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# Shear and Bending Moment

Problem:
For the loaded beam shown below, develop the corresponding shear force and bending
moment diagrams. The beam is in equilibrium. For this problem L= 10 in.
Shear and Bending Moment
Overview

## Anticipated time to complete this tutorial: 45 minutes

Tutorial Overview
This tutorial is divided into six parts:
1) Tutorial Basics
2) Starting Ansys
3) Preprocessing
4) Solution
5) Post-Processing
6) Hand Calculations

Audience
This tutorial assumes minimal knowledge of ANSYS 8.0; therefore, it goes into moderate
detail to explain each step. More advanced ANSYS 8.0 users should be able to complete
this tutorial fairly quickly.

Prerequisites
1) ANSYS 8.0 in house “Structural Tutorial”

Objectives
1) Learn how to define keypoints, lines, and elements
2) Learn how to apply structural constraints and loads
3) Learn how to find shear and bending moment diagrams

Outcomes
1) Learn how to start Ansys 8.0
2) Gain familiarity with the graphical user interface (GUI)
3) Learn how to create and mesh a simple geometry
4) Learn how to apply boundary constraints and solve problems

2
Shear and Bending Moment
Tutorial Basics
In this tutorial:
Instructions appear on the left.

## Visual aids corresponding to the text

appear on the right.

## All commands on the toolbars are

labeled. However, only operations
applicable to the tutorial are explained.

## Bold > Text in bold are buttons,

options, or selections that the
user needs to click on

## Example: Preprocessor > Element

options as shown to the right
to get you to the Element
Types window

notes

## MB1 Click on the left mouse button

MB2 Click on the middle mouse
button
MB3 Click on the right mouse
button

## To zoom use Ctrl and MB2 and move the

mouse up and down.

## To translate the models use Ctrl and MB1.

3
Shear and Bending Moment
Starting Ansys
For this tutorial the windows version of
ANSYS 8.0 will be demonstrated. The path
below is one example of how to access
ANSYS; however, this path will not be the
same on all computers.

## For Windows XP start ANSYS by either

using:
> Start > All Programs > ANSYS 8.0
> ANSYS
or the desktop icon (right) if present.

## Note: The path to start ANSYS 8.0 may be different for

each computer. Check with your local network manager to
find out how to start ANSYS 8.0.

4
Shear and Bending Moment
Starting Ansys
Once ANSYS 8.0 is loaded, two separate
windows appear: the main ANSYS
Advanced Utility window and the ANSYS
Output window.

## The ANSYS Advanced Utility window,

also known as the Graphical User Interface
(GUI), is the location where all the user
interface takes place. Graphical User Interface

Output Window
The Output Window documents all actions
taken, displays errors, and solver status.

5
Shear and Bending Moment
Starting Ansys
The main utility window can be broken up
into three areas. A short explanation of each
will be given.

## From this toolbar you can use the command

line approach to ANSYS and access multiple
menus that you can’t get to from the main

## Note: It would be beneficial to take some time and explore

these pull down menus and familiarize yourself with them.

## Second, is the ANSYS Main Menu, as

shown to the right. This menu is designed
to use a top down approach and contains all
the steps and options necessary to properly
preprocess, solve, and postprocess a model.

## Third is the Graphical Interface window

where all geometry, boundary conditions,
and results are displayed.

## The tool bar located on the right hand side

has all the visual orientation tools that are

6
Shear and Bending Moment
Starting Ansys
With ANSYS 8.0 open select
> File > Change Jobname
and enter a new job name in the blank field
of the change jobname window.

> OK

## In order to know where all the output files

from ANSYS will be placed, the working
directory must be set, in order to avoid
using the default folder C:\Documents and
Settings.
> File > Change Directory > then
select the location that you want
all of the ANSYS files to be saved.

## Be sure to change the working directory at

the beginning of every problem.

## With the jobname and directory set, the

ANSYS database (.db) file can be given a
title. Following the same steps as you did
to change the jobname and the directory,
give the model a title.

7
Shear and Bending Moment
Preprocessing
To begin the analysis, a preference needs to
be set. Preferences allow you to apply filter-
ing to the menu choices; ANSYS will
remove or gray out functions that are not
needed. A structural analysis, for example,
will not need all the options available for a
thermal, electromagnetic, or fluid dynamic
analysis.

next to the
Structural box.

> OK

## Look at the ANSYS Main Menu. Click once

on the “+” sign next to Preprocessor.

## The Preprocessor options currently avail-

able are displayed in the expansion of the
Main Menu tree as shown to the right. The
most important preprocessing functions are
defining the element type, defining real con-
straints and material properties, and model-
ing and meshing the geometry.

8
Shear and Bending Moment
Preprocessing
The ANSYS Main Menu is designed in such
a way that you should start at the beginning
and work towards the bottom of the menu
in preparing, solving, and analyzing your
model.

rial.

## Select the “+” next to Element Type or click

on Element Type. The extension of the
menu is shown to the right.
> Element Type

## Select Add/Edit/Delete and the Element

Type window appears. Select add and the
Library of Element Types window appears.

## In this window, select the types of elements

to be defined and used for the problem. For
a pictorial description of what each element
can be used for, click on the Help button.

## For this model 2D Elastic Beam elements

will be used. The degrees of freedom for
this type of element are UX, UY, and
ROTZ, which will suit the needs of this
problem.
> Beam > 2D Elastic 3
> OK

## In the Element Types window Type 1

Beam3 should be visible signaling that
the element type has been chosen.

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Shear and Bending Moment
Preprocessing
Before closing the Element Type window,
and with Beam3 still highlighted select the
Options button.
> Options...

## In the Beam3 Element Type Options

window change the the Member force
+ moment output from Exclude out-
put to Include output. This tells
ANSYS to include the moment and
force information needed to create the
diagrams.
> OK

> Close

## The properties for the Beam3 element need

to be chosen. This is done by adding a Real
Constant.
> Preprocessor > Real Constants

## The Real Constants window should appear.

Select add to create a new set.

