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Learners and Teachers, and the Teaching and Learning Context A: TEACHING AND LEARNING CONTEXTS
Task 1 1. In what context will you be doing the CELTA course?
The context that I will be doing the CELTA course is as an already experienced teacher, having worked in most types of the teaching contexts listed in the task. I have worked, for the past eighteen years mainly with young learners, although I have gained some experience with adult learners during that time also. Having lived and worked, teaching English as a foreign language in Greece and Egypt since 1992, I have gained extensive experience within the teaching field. The aim for me personally, in doing the CELTA course, is not only to have an official, internationally recognized qualification, but to become a more “polished” as a teacher. To gain more confidence and professionalism in what I am already doing with the possibility of more doors and opportunities opening up for me, which may hopefully lead to a more rewarding and fulfilling career.
Do you know what context you will be teaching in after you finish the course?
I will probably continue teaching in the context which I am teaching in at the moment, which is one-to one lessons, unless a new worthwhile opportunity presents itself. One-to-one teaching can be isolating and although it can be quite financially rewarding it is also demanding and challenging. Many of my students, at present are undisciplined and lacking motivation due to pressure from parents and a chaotic educational system which breads insecurity and negativity within the parents, and is then reflected upon the children.
B: THE LEARNERS’ CULTURAL, LINGUISTIC AND EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUNDS Task 2 1. Think about why you decided to teach adults.
I have decided to teach adults or get more involved in teaching adults as it is quite different from teaching young learners. Although I am at present mainly working with young learners, and may still continue teaching them, I feel it would give me more variety, possibly be more interesting, depending on the level and motivation of the adult learner.
Think about what you, as an adult, bring to this learning situation.
I feel that I can bring a lot of my experience and knowledge of teaching into this learning situation. Apart from being a native speaker, I have also been a learner myself, as a student of Greek and Arabic, so I can see it from the learner’s perspective too. I fully understand that every learner is unique, each with their own strengths and weaknesses.
3. Look at your answers to questions 1 and 2 and use these ideas to help you to write down what characterizes adult learners.
Adult learners are more mature and experienced. Presenting a different and more challenging context, in both negative and positive forms. Adults, quite often balancing, work, family, interests and study, present quite a different situation altogether. Their levels of motivation can vary but they can also bring their own life experience into the lesson.
Task 3 1. What would you want to find out about a group of learners that you had to teach so that you could plan your lessons?
There is some information which I would need to find out about a group that I had to teach in order to make a plan. Such as: Is the group monolingual or multilingual Mixed of similar ability group Is the group elementary, intermediate or advanced (Level) Mixed or same gender group Cultural background Educational background What they have studied so far General age of the group (young adults, mature adults, mixed) Reasons for the group learning English (Specific purposes)
How would you find out?
Information about the group could be found out from the school or the educational institute. A placement test could be taken by the students prior to the lesson or course. A group interview could also take place in order to asses the students. One to one interview would probably be too time consuming.
Task 4 If you were teaching a group of learners, each of whom had a different motivations for learning English, which learners would be the most challenging in terms of motivation?
I would say, in terms of motivation the most challenging learners would be are learners that are under pressure from family, as they are not doing it necessarily for themselves, and may feel pressured and may rebel against the lessons. Secondly, learners who are learning in order to understand English films, TV, songs and so on, may also be quite hard to motivate, as it is purely for a means of passive hobbies or interests. Also adult learners that a just looking to socialize with neighbours and friends. Thirdly, adult learners who would like to involve themselves in their children’s schooling, may be hard to motivate, as they may also be trying to find time between, work, family, interests and study. Other learners, who are mainly learning English as a means to passing time or as a hobby, such as an interest in people and the culture of English-speaking people or to be able to read English literature may be quite challenging to motivate.
D: THE QUALITIES AND SKILLS OF A GOOD LANGUAGE TEACHER
Task 5 Look at the list of qualities and skills that a teacher might have. Which do you think learners most often rate in the top five?
Looking at the list of qualities and skills in the task, I think learners would most often rate the following in the top five: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Gives clear information and feedback Is enthusiastic and inspires enthusiasm Is patient Is approachable Inspires confidence
Language Analysis and Awareness
A: Task 6 Make a list of associations you have with the word ‘grammar’. (They may not all be negative)
A set of rules that define a language The system of a language The function of a language The language itself Pieces of a puzzle coming together Revision and grammar exercises Terminology Reference Forms and uses
Task 7 Look at the following sentences and decide which are correct. Write a correct version of the examples that are incorrect.
1. 2. We’ve been looking for you for ages. I’ve been to the movies last night. (Incorrect) I went to the movies last night. He often come late. (Incorrect) He often comes late.
