 20 lb sin30 P = °
10 lb = 10 lb = P
(b) ( ) 20 lb cos30 R = °
17.32 lb = 17.32 lb R =
13




PROBLEM 2.14
As shown in Figure P2.9, two cables are attached to a sign at A to steady
the sign as it is being lowered. Using trigonometry, determine (a) the
magnitude and direction of the smallest force P for which the resultant R
of the two forces applied at A is vertical, (b) the corresponding magnitude
of R.

SOLUTION
We observe that force P is minimum when is 90 , α ° that is, P is horizontal

Then: (a) ( ) 360 N sin35 P = °
or 206 N = P
And: (b) ( ) 360 N cos35 R = °
or 295 N R =
14



PROBLEM 2.15
For the hook support of Problem 2.11, determine, using trigonometry, the
magnitude and direction of the resultant of the two forces applied to the
support knowing that P = 10 lb and α = 40°.
Problem 2.11: Two forces are applied as shown to a hook support. Using
trigonometry and knowing that the magnitude of P is 14 lb, determine
(a) the required angle α if the resultant R of the two forces applied to the
support is to be horizontal, (b) the corresponding magnitude of R.

SOLUTION
Using the force triangle and the Law of Cosines

( ) ( ) ( )( )
2 2
2
10 lb 20 lb 2 10 lb 20 lb cos110 R = + − °
( )
2
100 400 400 0.342 lb = + − −



2
636.8 lb =
25.23 lb R =
Using now the Law of Sines

10 lb 25.23 lb
sin sin110 β
=
°

10 lb
sin sin110
25.23 lb
β
| |
= °
|
\ .

0.3724 =
So: 21.87 β = °
Angle of inclination of R, φ is then such that:
30 φ β + = °
8.13 φ = °
Hence: 25.2 lb = R 8.13°
15




PROBLEM 2.16
Solve Problem 2.1 using trigonometry
Problem 2.1: Two forces are applied to an eye bolt fastened to a beam.
Determine graphically the magnitude and direction of their resultant
using (a) the parallelogram law, (b) the triangle rule.

SOLUTION
Using the force triangle, the Law of Cosines and the Law of Sines

We have: ( ) 180 50 25 α = ° − ° + °
105 = °
Then: ( ) ( ) ( )( )
2 2
2
4.5 kN 6 kN 2 4.5 kN 6 kN cos105 R = + − °

2
70.226 kN =
or 8.3801 kN R =
Now:
8.3801 kN 6 kN
sin105 sin β
=
°

6 kN
sin sin105
8.3801 kN
β
| |
= °
|
\ .

0.6916 =
43.756 β = °
8.38 kN = R 18.76°

16

PROBLEM 2.17
Solve Problem 2.2 using trigonometry
Problem 2.2: The cable stays AB and AD help support pole AC. Knowing
that the tension is 500 N in AB and 160 N in AD, determine graphically
the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the forces exerted by the
stays at A using (a) the parallelogram law, (b) the triangle rule.

SOLUTION











From the geometry of the problem:
1
2
tan 38.66
2.5
α

= = °
1
1.5
tan 30.96
2.5
β

= = °
Now: ( ) 180 38.66 30.96 110.38 θ = ° − + ° =
And, using the Law of Cosines:
( ) ( ) ( )( )
2 2
2
500 N 160 N 2 500 N 160 N cos110.38 R = + − °

2
331319 N =
575.6 N R =
Using the Law of Sines:
160 N 575.6 N
sin sin110.38 γ
=
°

160 N
sin sin110.38
575.6 N
γ
| |
= °
|
\ .

0.2606 =
15.1 γ = °
( ) 90 66.44 φ α γ = ° − + = °
576 N = R 66.4°

17

PROBLEM 2.18
Solve Problem 2.3 using trigonometry
Problem 2.3: Two forces P and Q are applied as shown at point A of a
hook support. Knowing that P = 15 lb and Q = 25 lb, determine
graphically the magnitude and direction of their resultant using (a) the
parallelogram law, (b) the triangle rule.

SOLUTION





Using the force triangle and the Laws of Cosines and Sines
We have:
( ) 180 15 30 γ = ° − ° + °
135 = °
Then: ( ) ( ) ( )( )
2 2
2
15 lb 25 lb 2 15 lb 25 lb cos135 R = + − °

2
1380.3 lb =
or 37.15 lb R =
and
25 lb 37.15 lb
sin sin135 β
=
°

25 lb
sin sin135
37.15 lb
β
| |
= °
|
\ .

0.4758 =
28.41 β = °
Then: 75 180 α β + + ° = °
76.59 α = °
37.2 lb = R 76.6°

18

PROBLEM 2.19
Two structural members A and B are bolted to a bracket as shown.
Knowing that both members are in compression and that the force is
30 kN in member A and 20 kN in member B, determine, using
trigonometry, the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the forces
applied to the bracket by members A and B.


SOLUTION






Using the force triangle and the Laws of Cosines and Sines
We have: ( ) 180 45 25 110 γ = ° − ° + ° = °
Then: ( ) ( ) ( )( )
2 2
2
30 kN 20 kN 2 30 kN 20 kN cos110 R = + − °

2
1710.4 kN =
41.357 kN R =
and
20 kN 41.357 kN
sin sin110 α
=
°

20 kN
sin sin110
41.357 kN
α
| |
= °
|
\ .

0.4544 =
27.028 α = °
Hence: 45 72.028 φ α = + ° = °
41.4 kN = R 72.0°

19

PROBLEM 2.20
Two structural members A and B are bolted to a bracket as shown.
Knowing that both members are in compression and that the force is
20 kN in member A and 30 kN in member B, determine, using
trigonometry, the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the forces
applied to the bracket by members A and B.

SOLUTION





Using the force triangle and the Laws of Cosines and Sines
We have: ( ) 180 45 25 110 γ = ° − ° + ° = °
Then: ( ) ( ) ( )( )
2 2
2
30 kN 20 kN 2 30 kN 20 kN cos110 R = + − °

2
1710.4 kN =
41.357 kN R =
and
30 kN 41.357 kN
sin sin110 α
=
°

30 kN
sin sin110
41.357 kN
α
| |
= °
|
\ .

0.6816 =
42.97 α = °
Finally: 45 87.97 φ α = + ° = °
41.4 kN = R 88.0°


20




PROBLEM 2.21
Determine the x and y components of each of the forces shown.

SOLUTION
20 kN Force:
( ) 20 kN cos 40 ,
x
F = + ° 15.32 kN
x
F =
( ) 20 kN sin 40 ,
y
F = + ° 12.86 kN
y
F =
30 kN Force:
( ) 30 kN cos70 ,
x
F = − ° 10.26 kN
x
F = −
( ) 30 kN sin70 ,
y
F = + ° 28.2 kN
y
F =
42 kN Force:
( ) 42 kN cos 20 ,
x
F = − ° 39.5 kN
x
F = −
( ) 42 kN sin 20 ,
y
F = + ° 14.36 kN
y
F =
21




PROBLEM 2.22
Determine the x and y components of each of the forces shown.

SOLUTION
40 lb Force:
( ) 40 lb sin50 ,
x
F = − ° 30.6 lb
x
F = −
( ) 40 lb cos50 ,
y
F = − ° 25.7 lb
y
F = −
60 lb Force:
( ) 60 lb cos60 ,
x
F = + ° 30.0 lb
x
F =
( ) 60 lb sin 60 ,
y
F = − ° 52.0 lb
y
F = −
80 lb Force:
( ) 80 lb cos 25 ,
x
F = + ° 72.5 lb
x
F =
( ) 80 lb sin 25 ,
y
F = + ° 33.8 lb
y
F =

22




PROBLEM 2.23
Determine the x and y components of each of the forces shown.

SOLUTION





We compute the following distances:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
2 2
48 90 102 in.
56 90 106 in.
80 60 100 in.
OA
OB
OC
= + =
= + =
= + =

Then:
204 lb Force:
( )
48
102 lb ,
102
x
F = − 48.0 lb
x
F = −
( )
90
102 lb ,
102
y
F = + 90.0 lb
y
F =
212 lb Force:
( )
56
212 lb ,
106
x
F = + 112.0 lb
x
F =
( )
90
212 lb ,
106
y
F = + 180.0 lb
y
F =
400 lb Force:
( )
80
400 lb ,
100
x
F = − 320 lb
x
F = −
( )
60
400 lb ,
100
y
F = − 240 lb
y
F = −
23



PROBLEM 2.24
Determine the x and y components of each of the forces shown.

SOLUTION





We compute the following distances:
( ) ( )
2 2
70 240 250 mm OA = + =
( ) ( )
2 2
210 200 290 mm OB = + =
( ) ( )
2 2
120 225 255 mm OC = + =
500 N Force:

70
500 N
250
x
F
 
= −
 
 
140.0 N
x
F = −

240
500 N
250
y
F
 
= +
 
 
480 N
y
F =
435 N Force:

210
435 N
290
x
F
 
= +
 
 
315 N
x
F =

200
435 N
290
y
F
 
= +
 
 
300 N
y
F =
510 N Force:

120
510 N
255
x
F
 
= +
 
 
240 N
x
F =

225
510 N
255
y
F
 
= −
 
 
450 N
y
F = −
24





PROBLEM 2.25
While emptying a wheelbarrow, a gardener exerts on each handle AB a
force P directed along line CD. Knowing that P must have a 135-N
horizontal component, determine (a) the magnitude of the force P, (b) its
vertical component.

SOLUTION

(a)
cos 40
x
P
P =
°


135 N
cos 40
=
°

or 176.2 N P =
(b) tan 40 sin 40
y x
P P P = ° = °
( ) 135 N tan 40 = °
or 113.3 N
y
P =
25




PROBLEM 2.26
Member BD exerts on member ABC a force P directed along line BD.
Knowing that P must have a 960-N vertical component, determine (a) the
magnitude of the force P, (b) its horizontal component.

SOLUTION

(a)
sin35
y
P
P =
°


960 N
sin35
=
°

or 1674 N P =
(b)
tan35
y
x
P
P =
°


960 N
tan35
=
°

or 1371 N
x
P =
26





PROBLEM 2.27
Member CB of the vise shown exerts on block B a force P directed along
line CB. Knowing that P must have a 260-lb horizontal component,
determine (a) the magnitude of the force P, (b) its vertical component.

SOLUTION

We note:
CB exerts force P on B along CB, and the horizontal component of P is 260 lb.
x
P =
Then:
(a) sin50
x
P P = °

sin50
x
P
P =
°


260 lb
sin50
=
°

339.4 lb = 339 lb P =
(b) tan50
x y
P P = °

tan50
x
y
P
P =
°


260 lb
tan50
=
°

218.2 lb = 218 lb
y
= P
27




PROBLEM 2.28
Activator rod AB exerts on crank BCD a force P directed along line AB.
Knowing that P must have a 25-lb component perpendicular to arm BC of
the crank, determine (a) the magnitude of the force P, (b) its component
along line BC.

SOLUTION

Using the x and y axes shown.
(a) 25 lb
y
P =
Then:
sin 75
y
P
P =
°


25 lb
sin75
=
°

or 25.9 lb P =
(b)
tan 75
y
x
P
P =
°


25 lb
tan 75
=
°

or 6.70 lb
x
P =
28





PROBLEM 2.29
The guy wire BD exerts on the telephone pole AC a force P directed
along BD. Knowing that P has a 450-N component along line AC,
determine (a) the magnitude of the force P, (b) its component in a
direction perpendicular to AC.

SOLUTION

Note that the force exerted by BD on the pole is directed along BD, and the component of P along AC
is 450 N.
Then:
(a)
450 N
549.3 N
cos35
P = =
°

549 N P =
(b) ( ) 450 N tan35
x
P = °
315.1 N =
315 N
x
P =
29




PROBLEM 2.30
The guy wire BD exerts on the telephone pole AC a force P directed
along BD. Knowing that P has a 200-N perpendicular to the pole AC,
determine (a) the magnitude of the force P, (b) its component along
line AC.

SOLUTION

(a)
sin38
x
P
P =
°


200 N
sin38
=
°

324.8 N = or 325 N P =
(b)
tan38
x
y
P
P =
°


200 N
tan38
=
°

255.98 N =
or 256 N
y
P =

30





PROBLEM 2.31
Determine the resultant of the three forces of Problem 2.24.
Problem 2.24: Determine the x and y components of each of the forces
shown.

SOLUTION

From Problem 2.24:
( ) ( )
500
140 N 480 N = − + F i j
( ) ( )
425
315 N 300 N = + F i j
( ) ( )
510
240 N 450 N = − F i j
( ) ( ) 415 N 330 N = Σ = + R F i j
Then:
1
330
tan 38.5
415
α

= = °
( ) ( )
2 2
415 N 330 N 530.2 N R = + =
Thus: 530 N = R 38.5°
31




PROBLEM 2.32
Determine the resultant of the three forces of Problem 2.21.
Problem 2.21: Determine the x and y components of each of the forces
shown.

SOLUTION

From Problem 2.21:
( ) ( )
20
15.32 kN 12.86 kN = + F i j
( ) ( )
30
10.26 kN 28.2 kN = − + F i j
( ) ( )
42
39.5 kN 14.36 kN = − + F i j
( ) ( ) 34.44 kN 55.42 kN = Σ = − + R F i j
Then:
1
55.42
tan 58.1
34.44
α

= = °


( ) ( )
2 2
55.42 kN 34.44 N 65.2 kN R = + − =
65.2 kN R = 58.2°
32





PROBLEM 2.33
Determine the resultant of the three forces of Problem 2.22.
Problem 2.22: Determine the x and y components of each of the forces
shown.

SOLUTION
The components of the forces were determined in 2.23.








x y
R R = + R i j
( ) ( ) 71.9 lb 43.86 lb = − i j
43.86
tan
71.9
α =
31.38 α = °
( ) ( )
2 2
71.9 lb 43.86 lb R = + −
84.23 lb =
84.2 lb = R 31.4°
Force comp. (lb) x comp. (lb) y
40 lb

30.6 −

25.7 −

60 lb 30 51.96 −
80 lb 72.5 33.8
71.9
x
R = 43.86
y
R = −
33




PROBLEM 2.34
Determine the resultant of the three forces of Problem 2.23.
Problem 2.23: Determine the x and y components of each of the forces
shown.

SOLUTION
The components of the forces were
determined in Problem 2.23.














( ) ( )
204
48.0 lb 90.0 lb = − + F i j
( ) ( )
212
112.0 lb 180.0 lb = + F i j
( ) ( )
400
320 lb 240 lb = − − F i j
Thus
x y
= + R R R
( ) ( ) 256 lb 30.0 lb = − + R i j
Now:
30.0
tan
256
α =
1
30.0
tan 6.68
256
α

= = °
and
( ) ( )
2 2
256 lb 30.0 lb R = − +
257.75 lb =
258 lb = R

6.68°
34





PROBLEM 2.35
Knowing that 35 , α = ° determine the resultant of the three forces
shown.

SOLUTION















300-N Force:
( ) 300 N cos 20 281.9 N
x
F = ° =
( ) 300 N sin 20 102.6 N
y
F = ° =
400-N Force:
( ) 400 N cos55 229.4 N
x
F = ° =
( ) 400 N sin55 327.7 N
y
F = ° =
600-N Force:
( ) 600 N cos35 491.5 N
x
F = ° =
( ) 600 N sin35 344.1 N
y
F = − ° = −
and
1002.8 N
x x
R F = Σ =
86.2 N
y y
R F = Σ =
( ) ( )
2 2
1002.8 N 86.2 N 1006.5 N R = + =
Further:
86.2
tan
1002.8
α =
1
86.2
tan 4.91
1002.8
α

= = °
1007 N = R 4.91°
35




PROBLEM 2.36
Knowing that 65 , α = ° determine the resultant of the three forces
shown.