## The Element Type for Real Constants win-

dow should appear. From this window,
select Beam 3 as the element type.
> Type 1 Beam3 > OK

## The Real Constant window for Beam3 will

appear. From this window you can interac-
tively customize the element type.

10
Shear and Bending Moment
Preprocessing
Enter the values into the table as
shown at the right.
> OK

> Close

## The material properties for the Beam3

element need to be defined.
> Preprocessor > Material Props
> Material Models

## The Define Material Models Behavior win-

dow should now be open.

## We will use isotropic, linearly, elastic, struc-

tural properties.

## Select the following from the Material

Models Available window:
> Structural > Linear > Elastic
> Isotropic

## The window titled Linear Isotropic

Properties for Material Number 1 now
appears.

## Enter 30e6 for EX (Young's Modulus) and

0.3 for PRXY (Poission’s Ratio).
> OK

## Close the Define Material Model Behavior

window.
> Material > Exit

11
Shear and Bending Moment
Preprocessing
The next step is to define the keypoints
> Preprocessing > Modeling
> Create > Keypoints > In Active CS

## The Create Keypoints in Active CS win-

dow will now appear. Here the KP’s will be
given numbers and their respective (XYZ)
coordinates.

## Enter the KP numbers and coordinates

that will correctly define the beam.
Select Apply after each KP has been
defined.

## Note: Be sure to change the keypoint number every

time you click apply to finish adding a keypoint. If
you don’t it will replace the last keypoint you entered with
the new coordinates you just entered.

## KP # 1: X=0, Y=0, Z=0

KP # 2: X=2, Y=0, Z=0
KP # 3: X=4, Y=0, Z=0
KP # 4: X=6, Y=0, Z=0
KP # 5: X=10, Y=0, Z=0

## In case you make a mistake in creating the

keypoints, select:
> Preprocessing > Modeling
> Delete > Keypoints

## Your screen should look similar to the exam-

ple below.

12
Shear and Bending Moment
Preprocessing
At times it will be helpful to turn on the key-
point numbers.
> PlotCtrls > Numbering > put a
checkmark next to keypoint
numbers > OK

## Other numbers (for lines, areas, etc..) can be

turned on in a similar manner.

## At times it will also be helpful to have a list

of keypoints (or nodes, lines, elements,
loads, etc.). To generate a list of keypoints:
> List > Keypoint
> Coordinates Only

## A list similar to the one to the

right should appear.

13
Shear and Bending Moment
Preprocessing

## The next step is to create lines between the

KP’s.
> Preprocessing > Modeling
> Create > Lines > Lines
> Straight Lines

## The Create Straight Lines window should

appear. You will create 4 lines. Create line 1
between the first two keypoints.

manner.

## For line 2: MB1 KP2 then MB1 KP 3.

For line 3: MB1 KP3 then MB1 KP 4.
For line 4: MB1 KP4 then MB1 KP 5.

## Verify that each line only goes between the

specified keypoints. When you are done
creating the lines click ok in the Create
Straight Lines window.
> OK

## If you make a mistake, use the following

steps to delete the lines:
> Preprocessing > Modeling
> Delete > Lines Only

## You should now have something similar to

the image shown below.

14
Shear and Bending Moment
Preprocessing
Now that the model has been created, it
needs to be meshed. Models must be
meshed before they can be solved. Models
are meshed with elements.

## First, the element size needs to be specified.

> Preprocessing > Meshing
> Size Cntrls > Manual Size
> Lines > All Lines

## The Element Sizes on All Selected Lines

window should appear. From this window,
the number of divisions per element can be
defined and also the element edge length.

## Enter 0.1 into the Element edge length field.

> OK

Note: you could change the element edge length after com-
pleting the tutorial to a different value and rerun the solu-
tion to see how it affects the results.

## With the mesh parameters complete, the

lines representing the beam can now be
meshed. Select:
> Preprocessing > Meshing > Mesh
> Lines

All.
> Pick all

## Selecting Pick all will mesh all of the line

segments that have been created.

## The meshed line should appear similar to

the one shown below. This completes the
preprocessing phase.

15
Shear and Bending Moment
Solution
We will now move into the solution phase.

## Before applying the loads and constraints to

the beam, we will select to start a new analy-
sis:
> Solution > Analysis Type
> New Analysis

OK.

## The way this problem is setup, no con-

straints need to be added. Other problems
which ask you to find shear and bending
moment diagrams may require the use of
constraints.

## The forces and moments will now be added.

It will be easier to select the keypoints (the
locations of the forces and moments) if the
keypoint numbers are turned on as previ-
ously explained. However, the current view
probably shows just the elements and not
the keypoints. You can see both the elements
and the keypoints on the screen by selecting:
> Plot > Multiplots

## To see just the keypoints;

> Plot > Keypoints > Keypoints

way that will make it easier to complete
each step in tutorial.

16
Shear and Bending Moment
Solution
The loads will now be applied to the beam.
> Solutions > Define Loads > Apply
> Structural > Force/Moment
> On Keypoints

now appear.

## Select KP1 (hint it might be hidden behind

the symbol for the coordinate system) and
select OK.

## In the Apply F/M on KPs window that now

appears change the direction to of the force
to FY and give it a value of 400.
> Apply

## Repeat these same steps to apply the rest

of the forces and moments. Moments are
applied in the same way except that in the
Apply F/M on KPs window MZ is chosen
as the direction. Select Apply after each
one you create and close the window when
you are done creating all of the them.

KP1 MZ 400
KP2 FY -400
KP2 MZ -400
KP3 FY 200
KP4 FY -200
KP5 FY 400

## When you are done, your screen should

look similar to the picture below.

