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R.Senthil Kumar, Senior Lecturer, Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore-06. firstname.lastname@example.org
Cotton (Vegetable fiber) Wool (Animal fiber) Silk (Animal fiber) Bast (Vegetable fibers)
Cotton is a plant fiber, composed mainly of cellulose. Cotton is classified by its fiber length, color and
The fiber length is the most important since the
longer the staple length, the better the fiber properties.
Cotton fibre length lies between ½ and 2 ½ inches,
most common used is 1 to 1 ¼ inches
7 0.8 0.9 0.Cotton consumption and Production COUNTRIES PRODUCTION US India Pakistan Turkey Brazil Indonesia China 3.9 0.5 1.9 .6 5.4 0.8 CONSUMPTION 1.7 3 1.8 2.4 4.9 1.
CHARATERISTICS OF COTTON Comfortable Soft hand Good absorbency Color retention Prints well Machine-washable Dry-cleanable Good strength Drapes well Easy to handle and sew .
The hydroxyl groups on the cellulose units enable hydrogen bonding between two adjacent polymer chains.1% 0 . The degree of polymerization of cotton is 9.RAW COTTON COMPONENTS Cellulose Water Waxes and fats Proteins Hemicelluloses and pectin’s Ash 80-90% 6-8% 0. .5% 4 .000 .6% 1 .1.1.00015. Cellulose shows approximately 66% crystallinity.4 oxygen bridges in the beta position.5 .8% Cellulose is a polymer consisting of anhydroglucose units connected with 1.
.Cotton Properties The fiber has good strength and abrasion resistance. There are no static or pilling problems. absorb moisture quickly and dried quickly. Quick drying gives a cooling effect which makes cotton a good fiber for hot weather. It is hydrophilic. The fiber is completely washable and dry- cleanable.
bagging Examples include blouses. has little luster and poor elasticity and resiliency. jackets. It is attacked by mildew and silverfish. carpets. . however. It is weakened by resin chemicals used in finishing.Cotton Properties and end uses Cotton. furnishings and industrial areas. The end uses of cotton include a wide range of products in apparel. curtains. towels.
evolved by Nature over millions of years for the protection of sheep in a great variety of climates and conditions throughout the world. .Wool Wool is an extremely complex protein fibre.
Wool – Cross section .
org .iwto.Source: www.
4. oily soft light textured . 1.Wool feels.. 2. 3..
wool is an insulator and is used for making warm clothes and blankets ...Wool keeps in. heat .
water ...Wool resists.when in its natural state without the oil removed .
28 thousand tonnes Mainly used for carpets .443 thousand tonnes Mainly used for apparels India .World wool production Australia .
The Physical Properties of the wool fibre The factors determining the price obtained for a bale of wool are: The diameter of the fibre The strength of the staple The yield The colour of the wool .
Strength The fibre is strong because the fibres interlock with each other to form a staple. Individual fibres may be pulled out but the remaining staple takes large forces to break .
Warmth The structure of the staple and the fibre itself allows excellent thermal insulation properties. .
Absorbency The factors that allow the wool to take in the dye also mean the wool will absorb large amounts of moisture without problems .
. Heat of sorption : Heat of wetting of wool. namely the amount of heat evolved when the wool is completely wetted out from different regains.NH— and other groups that attract water.Effects of water Moisture absorption :The proteins in wool contain —CO.
break at an extension of 50 to 60% at a stress of about 100MPa. but the recovery follows a different curve and only joins the extension curve at about 1/3 of the yield stress. Fibre strength: For ‘good’ wool. the evidence indicates that wet fibres . in stress relaxation at constant extension and in changes in dynamic properties. so that viscoelasticity shows up in reduced stress as rateof-extension is decreased. in creep under constant load. Time dependence: Wool fibres contain many bonds sensitive to time under load.Mechanical properties Load extension properties: Recovery behaviour : there is complete recovery from extensions up to 30%.
Percentage Production Name of Continent Australia America Europe Africa Asia Percentage Production 33 26.5 .5 23.2 6.8 10.
Asiatic wool production Name of Country China India Persia Turkey Syria Others Percentage Production 30 25 21 12 9 3 .
Flow chart of worsted system processing Greasy wool Raw wool scouring Oiling Carding Willowing Gilling Combing Spinning Roving Gilling .
Elastic recovery of wool Humidity Elastic recovery from extension of 1% 5% 10% 60% RH 99 % 69% 51% 90% RH 94% 82% 56% .
the length of which varies from cocoon to cocoon and species to species. The best-known type of silk is obtained from cocoons made by the larvae of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori reared in captivity (sericulture).SILK………. The shimmering appearance for which silk is prized comes from the fibres' triangular prism-like cross section which allows silk cloth to refract incoming light at different angles. soft. A It is a smooth. strong. lustrous fibre produced by silkworms. natural protein fibre. . lustrous. Fine. elastic and fine filament.
Silk garments are prized for their versatility. wear ability and comfort. Silk has got amazing lustre and shine. which makes it a royal fabric. .SILK AS A FABRIC SILK is the fabric that makes its own statement.