SOLUTION















300-N Force:
( ) 300 N cos 20 281.9 N
x
F = ° =
( ) 300 N sin 20 102.6 N
y
F = ° =
400-N Force:
( ) 400 N cos85 34.9 N
x
F = ° =
( ) 400 N sin85 398.5 N
y
F = ° =
600-N Force:
( ) 600 N cos5 597.7 N
x
F = ° =
( ) 600 N sin5 52.3 N
y
F = − ° = −
and
914.5 N
x x
R F = Σ =
448.8 N
y y
R F = Σ =
( ) ( )
2 2
914.5 N 448.8 N 1018.7 N R = + =
Further:
448.8
tan
914.5
α =
1
448.8
tan 26.1
914.5
α

= = °
1019 N = R 26.1°

36


PROBLEM 2.37
Knowing that the tension in cable BC is 145 lb, determine the resultant of
the three forces exerted at point B of beam AB.

SOLUTION













Cable BC Force:
( )
84
145 lb 105 lb
116
x
F = − = −
( )
80
145 lb 100 lb
116
y
F = =
100-lb Force:
( )
3
100 lb 60 lb
5
x
F = − = −
( )
4
100 lb 80 lb
5
y
F = − = −
156-lb Force:
( )
12
156 lb 144 lb
13
x
F = =
( )
5
156 lb 60 lb
13
y
F = − = −
and
21 lb, 40 lb
x x y y
R F R F = Σ = − = Σ = −
( ) ( )
2 2
21 lb 40 lb 45.177 lb R = − + − =
Further:
40
tan
21
α =
1
40
tan 62.3
21
α

= = °
Thus: 45.2 lb = R 62.3°

37

PROBLEM 2.38
Knowing that 50 , α = ° determine the resultant of the three forces
shown.

SOLUTION






The resultant force R has the x- and y-components:
( ) ( ) ( ) 140 lb cos50 60 lb cos85 160 lb cos50
x x
R F = Σ = ° + ° − °
7.6264 lb
x
R = −
and
( ) ( ) ( ) 140 lb sin 50 60 lb sin85 160 lb sin50
y y
R F = Σ = ° + ° + °
289.59 lb
y
R =
Further:
290
tan
7.6
α =
1
290
tan 88.5
7.6
α

= = °
Thus: 290 lb = R 88.5°













38


PROBLEM 2.39
Determine (a) the required value of α if the resultant of the three forces
shown is to be vertical, (b) the corresponding magnitude of the resultant.

SOLUTION
For an arbitrary angle , α we have:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 140 lb cos 60 lb cos 35 160 lb cos
x x
R F α α α = Σ = + + ° −
(a) So, for R to be vertical:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 140 lb cos 60 lb cos 35 160 lb cos 0
x x
R F α α α = Σ = + + ° − =
Expanding,
( ) cos 3 cos cos35 sin sin35 0 α α α − + ° − ° =
Then:
1
3
cos35
tan
sin35
α
° −
=
°

or

1
1 3
cos35
tan 40.265
sin35
α

  ° −
= = °
 
 
°
 
40.3 α = °
(b) Now:
( ) ( ) ( ) 140 lb sin 40.265 60 lb sin 75.265 160 lb sin 40.265
y y
R R F = = Σ = ° + ° + °
252 lb R R = =

39

PROBLEM 2.40
For the beam of Problem 2.37, determine (a) the required tension in cable
BC if the resultant of the three forces exerted at point B is to be vertical,
(b) the corresponding magnitude of the resultant.
Problem 2.37: Knowing that the tension in cable BC is 145 lb, determine
the resultant of the three forces exerted at point B of beam AB.


SOLUTION
We have:
( ) ( )
84 12 3
156 lb 100 lb
116 13 5
x x BC
R F T = Σ = − + −
or 0.724 84 lb
x BC
R T = − +
and
( ) ( )
80 5 4
156 lb 100 lb
116 13 5
y y BC
R F T = Σ = − −
0.6897 140 lb
y BC
R T = −
(a) So, for R to be vertical,
0.724 84 lb 0
x BC
R T = − + =
116.0 lb
BC
T =
(b) Using
116.0 lb
BC
T =
( ) 0.6897 116.0 lb 140 lb 60 lb
y
R R = = − = −
60.0 lb R R = =


40





PROBLEM 2.41
Boom AB is held in the position shown by three cables. Knowing that the
tensions in cables AC and AD are 4 kN and 5.2 kN, respectively,
determine (a) the tension in cable AE if the resultant of the tensions
exerted at point A of the boom must be directed along AB,
(b) the corresponding magnitude of the resultant.

SOLUTION








Choose x-axis along bar AB.
Then
(a) Require
( ) ( ) 0: 4 kN cos 25 5.2 kN sin35 sin65 0
y y AE
R F T = Σ = ° + ° − ° =
or 7.2909 kN
AE
T =
7.29 kN
AE
T =
(b)
x
R F = Σ
( ) ( ) ( ) 4 kN sin 25 5.2 kN cos35 7.2909 kN cos65 = − ° − ° − °
9.03 kN = −
9.03 kN R =
41




PROBLEM 2.42
For the block of Problems 2.35 and 2.36, determine (a) the required value
of α of the resultant of the three forces shown is to be parallel to the
incline, (b) the corresponding magnitude of the resultant.
Problem 2.35: Knowing that 35 , α = ° determine the resultant of the
three forces shown.
Problem 2.36: Knowing that 65 , α = ° determine the resultant of the
three forces shown.

SOLUTION







Selecting the x axis along , aa′ we write
( ) ( ) 300 N 400 N cos 600 N sin
x x
R F α α = Σ = + + (1)
( ) ( ) 400 N sin 600 N cos
y y
R F α α = Σ = − (2)
(a) Setting 0
y
R = in Equation (2):
Thus
600
tan 1.5
400
α = =
56.3 α = °
(b) Substituting for α in Equation (1):
( ) ( ) 300 N 400 N cos56.3 600 N sin56.3
x
R = + ° + °
1021.1 N
x
R =
1021 N
x
R R = =
42



PROBLEM 2.43
Two cables are tied together at C and are loaded as shown. Determine the
tension (a) in cable AC, (b) in cable BC.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram







From the geometry, we calculate the distances:
( ) ( )
2 2
16 in. 12 in. 20 in. AC = + =
( ) ( )
2 2
20 in. 21 in. 29 in. BC = + =
Then, from the Free Body Diagram of point C:

16 21
0: 0
20 29
x AC BC
F T T Σ = − + =
or
29 4
21 5
BC AC
T T = ×
and
12 20
0: 600 lb 0
20 29
y AC BC
F T T Σ = + − =
or
12 20 29 4
600 lb 0
20 29 21 5
AC AC
T T
 
+ × − =
 
 

Hence: 440.56 lb
AC
T =
(a) 441 lb
AC
T =
(b) 487 lb
BC
T =
43




PROBLEM 2.44
Knowing that 25 , α = ° determine the tension (a) in cable AC, (b) in
rope BC.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram Force Triangle

Law of Sines:
5 kN
sin115 sin5 sin 60
AC BC
T T
= =
° ° °

(a)
5 kN
sin115 5.23 kN
sin60
AC
T = ° =
°
5.23 kN
AC
T =
(b)
5 kN
sin5 0.503 kN
sin60
BC
T = ° =
°
0.503 kN
BC
T =
44





PROBLEM 2.45
Knowing that 50 α = ° and that boom AC exerts on pin C a force
directed long line AC, determine (a) the magnitude of that force, (b) the
tension in cable BC.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram Force Triangle

Law of Sines:

400 lb
sin 25 sin60 sin95
AC BC
F T
= =
° ° °

(a)
400 lb
sin 25 169.69 lb
sin95
AC
F = ° =
°
169.7 lb
AC
F =
(b)
400
sin 60 347.73 lb
sin95
BC
T = ° =
°
348 lb
BC
T =
45




PROBLEM 2.46
Two cables are tied together at C and are loaded as shown. Knowing that
30 , α = ° determine the tension (a) in cable AC, (b) in cable BC.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram Force Triangle

Law of Sines:
2943 N
sin 60 sin55 sin65
AC BC
T T
= =
° ° °

(a)
2943 N
sin60 2812.19 N
sin 65
AC
T = ° =
°
2.81 kN
AC
T =
(b)
2943 N
sin55 2659.98 N
sin 65
BC
T = ° =
°
2.66 kN
BC
T =
46





PROBLEM 2.47
A chairlift has been stopped in the position shown. Knowing that each
chair weighs 300 N and that the skier in chair E weighs 890 N, determine
that weight of the skier in chair F.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram Point B


Force Triangle

Free-Body Diagram Point C

Force Triangle


In the free-body diagram of point B, the geometry gives:
1
9.9
tan 30.51
16.8
AB
θ

= = °
1
12
tan 22.61
28.8
BC
θ

= = °


Thus, in the force triangle, by the Law of Sines:
1190 N
sin59.49 sin 7.87
BC
T
=
° °

7468.6 N
BC
T =

In the free-body diagram of point C (with W the sum of weights of chair
and skier) the geometry gives:
1
1.32
tan 10.39
7.2
CD
θ

= = °
Hence, in the force triangle, by the Law of Sines:
7468.6 N
sin12.23 sin100.39
W
=
° °

1608.5 N W =
Finally, the skier weight 1608.5 N 300 N 1308.5 N = − =
skier weight 1309 N =
47




PROBLEM 2.48
A chairlift has been stopped in the position shown. Knowing that each
chair weighs 300 N and that the skier in chair F weighs 800 N, determine
the weight of the skier in chair E.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram Point F

Force Triangle


Free-Body Diagram Point E

Force Triangle


In the free-body diagram of point F, the geometry gives:
1
12
tan 22.62
28.8
EF
θ

= = °
1
1.32
tan 10.39
7.2
DF
θ

= = °
Thus, in the force triangle, by the Law of Sines:
1100 N
sin100.39 sin12.23
EF
T
=
° °

5107.5 N
BC
T =
In the free-body diagram of point E (with W the sum of weights of chair
and skier) the geometry gives:
1
9.9
tan 30.51
16.8
AE
θ

= = °
Hence, in the force triangle, by the Law of Sines:
5107.5 N
sin 7.89 sin59.49
W
=
° °

813.8 N W =
Finally, the skier weight 813.8 N 300 N 513.8 N = − =
skier weight 514 N =
48





PROBLEM 2.49
Four wooden members are joined with metal plate connectors and are in
equilibrium under the action of the four fences shown. Knowing that
F
A
= 510 lb and F
B
= 480 lb, determine the magnitudes of the other two
forces.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram







Resolving the forces into x and y components:
( ) ( ) 0: 510 lb sin15 480 lb cos15 0
x C
F F Σ = + ° − ° =
or 332 lb
C
F =
( ) ( ) 0: 510 lb cos15 480 lb sin15 0
y D
F F Σ = − ° + ° =
or 368 lb
D
F =
49




PROBLEM 2.50
Four wooden members are joined with metal plate connectors and are in
equilibrium under the action of the four fences shown. Knowing that
F
A
= 420 lb and F
C
= 540 lb, determine the magnitudes of the other two
forces.

SOLUTION









Resolving the forces into x and y components:
( ) ( ) 0: cos15 540 lb 420 lb cos15 0 or 671.6 lb
x B B
F F F Σ = − ° + + ° = =
672 lb
B
F =
( ) ( ) 0: 420 lb cos15 671.6 lb sin15 0
y D
F F Σ = − ° + ° =
or 232 lb
D
F =

50




PROBLEM 2.51
Two forces P and Q are applied as shown to an aircraft connection.
Knowing that the connection is in equilibrium and the P = 400 lb and
Q = 520 lb, determine the magnitudes of the forces exerted on the rods
A and B.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram




Resolving the forces into x and y directions:
0
A B
= + + + = R P Q F F
Substituting components:
( ) ( ) ( ) 400 lb 520 lb cos55 520 lb sin55     = − + ° − °
   
R j i j
( ) ( ) cos55 sin55 0
B A A
F F F + − ° + ° = i i j
In the y-direction (one unknown force)
( ) 400 lb 520 lb sin55 sin55 0
A
F − − ° + ° =
Thus,
( ) 400 lb 520 lb sin55
1008.3 lb
sin55
A
F
+ °
= =
°

1008 lb
A
F =
In the x-direction:
( ) 520 lb cos55 cos55 0
B A
F F ° + − ° =
Thus,
( ) cos55 520 lb cos55
B A
F F = ° − °
( ) ( ) 1008.3 lb cos55 520 lb cos55 = ° − °
280.08 lb =
280 lb
B
F =
51




PROBLEM 2.52
Two forces P and Q are applied as shown to an aircraft connection.
Knowing that the connection is in equilibrium and that the magnitudes of
the forces exerted on rods A and B are F
A
= 600 lb and F
B
= 320 lb,
determine the magnitudes of P and Q.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram




Resolving the forces into x and y directions:
0
A B
= + + + = R P Q F F
Substituting components:
( ) ( ) ( ) 320 lb 600 lb cos55 600 lb sin55     = − ° + °
   
R i i j
( ) ( ) cos55 sin55 0 P Q Q + + ° − ° = i i j
In the x-direction (one unknown force)
( ) 320 lb 600 lb cos55 cos55 0 Q − ° + ° =
Thus,
( ) 320 lb 600 lb cos55
42.09 lb
cos55
Q
− + °
= =
°

42.1lb Q =
In the y-direction:
( ) 600 lb sin55 sin55 0 P Q ° − − ° =
Thus,
( ) 600 lb sin55 sin55 457.01lb P Q = ° − ° =
457 lb P =
52




PROBLEM 2.53
Two cables tied together at C are loaded as shown. Knowing that
W = 840 N, determine the tension (a) in cable AC, (b) in cable BC.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram




From geometry:
The sides of the triangle with hypotenuse CB are in the ratio 8:15:17.
The sides of the triangle with hypotenuse CA are in the ratio 3:4:5.
Thus:
( )
3 15 15
0: 680 N 0
5 17 17
x CA CB
F T T Σ = − + − =
or

1 5
200 N
5 17
CA CB
T T − + = (1)
and

( )
4 8 8
0: 680 N 840 N 0
5 17 17
y CA CB
F T T Σ = + − − =
or

1 2
290 N
5 17
CA CB
T T + = (2)
Solving Equations (1) and (2) simultaneously:
(a) 750 N
CA
T =
(b) 1190 N
CB
T =
53




PROBLEM 2.54
Two cables tied together at C are loaded as shown. Determine the range
of values of W for which the tension will not exceed 1050 N in either
cable.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram




From geometry:
The sides of the triangle with hypotenuse CB are in the ratio 8:15:17.
The sides of the triangle with hypotenuse CA are in the ratio 3:4:5.
Thus:
( )
3 15 15
0: 680 N 0
5 17 17
x CA CB
F T T Σ = − + − =
or

1 5
200 N
5 17
CA CB
T T − + = (1)
and

( )
4 8 8
0: 680 N 0
5 17 17
y CA CB
F T T W Σ = + − − =
or

1 2 1
80 N
5 17 4
+ = +
CA CB
T T W (2)
Then, from Equations (1) and (2)
17
680 N
28
25
28
CB
CA
T W
T W
= +
=

Now, with 1050 N T ≤
25
: 1050 N
28
CA CA
T T W = =
or 1176 N W =
and
17
: 1050 N 680 N
28
CB CB
T T W = = +
or 609 N W = 0 609 N ∴ ≤ ≤ W
54




PROBLEM 2.55
The cabin of an aerial tramway is suspended from a set of wheels that can
roll freely on the support cable ACB and is being pulled at a constant
speed by cable DE. Knowing that 40 α = ° and β = 35°, that the
combined weight of the cabin, its support system, and its passengers is
24.8 kN, and assuming the tension in cable DF to be negligible,
determine the tension (a) in the support cable ACB, (b) in the traction
cable DE.