17
Shear and Bending Moment
Solution
The distributed loads will now be applied to
the beam.
> Solutions > Define Loads > Apply
> Structural > Pressure > On Beams

appear.

## Select all the elements between keypoints 2

and 3 (there should be 20 in all).
> Apply

## The expanded Apply Pressure on Beams

window should appear. From this win-
dow the direction of the pressure and its
magnitude can be specified.

## Enter 100 in the Pressure at Node I value

field which will apply the pressure over
the beam from keypoints 2 to 3. A positive
entry in this field is defined as a down-
ward pressure.
> OK

## The first distributed load now appears on

the model.

18
Shear and Bending Moment
Solution
ilar manner. Use the same commands as
shown, but with the following changes:

## For the second distributed load select all of

the elements between KP3 and KP4 (should
be 20 of them). Set the value at node I to be
-100 (this will make the load act upward).
> OK

## For the third distributed load select all of the

elements between KP4 and KP5 (should be
40 of them). Set the value at node I to be 100.
> OK

## The model is now completed.

19
Shear and Bending Moment
Solution
If you wish to view a 3D picture of your
model select
> Plot Controls > Style
> Size and Shape

## The Size and Shape window opens. Click

the check box next to Display of Element to
turn on the 3D image.
> OK

## Now when you rotate your model using

CTRL + MB3 , the model should appear to
be 3D. You should see something similar to
the image below.

## You are now ready to solve the model.

20
Shear and Bending Moment
Solution
The next step in completing this tutorial is to
solve the current load step that has been cre-
ated. Select:
Solution > Solve > Current LS

## The Solve Current Load Step window will

appear. To begin the analysis select OK.

## If a Verify window appears

telling that the load data pro-
duced 1 warning, just select
Yes to proceed with the solu-
tion.

## The analysis should begin and when

complete a Note window should appear
that states the analysis is done.

Command window.

## If your model is still in the 3-D view use the

view icons on the right of the screen to bring
the model to a front view again.

21
Shear and Bending Moment
Post Processing
There are several different ways to view the
results of a solution. To find the shear and
bending moment diagrams we define what
is called an element table and then plot a
contour plot.

## Defining an element table is nothing more

than a way of telling ANSYS which solution
items you want to see.

## To define an element table, select the follow-

ing:
> General Postproc > Element Table
> Define Table

## We will define the element table items by

using the “By sequence num” option. For
the Beam3 element, the sequence numbers
for the I moment (at left end of beam) and
the J moment (at right end of beam) are 6
and 12. The sequence numbers for the
forces in the Y direction are 2 and 8. The
sequence numbers can be found for any ele-
ment in the help documentation. Simply do
a search in help for the element that you are
using, and then scroll down in the text to
find the table that lists the sequence num-
bers.

22
Shear and Bending Moment
Post Processing
Give the first item a label name of I
moment, select By sequence num-
ber, select SMISC, and type in the
number 6 as shown to the right.
> Apply

## Give the second item a label name of

J moment, select By sequence num-
ber, select SMISC, and type in the
number 12
> Apply

## Give the third item a label name of

I force, select By sequence number, select
SMISC, and type in the number 2 as shown
to the right.
> Apply

## Give the fourth item a label name of

J force, select By sequence number, select
SMISC, and type in the number 8 as shown
to the right.
> OK

## When you are done you should have four

items in the Element Table Data window.

## Close the Element Table Data window.

> Close

23
Shear and Bending Moment
Post Processing
The shear force diagram will now be plot-
ted.
> General Postproc > Plot Results
> Contour Plot > Line Elem Res

now appears.

## Select IFORCE the table item at node I and

JFORCE as the table item at node J.
> OK

## The shear force diagram is plotted on the

screen and shown below. From the dia-
gram, the max and min shear force can eas-
ily be seen.

24
Shear and Bending Moment
Post Processing
The bending moment diagram will now be
plotted.
> General Postproc > Plot Results
> Contour Plot > Line Elem Res

now appears.

## Select IMOMENT as the table item at node

I and JMOMENT as the table item at node J.
> OK

## The bending moment diagram is plotted on

the screen and shown below. From the dia-
gram, the max and min bending moment
can easily be seen.

25
Shear and Bending Moment
Hand Calculations
Generally, shear and bending moment diagrams can easily be constructed by hand for
problems such as the one shown in this tutorial. The purpose of the tutorial was to show
how to find shear and bending moment diagrams in ANSYS, so that the process could
then be applied to more complex geometry and load conditions. Please note the nota-
tion used for the hand calculations (shown at the bottom of the diagrams) as it explains
why the shear diagram given by ANSYS and the one shown in the hand calculations are
opposites.

26
ANSYS - Structural Analysis/FEA

## 2D truss with inclined support and support settlement

Problem: Analyze the 2D truss as shown below. All the members have cross-sectional
area of 5000 mm2 and are made of steel with Young’s modulus 210000 MPa. The
settlement at support B is 10 mm. The roller at C is on a floor 45° from horizontal
direction.
(a) If the applied force P is 200 kN, determine the member forces and stresses.
(b) Determine the maximum value of P in which the maximum member force does
not exceed 600 kN.

2P

P P

D E F
P/2

G H L = 3000 mm

A B C
45°
δ = 10 mm
L L

1
Step 1: Start up & Initial Set up
Start ANSYS
Set Working Directory
Specify Initial job name: 2DTruss
Set Preferences: Structural
Set the unit system to SI by typing in “/units, SI” in the command line.
Check the output window for the units in SI system.

## Step 2: Element Type and Real Constants

Pick Link in the left field and 2D Spar 1 in the right field. Click OK.
Click Close.
Enter the cross-sectional area as 5000E-6 m2
Click OK. Click Close.

## Step 3: Material Properties

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear >
Elastic > Isotropic
Enter the Elastic modulus as 210Ee9 (Pa).

