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Algebra II Notes, Chapter Four, Products and Factors of Polynomials

Algebra II Notes, Chapter Four, Products and Factors of Polynomials

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ALGEBRA II BIBLE – Chapter Four

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Polynomials) Chapter Four (Products and Factors of Polynomials)
CONTENTS Working with Polynomials 4-1 Polynomials 4-2 Using Laws of Exponents 4-3 Multiplying Polynomials Factors of Polynomials 4-4 Using Prime Factorization 4-5 Factoring Polynomials 4-6 Factoring Quadratic Polynomials Applications of Factoring 4-7 Solving Polynomial Equations 4-8 Problem Solving Using Polynomial Equations 4-9 Solving Polynomial Inequalities

This particular set of notes is from Algebra and Trigonometry Structure and Method - Book 2. All credit is to be given to the authors and publishers of said book. The study guide made from the book contains definitions, diagrams, and notes taken directly from the book.

Chapter Four, Section One (Polynomials) Constant: a number Monomial: a constant, a variable, or a product of a constant and one or more variables Coefficient (or numerical coefficient): the constant (or numerical) factor in a monomial Degree of a variable in a monomial: the number of times the variable occurs as a factor in the monomial Degree of a monomial: the sum of the degrees of the variables in the monomial. A nonzero constant has degree 0. The constant 0 has no degree. (or Similar ( like) monomials: monomials that are identical or that differ only in their coefficients Polynomial: a monomial or a sum of monomials. The monomials in a polynomial are called the terms of the polynomial. Simplified polynomial: a polynomial in which no two terms are similar. The terms are usually arranged in order of decreasing degree of one of the variables. Degree of a polynomial: the greatest of the degrees of its terms after it has been simplified.

Adding and Subtracting Polynomials To add two or more polynomials, write their sum and then simplify by combining similar terms. To subtract one polynomial from another, add the opposite of each term of the polynomial you’re subtracting.

ALGEBRA II BIBLE – Chapter Four Chapter Four, Section Two (Using Laws of Exponents) Laws of Exponents Let a and b be real numbers and m and n be positive integers. Then: 1. am • an = am+n 2. (ab) m = ambm 3. (am) m = amn

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Section Chapter Four, Section Three (Multiplying Polynomials) A binomial is a polynomial that has two terms. A trinomial is a polynomial that has three terms. When multiplying two binomials, the FOIL method is used. FOIL reminds you to multiply the First, Outer, Inner, and Last terms when multiplying two binomials. Special Product (a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 Pattern and Example (first + second)2 = (first)2 + 2(first)(second) + (second)2 (4s + 3t)2 = (4s)2 + 2(4s)( 3t) + (3t)2 = 16s2 + 24st + 9t2 (first - second)2 = (first)2 - 2(first)(second) + (second)2 (3x - 5)2 = (3x)2 - 2(3x)( 5) + 52 = 9x2 - 30t + 25 (first + second)(first – second) = (first)2 - (second)2 (2p – 3q) = (2p)2 – (3q)2 = 4p2 – 9q2

(a - b)2 = a2 - 2ab + b2

(a + b)(a – b) = a2 - b2

Chapter Four, Section Four (Using Prime Factorization) To factor a number over a set of numbers, you write it as a product of numbers chosen from that set, called the factor set set. A prime number or prime is an integer greater than 1 whose only positive integral number, prime, factors are itself and 1. To find the prime factorization of a positive integer, you write the integer as a product of primes. The greatest common factor (GCF) of two or more integers is the greatest integer that is a factor of each. The least common multiple (LCM) of two or more integers is the least positive integer having each as a factor. The greatest common factor (GCF) of two or more monomials is the common factor that has the greatest degree and the greatest numerical coefficient. The least common multiple (LCM) of two or more monomials is the common multiple that has the least degree and the least positive numerical coefficient.

ALGEBRA II BIBLE – Chapter Four

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Chapter Four, Section Five (Factoring Polynomials) To factor a polynomial you express it as a product of other polynomials taken from a specified factor set. The first step in factoring a polynomial is to find its greatest factor, monomial factor that is, the GCF of its terms. The polynomials a2 + 2ab + b2 and a2 - 2ab + b2, which are the results of squaring a + b and a – b, respectively, are called perfect square trinomials Also, the polynomial a2 trinomials. 2 b , which is the product of a + b and a – b, is called a difference of squares. squares. Trinomials Perfect Square Trinomials a2 + 2ab + b2 = (a + b)2 a2 - 2ab + b2 = (a - b)2 Difference of Squares a2 - b2 = (a + b)(a – b)