SOLUTION





Note: In Problems 2.55 and 2.56 the cabin is considered as a particle. If
considered as a rigid body (Chapter 4) it would be found that its center of
gravity should be located to the left of the centerline for the line CD to be
vertical.
Now
( ) 0: cos35 cos 40 cos 40 0
x ACB DE
F T T Σ = ° − ° − ° =
or
0.0531 0.766 0
ACB DE
T T − = (1)
and

( ) 0: sin 40 sin35 sin 40 24.8 kN 0
y ACB DE
F T T Σ = ° − ° + ° − =
or
0.0692 0.643 24.8 kN
ACB DE
T T + = (2)
From (1)
14.426
ACB DE
T T =
Then, from (2)
( ) 0.0692 14.426 0.643 24.8 kN
DE DE
T T + =
and
(b) 15.1kN
DE
T =
(a) 218 kN
ACB
T =
55



PROBLEM 2.56
The cabin of an aerial tramway is suspended from a set of wheels that can
roll freely on the support cable ACB and is being pulled at a constant
speed by cable DE. Knowing that 42 α = ° and β = 32°, that the tension
in cable DE is 20 kN, and assuming the tension in cable DF to be
negligible, determine (a) the combined weight of the cabin, its support
system, and its passengers, (b) the tension in the support cable ACB.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram

First, consider the sum of forces in the x-direction because there is only one unknown force:
( ) ( ) 0: cos32 cos 42 20 kN cos 42 0
x ACB
F T Σ = ° − ° − ° =
or
0.1049 14.863 kN
ACB
T =
(b) 141.7 kN
ACB
T =
Now

( ) ( ) 0: sin 42 sin32 20 kN sin 42 0
y ACB
F T W Σ = ° − ° + ° − =
or
( )( ) ( )( ) 141.7 kN 0.1392 20 kN 0.6691 0 W + − =
(a) 33.1kN W =
56



PROBLEM 2.57
A block of weight W is suspended from a 500-mm long cord and two
springs of which the unstretched lengths are 450 mm. Knowing that the
constants of the springs are k
AB
= 1500 N/m and k
AD
= 500 N/m,
determine (a) the tension in the cord, (b) the weight of the block.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram At A




First note from geometry:
The sides of the triangle with hypotenuse AD are in the ratio 8:15:17.
The sides of the triangle with hypotenuse AB are in the ratio 3:4:5.
The sides of the triangle with hypotenuse AC are in the ratio 7:24:25.
Then:
( )
AB AB AB o
F k L L = −
and
( ) ( )
2 2
0.44 m 0.33 m 0.55 m
AB
L = + =
So:
( ) 1500 N/m 0.55 m 0.45 m
AB
F = −
150 N =
Similarly,
( )
AD AD AD o
F k L L = −
Then:
( ) ( )
2 2
0.66 m 0.32 m 0.68 m
AD
L = + =
( ) 1500 N/m 0.68 m 0.45 m
AD
F = −
115 N =
(a)
( ) ( )
4 7 15
0: 150 N 115 N 0
5 25 17
x AC
F T Σ = − + − =
or
66.18 N
AC
T = 66.2 N
AC
T =
57



PROBLEM 2.57 CONTINUED
(b) and

( ) ( ) ( )
3 24 8
0: 150 N 66.18 N 115 N 0
5 25 17
y
F W Σ = + + − =
or 208 N = W

58




PROBLEM 2.58
A load of weight 400 N is suspended from a spring and two cords which
are attached to blocks of weights 3W and W as shown. Knowing that the
constant of the spring is 800 N/m, determine (a) the value of W, (b) the
unstretched length of the spring.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram At A




First note from geometry:
The sides of the triangle with hypotenuse AD are in the ratio 12:35:37.
The sides of the triangle with hypotenuse AC are in the ratio 3:4:5.
The sides of the triangle with hypotenuse AB are also in the ratio
12:35:37.
Then:
( ) ( )
4 35 12
0: 3 0
5 37 37
x s
F W W F Σ = − + + =
or
4.4833
s
F W =
and

( ) ( )
3 12 35
0: 3 400 N 0
5 37 37
y s
F W W F Σ = + + − =
Then:
( ) ( ) ( )
3 12 35
3 4.4833 400 N 0
5 37 37
W W W + + − =
or
62.841 N W =
and
281.74 N
s
F =
or
(a) 62.8 N W =

59



PROBLEM 2.58 CONTINUED
(b) Have spring force
( )
s AB o
F k L L = −
Where
( )
AB AB AB o
F k L L = −
and
( ) ( )
2 2
0.360 m 1.050 m 1.110 m
AB
L = + =
So:
( )
0
281.74 N 800 N/m 1.110 m L = −
or
0
758 mm L =

60





PROBLEM 2.59
For the cables and loading of Problem 2.46, determine (a) the value of α
for which the tension in cable BC is as small as possible, (b) the
corresponding value of the tension.

SOLUTION
The smallest
BC
T is when
BC
T is perpendicular to the direction of
AC
T
Free-Body Diagram At C Force Triangle

(a) 55.0 α = °
(b) ( ) 2943 N sin55
BC
T = °
2410.8 N =
2.41kN
BC
T =
61




PROBLEM 2.60
Knowing that portions AC and BC of cable ACB must be equal, determine
the shortest length of cable which can be used to support the load shown
if the tension in the cable is not to exceed 725 N.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram: C
( ) For 725 N T =








0: 2 1000 N 0
y y
F T Σ = − =
500 N
y
T =
2 2 2
x y
T T T + =
( ) ( )
2 2
2
500 N 725 N
x
T + =
525 N
x
T =

By similar triangles:
1.5 m
725 525
BC
=
2.07 m ∴ = BC
( ) 2 4.14 m L BC = =
4.14 m L =

62





PROBLEM 2.61
Two cables tied together at C are loaded as shown. Knowing that the
maximum allowable tension in each cable is 200 lb, determine (a) the
magnitude of the largest force P which may be applied at C, (b) the
corresponding value of α.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram: C Force Triangle






Force triangle is isoceles with
2 180 85 β = ° − °
47.5 β = °
(a) ( ) 2 200 lb cos 47.5 270 lb P = ° =
Since 0, P > the solution is correct. 270 lb P =
(b) 180 55 47.5 77.5 α = ° − ° − ° = ° 77.5 α = °
63




PROBLEM 2.62
Two cables tied together at C are loaded as shown. Knowing that the
maximum allowable tension is 300 lb in cable AC and 150 lb in cable BC,
determine (a) the magnitude of the largest force P which may be applied
at C, (b) the corresponding value of α.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram: C Force Triangle







(a) Law of Cosines:
( ) ( ) ( )( )
2 2
2
300 lb 150 lb 2 300 lb 150 lb cos85 P = + − °
323.5 lb P =
Since 300 lb, P > our solution is correct. 324 lb P =
(b) Law of Sines:
sin sin85
300 323.5
β °
=
°

sin 0.9238 β =
or 67.49 β = °
180 55 67.49 57.5 α = ° − ° − ° = °
57.5 α = °
64





PROBLEM 2.63
For the structure and loading of Problem 2.45, determine (a) the value of
α for which the tension in cable BC is as small as possible, (b) the
corresponding value of the tension.

SOLUTION
BC
T must be perpendicular to
AC
F to be as small as possible.
Free-Body Diagram: C Force Triangle is
a right triangle







(a) We observe: 55 α = ° 55 α = °
(b) ( ) 400 lb sin 60
BC
T = °
or 346.4 lb
BC
T = 346 lb
BC
T =

65




PROBLEM 2.64
Boom AB is supported by cable BC and a hinge at A. Knowing that the
boom exerts on pin B a force directed along the boom and that the tension
in rope BD is 70 lb, determine (a) the value of α for which the tension in
cable BC is as small as possible, (b) the corresponding value of the
tension.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram: B



(a) Have: 0
BD AB BC
+ + = T F T
where magnitude and direction of
BD
T are known, and the direction
of
AB
F is known.

Then, in a force triangle:
By observation,
BC
T is minimum when 90.0 α = °
(b) Have ( ) ( ) 70 lb sin 180 70 30
BC
T = ° − ° − °
68.93 lb =
68.9 lb
BC
T =
66





PROBLEM 2.65
Collar A shown in Figure P2.65 and P2.66 can slide on a frictionless
vertical rod and is attached as shown to a spring. The constant of the
spring is 660 N/m, and the spring is unstretched when h = 300 mm.
Knowing that the system is in equilibrium when h = 400 mm, determine
the weight of the collar.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram: Collar A



Have: ( )
s AB AB
F k L L ′ = −
where:
( ) ( )
2 2
0.3 m 0.4 m 0.3 2 m
AB AB
L L ′ = + =
0.5 m =
Then:
( )
660 N/m 0.5 0.3 2 m
s
F = −
49.986 N =
For the collar:
( )
4
0: 49.986 N 0
5
y
F W Σ = − + =
or 40.0 N W =
67




PROBLEM 2.66
The 40-N collar A can slide on a frictionless vertical rod and is attached
as shown to a spring. The spring is unstretched when h = 300 mm.
Knowing that the constant of the spring is 560 N/m, determine the value
of h for which the system is in equilibrium.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram: Collar A



( )
2
2
0: 0
0.3
y s
h
F W F
h
Σ = − + =
+

or
2
40 0.09
s
hF h = +
Now.. ( )
s AB AB
F k L L ′ = −
where ( )
2
2
0.3 m 0.3 2 m
AB AB
L h L ′ = + =
Then:
( )
2 2
560 0.09 0.3 2 40 0.09 h h h
 
+ − = +
 
 

or ( )
2
14 1 0.09 4.2 2 m h h h h − + = ∼
Solving numerically,
415 mm h =

68


PROBLEM 2.67
A 280-kg crate is supported by several rope-and-pulley arrangements as
shown. Determine for each arrangement the tension in the rope. (Hint:
The tension in the rope is the same on each side of a simple pulley. This
can be proved by the methods of Chapter 4.)

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram of pulley
(a)




(b)




(c)




(d)






(e)







( )
( )
2
0: 2 280 kg 9.81 m/s 0
y
F T Σ = − =
( )
1
2746.8 N
2
T =
1373 N T =

( )
( )
2
0: 2 280 kg 9.81 m/s 0
y
F T Σ = − =
( )
1
2746.8 N
2
T =
1373 N T =

( )
( )
2
0: 3 280 kg 9.81 m/s 0
y
F T Σ = − =
( )
1
2746.8 N
3
T =
916 N T =

( )
( )
2
0: 3 280 kg 9.81 m/s 0
y
F T Σ = − =
( )
1
2746.8 N
3
T =
916 N T =


( )
( )
2
0: 4 280 kg 9.81 m/s 0
y
F T Σ = − =
( )
1
2746.8 N
4
T =
687 N T =

69

PROBLEM 2.68
Solve parts b and d of Problem 2.67 assuming that the free end of the
rope is attached to the crate.
Problem 2.67: A 280-kg crate is supported by several rope-and-pulley
arrangements as shown. Determine for each arrangement the tension in
the rope. (Hint: The tension in the rope is the same on each side of a
simple pulley. This can be proved by the methods of Chapter 4.)

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram of pulley
and crate
(b)

(d)





( )
( )
2
0: 3 280 kg 9.81 m/s 0
y
F T Σ = − =
( )
1
2746.8 N
3
T =
916 N T =



( )
( )
2
0: 4 280 kg 9.81 m/s 0
y
F T Σ = − =
( )
1
2746.8 N
4
T =
687 N T =













70


PROBLEM 2.69
A 350-lb load is supported by the rope-and-pulley arrangement shown.
Knowing that β = 25°, determine the magnitude and direction of the
force P which should be exerted on the free end of the rope to maintain
equilibrium. (Hint: The tension in the rope is the same on each side of a
simple pulley. This can be proved by the methods of Chapter 4.)

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram: Pulley A



0: 2 sin 25 cos 0
x
F P P α Σ = ° − =
and
cos 0.8452 or 32.3 α α = = ± °
For 32.3 α = + °

0: 2 cos 25 sin32.3 350 lb 0
y
F P P Σ = ° + ° − =
or 149.1 lb = P 32.3°
For 32.3 α = − °

0: 2 cos 25 sin 32.3 350 lb 0
y
F P P Σ = ° + − ° − =
or 274 lb = P 32.3°

71

PROBLEM 2.70
A 350-lb load is supported by the rope-and-pulley arrangement shown.
Knowing that 35 , α = ° determine (a) the angle β, (b) the magnitude of
the force P which should be exerted on the free end of the rope to
maintain equilibrium. (Hint: The tension in the rope is the same on each
side of a simple pulley. This can be proved by the methods of Chapter 4.)

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram: Pulley A



0: 2 sin cos 25 0
x
F P P β Σ = − ° =
Hence:
(a)
1
sin cos 25
2
β = ° or 24.2 β = °
(b)

0: 2 cos sin35 350 lb 0
y
F P P β Σ = + ° − =
Hence:
2 cos 24.2 sin35 350 lb 0 P P ° + ° − =
or 145.97 lb P = 146.0 lb P =


72




PROBLEM 2.71
A load Q is applied to the pulley C, which can roll on the cable ACB. The
pulley is held in the position shown by a second cable CAD, which passes
over the pulley A and supports a load P. Knowing that P = 800 N,
determine (a) the tension in cable ACB, (b) the magnitude of load Q.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram: Pulley C

(a) ( ) ( ) 0: cos30 cos50 800 N cos50 0
x ACB
F T Σ = ° − ° − ° =
Hence 2303.5 N
ACB
T =
2.30 kN =
ACB
T
(b) ( ) ( ) 0: sin30 sin50 800 N sin50 0
y ACB
F T Q Σ = ° + ° + ° − =
( )( ) ( ) 2303.5 N sin30 sin50 800 N sin50 0 Q ° + ° + ° − =
or 3529.2 N Q = 3.53 kN = Q
73




PROBLEM 2.72
A 2000-N load Q is applied to the pulley C, which can roll on the cable
ACB. The pulley is held in the position shown by a second cable CAD,
which passes over the pulley A and supports a load P. Determine (a) the
tension in the cable ACB, (b) the magnitude of load P.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram: Pulley C

( ) 0: cos30 cos50 cos50 0
x ACB
F T P Σ = ° − ° − ° =
or 0.3473
ACB
P T = (1)


( ) 0: sin30 sin50 sin50 2000 N 0
y ACB
F T P Σ = ° + ° + ° − =
or 1.266 0.766 2000 N
ACB
T P + = (2)
(a) Substitute Equation (1) into Equation (2):
( ) 1.266 0.766 0.3473 2000 N
ACB ACB
T T + =
Hence: 1305.5 N
ACB
T =
1306 N
ACB
T =
(b) Using (1)
( ) 0.3473 1306 N 453.57 N P = =
454 N P =
74




PROBLEM 2.73
Determine (a) the x, y, and z components of the 200-lb force, (b) the
angles θ
x
, θ
y
, and θ
z
that the force forms with the coordinate axes.

SOLUTION
(a) ( ) 200 lb cos30 cos 25 156.98 lb
x
F = ° ° =
157.0 lb
x
F = +
( ) 200 lb sin30 100.0 lb
y
F = ° =
100.0 lb
y
F = +
( ) 200 lb cos30 sin 25 73.1996 lb
z
F = − ° ° = −
73.2 lb
z
F = −
(b)
156.98
cos
200
x
θ = or 38.3
x
θ = °

100.0
cos
200
y
θ = or 60.0
y
θ = °

73.1996
cos
200
z
θ

= or 111.5
z
θ = °
75




PROBLEM 2.74
Determine (a) the x, y, and z components of the 420-lb force, (b) the
angles θ
x
, θ
y
, and θ
z
that the force forms with the coordinate axes.