File > Save as Jobname.db

Step 4: Modeling
Create Keypoints
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS
Enter the keypoint number and coordinates of each keypoint. Click Apply after each input.
Click OK when finish.
Note that: If the keypoint number is not blank, the program will automatically use the
smallest available number (that has not yet been specified)
Create Lines from Keypoints
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines >Straight Line

2
Select the two keypoints to be joined by the line.
Continue the same to construct lines.

Step 5: Meshing
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Tool
There will be a Mesh Tool window pop up. In the third section Size Controls >Lines
Click Set.
Select Pick All.
Another window pops up. Enter the number of element divisions (NDIV) as 1. Click OK.
In the Mesh Tool pop up (fourth section), Mesh: Lines. Click Mesh.
Select Pick All
Then close the Mesh Tool window.
To see node and element numbering, use: Plot Ctrls >Numbering>Node Numbers and Plot
Ctrls >Numbering >Element/Attr Numbering
Choose Plot > Elements to see the elements and the nodes

On Nodes
Now select point A.
Select “ALL DOF” in the box showing DOF to be constrained.
Set Value as 0
Click Apply
Select point B. Constrain “UY” and set displacement value to -10e-3 m. Click OK.

Since the roller at point C is 45° from global x axis. We cannot apply the support directly.
We need to create a local coordinate system at point C in the orientation of the support.
Work Plane > Local Coordinate Systems > Create Local CS > By 3 Nodes
Read the instruction at the bottom of ANSYS window. It says Pick or enter 3 nodes: origin,
X axis and XY plane.
Choose the nodes in that order by clicking node 3, 5and 2, respectively (See figure below).
Note that node 5 defines the direction of the x-axis and node 2 defines the xy plane. The
direction of y-axis is perpendicular to the x-axis toward node 2.

3
2

3 1

After you clicked the 3 nodes, there will be a pop up window asking for Reference number of
new CS and its type. The Reference number starts at 11 by default. Choose Cartesian CS.
Click OK.

Select List > Other > Local Coord Sys. You can see that the Active CS is now CS no. 11
(which is the local CS we just created). CS number 0 to 6 are global CS. Check the origin and
orientation of CS 11.

4
Now we have to rotate the orientation of node 3 from global CS to the local CS
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Move/Modify > Rotate Node CS > To Active CS
Pick node 3. Click OK
Next, constrain “UX” at node 3. Check the orientation of the triangle at node 3 (Plot > Multi-
Plots).
On Nodes
Now select Node 4 and 6
In the menu that appears, select FY for Direction of force.
Enter -200e3 for Force/ moment value.
Click Apply.
Similarly, you can apply other forces.
You can check your applied loads by from the graphic window or
List > Load > Forces > On All Nodes

Step 7: Solve
Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS
Click OK

## Step 8: Post Processing

Plot Deformed Shape
Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape
Select Deformed+Undeformed
Click OK

5
Animate the Deformation
PlotCtrls > Animate > Deformed Shape

## List Member Forces & Stresses

Main Menu > General Postproc > Element Table > Define Element Table > Add >
Select By Sequence number in the left list box, and SMISC in the right list box. Type “1”
after the comma in the box at the bottom of the window.
Click Apply
For member stresses, choose By Sequence num> LS, 1

Main Menu > General Postproc > Element Table > List Element Table >
Select SMIS1 and LS1
Click OK
Now you can see the element forces and the stresses .

## List the Deflections and Reaction Forces

Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution
Click DOF Solution and in the sub-list select Displacement vector sum
Click OK

6
Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Reaction Solution
Select All Items or All Structural Forces
Click OK

(b)
From (a), the maximum member force (consider both from compression and tension) for P
equal to 200 kN is 1146.4 kN. Since this is an elastic problem, you can find the maximum P
that the member forces do not exceed 600 kN simply by

## Pmax = 200 × 600 = 104.7 kN

1146.4

7
ANSYS - Structural Analysis/FEA
3-D Structure with Shell elements

## Problem: Analyze a rectangular plate (6 m × 4 m × 20 mm) with 8 mm thick stiffeners

subject to 30 kN/m2 pressure on an area (1 m × 2.5 m) in the middle of the plate as shown in

the figure below. The plates are made of steel (E = 2 × 105 MPa, ν = 0.3).

1.5 m

3m

1.5 m
0.3 m

1m 2m 1m

1.5 m
z y
1.5 m
0.3 m x

1m 1m

Tutorial 7 1/5
STEP 1: Start up
Preference> Structural
/UNITS, SI

STEP 2: Preprocessor
Select the element type to be Shell Elastic 4-node (SHELL63)

Create 2 real constant sets for the above thicknesses (0.02 and 0.008)

## Create the keypoints at

1 – (0, 0, 0.3) 2 – (1, 0, 0.3)
3 – (2, 0, 0.3) 4 – (0, 1.5, 0.3)
5 – (1, 1.5, 0.3) 6 – (2, 1.5, 0.3)
7 – (0, 3, 0.3) 8 – (1, 3, 0.3)
9 – (2, 3, 0.3)

Copy points 1-6, 8 and 9 a distance of 0.3 in the negative z-direction as follows:

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Copy > Keypoints – then select the keypoints to be
copied. Click “OK”. Enter the z-offset “DZ” as -0.3

Now 3 extra keypoints shall be used to identify the area upon which the load is applied:
18 – (0, 1.75, 0.3)
19 – (0.5, 1.75, 0.3)
20 – (0.5, 3, 0.3)

## Create areas using the generated lines

Tutorial 7 2/5
Assign the meshing attributes such that the stiffeners will have the smaller thickness.
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Attributes > Picked Areas – select the areas of
the plate and assign the appropriate real constant set, then repeat the command and select the
areas of the stiffeners and assign the other real constant set.