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Cross section.Triangular with rounded corners.Weakened if exposed to too .Moderate to poor.loses up to 20% of its strength when wet. if elongated even a small amount it remains stretched. giving shine & brightness. much sunlight. This allows light to hit at many different angles. Thermal properties.Smooth and soft but not slippery. Elasticity. Strength. Texture.
Comfortable in the summer and warm in the winter.Moderate abrasion resistance.Poor conductor of electricity and thus susceptible to static cling. to a relaxation of the fibre macrostructure. Electrical properties.Effect of insects.Good absorbency.Attacked by insects. Shrinkage-Unwashed silk chiffon may shrink up to 8% due Aesthetics. Comfort. especially if left dirty.Cultivated silk is a beautiful luxurious fibre with a smooth luxurious hand. . Wild silks are duller and have a more coarse hand and texture. Durability. Appearance Retention.Moderate resistance to wrinkling.
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES .
Wool requires only 0. MOISTURE TAKE-UP . SCROOP : The cracking sound emitted when the fibre is squeezed and pressed. which makes it difficult to handle in manufacturing process.Poor conductor of electricity .silk can be scrooped by dipping it in dilute acetic or tartaric acid.Silk requires 0.after degumming regain is only 9% ELECTRIC PROPERTIES .32 gm tension per denier.moisture regain is 11% .PHYSICAL PROPERTIES ELASTICITY . . .accumulates a static charge by friction. .scroop is not an inherent property of silk . approximately 1/3rd .90 gm tension per denier to stretch 1% at 65% R.H.
degummed fibres on burning produce an odour like . at 170°C it rapidly .can lose up to 50% of its original strength when exposed to UV rays • ACTION OF WATER .can be heated to 140°C.CHEMICAL PROPERTIES • ACTION OF HEAT disintegrates burning hair or wool. leaving a black crisp and easily crushable ash. • ACTION OF SUNLIGHT .hard and impure water are the sources of contamination for silk goods • ACTION OF ACIDS .readily absorbs dilute acids which increases the lustre . Acids .highly absorbent fibre .readily affected by action of conc.
TYPES OF SILK
Domestic silk Mulberry silk: White to yellow coloured. Fine and used for apparel. Wild silk Muga silk: Golden yellow coloured. Obtained from semi domesticated silkworm, fed on Som and Soalu leaves. Eri silk: Obtained from domesticated silkworm, fed on Castor leaves. Tussar silk or Kosa silk: Valued for purity and texture.
TYPES OF SILK
MULBERY SILK:Mulberry silk comes from the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. which solely feeds on the leaves of mulberry plant.
TASAR SILK:- Tasar
(Tussah) is copperish colour, coarse silk mainly used for furnishings and interiors.
TYPES OF SILK
3. MUGA SILK:- This
golden yellow colour silk is prerogative of India and the pride of Assam state. It is obtained from semidomesticated multivoltine silkworm, Antheraea assamensis.
Also known as Endi or Errandi, Eri is a multivoltine silk spun from open-ended cocoons,
Mulberry silk Eri silk Muga silk Tussar silk .
PRODUCTION OF SILK The production of cultivated silk is known as sericulture. Cultivation of mulberry silk .
35 days old silkworms are 10. .Production stages A silk moth lays eggs.000 times heavier than when they hatched. A cocoon. Silkworm fed on mulberry leaves. They are now ready to spin a silk cocoon.
• The silk is produced in two glands in the silkworm’s head and forced out in liquid form through openings called spinnerets. The silkworm is usually killed with heat before it reaches this stage because the moth secretes a fluid to dissolve the silk to emerge from cocoon. . • The silk is obtained from the undamaged cocoons by brushing the cocoon to find the outside ends of the filament. • The silkworm spins approximately 1 mile of filament and completely encloses itself in a cocoon in about 2 or three days. This damages the cocoon and the silk. • The silk solidifies when it comes in contact with the air. • The silkworm then changes into a moth.
Process of obtaining fibre from cocoon .
The silk at this stage is known as raw silk. One cocoon contains approximately 1.000 yards of silk filament. A yarn can now be formed by combining several filaments of silk.The silk filaments are then wound on a reel. .
Low conductivity . etc. blouses.Furnishing .Shirts. sun dresses and underwear. Elegant. upholstery. A special manufacturing process makes it suitable as non-absorbable surgical sutures.Keeps warm air close to skin during cold. window treatments. pyjamas. soft luster and beautiful drape. robes. Parachutes. . high fashion clothes. comforter filling and artillery gunpowder bags. bicycle tires.Comfortable to wear in warm weather.USES Absorbent. Chinese doctors have used it to make prosthetic arteries. Clothing. wall coverings. formal dresses.
Stiffened silk Singed silk Embossed silk Enzyme finished Steam fixed silk Bleached silk Pure dye silk .
low cost.SILK BLENDS Silk and Cotton Soft. Used for suits and summer wear. durable. comfort. light weight. good drape. good hand. Silk and Linen Strength and absorbency. resilient. Silk and Wool Soft sheen. light weight. strength. smooth. Both add prestige. .
Silk+Cotton Silk +Wool .