SOLUTION
(a) ( ) 420 lb sin 20 sin70 134.985 lb
x
F = − ° ° = −
135.0 lb
x
F = −
( ) 420 lb cos 20 394.67 lb
y
F = ° =
395 lb
y
F = +
( ) 420 lb sin 20 cos 70 49.131 lb
z
F = ° ° =
49.1 lb
z
F = +
(b)
134.985
cos
420
x
θ

=
108.7
x
θ = °
394.67
cos
420
y
θ =
20.0
y
θ = °
49.131
cos
420
z
θ =
83.3
z
θ = °
76




PROBLEM 2.75
To stabilize a tree partially uprooted in a storm, cables AB and AC are
attached to the upper trunk of the tree and then are fastened to steel rods
anchored in the ground. Knowing that the tension in cable AB is 4.2 kN,
determine (a) the components of the force exerted by this cable on the
tree, (b) the angles θ
x
, θ
y
, and θ
z
that the force forms with axes at A which
are parallel to the coordinate axes.

SOLUTION

(a) ( ) 4.2 kN sin50 cos 40 2.4647 kN
x
F = ° ° =
2.46 kN
x
F = +
( ) 4.2 kN cos50 2.6997 kN
y
F = − ° = −
2.70 kN
y
F = −
( ) 4.2 kN sin50 sin 40 2.0681 kN
z
F = ° ° =
2.07 kN
z
F = +
(b)
2.4647
cos
4.2
x
θ =
54.1
x
θ = °
77

PROBLEM 2.75 CONTINUED

2.7
cos
4.2
y
θ

=
130.0
y
θ = °

2.0681
cos
4.0
z
θ =
60.5
z
θ = °

78



PROBLEM 2.76
To stabilize a tree partially uprooted in a storm, cables AB and AC are
attached to the upper trunk of the tree and then are fastened to steel rods
anchored in the ground. Knowing that the tension in cable AC is 3.6 kN,
determine (a) the components of the force exerted by this cable on the
tree, (b) the angles θ
x
, θ
y
, and θ
z
that the force forms with axes at A which
are parallel to the coordinate axes.

SOLUTION

(a) ( ) 3.6 kN cos 45 sin 25 1.0758 kN
x
F = − ° ° = −
1.076 kN
x
F = −
( ) 3.6 kN sin 45 2.546 kN
y
F = − ° = −
2.55 kN
y
F = −
( ) 3.6 kN cos 45 cos 25 2.3071 kN
z
F = ° ° =
2.31 kN
z
F = +
(b)
1.0758
cos
3.6
x
θ

=
107.4
x
θ = °
79

PROBLEM 2.76 CONTINUED
2.546
cos
3.6
y
θ

=
135.0
y
θ = °
2.3071
cos
3.6
z
θ =
50.1
z
θ = °

80





PROBLEM 2.77
A horizontal circular plate is suspended as shown from three wires which
are attached to a support at D and form 30° angles with the vertical.
Knowing that the x component of the force exerted by wire AD on the
plate is 220.6 N, determine (a) the tension in wire AD, (b) the angles θ
x
,
θ
y
, and θ
z
that the force exerted at A forms with the coordinate axes.

SOLUTION
(a) sin30 sin50 220.6 N
x
F F = ° ° = (Given)
220.6 N
575.95 N
sin30 sin50
= =
° °
F
576 N = F
(b)
220.6
cos 0.3830
575.95
θ = = =
x
x
F
F

67.5
x
θ = °
cos30 498.79 N
y
F F = ° =
498.79
cos 0.86605
575.95
y
y
F
F
θ = = =
30.0
y
θ = °
sin30 cos50
z
F F = − ° °
( ) 575.95 N sin30 cos50 = − ° °
185.107 N = −
185.107
cos 0.32139
575.95
z
z
F
F
θ

= = = −
108.7
z
θ = °
81




PROBLEM 2.78
A horizontal circular plate is suspended as shown from three wires which
are attached to a support at D and form 30° angles with the vertical.
Knowing that the z component of the force exerted by wire BD on the
plate is –64.28 N, determine (a) the tension in wire BD, (b) the angles θ
x
,
θ
y
, and θ
z
that the force exerted at B forms with the coordinate axes.

SOLUTION
(a) sin30 sin 40 64.28 N
z
F F = − ° ° = − (Given)

64.28 N
200.0 N
sin30 sin40
= =
° °
F 200 N F =
(b) sin30 cos 40
x
F F = − ° °
( ) 200.0 N sin30 cos 40 = − ° °
76.604 N = −

76.604
cos 0.38302
200.0
x
x
F
F
θ

= = = − 112.5
x
θ = °
cos30 173.2 N
y
F F = ° =

173.2
cos 0.866
200
y
y
F
F
θ = = = 30.0
y
θ = °
64.28 N
z
F = −

64.28
cos 0.3214
200
z
z
F
F
θ

= = = − 108.7
z
θ = °
82





PROBLEM 2.79
A horizontal circular plate is suspended as shown from three wires which
are attached to a support at D and form 30° angles with the vertical.
Knowing that the tension in wire CD is 120 lb, determine (a) the
components of the force exerted by this wire on the plate, (b) the angles
θ
x
, θ
y
, and θ
z
that the force forms with the coordinate axes.

SOLUTION
(a) ( ) 120 lb sin30 cos 60 30 lb
x
F = − ° ° = −
30.0 lb
x
F = −
( ) 120 lb cos30 103.92 lb
y
F = ° =
103.9 lb = +
y
F
( ) 120 lb sin30 sin60 51.96 lb
z
F = ° ° =
52.0 lb
z
F = +
(b)
30.0
cos 0.25
120
x
x
F
F
θ

= = = −
104.5
x
θ = °
103.92
cos 0.866
120
y
y
F
F
θ = = =
30.0
y
θ = °
51.96
cos 0.433
120
z
z
F
F
θ = = =
64.3
z
θ = °
83




PROBLEM 2.80
A horizontal circular plate is suspended as shown from three wires which
are attached to a support at D and form 30° angles with the vertical.
Knowing that the x component of the forces exerted by wire CD on the
plate is –40 lb, determine (a) the tension in wire CD, (b) the angles θ
x
, θ
y
,
and θ
z
that the force exerted at C forms with the coordinate axes.

SOLUTION
(a) sin30 cos 60 40 lb
x
F F = − ° ° = − (Given)
40 lb
160 lb
sin30 cos60
= =
° °
F
160.0 lb F =
(b)
40
cos 0.25
160
x
x
F
F
θ

= = = −
104.5
x
θ = °
( ) 160 lb cos30 103.92 lb
y
F = ° =

103.92
cos 0.866
160
y
y
F
F
θ = = =
30.0
y
θ = °
( ) 160 lb sin30 sin 60 69.282 lb
z
F = ° ° =
69.282
cos 0.433
160
z
z
F
F
θ = = =
64.3
z
θ = °

84





PROBLEM 2.81
Determine the magnitude and direction of the force
( ) ( ) ( ) 800 lb 260 lb 320 lb . = + − F i j k

SOLUTION
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2 2
800 lb 260 lb 320 lb
x y z
F F F F = + + = + + − 900 lb F =

800
cos 0.8889
900
x
x
F
F
θ = = = 27.3
x
θ = °

260
cos 0.2889
900
y
y
F
F
θ = = = 73.2
y
θ = °

320
cos 0.3555
900
z
z
F
F
θ

= = = − 110.8
z
θ = °
85





PROBLEM 2.82
Determine the magnitude and direction of the force
( ) ( ) ( ) 400 N 1200 N 300 N . = − + F i j k

SOLUTION
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2 2
400 N 1200 N 300 N
x y z
F F F F = + + = + − + 1300 N F =

400
cos 0.30769
1300
x
x
F
F
θ = = = 72.1
x
θ = °

1200
cos 0.92307
1300
y
y
F
F
θ

= = = − 157.4
y
θ = °

300
cos 0.23076
1300
z
z
F
F
θ = = = 76.7
z
θ = °
86






PROBLEM 2.83
A force acts at the origin of a coordinate system in a direction defined by
the angles θ
x
= 64.5° and θ
z
= 55.9°. Knowing that the y component of
the force is –200 N, determine (a) the angle θ
y
, (b) the other components
and the magnitude of the force.

SOLUTION
(a) We have
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2 2
cos cos cos 1 cos 1 cos cos
x y z y y z
θ θ θ θ θ θ + + = ⇒ = − −
Since 0
y
F < we must have cos 0
y
θ <
Thus, taking the negative square root, from above, we have:
( ) ( )
2 2
cos 1 cos64.5 cos55.9 0.70735
y
θ = − − ° − ° = − 135.0
y
θ = °
(b) Then:

200 N
282.73 N
cos 0.70735
y
y
F
F
θ

= = =


and ( ) cos 282.73 N cos64.5
x x
F F θ = = ° 121.7 N
x
F =
( ) cos 282.73 N cos55.9
z z
F F θ = = ° 158.5 N
y
F =
283 N F =
87





PROBLEM 2.84
A force acts at the origin of a coordinate system in a direction defined by
the angles θ
x
= 75.4° and θ
y
= 132.6°. Knowing that the z component of
the force is –60 N, determine (a) the angle θ
z
, (b) the other components
and the magnitude of the force.

SOLUTION
(a) We have
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2 2
cos cos cos 1 cos 1 cos cos
x y z y y z
θ θ θ θ θ θ + + = ⇒ = − −
Since 0
z
F < we must have cos 0
z
θ <
Thus, taking the negative square root, from above, we have:
( ) ( )
2 2
cos 1 cos 75.4 cos132.6 0.69159
z
θ = − − ° − ° = − 133.8
z
θ = °
(b) Then:

60 N
86.757 N
cos 0.69159
z
z
F
F
θ

= = =

86.8 N F =
and ( ) cos 86.8 N cos 75.4
x x
F F θ = = ° 21.9 N
x
F =
( ) cos 86.8 N cos132.6
y y
F F θ = = ° 58.8 N
y
F = −
88






PROBLEM 2.85
A force F of magnitude 400 N acts at the origin of a coordinate system.
Knowing that θ
x
= 28.5°, F
y
= –80 N, and F
z
> 0, determine (a) the
components F
x
and F
z
, (b) the angles θ
y
and θ
z
.

SOLUTION
(a) Have
( ) cos 400 N cos 28.5
x x
F F θ = = ° 351.5 N
x
F =
Then:
2 2 2 2
x y z
F F F F = + +
So: ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2
400 N 352.5 N 80 N
z
F = + − +
Hence:
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
400 N 351.5 N 80 N
z
F = + − − − 173.3 N
z
F =
(b)

80
cos 0.20
400
y
y
F
F
θ

= = = − 101.5
y
θ = °

173.3
cos 0.43325
400
z
z
F
F
θ = = = 64.3
z
θ = °
89





PROBLEM 2.86
A force F of magnitude 600 lb acts at the origin of a coordinate system.
Knowing that F
x
= 200 lb, θ
z
= 136.8°, F
y
< 0, determine (a) the
components F
y
and F
z
, (b) the angles θ
x
and θ
y
.

SOLUTION
(a) ( ) cos 600 lb cos136.8
z z
F F θ = = °
437.4 lb = − 437 lb
z
F = −
Then:
2 2 2 2
x y z
F F F F = + +
So: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 2 2
600 lb 200 lb 437.4 lb
y
F = + + −
Hence: ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
600 lb 200 lb 437.4 lb
y
F = − − − −
358.7 lb = − 359 lb
y
F = −
(b)

200
cos 0.333
600
x
x
F
F
θ = = = 70.5
x
θ = °

358.7
cos 0.59783
600
y
y
F
F
θ

= = = − 126.7
y
θ = °
90





PROBLEM 2.87
A transmission tower is held by three guy wires anchored by bolts at B,
C, and D. If the tension in wire AB is 2100 N, determine the components
of the force exerted by the wire on the bolt at B.

SOLUTION
( ) ( ) ( ) 4 m 20 m 5 m BA = + − i j k
JJJG

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
4 m 20 m 5 m 21 m BA = + + − =
( ) ( ) ( )
2100 N
4 m 20 m 5 m
21 m
BA
BA
F F
BA
  = = = + −
 
F i j k
JJJG
λ
( ) ( ) ( ) 400 N 2000 N 500 N = + − F i j k
400 N, 2000 N, 500 N
x y z
F F F = + = + = −
91




PROBLEM 2.88
A transmission tower is held by three guy wires anchored by bolts at B,
C, and D. If the tension in wire AD is 1260 N, determine the components
of the force exerted by the wire on the bolt at D.

SOLUTION
( ) ( ) ( ) 4 m 20 m 14.8 m DA = + + i j k
JJJG

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
4 m 20 m 14.8 m 25.2 m DA = + + =
( ) ( ) ( )
1260 N
4 m 20 m 14.8 m
25.2 m
DA
DA
F F
DA
  = = = + +
 
F i j k
JJJG
λ
( ) ( ) ( ) 200 N 1000 N 740 N = + + F i j k
200 N, 1000 N, 740 N
x y z
F F F = + = + = +
92





PROBLEM 2.89
A rectangular plate is supported by three cables as shown. Knowing that
the tension in cable AB is 204 lb, determine the components of the force
exerted on the plate at B.

SOLUTION
( ) ( ) ( ) 32 in. 48 in. 36 in. BA = + − i j k
JJJG

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
32 in. 48 in. 36 in. 68 in. BA = + + − =
( ) ( ) ( )
204 lb
32 in. 48 in. 36 in.
68 in.
BA
BA
F F
BA
  = = = + −
 
F i j k
JJJG
λ
( ) ( ) ( ) 96 lb 144 lb 108 lb = + − F i j k
96.0 lb, 144.0 lb, 108.0 lb
x y z
F F F = + = + = −
93




PROBLEM 2.90
A rectangular plate is supported by three cables as shown. Knowing that
the tension in cable AD is 195 lb, determine the components of the force
exerted on the plate at D.

SOLUTION
( ) ( ) ( ) 25 in. 48 in. 36 in. DA = − + + i j k
JJJG

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
25 in. 48 in. 36 in. 65 in. DA = − + + =
( ) ( ) ( )
195 lb
25 in. 48 in. 36 in.
65 in.
DA
DA
F F
DA
  = = = − + +
 
F i j k
JJJG
λ
( ) ( ) ( ) 75 lb 144 lb 108 lb = − + + F i j k
75.0 lb, 144.0 lb, 108.0 lb
x y z
F F F = − = + = +

94




PROBLEM 2.91
A steel rod is bent into a semicircular ring of radius 0.96 m and is
supported in part by cables BD and BE which are attached to the ring at
B. Knowing that the tension in cable BD is 220 N, determine the
components of this force exerted by the cable on the support at D.

SOLUTION
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.96 m 1.12 m 0.96 m DB = − − i j k
JJJG

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
0.96 m 1.12 m 0.96 m 1.76 m DB = + − + − =
( ) ( ) ( )
220 N
0.96 m 1.12 m 0.96 m
1.76 m
DB DB
DB
T T
DB
  = = = − −
 
T i j k
JJJG
λ
( ) ( ) ( ) 120 N 140 N 120 N
DB
= − − T i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 120.0 N, 140.0 N, 120.0 N
DB DB DB
x y z
T T T = + = − = −
95




PROBLEM 2.92
A steel rod is bent into a semicircular ring of radius 0.96 m and is
supported in part by cables BD and BE which are attached to the ring at
B. Knowing that the tension in cable BE is 250 N, determine the
components of this force exerted by the cable on the support at E.