Sums and Difference of Cubes b)(a a3 + b3 = (a + b)(a2 – ab + b2) 3 3 a - b = (a - b)(a2 + ab + b2)

Chapter Four, Section Six (Factoring Quadratic Polynomials) Polynomials of the form ax2 + bx + c (a ≠ 0) are called quadratic or second-degree second2 polynomials. term, term, polynomials The term ax is the quadratic term bx is the linear term and c is the term. constant term A quadratic trinomial is a quadratic polynomial for which a, b, and c are all nonzero integers. If the quadratic trinomial ax2 + bx + c can be factored into the product (px +q)(rx + s) where p, q, r, and s are integers, then ax2 + bx + c = (px + q)(rx + s) = prx2 + (ps + qr)x + qs Setting corresponding coefficients equal gives a = pr, b = ps + qr, and c = qs A polynomial that has more than one term and cannot be expressed as a product of polynomials of lower degree taken from a given factor set is said to be irreducible irreducible over that set. An irreducible polynomial with integral coefficients is prime if the greatest common factor of its coefficients is one. A polynomial is factored completely when it is written as a product of factors and each factor is either a monomial, a prime polynomial, or a power of a prime polynomial.

ALGEBRA II BIBLE – Chapter Four

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The greatest common factor (GCF) of two or more polynomials is the common factor having the greatest degree and the greatest constant factor. The least common multiple (LCM) of two or more polynomials is the common multiple having least degree and least positive constant factor. Chapter Four, Section Seven (Solving Polynomial Equations) A polynomial equation is an equation is that is equivalent to one with a polynomial as one side and 0 as the other. A root or solution of a polynomial equation is a value of the variable that satisfies root, solution, the equation. To use the zero-product property to solve a polynomial equation, you need to 1. write the equation with 0 as one side, 2. factor the other side of the equation, and 3. solve the equation obtained by setting each factor equal to 0. The zero-product property is used to solve polynomial equations. It is also used to find zeros of polynomial functions. A number r is a zero of a function if f(r) = 0. zero If f(x) = x(x-6)2, x -6 occurs as a factor of f twice, which makes it a double zero of the function f ad a double root of the equation f(x) = 0. In general, the zeros and roots arising from repeated factors are called multiple zeros of the functions and multiple multiple zeros roots of equations. Chapter Four, Section Eight (Problem Solving Using Polynomial Equations) An equation that represents a real life problem is called a mathematical model model. Polynomial Chapter Four, Section Nine (Solving Polynomial Inequalities) A polynomial inequality is an inequality that is equivalent to an inequality with a polynomial on one side and 0 as the other side. You can often solve a polynomial inequality that has 0 as one side by factoring the polynomial into linear factors and applying one of the following facts: ab > 0 if and only if a and b have the same signs ab < 0 if and only if a and b have opposite signs A sign graph can be used to help find and graph the solution set of a polynomial inequality.

ALGEBRA II BIBLE – Chapter Four

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Chapter Summary
1. A monomial is a constant, a variable, or a product of a constant and one or more variables. A polynomial is a monomial or a sum of monomials. A simplified polynomial has no two terms similar. The terms of a simplified polynomial are usually arranged in decreasing degree of one of the variables. 2. If a and b are real numbers and m and n are positive integers, then: Law 1 am • an = am + n Law 2 (ab)m = am bm Law 3 (a m)n = amn 3. To find the product of two polynomials, multiply each term of one polynomial by each term of the other and simplify the result. 4. A prime is an integer greater than 1 whose only positive integral factors are itself and 1. To find the prime factorization of an integer, write it as the product of primes. 5. Use prime factorization to determine the greatest common factor (GCF) or least common multiple (LCM) of two or more integers. To find the GCF, take the least power of each common prime factor in the factorization. To find the LCM, take the greatest power of each prime factor in the factorizations. 6. The GCF of two or more monomials is the factor of each that has the greatest degree and greatest coefficient. The greatest monomial factor of a polynomial is the GCF of its terms. 7. The LCM of two or more monomials is the multiple of each that has the least degree and least positive coefficient. 8. The following strategies are useful in factoring polynomials: Factor out the greatest monomial factor. Look for special products such as a perfect square trinomial, a difference of squares, and a sum or difference of cubes. Rearrange and group terms. Factor quadratic trinomials into products of linear factors. 9. Many polynomial equations can be solved by factoring and using the zeroproduct property. Many polynomial inequalities can be solved by factoring and determining the signs of the factors. If the polynomial has three or more factors, it may be helpful to use a sign graph to determine the solution.

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