## Set the element size of the all the areas

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Tool – Click “Set” in front of areas, “Pick
All” and set the element length to 0.05

## Mesh all the areas

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Tool – make sure that both “Quad” and
“Free” are selected, then click “Mesh” and select all the areas.
Apply the pressure load to the middle area as -30000

## Apply symmetry boundary conditions.

Set Symmetry B.C. for all the lines on plane X = 0, and for those on plane Y = 3.
Now set UZ to zero for all the lower lines of the outer stiffeners.

STEP 5: Solution

STEP 6: Postprocessor
Check the deformed shape and Von Mises stress distribution.

Batch File

Tutorial 7 3/5
/FILNAME, 3DShell

/UNITS, SI

## *SET, B, 2 ! Assigns values to user-named parameter

*SET, W, 3 ! SET, par, value
*SET, T, 0.3
*SET, WL, 1.25
*SET, BL, 0.5

## /PREP7 ! Enter Preprocessing Module

ET,1,SHELL63 ! Specify element type (ET, itype, ename)

R, 2, 0.008

## ! Specify material properties

MP,EX,1,2 E11 ! MP, lab, mat, c0 (label EX = Young’s modulus - Pa)
MP,PRXY,1,0.3 ! PRXY = Poisson’s ratio

## K, 1, 0, 0, T !Create keypoints (top of the shell)

K, 2, B/2, 0, T ! K, npt, x, y, z
K, 3, B, 0, T
K, 4, 0, W/2, T
K, 5, B/2, W/2, T
K, 6, B, W/2, T
K, 7, 0, W, T
K, 8, B/2, W, T
K, 9, B, W, T

## KGEN, 2, 1, 6,1,,,-T ! Generates keypoints from a pattern of keypoints

KGEN, 2, 8,9,,,,-T ! KGEN, itime, np1, np2, ninc, dx, dy, dz

## K, 18, 0, W-WL, T ! Keypoints for area under loading

K, 19, BL, W-WL, T
K, 20, BL, W, T

## ! Create a line between two keypoints

L, 1, 2 L, 2, 3 L, 3, 6 L, 6, 9
L, 9, 8 L, 8, 20 L, 20, 7 L, 7, 18
L, 18, 4 L, 4, 1 L, 4, 5 L, 5, 6
L, 2, 5 L, 5,8 L, 10, 11 L, 11, 12
L, 12, 15 L, 15, 17 L, 13, 14 L, 14, 15
L, 11, 14 L, 14, 16 L, 1, 10 L, 2, 11
L, 3, 12 L, 4, 13 L, 5, 14 L, 6, 15
L, 8, 16 L, 9, 17 L, 18, 19 L, 19, 20

! Generates an area bounded by lines ( AL, l1, l2, l3, l4, l5, l6, l7, l8, l9, l10)
AL, 7, 8, 31, 32 AL, 9, 11,14,6,32,31
AL, 11,26,19,27 AL, 14,27,22,29
AL, 11,10,1,13 AL, 1,23,15,24
AL, 13,24,21,27 AL, 5, 14,12,4
AL, 12,27,20,28 AL, 4,28,18,30

Tutorial 7 4/5
AL, 12,13,2,3 AL, 2,24,16,25
AL, 3,25,17,28

AESIZE, ALL, 0.05 ! Specifies the element size to be meshed onto areas

## REAL,1 ! Select real constant set for mesh attribute

TYPE, 1 ! Select element type
MAT, 1 ! Select material type
ASEL, S, AREA,,1,2 ! Select a subset of area (type S = select a new set)
ASEL, A, AREA, ,5, 11, 3 ! ASEL, type, item, comp, vmin, vmax, vinc
AMESH, ALL ! Mesh areas (AMESH, na1, na2, ninc)

REAL, 2
ASEL, INVE ! type INVE = invert the current set
AMESH, ALL

ASEL, ALL

## SFA,1,,PRES,-30000 ! SFA, area, lkey, lab, value, value2

! Boundary Conditions

## NSEL,S,LOC,X,0 ! Select nodes with location X= 0

DSYM,SYMM,X ! Symmetry along plane with normal in X direction
NSEL,S,LOC,Y,W ! Select nodes with location Y = 3
DSYM,SYMM,Y ! Symmetry along plane with normal in X direction
NSEL,S,LOC,Z,0 ! Select nodes with location Z = 0

## NSEL,R,LOC,Y,W ! Reselect nodes from the current set (only at Y= W and Z = 0)

D, ALL, UZ, 0 ! Defines DOF constraints at nodes (D, node, lab, value)
NSEL,S,LOC,Z,0 ! Select nodes with location Z = 0
NSEL,R,LOC,X,B ! Reselect nodes from the current set (only at X = B and Z = 0)
D, ALL, UZ, 0 ! Defines DOF constraints
NSEL, ALL

## /SOLU ! Enter the solution processor

SOLVE ! Solve the current load step
SAVE

## /POST1 ! Enters the database results postprocessor

PLDISP, 2 ! Plot deformed shape (PLDISP, kund)
PLESOL, S, EQV, 2 ! Displays the solution results (PLESOL, item, comp, kund)

Tutorial 7 5/5
Example: ANSYS and 3D element (solid45)
In this example, we revisit problem #3 of homework 5a. This problem will now be solved using
a 8-node 3D element (solid45) rather than the beam (beam3) element. Input commands for this
problem are show below. Students are encouraged to consult the ANSYS online help on solid45
element for its features and limitations.
/prep7
et,1,45 !solid45: 8-node 3D element
mp,ex,1,66e9 !modulus of elasticity
mp,prxy,1,0.3 !poisson ratio

k,1,0,0,0 !keypoints
k,2,0.025/2,0,0
k,3,0.075/2,0,0
k,4,0.075/2,0.025,0
k,5,0.025/2,0.025,0
k,6,0.025/2,0.1,0
k,7,0,0.1,0
k,8,0,0.025,0