SOLUTION
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.96 m 1.20 m 1.28 m EB = − + i j k
JJJG

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
0.96 m 1.20 m 1.28 m 2.00 m EB = + − + =
( ) ( ) ( )
250 N
0.96 m 1.20 m 1.28 m
2.00 m
EB EB
EB
T T
EB
  = = = − +
 
T i j k
JJJG
λ
( ) ( ) ( ) 120 N 150 N 160 N
EB
= − + T i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 120.0 N, 150.0 N, 160.0 N
EB EB EB
x y z
T T T = + = − = +
96





PROBLEM 2.93
Find the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the two forces shown
knowing that 500 N P = and 600 N. Q =

SOLUTION
( )[ ] 500 lb cos30 sin15 sin30 cos30 cos15 = − ° ° + ° + ° ° P i j k
( )[ ] 500 lb 0.2241 0.50 0.8365 = − + + i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 112.05 lb 250 lb 418.25 lb = − + + i j k
( )[ ] 600 lb cos 40 cos 20 sin 40 cos 40 sin 20 = ° ° + ° − ° ° Q i j k
( )[ ] 600 lb 0.71985 0.64278 0.26201 = + − i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 431.91 lb 385.67 lb 157.206 lb = + − i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 319.86 lb 635.67 lb 261.04 lb = + = + + R P Q i j k
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
319.86 lb 635.67 lb 261.04 lb 757.98 lb R = + + =
758 lb R =
319.86 lb
cos 0.42199
757.98 lb
x
x
R
R
θ = = =
65.0
x
θ = °
635.67 lb
cos 0.83864
757.98 lb
y
y
R
R
θ = = =
33.0
y
θ = °
261.04 lb
cos 0.34439
757.98 lb
z
z
R
R
θ = = =
69.9
z
θ = °
97




PROBLEM 2.94
Find the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the two forces shown
knowing that P = 600 N and Q = 400 N.

SOLUTION
Using the results from 2.93:
( )[ ] 600 lb 0.2241 0.50 0.8365 = − + + P i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 134.46 lb 300 lb 501.9 lb = − + + i j k
( )[ ] 400 lb 0.71985 0.64278 0.26201 = + − Q i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 287.94 lb 257.11 lb 104.804 lb = + − i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 153.48 lb 557.11 lb 397.10 lb = + = + + R P Q i j k
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
153.48 lb 557.11 lb 397.10 lb 701.15 lb R = + + =
701 lb R =
153.48 lb
cos 0.21890
701.15 lb
x
x
R
R
θ = = =
77.4
x
θ = °
557.11 lb
cos 0.79457
701.15 lb
y
y
R
R
θ = = =
37.4
y
θ = °
397.10 lb
cos 0.56637
701.15 lb
z
z
R
R
θ = = =
55.5
z
θ = °
98




PROBLEM 2.95
Knowing that the tension is 850 N in cable AB and 1020 N in cable AC,
determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the forces
exerted at A by the two cables.

SOLUTION
( ) ( ) ( ) 400 mm 450 mm 600 mm AB = − + i j k
JJJG

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
400 mm 450 mm 600 mm 850 mm AB = + − + =
( ) ( ) ( ) 1000 mm 450 mm 600 mm AC = − + i j k
JJJG

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
1000 mm 450 mm 600 mm 1250 mm AC = + − + =
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) 400 mm 450 mm 600 mm
850 N
850 mm
AB AB AB
AB
AB
T T
AB
  − +
= = =
 
 
i j k
T
JJJG
λ
( ) ( ) ( ) 400 N 450 N 600 N
AB
= − + T i j k
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) 1000 mm 450 mm 600 mm
1020 N
1250 mm
AC AC AC
AC
AC
T T
AC
  − +
= = =
 
 
i j k
T
JJJG
λ
( ) ( ) ( ) 816 N 367.2 N 489.6 N
AC
= − + T i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 1216 N 817.2 N 1089.6 N
AB AC
= + = − + R T T i j k
Then: 1825.8 N R = 1826 N R =
and
1216
cos 0.66601
1825.8
x
θ = = 48.2
x
θ = °

817.2
cos 0.44758
1825.8
y
θ

= = − 116.6
y
θ = °

1089.6
cos 0.59678
1825.8
z
θ = = 53.4
z
θ = °
99



PROBLEM 2.96
Assuming that in Problem 2.95 the tension is 1020 N in cable AB and
850 N in cable AC, determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant
of the forces exerted at A by the two cables.

SOLUTION
( ) ( ) ( ) 400 mm 450 mm 600 mm AB = − + i j k
JJJG

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
400 mm 450 mm 600 mm 850 mm AB = + − + =
( ) ( ) ( ) 1000 mm 450 mm 600 mm AC = − + i j k
JJJG

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
1000 mm 450 mm 600 mm 1250 mm AC = + − + =
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) 400 mm 450 mm 600 mm
1020 N
850 mm
AB AB AB AB
AB
T T
AB
  − +
= = =
 
 
i j k
T
JJJG
λ
( ) ( ) ( ) 480 N 540 N 720 N
AB
= − + T i j k
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) 1000 mm 450 mm 600 mm
850 N
1250 mm
AC AC AC AC
AC
T T
AC
  − +
= = =
 
 
i j k
T
JJJG
λ
( ) ( ) ( ) 680 N 306 N 408 N
AC
= − + T i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 1160 N 846 N 1128 N
AB AC
= + = − + R T T i j k
Then: 1825.8 N R = 1826 N R =
and
1160
cos 0.6353
1825.8
x
θ = = 50.6
x
θ = °

846
cos 0.4634
1825.8
y
θ

= = − 117.6
y
θ = °

1128
cos 0.6178
1825.8
z
θ = = 51.8
z
θ = °
100




PROBLEM 2.97
For the semicircular ring of Problem 2.91, determine the magnitude and
direction of the resultant of the forces exerted by the cables at B knowing
that the tensions in cables BD and BE are 220 N and 250 N, respectively.

SOLUTION
For the solutions to Problems 2.91 and 2.92, we have
( ) ( ) ( ) 120 N 140 N 120 N
BD
= − + + T i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 120 N 150 N 160 N
BE
= − + − T i j k
Then:

B BD BE
= + R T T
( ) ( ) ( ) 240 N 290 N 40 N = − + − i j k
and 378.55 N R = 379 N
B
R =
240
cos 0.6340
378.55
x
θ = − = −
129.3
x
θ = °
290
cos 0.7661
378.55
y
θ = = −
40.0
y
θ = °
40
cos 0.1057
378.55
z
θ = − = −
96.1
z
θ = °

101

PROBLEM 2.98
To stabilize a tree partially uprooted in a storm, cables AB and AC are
attached to the upper trunk of the tree and then are fastened to steel rods
anchored in the ground. Knowing that the tension in AB is 920 lb and that
the resultant of the forces exerted at A by cables AB and AC lies in the yz
plane, determine (a) the tension in AC, (b) the magnitude and direction of
the resultant of the two forces.

SOLUTION
Have
( )( ) 920 lb sin50 cos 40 cos50 sin50 sin 40
AB
= ° ° − ° + ° ° T i j j
( ) cos 45 sin 25 sin 45 cos 45 cos 25
AC AC
T = − ° ° − ° + ° ° T i j j
(a)
A AB AC
= + R T T
( ) 0
A
x
R =
∴ ( ) ( ) 0: 920 lb sin50 cos 40 cos 45 sin 25 0
A x AC
x
R F T = Σ = ° ° − ° ° =
or
1806.60 lb
AC
T = 1807 lb
AC
T =
(b)
( ) ( ) ( ) : 920 lb cos50 1806.60 lb sin 45
A y
y
R F = Σ − ° − °
( ) 1868.82 lb
A
y
R = −
( ) ( ) ( ) : 920 lb sin50 sin 40 1806.60 lb cos 45 cos 25
A z
z
R F = Σ ° ° + ° °
( ) 1610.78 lb
A
z
R =
∴ ( ) ( ) 1868.82 lb 1610.78 lb
A
R = − + j k
Then:
2467.2 lb
A
R = 2.47 kips
A
R =
102


PROBLEM 2.98 CONTINUED
and

0
cos 0
2467.2
x
θ = = 90.0
x
θ = °

1868.82
cos 0.7560
2467.2
y
θ

= = − 139.2
y
θ = °

1610.78
cos 0.65288
2467.2
z
θ = = 49.2
z
θ = °

103

PROBLEM 2.99
To stabilize a tree partially uprooted in a storm, cables AB and AC are
attached to the upper trunk of the tree and then are fastened to steel rods
anchored in the ground. Knowing that the tension in AC is 850 lb and that
the resultant of the forces exerted at A by cables AB and AC lies in the yz
plane, determine (a) the tension in AB, (b) the magnitude and direction of
the resultant of the two forces.

SOLUTION
Have
( ) sin50 cos 40 cos50 sin50 sin 40
AB AB
T = ° ° − ° + ° ° T i j j
( )( ) 850 lb cos 45 sin 25 sin 45 cos 45 cos 25
AC
= − ° ° − ° + ° ° T i j j
(a)
( ) 0
A
x
R =
∴ ( ) ( ) 0: sin50 cos 40 850 lb cos 45 sin 25 0
A x AB
x
R F T = Σ = ° ° − ° ° =
432.86 lb
AB
T = 433 lb
AB
T =
(b)
( ) ( ) ( ) : 432.86 lb cos50 850 lb sin 45
A y
y
R F = Σ − ° − °
( ) 879.28 lb
A
y
R = −
( ) ( ) ( ) : 432.86 lb sin50 sin 40 850 lb cos 45 cos 25
A z
z
R F = Σ ° ° + ° °
( ) 757.87 lb
A
z
R =
∴ ( ) ( ) 879.28 lb 757.87 lb
A
= − + R j k
1160.82 lb
A
R = 1.161 kips
A
R =

0
cos 0
1160.82
x
θ = = 90.0
x
θ = °

879.28
cos 0.75746
1160.82
y
θ

= = − 139.2
y
θ = °

757.87
cos 0.65287
1160.82
z
θ = = 49.2
z
θ = °

104


PROBLEM 2.100
For the plate of Problem 2.89, determine the tension in cables AB and AD
knowing that the tension if cable AC is 27 lb and that the resultant of the
forces exerted by the three cables at A must be vertical.

SOLUTION
With:
( ) ( ) ( ) 45 in. 48 in. 36 in. AC = − + i j k
JJJG

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
45 in. 48 in. 36 in. 75 in. AC = + − + =
( ) ( ) ( )
27 lb
45 in. 48 in. 36 in.
75 in.
AC AC AC AC
AC
T T
AC
  = = = − +
 
T i j k
JJJG
λ
( ) ( ) ( ) 16.2 lb 17.28 lb 12.96
AC
= − + T i j k
and
( ) ( ) ( ) 32 in. 48 in. 36 in. AB = − − + i j k
JJJG

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
32 in. 48 in. 36 in. 68 in. AB = − + − + =
( ) ( ) ( ) 32 in. 48 in. 36 in.
68 in.
AB
AB AB AB AB
AB T
T T
AB
  = = = − − +
 
T i j k
JJJG
λ
( ) 0.4706 0.7059 0.5294
AB AB
T = − − + T i j k
and
( ) ( ) ( ) 25 in. 48 in. 36 in. AD = − − i j k
JJJG

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
25 in. 48 in. 36 in. 65 in. AD = + − + =
( ) ( ) ( ) 25 in. 48 in. 36 in.
65 in.
AD
AD AD AD AD
AD T
T T
AD
  = = = − −
 
T i j k
JJJG
λ
( ) 0.3846 0.7385 0.5538
AD AD
T = − − T i j k

105

PROBLEM 2.100 CONTINUED
Now

AB AD AD
= + + R T T T
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0.4706 0.7059 0.5294 16.2 lb 17.28 lb 12.96
AB
T   = − − + + − +
 
i j k i j k
( ) 0.3846 0.7385 0.5538
AD
T + − − i j k
Since R must be vertical, the i and k components of this sum must be zero.
Hence:
0.4706 0.3846 16.2 lb 0
AB AD
T T − + + = (1)
0.5294 0.5538 12.96 lb 0
AB AD
T T − + = (2)
Solving (1) and (2), we obtain:
244.79 lb, 257.41 lb
AB AD
T T = =
245 lb
AB
T =
257 lb
AD
T =

106





PROBLEM 2.101
The support assembly shown is bolted in place at B, C, and D and
supports a downward force P at A. Knowing that the forces in members
AB, AC, and AD are directed along the respective members and that the
force in member AB is 146 N, determine the magnitude of P.

SOLUTION
Note that AB, AC, and AD are in compression.
Have
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
220 mm 192 mm 0 292 mm
BA
d = − + + =
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
192 mm 192 mm 96 mm 288 mm
DA
d = + + =
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
0 192 mm 144 mm 240 mm
CA
d = + + − =
and ( ) ( )
146 N
220 mm 192 mm
292 mm
BA BA BA
F = = − +

F i j λ
( ) ( ) 110 N 96 N = − + i j
( ) ( ) 192 mm 144 mm
240 mm
CA
CA CA CA
F
F = = −

F j k λ
( ) 0.80 0.60
CA
F = − j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 192 mm 192 mm 96 mm
288 mm
DA
DA DA DA
F
F = = + +

F i j k λ
| | 0.66667 0.66667 0.33333
DA
F = + + i j k
With P = − P j
At A: 0: 0
BA CA DA
Σ = + + + = F F F F P
i-component: ( ) 110 N 0.66667 0
DA
F − + = or 165 N
DA
F =
j-component: ( ) 96 N 0.80 0.66667 165 N 0
CA
F P + + − = (1)
k-component: ( ) 0.60 0.33333 165 N 0
CA
F − + = (2)
Solving (2) for
CA
F and then using that result in (1), gives 279 N P =
107





PROBLEM 2.102
The support assembly shown is bolted in place at B, C, and D and
supports a downward force P at A. Knowing that the forces in members
AB, AC, and AD are directed along the respective members and that
P = 200 N, determine the forces in the members.

SOLUTION
With the results of 2.101:
( ) ( ) 220 mm 192 mm
292 mm
BA
BA BA BA
F
F = = − +

F i j λ
| | 0.75342 0.65753 N
BA
F = − + i j
( ) ( ) 192 mm 144 mm
240 mm
CA
CA CA CA
F
F = = −

F j k λ
( ) 0.80 0.60
CA
F = − j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 192 mm 192 mm 96 mm
288 mm
DA
DA DA DA
F
F = = + +

F i j k λ
| | 0.66667 0.66667 0.33333
DA
F = + + i j k
With: ( ) 200 N = − P j
At A: 0: 0
BA CA DA
Σ = + + + = F F F F P
Hence, equating the three (i, j, k) components to 0 gives three equations
i-component: 0.75342 0.66667 0
BA DA
F F − + = (1)
j-component: 0.65735 0.80 0.66667 200 N 0
BA CA DA
F F F + + − = (2)
k-component: 0.60 0.33333 0
CA DA
F F − + = (3)
Solving (1), (2), and (3), gives

DA
104.5 N, 65.6 N, 118.1 N
BA CA
F F F = = =
104.5 N
BA
F =
65.6 N
CA
F =
118.1 N
DA
F =
108





PROBLEM 2.103
Three cables are used to tether a balloon as shown. Determine the vertical
force P exerted by the balloon at A knowing that the tension in cable AB
is 60 lb.