DYEING PROPERTIES Acid colors are dyed in strong acid baths Direct colors dye silk in weak acid solutions Basic colors may be dyed in weak acid or alkaline solutions Vat colors are soluble only in fairly strong alkaline solutions .
Machine wash Dry clean Hand wash .
MINOR CELLULOSIC FIBRES .
Minor Cellulosic Fibres These fibres are those which are rarely used in Apparel use. They are produced in less quantity. The Minor Cellulosic Fibres are: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Hemp Manila Hemp Ramie Sisal Kapok Coir .
. except for the United States. It is cultivated almost all over the world.HEMP FIBRE Hemp is a vegetable fibre. It is obtained from the Hemp plant.
Properties of Hemp Fibre It is a yellowish brown fibre Hemp fibers can be 3 to 15 feet long. gray. black or green Depending on the Harvesting of Hemp . processing used to remove the fiber from the stem. brown. the hemp naturally may be creamy white. running the length of the plant.
Appearance -Hemp .
Uses of Hemp Fibre Hemp fabric Hemp Necklace Hemp toe sandal .
also known as Manila Hemp. the capital of Philippines.MANILLA Manilla. is a fibre obtained from the leaves of the abaca plant. The abaca plant . Mainly cultivated in Manila.
Mature abaca plant Manilla Hemp Yarn . The stem consists of tightly packed. crescent-shaped sheaths. long.Properties of Manilla Fibre The abaca plant grows up to 20 feet when mature. that grow from a central core.
Bio-degradable. Relatively cheap to produce. Resistant to salt water. Has a beautiful texture. Eco-friendly.Characteristics of Manilla fibre Extremely strong. Manilla Rope .
Uses of Manilla Fibre Manilla fibre is used to make Ropes Paper Rug Furniture Carpet and countless other products. Manilla Rope Manilla Bag .
Ramie is normally harvested two to three times a year but under good growing conditions.RAMIE Ramie is one of the oldest fibre crops. Ramie Plant . It is also known as china grass. The ramie plant is 2. having been used for at least six thousand years. can be harvested up to six times per year.5m tall.
Ramie Yarn . as it is not that durable. Silky lustre to the fabric appearance. density and microscopic appearance. The fibre is similar to flax in absorbency.Properties of Ramie Ramie fibre is one of the strongest natural fibres. Usually blended with other fibres.
It is stiff and brittle. Resistance to wrinkling. Low elasticity Ramie Fabric .Characteristics of Ramie Ramie fibre has the ability to hold shape. Lacks resiliency.
Uses of Ramie Ramie is used to make Industrial sewing thread Packing materials Fishing nets Filter cloths Ramie Packing Ramie Hat .
Sisal Plant . thousands of tonnes of Sisal fibres are produced in most parts of Africa and Asia.SISAL Sisal is obtained from the leaves of the Sisal Plant. Annually.
Harvested Sisal . straight and yellow and can be long or short. it is mainly blended with wool or acrylic to give a softer hand. Since it is coarse and inflexible.Properties of Sisal Fibre Sisal fibres are smooth.
Characteristics of Sisal Fibre Sisal fibre is Strong Durable Ability to stretch Affinity towards certain dyestuff Resistance to deterioration in salt water Sisal Fibre .
Uses of Sisal Fibre Sisal fibres are used to make Rugs Slippers Ropes Carpets Specialty papers Sisal Bag Sisal Scrub Sisal Rug .
KAPOK Kapok fiber is a silky cotton-like substance that surrounds the seeds in the pods of the ceiba tree. The pods contain seeds surrounded by a fluffy. Kapok pod . yellowish fiber that is a mix of lignin and cellulose.
than cotton.Properties of Kapok Fibre It can support as much as 30 times its own weight in water and loses only 10 percent of buoyancy over a 30day period. It is eight times lighter The fibre is yellowish. Kapok Pod (open) .
Characteristics of Kapok Fibre The Kapok fibre is Light Very buoyant Highly flammable Resistant to water Kapok Seed .
Kapok yarn spool .
Uses of Kapok Fibre Kapok is mainly used in stuffing of Pillows Blankets Soft toys Upholstery and for Insulation Kapok used for Filling .
Uses of Kapok Fibre Pillow Upholstery Blanket Soft Toy .
COIR • Fibre mechanically extracted from dry mature coconut husk after soaking. Coconut and Husk . and shorter life than long retted fibre. • • There are two types of Coirs 1) Brown Coir 2) White Coir Coconut tree. hard and strong fibre but with lower softness. It is long. lower water absorption capacity.
Properties of Coir Fibre The individual fiber cells are narrow and hollow. They are pale when immature but later become hardened and yellowed as a layer of lignin is deposited on their walls. with thick walls made of cellulose. Coir .
Segregation of Coir Fibre .Characteristics of Coir Fibre Coir Fibre is Relatively water proof Resistant to damage by salt water Brown Coir is thick and strong White Coir is smoother and fine.
Appearance –coir .
Uses of Coir Fibre Coir Fibre is used for Padding in furniture • Production of Brushes Carpets Ropes Rags Coir Carpet Coir Rope .
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