## l,1,2,1 !create lines from 2 keypoints.

l,2,3,2 !third number represent the number of divisions along the line.
l,3,4,2
l,4,5,2
l,5,6,8
l,6,7,1
l,7,8,8
l,8,1,2
l,5,8,1
l,2,5,2

## a,1,2,5,8 !create areas using 4 keypoints. Keypoints must be in either

a,2,3,4,5 !clockwise or counter clockwise order.
a,5,6,7,8

## esize,,30 !define number of division for the depth.

!esize command must be issued prior to vext command
vext,1,3,1,,,3 !extruding the areas parallel to global z-axis to create volumes
!vext,first area,last area,increment,x,y,z
vmesh,all !mesh all volumes

## nsel,s,loc,x,0,0 !select a new set of nodes from x = 0 to x = 0

dsym,symm,x !apply symmetry
nsel,s,loc,z,0,0 !select a new set of nodes from z = 0 to z = 0
nsel,r,loc,y,0,0 !select nodes from the previous set from y = 0 to y = 0
d,all,all,0 !constain ux, uy, uz
nsel,s,loc,z,3,3 !select nodes on the other end of the beam
nsel,r,loc,y,0,0
d,all,ux,0 !constrain ux
d,all,uy,0 !constrain uy
nsel,s,loc,z,1.2,1.2 !select node on the top of the beam
nsel,r,loc,x,0,0
nsel,r,loc,y,0.1,0.1
nsel,all !reselect all nodes
fini
/solu
solve
fini

/post1
lpath,1,7 !create path between node 1 and 7
pdef,sigbot,s,z !store sz under sigbot for this path
lpath,381,397 !create path between node 381 and 397
pdef,sigtop,s,z !store sz under sigtop for this path
plpath,sigtop !plot sigtop
plpath,sigbot !plot sigbot
fini
ANSYS TUTORIAL
Analysis of a Beam with a Distributed Load

In this tutorial, you will model and analyze the beam below in ANSYS. Step-by-step
instructions are provided beginning on the following page.

## The steps that will be followed are:

Preprocessing:
1. Change Jobname.
2. Define element type.
3. Define real constants.
4. Define material properties.
5. Create keypoints. (5 total)
6. Create lines between keypoints. (4 total)
7. Specify element division length.
8. Mesh the lines
Solution:
9. Apply constraints and loads to the model.
10. Solve.
Postprocessing:
11. Plot deformed shape.
12. List reaction forces.
13. List the deflections.
13. Exit the ANSYS program.
_____________________________________________________________________________

Notes:
Moment of Inertia, I = 394 in4 (enter as IZZ in ANSYS); Cross-sectional area, A=14.7 in2; Height = 12.19
in; Modulus of Elasticity, E=30E6 psi (enter as EX in ANSYS); <=0.29 (enter as NUXY in ANSYS).

Note: The instructions below do not provide every single mouse click, but, hopefully all steps
needed will be apparent from the instructions. Also, as noted in other tutorials, the commands
can be entered directly at the command line instead of using the menu picks. In this tutorial,
however, the commands are not provided. They can be determined, however, by selecting
“HELP” on a related dialogue box. If something is not clear, please ask.

Preprocessing:

1. Change jobname:

## File -> Change Jobname

Enter “beam2”, and click on “OK”. (or choose some other Jobname)

## Preprocessor -> Element Type -> Add/Edit/Delete

Click on “Add..”, highlight “Beam”, then “2D elastic”, click on “OK”, then “Close”.
Note that in ANSYS this element is sometimes referred to as “BEAM3”, because it is
element type 3 in the ANSYS element library.

3. Define the real constants for the BEAM3, which are moment of inertia, cross-sectional area
and height:

## Click “OK” for “Type 1 BEAM3”

After filling in the values, click on “OK”, then “Close”. Note that in this case, the cross-
section shape was not provided, so nothing was input for “SHEARZ”. In this case, shear
deformation effects will be neglected.

## Preprocessor -> Material Properties -> -Constant- Isotropic

“OK” for material set number 1, then enter the values for EX and NUXY, then “OK”.

In this tutorial, you will create keypoints, then lines, then mesh the lines. In the meshing process,
ANSYS automatically creates nodes and elements.

5. Create 5 keypoints: #1 at the left end, #2 at the first pin joint from the left, #3 at the end of the
distributed load, #4 at the second pin joint, and #5 at the right end.

To create keypoints:

## Preprocessor -> -Modeling- Create -> Keypoints -> In Active CS

Enter 1 for keypoint number (ANSYS would automatically number keypoints if you
leave this blank). Enter the location as (x,y,z)=(0,0,0). Note that we will enter the
locations in inches, with keypoint 1 located at the origin of the global x-y-z Cartesian
coordinate system. (Note: For this problem, all keypoints will be in the x-y plane, with
z=0). Click on “Apply”. Continue defining keypoints 2-5, using the locations based on
the sketch of the beam. But, after entering the keypoint 5 location, click on “OK” instead
of “Apply”.

As a check to ensure all keypoints were entered correctly, list the keypoints:

## Utility Menu ->List -> Keypoints

If any errors were made in defining the keypoints, you can redefine a keypoint by
repeating the procedure of step 5. Of course, you don’t need to redefine all keypoints
simply to move one. Just repeat the keypoint creation command for the incorrectly
placed node.

## Utility Menu -> PlotCtrls -> Numbering.

Check “keypoint numbering”, then click “OK”. The keypoint numbers may already be
showing, but this will force the display of keypoint numbers on subsequent plots.

## Preprocessor -> Create -> Lines -> Straight Line

A picking menu appears. Pick keypoint 1, then keypoint 2, and a line is created between
the two keypoints. Continue creating lines in this way, one between keypoints 2 and 3,
one between keypoints 3 and 4, and one between keypoints 4 and 5. After the last line is
created, you can just click on “CANCEL” in the picking box. The lines are already
created, so this will close the box.