SOLUTION



The forces applied at A are:
, , and
AB AC AD
T T T P
where P = P j . To express the other forces in terms of the unit vectors
i, j, k, we write
( ) ( ) 12.6 ft 16.8 ft AB = − − i j
JJJG
21 ft AB =
( ) ( ) ( ) 7.2 ft 16.8 ft 12.6 ft 22.2 ft AC AC = − + = i j k
JJJG

( ) ( ) 16.8 ft 9.9 ft AD = − − j k
JJJG
19.5 ft AD =
and ( ) 0.6 0.8
AB AB AB AB AB
AB
T T T
AB
= = = − − T i j
JJJG
λ
( ) 0.3242 0.75676 0.56757
AC AC AC AC AC
AC
T T T
AC
= = = − + T i j k
JJJG
λ
( ) 0.8615 0.50769
AD AD AD AD AD
AD
T T T
AD
= = = − − T j k
JJJG
λ
109





PROBLEM 2.103 CONTINUED
Equilibrium Condition
0: 0
AB AC AD
F P Σ = + + + = T T T j
Substituting the expressions obtained for , , and
AB AC AD
T T T and
factoring i, j, and k:
( ) ( ) 0.6 0.3242 0.8 0.75676 0.8615
AB AC AB AC AD
T T T T T P − + + − − − + i j
( ) 0.56757 0.50769 0
AC AD
T T + − = k
Equating to zero the coefficients of i, j, k:
0.6 0.3242 0
AB AC
T T − + = (1)
0.8 0.75676 0.8615 0
AB AC AD
T T T P − − − + = (2)
0.56757 0.50769 0
AC AD
T T − = (3)
Setting 60 lb
AB
T = in (1) and (2), and solving the resulting set of
equations gives

111 lb
AC
T =
124.2 lb
AD
T =
239 lb = P



110





PROBLEM 2.104
Three cables are used to tether a balloon as shown. Determine the vertical
force P exerted by the balloon at A knowing that the tension in cable AC
is 100 lb.

SOLUTION
See Problem 2.103 for the figure and the analysis leading to the linear algebraic Equations (1), (2), and (3)
below:
0.6 0.3242 0
AB AC
T T − + = (1)
0.8 0.75676 0.8615 0
AB AC AD
T T T P − − − + = (2)
0.56757 0.50769 0
AC AD
T T − = (3)
Substituting 100 lb
AC
T = in Equations (1), (2), and (3) above, and solving the resulting set of equations
using conventional algorithms gives
54 lb
AB
T =
112 lb
AD
T =
215 lb = P
111





PROBLEM 2.105
The crate shown in Figure P2.105 and P2.108 is supported by three
cables. Determine the weight of the crate knowing that the tension in
cable AB is 3 kN.

SOLUTION



The forces applied at A are:
, , and
AB AC AD
T T T P
where P = P j . To express the other forces in terms of the unit vectors
i, j, k, we write
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.72 m 1.2 m 0.54 m , AB = − + − i j k
JJJG
1.5 m AB =
( ) ( ) 1.2 m 0.64 m , AC = + j k
JJJG
1.36 m AC =
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.8 m 1.2 m 0.54 m , AD = + − i j k
JJJG
1.54 m AD =
and ( ) 0.48 0.8 0.36
AB AB AB AB AB
AB
T T T
AB
= = = − + − T i j k
JJJG
λ
( ) 0.88235 0.47059
AC AC AC AC AC
AC
T T T
AC
= = = + T j k
JJJG
λ
( ) 0.51948 0.77922 0.35065
AD AD AD AD AD
AD
T T T
AD
= = = + − T i j k
JJJG
λ
Equilibrium Condition with W = − W j
0: 0
AB AC AD
F W Σ = + + − = T T T j
Substituting the expressions obtained for , , and
AB AC AD
T T T and
factoring i, j, and k:
( ) ( ) 0.48 0.51948 0.8 0.88235 0.77922
AB AD AB AC AD
T T T T T W − + + + + − i j
( ) 0.36 0.47059 0.35065 0
AB AC AD
T T T + − + − = k
112





PROBLEM 2.105 CONTINUED
Equating to zero the coefficients of i, j, k:
0.48 0.51948 0
AB AD
T T − + =
0.8 0.88235 0.77922 0
AB AC AD
T T T W + + − =
0.36 0.47059 0.35065 0
AB AC AD
T T T − + − =
Substituting 3 kN
AB
T = in Equations (1), (2) and (3) and solving the
resulting set of equations, using conventional algorithms for solving
linear algebraic equations, gives

4.3605 kN
AC
T =
2.7720 kN
AD
T =
8.41 kN W =

113





PROBLEM 2.106
For the crate of Problem 2.105, determine the weight of the crate
knowing that the tension in cable AD is 2.8 kN.
Problem 2.105: The crate shown in Figure P2.105 and P2.108 is
supported by three cables. Determine the weight of the crate knowing that
the tension in cable AB is 3 kN.

SOLUTION
See Problem 2.105 for the figure and the analysis leading to the linear algebraic Equations (1), (2), and (3)
below:
0.48 0.51948 0
AB AD
T T − + =
0.8 0.88235 0.77922 0
AB AC AD
T T T W + + − =
0.36 0.47059 0.35065 0
AB AC AD
T T T − + − =
Substituting 2.8 kN
AD
T = in Equations (1), (2), and (3) above, and solving the resulting set of equations
using conventional algorithms, gives
3.03 kN
AB
T =
4.40 kN
AC
T =
8.49 kN W =
114




PROBLEM 2.107
For the crate of Problem 2.105, determine the weight of the crate
knowing that the tension in cable AC is 2.4 kN.
Problem 2.105: The crate shown in Figure P2.105 and P2.108 is
supported by three cables. Determine the weight of the crate knowing that
the tension in cable AB is 3 kN.

SOLUTION
See Problem 2.105 for the figure and the analysis leading to the linear algebraic Equations (1), (2), and (3)
below:
0.48 0.51948 0
AB AD
T T − + =
0.8 0.88235 0.77922 0
AB AC AD
T T T W + + − =
0.36 0.47059 0.35065 0
AB AC AD
T T T − + − =
Substituting 2.4 kN
AC
T = in Equations (1), (2), and (3) above, and solving the resulting set of equations
using conventional algorithms, gives
1.651 kN
AB
T =
1.526 kN
AD
T =
4.63 kN W =
115





PROBLEM 2.108
A 750-kg crate is supported by three cables as shown. Determine the
tension in each cable.

SOLUTION
See Problem 2.105 for the figure and the analysis leading to the linear algebraic Equations (1), (2), and (3)
below:
0.48 0.51948 0
AB AD
T T − + =
0.8 0.88235 0.77922 0
AB AC AD
T T T W + + − =
0.36 0.47059 0.35065 0
AB AC AD
T T T − + − =
Substituting ( )
( )
2
750 kg 9.81 m/s 7.36 kN W = = in Equations (1), (2), and (3) above, and solving the
resulting set of equations using conventional algorithms, gives
2.63 kN
AB
T =
3.82 kN
AC
T =
2.43 kN
AD
T =
116





PROBLEM 2.109
A force P is applied as shown to a uniform cone which is supported by
three cords, where the lines of action of the cords pass through the vertex
A of the cone. Knowing that P = 0 and that the tension in cord BE is
0.2 lb, determine the weight W of the cone.

SOLUTION
Note that because the line of action of each of the cords passes through the vertex A of the cone, the cords all
have the same length, and the unit vectors lying along the cords are parallel to the unit vectors lying along the
generators of the cone.
Thus, for example, the unit vector along BE is identical to the unit vector along the generator AB.
Hence:
cos 45 8 sin 45
65
AB BE
° + − °
= =
i j k
λ λ
It follows that:
cos 45 8 sin 45
65
BE BE BE BE
T T
° + − ° | |
= =
|
\ .
i j k
T λ

cos30 8 sin30
65
CF CF CF CF
T T
° + + ° | |
= =
|
\ .
i j k
T λ

cos15 8 sin15
65
DG DG DG DG
T T
− ° + − ° | |
= =
|
\ .
i j k
T λ
117


PROBLEM 2.109 CONTINUED
At A: 0: 0
BE CF DG
Σ = + + + + = F T T T W P
Then, isolating the factors of i, j, and k, we obtain three algebraic equations:
: cos 45 cos30 cos15 0
65 65 65
BE CF DG
T T T
P ° + ° − ° + = i
or cos 45 cos30 cos15 65 0
BE CF DG
T T T P ° + ° − ° + = (1)

8 8 8
: 0
65 65 65
BE CF DG
T T T W + + − = j
or
65
0
8
BE CF DG
T T T W + + − = (2)
: sin 45 sin30 sin15 0
65 65 65
BE CF DG
T T T
− ° + ° − ° = k
or sin 45 sin30 sin15 0
BE CF DG
T T T − ° + ° − ° = (3)
With 0 P = and the tension in cord 0.2 lb: BE =
Solving the resulting Equations (1), (2), and (3) using conventional methods in Linear Algebra (elimination,
matrix methods or iteration – with MATLAB or Maple, for example), we obtain:
0.669 lb
CF
T =
0.746 lb
DG
T =
1.603 lb W =
118




PROBLEM 2.110
A force P is applied as shown to a uniform cone which is supported by
three cords, where the lines of action of the cords pass through the vertex
A of the cone. Knowing that the cone weighs 1.6 lb, determine the range
of values of P for which cord CF is taut.

SOLUTION
See Problem 2.109 for the Figure and the analysis leading to the linear algebraic Equations (1), (2), and (3)
below:
: cos 45 cos30 cos15 65 0
BE CF DG
T T T P ° + ° − ° + = i (1)

65
: 0
8
BE CF DG
T T T W + + − = j (2)
: sin 45 sin30 sin15 0
BE CF DG
T T T − ° + ° − ° = k (3)
With 1.6 lb W = , the range of values of P for which the cord CF is taut can found by solving Equations (1),
(2), and (3) for the tension
CF
T as a function of P and requiring it to be positive ( 0). >
Solving (1), (2), and (3) with unknown P, using conventional methods in Linear Algebra (elimination, matrix
methods or iteration – with MATLAB or Maple, for example), we obtain:
( ) 1.729 0.668 lb
CF
T P = − +
Hence, for 0
CF
T > 1.729 0.668 0 P − + >
or 0.386 lb P <
0 0.386 lb P ∴ < <

119




PROBLEM 2.111
A transmission tower is held by three guy wires attached to a pin at A and
anchored by bolts at B, C, and D. If the tension in wire AB is 3.6 kN,
determine the vertical force P exerted by the tower on the pin at A.

SOLUTION





The force in each cable can be written as the product of the magnitude of
the force and the unit vector along the cable. That is, with
( ) ( ) ( ) 18 m 30 m 5.4 m AC = − + i j k
JJJG

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
18 m 30 m 5.4 m 35.4 m AC = + − + =
( ) ( ) ( ) 18 m 30 m 5.4 m
35.4 m
AC
AC AC AC
AC T
T T
AC
= = = − +

T i j k
JJJG
λ
( ) 0.5085 0.8475 0.1525
AC AC
T = − + T i j k
and ( ) ( ) ( ) 6 m 30 m 7.5 m AB = − − + i j k
JJJG

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
6 m 30 m 7.5 m 31.5 m AB = − + − + =
( ) ( ) ( ) 6 m 30 m 7.5 m
31.5 m
AB
AB AB AB
AB T
T T
AB
= = = − − +

T i j k
JJJG
λ
( ) 0.1905 0.9524 0.2381
AB AB
T = − − + T i j k
Finally ( ) ( ) ( ) 6 m 30 m 22.2 m AD = − − − i j k
JJJG

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
6 m 30 m 22.2 m 37.8 m AD = − + − + − =
( ) ( ) ( ) 6 m 30 m 22.2 m
37.8 m
AD
AD AD AD
AD T
T T
AD
= = = − − −

T i j k
JJJG
λ
( ) 0.1587 0.7937 0.5873
AD AD
T = − − − T i j k
120





PROBLEM 2.111 CONTINUED
With , at : P A = P j
0: 0
AB AC AD
P Σ = + + + = F T T T j
Equating the factors of i, j, and k to zero, we obtain the linear algebraic
equations:
: 0.1905 0.5085 0.1587 0
AB AC AD
T T T − + − = i (1)
: 0.9524 0.8475 0.7937 0
AB AC AD
T T T P − − − + = j (2)
: 0.2381 0.1525 0.5873 0
AB AC AD
T T T + − = k (3)
In Equations (1), (2) and (3), set 3.6 kN,
AB
T = and, using conventional
methods for solving Linear Algebraic Equations (MATLAB or Maple,
for example), we obtain:
1.963 kN
AC
T =
1.969 kN
AD
T =
6.66 kN = P
121




PROBLEM 2.112
A transmission tower is held by three guy wires attached to a pin at A and
anchored by bolts at B, C, and D. If the tension in wire AC is 2.6 kN,
determine the vertical force P exerted by the tower on the pin at A.

SOLUTION
Based on the results of Problem 2.111, particularly Equations (1), (2) and (3), we substitute 2.6 kN
AC
T =
and solve the three resulting linear equations using conventional tools for solving Linear Algebraic Equations
(MATLAB or Maple, for example), to obtain
4.77 kN
AB
T =
2.61 kN
AD
T =
8.81 kN = P
122





PROBLEM 2.113
A rectangular plate is supported by three cables as shown. Knowing that
the tension in cable AC is 15 lb, determine the weight of the plate.

SOLUTION




The (vector) force in each cable can be written as the product of the
(scalar) force and the unit vector along the cable. That is, with
( ) ( ) ( ) 32 in. 48 in. 36 in. AB = − + i j k
JJJG

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
32 in. 48 in. 36 in. 68 in. AB = − + − + =
( ) ( ) ( ) 32 in. 48 in. 36 in.
68 in.
AB
AB AB AB
AB T
T T
AB
= = = − − +

T i j k
JJJG
λ
( ) 0.4706 0.7059 0.5294
AB AB
T = − − + T i j k
and ( ) ( ) ( ) 45 in. 48 in. 36 in. AC = − + i j k
JJJG

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
45 in. 48 in. 36 in. 75 in. AC = + − + =
( ) ( ) ( ) 45 in. 48 in. 36 in.
75 in.
AC
AC AC AC
AC T
T T
AC
= = = − +

T i j k
JJJG
λ
( ) 0.60 0.64 0.48
AC AC
T = − + T i j k
Finally, ( ) ( ) ( ) 25 in. 48 in. 36 in. AD = − − i j k
JJJG

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
25 in. 48 in. 36 in. 65 in. AD = + − + − =
123




PROBLEM 2.113 CONTINUED
( ) ( ) ( ) 25 in. 48 in. 36 in.
65 in.
AD
AD AD AD
AD T
T T
AD
= = = − −

T i j k
JJJG
λ
( ) 0.3846 0.7385 0.5538
AD AD
T = − − T i j k
With , W = W j at A we have:
0: 0
AB AC AD
W Σ = + + + = F T T T j
Equating the factors of i, j, and k to zero, we obtain the linear algebraic
equations:
: 0.4706 0.60 0.3846 0
AB AC AD
T T T − + − = i (1)
: 0.7059 0.64 0.7385 0
AB AC AD
T T T W − − − + = j (2)
: 0.5294 0.48 0.5538 0
AB AC AD
T T T + − = k (3)
In Equations (1), (2) and (3), set 15 lb,
AC
T = and, using conventional
methods for solving Linear Algebraic Equations (MATLAB or Maple,
for example), we obtain:
136.0 lb
AB
T =
143.0 lb
AD
T =
211 lb W =
124





PROBLEM 2.114
A rectangular plate is supported by three cables as shown. Knowing that
the tension in cable AD is 120 lb, determine the weight of the plate.

SOLUTION
Based on the results of Problem 2.111, particularly Equations (1), (2) and (3), we substitute 120 lb
AD
T = and
solve the three resulting linear equations using conventional tools for solving Linear Algebraic Equations
(MATLAB or Maple, for example), to obtain
12.59 lb
AC
T =
114.1 lb
AB
T =
177.2 lb W =
125



PROBLEM 2.115
A horizontal circular plate having a mass of 28 kg is suspended as shown
from three wires which are attached to a support D and form 30° angles
with the vertical. Determine the tension in each wire.