They were waiting by the fountain. Can I have a coffee black, please? (Incorrect) Can I have a black coffee, please? People with 12 items or less can queue here.
Task 8 Provide a list of reasons why English language teachers need to know about grammar. In doing so, try to give some thought to the learners’ perspective.
To be able to explain the grammar correctly Understand how, the language that they are teaching works To give clear examples To be able to answer questions on grammar
Task 9 Identify the underlined words in the following dialogue. Use a grammar reference book or a dictionary to help you with this if necessary.
A: B: A: B: A: What are you (1) looking at? Well, it’s a (2) photograph of something very close up, but (3) I can’t work out what it is. Yes, it’s quite (4) abstract (5), isn’t it? Yes, it could (6) be one of those (7) things for (8) unblocking a sink. Oh, you mean (9) a plunger (10).
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
Pronoun Article Conjunction Adverb Adjective Model Demonstrative Pronoun Preposition Verb Noun
Task 10 Decide if the underlined verbs in the following sentences and questions are lexical verbs or auxiliary verbs.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. He watches TV for at least two hours every evening. What are you looking for? They aren’t going to come What does he want? They haven’t been here before. He was waiting on the corner. Lexical Lexical Auxiliary Auxiliary Auxiliary Lexical
Task 11 Decide if the underlined verbs be, do and have have an auxiliary or lexical function in the following sentences and questions.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. I had a bad headache yesterday. When do you get up each day? How long have you been learning English? I did it without thinking. We do some exercise every morning? Have you had them long? I was hoping for a quick answer. Are they still here?
Task 12 All of the following sentences (1-5) contain modal auxiliary verbs that are underlined. Match the meaning of the modal verb to the definitions below (A-E).
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. You should see a doctor as soon as you can. (C) You may go now, thank you. (E) This letter must be from Frank – he’s the only one who hasn’t written so far. (B) I can’t play the piano very well. (A) We could go out, but I don’t know if I’m in the mood. (D) A. B. C. D. E. Ability Logical deduction Advise Possibility Permission
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Task 13 Match the underlined verb form examples to the correct definition.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. I worked until 7 o’clock last night. (past tense form) They’ve been seeing a lot of each other lately. (ing form) She lives not far from here. (3rd person – present simple tense) You have to try harder. (base form) If was handed to me as I was leaving. (past participle form)
Verb Form base form 3rd person – present simple tense past tense form past participle form ing form
Task 14 Think of the past form and the past participle forms of the following verbs. Which are regular? Which are not regular?
hear (irregular) think (irregular) go (irregular) do (irregular) take (irregular) drink (irregular) help (regular) steal (irregular) arrive (regular)
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Task 15 Identify the different elements (past, present, modal, perfect, progressive, passive) underlined in the following verb phrases.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. I was hoping to see you. (past continuous) They might have got home by now. (modal perfect) We have tried to help. (present perfect) They were being questioned at length. (passive perfect continuous) I saw it coming. (past simple) This time next week you will by lying on a beach. (future progressive/continuous)
Task 16 Identify the tense names of the underlined verbs in the following sentences. You will likely need to refer to a grammar reference book to help you.
1. 2. 3. 4. I am having a really good time. (present progressive) We stopped doing that years ago. (past simple) She lives somewhere near here. (present simple) We had been for a drink before we met him. (past perfect)
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5. 6. 7. 8.
These computers are made in China. (passive) You will have been here for 2 days by then. (future with will) It happened as I was driving home. (past simple/past progressive) I have been feeling unwell for a while. (present perfect progressive)
Task 17 The following examples of language contain different tenses which are underlined. The name of the tense is also given. Decide what the time reference of each example is and remember that the time reference may not match the tense name.
1. The sun was shining brightly is the sky. (past progressive) (past time) They’ll have finished work on the bridge by then. (future perfect simple) (future time) She’s been working in the garden all morning. (present perfect simp le) (now time) Have you got a minute? I was wondering whether we could have a word. (past progressive) (now time) They own most of the land around here. (present simple) (now time)
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Task 18 What auxiliary verb is used to create the present progressive?
am, is, are
What is the form of the lexical verb of the present progressive?
Task 19 Look at the following mini-dialogues below and decide the time reference or use of the underlined examples of the present progressive?
A: B: How about going to a movie this evening? I can’t I’m meeting Judy for a drink. (future time reference) Where’s Tony? I don’t know where he’s got to. He’s always running late. (past, present, future time reference) It was late at night and dark and I was on my way back to the hotel. Suddenly, I find I’m walking down the street all on my own and I can hear the sound of footsteps . . . (present time reference)
A: B: A:
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