7. Instead of using the default mesh for each line, specify a number of element divisions per
line so that all elements in the model are 4 inches long (this length is arbitrary):

## Preprocessor ->-Meshing- Size Ctrls -> -Lines- All Lines

In the box that appears, enter “4” for SIZE, then “OK”.

## 8. Mesh the lines:

Preprocessor ->-Meshing- Mesh -> Lines -> Pick All

At this point, the nodes and elements are created. To see a node plot, go to the top utility
menu, and choose Plot -> Nodes. There will be a dot for each node. Now, go back and
replot the lines: Plot -> Lines.

Solution:

## Solution -> -Loads- Apply -> -Structural- Displacement -> On Keypoints

Click on keypoints 2 and 4, then click “OK” in the picking menu that has appeared.
Choose UX and UY, and use the default value of zero. If the “ALL DOF” label is
highlighted, make sure to unselect the “ALL DOF” label! If the “ALL DOF” label is
highlighted, unselect it by clicking on it. After confirming that only “UX” and “UY” are
highlighted, click “OK”. These elements have 3 dof per node: 2 translations (UX and
UY) and one rotation. We do not want to constrain the rotation.

## Solution -> -Loads- Apply -> -Structural- Force/Moment -> On Keypoints.

Pick keypoint 5, then “OK” in the picking menu, choose “FY” for “Lab”, and enter -8000
for the force value. Click on “OK”.

## Solution -> -Loads- Apply -> -Structural- Pressure -> On Beams

DO NOT CHOOSE “On Lines” – this does not work for beam elements!

A picking menu appears. Click on the line between keypoints 1 and 2, and the line
between keypoints 2 and 3, then “OK”. A box appears. Enter “150” for VALI. You
don’t need to enter anything else. Click “OK”.

Postprocessing:

## 11. Plot the deformed shape:

General Postproc -> Plot Results -> Deformed Shape

## 13. List the x and y direction deflections for each node:

General Postproc -> List Results -> Nodal Solution -> DOF Solution -> ALL DOFs

If desired, one could plot and list the element stress components, but first tables of these stresses
must be defined via the ETABLE command. This is overviewed in the first beam tutorial.

## 14. Exit ANSYS. Toolbar: Quit ->Save Everything -> OK

ANSYS - Structural Analysis/FEA
Dynamic Analysis

Problem: Determine the mode shapes and frequencies of a cantilever conical pole as shown
in the figure below. The pole is 3 m long, 30 cm diameter at the bottom and 15 cm diameter
at the top. The pole is made of wood with Young’s modulus = 13.1 GPa, Poisson’s ratio =
0.29 and density = 470 kg/m³.
Also, reanalyze the cone for the case that there is a cylindrical-shape defect (φ 15 cm, 0.5 m
height) inside the pole as shown.

Ø 15 cm Ø 15 cm

0.6 m

0.5 m

Ø 15 cm

Defect
(no material)
3m

1.9 m

Ø 30 cm Ø 30 cm

Tutorial 8 1/5
STEP 1: Start up
Preference> Structural
/UNITS, SI

STEP 2: Preprocessor
Select the element type to be “Structural Solid Brick 8-node 45 (Solid 45).

Material Model
Modulus of elasticity = 13.1 GPa
Poisson’s ratio = 0.29
Density = 470 kg/m³

Modeling
For the first model,
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Volume > Cone > By dimensions
Enter the dimension of the pole without the cavity.
The bottom radius is 0.15 m and the top radius is 0.075 m. Z1 is the z-coordinate of the base
and Z2 is that of the top.
The starting and ending angles define the sector of the base circle that will be generated to a
cone.

## For the second model,

Create the main cone as explained in the previous step. Then create another cylinder for the
defect. Subtract the cylinder from the cone as follows:

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Volumes
Select the cone first then click OK. After that, select the cylinder and click OK.

Meshing
Assign an element length of 0.05 for all the areas as follows:
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Tool
Click “Set” in front of areas and enter 0.05. Click “OK”

Tutorial 8 2/5
Make sure that the “Tet” and “Free” options are selected then click OK and select the volume
to automatically mesh it.

Analysis Type
Set the analysis type to modal.
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Analysis Type > New Analysis
Select “Modal” and click “OK”

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Analysis Type > Analysis Options
Set the number of modes to extract = 20 and click “OK”
In the next dialogue box, don’t change the frequency range. Just click OK to accept the
defaults.

Boundary Conditions
Fix the base of the cone by set the All DOF of the base area to 0.
On Areas
Pick the base area. Select “All DOF.”. Click OK.

STEP 3: Solution

STEP 4: Postprocessor
The results for this type of analysis must be read first before it can be displayed.
Select the frequency for which the results shall be read and displayed. To select the frequency
Select the required frequency and click “Read”, then click “Close”

## Plot the deformed shape to observe the mode shape.

Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape

Repeat the same analysis and post-processing for the two models and observe the change
in the natural frequencies and the mode shapes (use Results Viewer to view animation).