SOLUTION





0: sin30 sin50 sin30 cos 40
x AD BD
F T T Σ = − ° ° + ° °
sin30 cos 60 0
CD
T + ° ° =
Dividing through by the factor sin30° and evaluating the trigonometric
functions gives
0.7660 0.7660 0.50 0
AD BD CD
T T T − + + = (1)
Similarly,
0: sin30 cos50 sin30 sin 40
z AD BD
F T T Σ = ° ° + ° °
sin30 sin60 0
CD
T − ° ° =
or 0.6428 0.6428 0.8660 0
AD BD CD
T T T + − = (2)
From (1) 0.6527
AD BD CD
T T T = +
Substituting this into (2):
0.3573
BD CD
T T = (3)
Using
AD
T from above:

AD CD
T T = (4)
Now,
0: cos30 cos30 cos30
y AD BD CD
F T T T Σ = − ° − ° − °
( )
( )
2
28 kg 9.81 m/s 0 + =
or 317.2 N
AD BD CD
T T T + + =
126








PROBLEM 2.115 CONTINUED
Using (3) and (4), above:
0.3573 317.2 N
CD CD CD
T T T + + =
Then: 135.1 N
AD
T =
46.9 N
BD
T =
135.1 N
CD
T =

127




PROBLEM 2.116
A transmission tower is held by three guy wires attached to a pin at A and
anchored by bolts at B, C, and D. Knowing that the tower exerts on the
pin at A an upward vertical force of 8 kN, determine the tension in each
wire.

SOLUTION

From the solutions of 2.111 and 2.112:
0.5409
AB
T P =
0.295
AC
T P =
0.2959
AD
T P =
Using 8 kN: P =
4.33 kN
AB
T =
2.36 kN
AC
T =
2.37 kN
AD
T =
128





PROBLEM 2.117
For the rectangular plate of Problems 2.113 and 2.114, determine the
tension in each of the three cables knowing that the weight of the plate is
180 lb.

SOLUTION

From the solutions of 2.113 and 2.114:
0.6440
AB
T P =
0.0709
AC
T P =
0.6771
AD
T P =
Using 180 lb: P =
115.9 lb
AB
T =
12.76 lb
AC
T =
121.9 lb
AD
T =
129




PROBLEM 2.118
For the cone of Problem 2.110, determine the range of values of P for
which cord DG is taut if P is directed in the –x direction.

SOLUTION
From the solutions to Problems 2.109 and 2.110, have
0.2 65
BE CF DG
T T T + + = (2 ) ′
sin 45 sin30 sin15 0
BE CF DG
T T T − ° + ° − ° = (3)
cos 45 cos30 cos15 65 0
BE CF DG
T T T P ° + ° − ° − = (1 ) ′
Applying the method of elimination to obtain a desired result:
Multiplying (2 ) ′ by sin 45° and adding the result to (3):
( ) ( ) sin 45 sin30 sin 45 sin15 0.2 65 sin 45
CF DG
T T ° + ° + ° − ° = °
or 0.9445 0.3714
CF DG
T T = − (4)
Multiplying (2 ) ′ by sin30° and subtracting (3) from the result:
( ) ( ) sin30 sin 45 sin30 sin15 0.2 65 sin30
BE DG
T T ° + ° + ° + ° = °
or 0.6679 0.6286
BE DG
T T = − (5)
130


PROBLEM 2.118 CONTINUED
Substituting (4) and (5) into (1) ′ :
1.2903 1.7321 65 0
DG
T P − − =

DG
T ∴ is taut for
1.2903
lb
65
P <
or 0.1600 0 lb P ≤ <

131




PROBLEM 2.119
A force P is applied as shown to a uniform cone which is supported by
three cords, where the lines of action of the cords pass through the vertex
A of the cone. Knowing that the cone weighs 2.4 lb and that P = 0,
determine the tension in each cord.

SOLUTION
Note that because the line of action of each of the cords passes through the vertex A of the cone, the cords all
have the same length, and the unit vectors lying along the cords are parallel to the unit vectors lying along the
generators of the cone.
Thus, for example, the unit vector along BE is identical to the unit vector along the generator AB.
Hence:
cos 45 8 sin 45
65
AB BE
λ
° + − °
= =
i j k
λ
It follows that:

cos 45 8 sin 45
65
BE BE BE BE
T T
° + − ° | |
= =
|
\ .
i j k
T λ

cos30 8 sin30
65
CF CF CF CF
T T
° + + ° | |
= =
|
\ .
i j k
T λ
cos15 8 sin15
65
DG DG DG DG
T T
− ° + − ° | |
= =
|
\ .
i j k
T λ
At A: 0: 0
BE CF DG
Σ = + + + + = F T T T W P
132


PROBLEM 2.119 CONTINUED
Then, isolating the factors if , , and i j k we obtain three algebraic equations:
: cos 45 cos30 cos15 0
65 65 65
BE CF DG
T T T
° + ° − ° = i
or cos 45 cos30 cos15 0
BE CF DG
T T T ° + ° − ° = (1)

8 8 8
: 0
65 65 65
BE CF DG
T T T W + + − = j
or
2.4
65 0.3 65
8
BE CF DG
T T T + + = = (2)
: sin 45 sin30 sin15 0
65 65 65
BE CF DG
T T T
P − ° + ° − ° − = k
or sin 45 sin30 sin15 65
BE CF DG
T T T P − ° + ° − ° = (3)
With 0, P = the tension in the cords can be found by solving the resulting Equations (1), (2), and (3) using
conventional methods in Linear Algebra (elimination, matrix methods or iteration–with MATLAB or Maple,
for example). We obtain
0.299 lb
BE
T =
1.002 lb
CF
T =
1.117 lb
DG
T =

133




PROBLEM 2.120
A force P is applied as shown to a uniform cone which is supported by
three cords, where the lines of action of the cords pass through the vertex
A of the cone. Knowing that the cone weighs 2.4 lb and that P = 0.1 lb,
determine the tension in each cord.

SOLUTION
See Problem 2.121 for the analysis leading to the linear algebraic Equations (1), (2), and (3) below:
cos 45 cos30 cos15 0
BE CF DG
T T T ° + ° − ° = (1)
0.3 65
BE CF DG
T T T + + = (2)
sin 45 sin30 sin15 65
BE CF DG
T T T P − ° + ° − ° = (3)
With 0.1lb, = P solving (1), (2), and (3), using conventional methods in Linear Algebra (elimination, matrix
methods or iteration–with MATLAB or Maple, for example), we obtain
1.006 lb
BE
T =
0.357 lb
CF
T =
1.056 lb
DG
T =

134





PROBLEM 2.121
Using two ropes and a roller chute, two workers are unloading a 200-kg
cast-iron counterweight from a truck. Knowing that at the instant shown
the counterweight is kept from moving and that the positions of points A,
B, and C are, respectively, A(0, –0.5 m, 1 m), B(–0.6 m, 0.8 m, 0), and
C(0.7 m, 0.9 m, 0), and assuming that no friction exists between the
counterweight and the chute, determine the tension in each rope. (Hint:
Since there is no friction, the force exerted by the chute on the
counterweight must be perpendicular to the chute.)

SOLUTION





From the geometry of the chute:
( ) ( ) 2 0.8944 0.4472
5
N
N = + = + N j k j k
As in Problem 2.11, for example, the force in each rope can be written as
the product of the magnitude of the force and the unit vector along the
cable. Thus, with
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.6 m 1.3 m 1 m AB = − + + i j k
JJJG

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
0.6 m 1.3 m 1 m 1.764 m AB = − + + =
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.6 m 1.3 m 1 m
1.764 m
AB
AB AB AB
AB T
T T
AB
  = = = − + +
 
T i j k
JJJG
λ
( ) 0.3436 0.7444 0.5726
AB AB
T = − + + T i j k
and ( ) ( ) ( ) 0.7 m 1.4 m 1 m AC = + − i j k
JJJG

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
0.7 m 1.4 m 1 m 1.8574 m AC = + + − =
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.7 m 1.4 m 1 m
1.764 m
AC
AC AC AC
AC T
T T
AC
  = = = + −
 
T i j k
JJJG
λ
( ) 0.3769 0.7537 0.5384
AC AC
T = + − T i j k
Then: 0: 0
AB AC
Σ = + + + = F N T T W
135







PROBLEM 2.121 CONTINUED
With ( )( ) 200 kg 9.81 m/s 1962 N, W = = and equating the factors of i, j,
and k to zero, we obtain the linear algebraic equations:
: 0.3436 0.3769 0
AB AC
T T − + = i (1)
: 0.7444 0.7537 0.8944 1962 0
AB AC
T T N + + − = j (2)
: 0.5726 0.5384 0.4472 0
AB AC
T T N − − + = k (3)
Using conventional methods for solving Linear Algebraic Equations
(elimination, MATLAB or Maple, for example), we obtain
1311 N N =
551 N
AB
T =
503 N
AC
T =
136





PROBLEM 2.122
Solve Problem 2.121 assuming that a third worker is exerting a force
(180 N) = − P i on the counterweight.
Problem 2.121: Using two ropes and a roller chute, two workers are
unloading a 200-kg cast-iron counterweight from a truck. Knowing that at
the instant shown the counterweight is kept from moving and that the
positions of points A, B, and C are, respectively, A(0, –0.5 m, 1 m),
B(–0.6 m, 0.8 m, 0), and C(0.7 m, 0.9 m, 0), and assuming that no friction
exists between the counterweight and the chute, determine the tension in
each rope. (Hint: Since there is no friction, the force exerted by the chute
on the counterweight must be perpendicular to the chute.)

SOLUTION





From the geometry of the chute:
( ) ( ) 2 0.8944 0.4472
5
N
N = + = + N j k j k
As in Problem 2.11, for example, the force in each rope can be written as
the product of the magnitude of the force and the unit vector along the
cable. Thus, with
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.6 m 1.3 m 1 m AB = − + + i j k
JJJG

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
0.6 m 1.3 m 1 m 1.764 m AB = − + + =
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.6 m 1.3 m 1 m
1.764 m
AB
AB AB AB
AB T
T T
AB
  = = = − + +
 
T i j k
JJJG
λ
( ) 0.3436 0.7444 0.5726
AB AB
T = − + + T i j k
and ( ) ( ) ( ) 0.7 m 1.4 m 1 m AC = + − i j k
JJJG

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
0.7 m 1.4 m 1 m 1.8574 m AC = + + − =
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.7 m 1.4 m 1 m
1.764 m
AC
AC AC AC
AC T
T T
AC
  = = = + −
 
T i j k
JJJG
λ
( ) 0.3769 0.7537 0.5384
AC AC
T = + − T i j k
Then: 0: 0
AB AC
Σ = + + + + = F N T T P W
137







PROBLEM 2.122 CONTINUED
Where ( ) 180 N = − P i
and ( )
( )
2
200 kg 9.81 m/s
 
= −
 
W j
( ) 1962 N = − j
Equating the factors of i, j, and k to zero, we obtain the linear equations:
: 0.3436 0.3769 180 0
AB AC
T T − + − = i
: 0.8944 0.7444 0.7537 1962 0
AB AC
N T T + + − = j
: 0.4472 0.5726 0.5384 0
AB AC
N T T − − = k
Using conventional methods for solving Linear Algebraic Equations
(elimination, MATLAB or Maple, for example), we obtain
1302 N N =
306 N
AB
T =
756 N
AC
T =

138





PROBLEM 2.123
A piece of machinery of weight W is temporarily supported by cables AB,
AC, and ADE. Cable ADE is attached to the ring at A, passes over the
pulley at D and back through the ring, and is attached to the support at E.
Knowing that W = 320 lb, determine the tension in each cable. (Hint:
The tension is the same in all portions of cable ADE.)

SOLUTION
The (vector) force in each cable can be written as the product of the (scalar) force and the unit vector along
the cable. That is, with
( ) ( ) ( ) 9 ft 8 ft 12 ft AB = − + − i j k
JJJG

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
9 ft 8 ft 12 ft 17 ft AB = − + + − =
( ) ( ) ( ) 9 ft 8 ft 12 ft
17 ft
AB
AB AB AB
AB T
T T
AB
  = = = − + −
 
T i j k
JJJG
λ
( ) 0.5294 0.4706 0.7059
AB AB
T = − + − T i j k
and
( ) ( ) ( ) 0 8 ft 6 ft AC = + + i j k
JJJG

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
0 ft 8 ft 6 ft 10 ft AC = + + =
( ) ( ) ( ) 0 ft 8 ft 6 ft
10 ft
AC
AC AC AC
AC T
T T
AC
  = = = + +
 
T i j k
JJJG
λ
( ) 0.8 0.6
AC AC
T = + T j k
and
( ) ( ) ( ) 4 ft 8 ft 1ft AD = + − i j k
JJJG

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
4 ft 8 ft 1ft 9 ft AD = + + − =
( ) ( ) ( ) 4 ft 8 ft 1ft
9 ft
ADE
AD AD ADE
AD T
T T
AD
  = = = + −
 
T i j k
JJJG
λ
( ) 0.4444 0.8889 0.1111
AD ADE
T = + − T i j k
139

PROBLEM 2.123 CONTINUED
Finally,
( ) ( ) ( ) 8 ft 8 ft 4 ft AE = − + + i j k
JJJG

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
8 ft 8 ft 4 ft 12 ft AE = − + + =
( ) ( ) ( ) 8 ft 8 ft 4 ft
12 ft
ADE
AE AE ADE
AE T
T T
AE
  = = = − + +
 
T i j k
JJJG
λ
( ) 0.6667 0.6667 0.3333
AE ADE
T = − + + T i j k
With the weight of the machinery, , W = − W j at A, we have:
0: 2 0
AB AC AD
W Σ = + + − = F T T T j
Equating the factors of , , and i j k to zero, we obtain the following linear algebraic equations:
( ) 0.5294 2 0.4444 0.6667 0
AB ADE ADE
T T T − + − = (1)
( ) 0.4706 0.8 2 0.8889 0.6667 0
AB AC ADE ADE
T T T T W + + + − = (2)
( ) 0.7059 0.6 2 0.1111 0.3333 0
AB AC ADE ADE
T T T T − + − + = (3)
Knowing that 320 lb, W = we can solve Equations (1), (2) and (3) using conventional methods for solving
Linear Algebraic Equations (elimination, matrix methods via MATLAB or Maple, for example) to obtain
46.5 lb
AB
T =
34.2 lb
AC
T =
110.8 lb
ADE
T =
140




PROBLEM 2.124
A piece of machinery of weight W is temporarily supported by cables AB,
AC, and ADE. Cable ADE is attached to the ring at A, passes over the
pulley at D and back through the ring, and is attached to the support at E.
Knowing that the tension in cable AB is 68 lb, determine (a) the tension
in AC, (b) the tension in ADE, (c) the weight W. (Hint: The tension is the
same in all portions of cable ADE.)

SOLUTION
See Problem 2.123 for the analysis leading to the linear algebraic Equations (1), (2), and (3), below:
( ) 0.5294 2 0.4444 0.6667 0
AB ADE ADE
T T T − + − = (1)
( ) 0.4706 0.8 2 0.8889 0.6667 0
AB AC ADE ADE
T T T T W + + + − = (2)
( ) 0.7059 0.6 2 0.1111 0.3333 0
AB AC ADE ADE
T T T T − + − + = (3)
Knowing that the tension in cable AB is 68 lb, we can solve Equations (1), (2) and (3) using conventional
methods for solving Linear Algebraic Equations (elimination, matrix methods via MATLAB or Maple, for
example) to obtain
(a) 50.0 lb
AC
T =
(b) 162.0 lb
AE
T =
(c) 468 lb W =
141



PROBLEM 2.125
A container of weight W is suspended from ring A. Cable BAC passes
through the ring and is attached to fixed supports at B and C. Two forces
P = P i and Q = Q k are applied to the ring to maintain the container is
the position shown. Knowing that 1200 W = N, determine P and Q.
(Hint: The tension is the same in both portions of cable BAC.)

SOLUTION





The (vector) force in each cable can be written as the product of the
(scalar) force and the unit vector along the cable. That is, with
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.48 m 0.72 m 0.16 m AB = − + − i j k
JJJG

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
0.48 m 0.72 m 0.16 m 0.88 m AB = − + + − =
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.48 m 0.72 m 0.16 m
0.88 m
AB
AB AB AB
AB T
T T
AB
  = = = − + −
 
T i j k
JJJG
λ
( ) 0.5455 0.8182 0.1818
AB AB
T = − + − T i j k
and
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.24 m 0.72 m 0.13 m AC = + − i j k
JJJG

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
0.24 m 0.72 m 0.13 m 0.77 m AC = + − =
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.24 m 0.72 m 0.13 m
0.77 m
AC
AC AC AC
AC T
T T
AC
  = = = + −
 
T i j k
JJJG
λ
( ) 0.3177 0.9351 0.1688
AC AC
T = + − T i j k
At A: 0: 0
AB AC
Σ = + + + + = F T T P Q W

142







PROBLEM 2.125 CONTINUED
Noting that
AB AC
T T = because of the ring A, we equate the factors of
, , and i j k to zero to obtain the linear algebraic equations:
( ) : 0.5455 0.3177 0 T P − + + = i
or 0.2338 P T =
( ) : 0.8182 0.9351 0 T W + − = j
or 1.7532 W T =
( ) : 0.1818 0.1688 0 T Q − − + = k
or 0.356 Q T =
With 1200 N: W =
1200 N
684.5 N
1.7532
T = =
160.0 N P =
240 N Q =

143




PROBLEM 2.126
For the system of Problem 2.125, determine W and P knowing that
160 Q = N.
Problem 2.125: A container of weight W is suspended from ring A.
Cable BAC passes through the ring and is attached to fixed supports at B
and C. Two forces P = P i and Q = Q k are applied to the ring to
maintain the container is the position shown. Knowing that 1200 W = N,
determine P and Q. (Hint: The tension is the same in both portions of
cable BAC.)

SOLUTION
Based on the results of Problem 2.125, particularly the three equations relating P, Q, W, and T we substitute
160 N Q = to obtain
160 N
456.3 N
0.3506
T = =
800 N W =
107.0 N P =
144




PROBLEM 2.127
Collars A and B are connected by a 1-m-long wire and can slide freely on
frictionless rods. If a force (680 N) = P j is applied at A, determine
(a) the tension in the wire when 300 y = mm, (b) the magnitude of the
force Q required to maintain the equilibrium of the system.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagrams of collars




For both Problems 2.127 and 2.128:
( )
2
2 2 2
AB x y z = + +
Here ( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
1m 0.40 m y z = + +
or
2 2 2
0.84 m y z + =
Thus, with y given, z is determined.
Now
( )
1
0.40 m 0.4
1m
AB
AB
y z y z
AB
= = − + = − + i j k i k k
JJJG
λ
Where y and z are in units of meters, m.
From the F.B. Diagram of collar A:
0: 0
x z AB AB
N N P T Σ = + + + = F i k j λ
Setting the j coefficient to zero gives:
0
AB
P yT − =
With 680 N, P =
680 N
AB
T
y
=
Now, from the free body diagram of collar B:
0: 0
x y AB AB
N N Q T Σ = + + − = F i j k λ





145


PROBLEM 2.127 CONTINUED
Setting the k coefficient to zero gives:
0
AB
Q T z − =
And using the above result for
AB
T we have
680 N
AB
Q T z z
y
= =
Then, from the specifications of the problem, 300 mm 0.3 m y = =
( )
2
2 2
0.84 m 0.3 m = − z
0.866 m ∴ = z
and
(a)
680 N
2266.7 N
0.30
AB
T = =
or 2.27 kN
AB
T =
and
(b) ( ) 2266.7 0.866 1963.2 N Q = =
or 1.963 kN Q =
146




PROBLEM 2.128
Solve Problem 2.127 assuming 550 y = mm.
Problem 2.127: Collars A and B are connected by a 1-m-long wire and
can slide freely on frictionless rods. If a force (680 N) = P j is applied at
A, determine (a) the tension in the wire when 300 y = mm, (b) the
magnitude of the force Q required to maintain the equilibrium of the
system.

SOLUTION





From the analysis of Problem 2.127, particularly the results:
2 2 2
0.84 m y z + =
680 N
AB
T
y
=
680 N
Q z
y
=
With 550 mm 0.55 m, y = = we obtain:
( )
2
2 2
0.84 m 0.55 m
0.733 m
= −
∴ =
z
z

and
(a)
680 N
1236.4 N
0.55
AB
T = =
or 1.236 kN
AB
T =
and
(b) ( ) 1236 0.866 N 906 N = = Q
or 0.906 kN Q =
147




PROBLEM 2.129
Member BD exerts on member ABC a force P directed along line BD.
Knowing that P must have a 300-lb horizontal component, determine
(a) the magnitude of the force P, (b) its vertical component.

SOLUTION

(a) sin35 3001b P ° =
300 lb
sin35
P =
°

523 lb P =
(b) Vertical Component
cos35
v
P P = °
( ) 523 lb cos35 = °
428 lb =
v
P
148





PROBLEM 2.130
A container of weight W is suspended from ring A, to which cables AC
and AE are attached. A force P is applied to the end F of a third cable
which passes over a pulley at B and through ring A and which is attached
to a support at D. Knowing that W = 1000 N, determine the magnitude
of P. (Hint: The tension is the same in all portions of cable FBAD.)

SOLUTION
The (vector) force in each cable can be written as the product of the (scalar) force and the unit vector along
the cable. That is, with
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.78 m 1.6 m 0 m AB = − + + i j k
JJJG

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
0.78 m 1.6 m 0 1.78 m AB = − + + =
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.78 m 1.6 m 0 m
1.78 m
AB
AB AB AB
AB T
T T
AB
  = = = − + +
 
T i j k
JJJG
λ
( ) 0.4382 0.8989 0
AB AB
T = − + + T i j k
and
( ) ( ) ( ) 0 1.6 m 1.2 m AC = + + i j k
JJJG

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
0 m 1.6 m 1.2 m 2 m AC = + + =
( ) ( ) ( ) 0 1.6 m 1.2 m
2 m
AC
AC AC AC
AC T
T T
AC
  = = = + +
 
T i j k
JJJG
λ
( ) 0.8 0.6
AC AC
T = + T j k
and
( ) ( ) ( ) 1.3 m 1.6 m 0.4 m AD = + + i j k
JJJG

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
1.3 m 1.6 m 0.4 m 2.1m AD = + + =
( ) ( ) ( ) 1.3 m 1.6 m 0.4 m
2.1m
AD
AD AD AD
AD T
T T
AD
  = = = + +
 
T i j k
JJJG
λ
( ) 0.6190 0.7619 0.1905
AD AD
T = + + T i j k
149

PROBLEM 2.130 CONTINUED
Finally,
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.4 m 1.6 m 0.86 m AE = − + − i j k
JJJG

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
0.4 m 1.6 m 0.86 m 1.86 m AE = − + + − =
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.4 m 1.6 m 0.86 m
1.86 m
AE
AE AE AE
AE T
T T
AE
  = = = − + −
 
T i j k
JJJG
λ
( ) 0.2151 0.8602 0.4624
AE AE
T = − + − T i j k
With the weight of the container , W = − W j at A we have:
0: 0
AB AC AD
W Σ = + + − = F T T T j
Equating the factors of , , and i j k to zero, we obtain the following linear algebraic equations:
0.4382 0.6190 0.2151 0
AB AD AE
T T T − + − = (1)
0.8989 0.8 0.7619 0.8602 0
AB AC AD AE
T T T T W + + + − = (2)
0.6 0.1905 0.4624 0
AC AD AE
T T T + − = (3)
Knowing that 1000 N W = and that because of the pulley system at B ,
AB AD
T T P = = where P is the
externally applied (unknown) force, we can solve the system of linear equations (1), (2) and (3) uniquely
for P.
378 N P =

150




PROBLEM 2.131
A container of weight W is suspended from ring A, to which cables AC
and AE are attached. A force P is applied to the end F of a third cable
which passes over a pulley at B and through ring A and which is attached
to a support at D. Knowing that the tension in cable AC is 150 N,
determine (a) the magnitude of the force P, (b) the weight W of the
container. (Hint: The tension is the same in all portions of cable FBAD.)

SOLUTION
Here, as in Problem 2.130, the support of the container consists of the four cables AE, AC, AD, and AB, with
the condition that the force in cables AB and AD is equal to the externally applied force P. Thus, with the
condition
AB AD
T T P = =
and using the linear algebraic equations of Problem 2.131 with 150 N,
AC
T = we obtain
(a) 454 N P =
(b) 1202 N W =
151




PROBLEM 2.132
Two cables tied together at C are loaded as shown. Knowing that
Q = 60 lb, determine the tension (a) in cable AC, (b) in cable BC.

SOLUTION


0: cos30 0
y CA
F T Q Σ = − ° =
With 60 lb Q =
(a) ( )( ) 60 lb 0.866
CA
T =
52.0 lb
CA
T =
(b) 0: sin30 0
x CB
F P T Q Σ = − − ° =
With 75 lb P =
( )( ) 75 lb 60 lb 0.50
CB
T = −
or 45.0 lb
CB
T =
152





PROBLEM 2.133
Two cables tied together at C are loaded as shown. Determine the range
of values of Q for which the tension will not exceed 60 lb in either cable.

SOLUTION


Have 0: cos30 0
x CA
F T Q Σ = − ° =
or 0.8660 Q
CA
T =
Then for 60 lb
CA
T ≤
0.8660 60 lb Q <
or 69.3 lb Q ≤
From 0: sin30
y CB
F T P Q Σ = = − °
or 75 lb 0.50
CB
T Q = −
For 60 lb
CB
T ≤
75 lb 0.50 60 lb Q − ≤
or 0.50 15 lb Q ≥
Thus, 30 lb Q ≥
Therefore, 30.0 69.3 lb Q ≤ ≤
153




PROBLEM 2.134
A welded connection is in equilibrium under the action of the four forces
shown. Knowing that 8 kN
A
F = and 16 kN,
B
F = determine the
magnitudes of the other two forces.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram of
Connection


3 3
0: 0
5 5
x B C A
F F F F Σ = − − =
With 8 kN, 16 kN
A B
F F = =
( ) ( )
4 4
16 kN 8 kN
5 5
C
F = −
6.40 kN
C
F =
3 3
0: 0
5 5
y D B A
F F F F Σ = − + − =
With
A
F and
B
F as above:
( ) ( )
3 3
16 kN 8 kN
5 5
D
F = −
4.80 kN
D
F =
154





PROBLEM 2.135
A welded connection is in equilibrium under the action of the four forces
shown. Knowing that 5 kN
A
F = and 6 kN,
D
F = determine the
magnitudes of the other two forces.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram of
Connection


3 3
0: 0
5 5
y D A B
F F F F Σ = − − + =
or
3
5
B D A
F F F = +
With 5 kN, 8 kN
A D
F F = =
( )
5 3
6 kN 5 kN
3 5
B
F
 
= +
 
 

15.00 kN
B
F =
4 4
0: 0
5 5
x C B A
F F F F Σ = − + − =
( )
4
5
C B A
F F F = −
( )
4
15 kN 5 kN
5
= −
8.00 kN
C
F =
155




PROBLEM 2.136
Collar A is connected as shown to a 50-lb load and can slide on a
frictionless horizontal rod. Determine the magnitude of the force P
required to maintain the equilibrium of the collar when (a) x = 4.5 in.,
(b) x = 15 in.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram of Collar


(a) Triangle Proportions
( )
4.5
0: 50 lb 0
20.5
x
F P Σ = − + =
or 10.98 lb P =
(b) Triangle Proportions
( )
15
0: 50 lb 0
25
x
F P Σ = − + =
or 30.0 lb P =
156





PROBLEM 2.137
Collar A is connected as shown to a 50-lb load and can slide on a
frictionless horizontal rod. Determine the distance x for which the collar
is in equilibrium when P = 48 lb.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram of Collar




Triangle Proportions


Hence:
2
ˆ 50
0: 48 0
ˆ 400
x
x
F
x
Σ = − + =
+

or
2
48
ˆ ˆ 400
50
x x = +

( )
2 2
ˆ ˆ 0.92 lb 400 x x = +

2 2
ˆ 4737.7 in x =
ˆ 68.6 in. x =
157




PROBLEM 2.138
A frame ABC is supported in part by cable DBE which passes through a
frictionless ring at B. Knowing that the tension in the cable is 385 N,
determine the components of the force exerted by the cable on the
support at D.

SOLUTION
The force in cable DB can be written as the product of the magnitude of the force and the unit vector along the
cable. That is, with
( ) ( ) ( ) 480 mm 510 mm 320 mm DB = − + i j k
JJJG

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
480 510 320 770 mm DB = + + =
( ) ( ) ( )
385 N
480 mm 510 mm 320 mm
770 mm
DB
DB
F F
DB
  = = = − +
 
F i j k
JJJG
λ
( ) ( ) ( ) 240 N 255 N 160 N = − + F i j k
240 N, 255 N, 160.0 N
x y z
F F F = + = − = +
158





PROBLEM 2.139
A frame ABC is supported in part by cable DBE which passes through a
frictionless ring at B. Determine the magnitude and direction of the
resultant of the forces exerted by the cable at B knowing that the tension
in the cable is 385 N.

SOLUTION
The force in each cable can be written as the product of the magnitude of the force and the unit vector along
the cable. That is, with
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.48 m 0.51 m 0.32 m BD = − + − i j k
JJJG

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
0.48 m 0.51 m 0.32 m 0.77 m BD = − + + − =
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.48 m 0.51 m 0.32 m
0.77 m
BD
BD BD BD
BD T
T T
BD
  = = = − + −
 
T i j k
JJJG
λ
( ) 0.6234 0.6623 0.4156
BD BD
T = − + − T i j k
and
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.27 m 0.40 m 0.6 m BE = − + − i j k
JJJG

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
0.27 m 0.40 m 0.6 m 0.770 m BE = − + + − =
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.26 m 0.40 m 0.6 m
0.770 m
BE
BE BE BE
BD T
T T
BD
  = = = − + −
 
T i j k
JJJG
λ
( ) 0.3506 0.5195 0.7792
BE BE
T = − + − T i j k
Now, because of the frictionless ring at B, 385 N
BE BD
T T = = and the force on the support due to the two
cables is
( ) 385 N 0.6234 0.6623 0.4156 0.3506 0.5195 0.7792 = − + − − + − F i j k i j k
( ) ( ) ( ) 375 N 455 N 460 N = − + − i j k
159

PROBLEM 2.139 CONTINUED
The magnitude of the resultant is
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2 2
375 N 455 N 460 N 747.83 N
x y z
F F F F = + + = − + + − =
or 748 N F =
The direction of this force is:

1
375
cos
747.83
x
θ


= or 120.1
x
θ = °

1
455
cos
747.83
y
θ

= or 52.5
y
θ = °

1
460
cos
747.83
z
θ


= or 128.0
z
θ = °
160





PROBLEM 2.140
A steel tank is to be positioned in an excavation. Using trigonometry,
determine (a) the magnitude and direction of the smallest force P for
which the resultant R of the two forces applied at A is vertical, (b) the
corresponding magnitude of R.

SOLUTION
Force Triangle


(a) For minimum P it must be perpendicular to the vertical resultant R
( ) 425 lb cos30 P ∴ = °
or 368 lb = P
(b) ( ) 425 lb sin30 R = °
or 213 lb R =


161

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