Tutorial 8 3/5
For Model 1
SET TIME/FREQ LOAD STEP SUBSTEP CUMULATIVE
1 34.007 1 1 1
2 34.084 1 2 1
3 141.56 1 3 1
4 141.94 1 4 1
5 342.15 1 5 1
6 343.63 1 6 1
7 482.30 1 7 1
8 573.41 1 8 1
9 622.57 1 9 1
10 625.38 1 10 1
11 972.71 1 11 1
12 976.88 1 12 1
13 1003.1 1 13 1
14 1378.4 1 14 1
15 1381.8 1 15 1
16 1385.2 1 16 1
17 1576.1 1 17 1
18 1825.8 1 18 1
19 1832.6 1 19 1
20 2163.3 1 20 1

## Mode 5&6 (3rd harmonic)

Mode 8 (elongation)

Tutorial 8 4/5
For Model 2

## SET TIME/FREQ LOAD STEP SUBSTEP CUMULATIVE

1 36.781 1 1 1
2 36.846 1 2 1
3 135.28 1 3 1
4 135.88 1 4 1
5 349.63 1 5 1
6 351.06 1 6 1
7 496.21 1 7 1
8 595.08 1 8 1
9 621.37 1 9 1
10 623.90 1 10 1
11 945.73 1 11 1
12 959.75 1 12 1
13 964.36 1 13 1
14 1176.0 1 14 1
15 1402.8 1 15 1
16 1407.6 1 16 1
17 1518.1 1 17 1
18 1840.5 1 18 1
19 1845.9 1 19 1
20 2157.4 1 20 1

Mode 20

Tutorial 8 5/5
ANSYS - Structural Analysis/FEA
Nonlinear Analysis

## Problem: Consider a rectangular plate 6 m × 4 m × 20 mm subject to pressure on an area (1

m × 2.5 m) in the middle of the plate.The plates and stiffeners are made of steel (E = 2 × 105

MPa, ν = 0.3). Assume elastic plastic material and yield stress σy = 207 MPa.

(a) Find limit pressure for the plate if it is simply supported all around the outer edges (no

stiffeners).

(b) Reanalyze for the limit load the plate if there are stiffeners (30 cm width x 8 mm thick)

around the outer edges of the plate and the plate is supported at the corner as shown in the

figure below.

Sym.along y = 3

Sym.along x = 0

z y 3m

0.3 m x

2m

*note: Apply pressure 100000 and see when the structure collapse (or the analysis stops)
Notice buckling of the stiffeners in case (b)

Tutorial 9 1/6
STEP 1: Start up
Preference> Structural
/UNITS, SI

STEP 2: Preprocessor
Select the element type to be Shell 8-node 93 (SHELL93)

Create 2 real constant sets for the above thicknesses (0.02 and 0.008)

## Create the material model

- Main Menu> Preprocessor > Mat Props > Material Models> Linear > Elastic> Isotropic
Enter EX = 2e11 Pa and PRXY = 0.3

- Main Menu> Preprocessor > Mat Props > Material Models> Inelastic> Rate Independent>
Isotropic Hardening Plasticity > Mises Plasticity > Bilinear
Enter yield stress = 207 e6 Pa and Tangent modulus = 0
Click “Graph” to check your material model.

Tutorial 9 2/6
Create plate model (as explained in Tutorial 7)

Set the element size of the all the areas to be 0.1 and mesh all the areas. Don’t forget to
assign meshing attribute corresponding to the thickness of the plates for case (b).

## Apply boundary conditions.

Set Symmetry B.C. for all the lines on plane X = 0, and for those on plane Y = 3.

For (a), set UZ = 0 for outer edge of the plate (plane X = 2 and plane Y = 0).
For (b), set UZ = 0 for the corner node

## Apply pressure 100000 Pa on area 1

STEP 5: Solution
Main Menu > Solution > Analysis Type > Solution Controls

## For (a), in “Basic” tab,

Analysis Options –Small Displacement Analysis
Time Control – Time at the end of load step = 1
– Automatic time stepping = Program Chosen

Tutorial 9 3/6
– Number of substeps = 20, Min no. of substeps = 10
Write Items to Results File – All solution items
Frequency – Write every Nth substep, N= 1
Click OK

## For (b), in “Basic” tab,

Analysis Options –Large Displacement Analysis
Time Control – Time at the end of load step = 1
– Automatic time stepping = Program Chosen
– Number of substeps = 20, Max no. of substeps = 30, Min no. of substeps = 10
Write Items to Results File – All solution items
Frequency – Write every Nth substep, N= 1
Click OK

## Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS

Tutorial 9 4/6
STEP 6: Postprocessor
Main Menu > General Postproc > Read Results > By Pick >
Pick the substep of interest and check Von Mises stress/ strain distribution.

You can also use Results Viewer to view results and animation of the substeps.

## Batch File for (b)

/FILNAME, NonlinearPlate

/UNITS, SI

## *SET, B, 2 ! Assigns values to user-named parameter

*SET, W, 3 ! SET, par, value
*SET, T, 0.3
*SET, WL, 1.25
*SET, BL, 0.5
*SET, P, -100000

## /PREP7 ! Enter Preprocessing Module

ET,1,SHELL93 ! Specify element type (ET, itype, ename)

R, 2, 0.008

## ! Specify material properties

MP,EX,1,2 E11 ! MP, lab, mat, c0 (label EX = Young’s modulus)
MP,PRXY,1,0.3 ! PRXY = Poisson’s ratio
! Activate a data table for nonlinear material properties (Bikinematic hardening)
TB,BISO,1
TBDATA,,207E6,0 ! Data table, Yield stress= 30000 psi, Second slope = 0

## K, 1, 0, 0, T !Create keypoints (top of the shell)

K, 2, B, 0, T
K, 3, B, W, T
K, 4, 0, W, T
KGEN, 2, 1, 3,1,,,-T ! Generates keypoints from a pattern of keypoints

K, 9, BL, W-WL, T
K,10, BL, W, T

## ! Create a line between two keypoints

L, 1, 2 L, 2, 3 L, 3, 10 L, 10, 4
L, 4, 8 L, 8, 1 L, 8, 9 L, 9, 10
L, 5, 6 L, 6, 7 L, 1, 5 L, 2, 6
L, 3, 7
! Generates an area bounded by lines ( AL, l1, l2, l3, l4, l5, l6, l7, l8, l9, l10)
AL, 4, 5, 7, 8
AL, 3, 8, 7, 6, 1, 2

Tutorial 9 5/6
AL, 1, 12, 9, 11
AL, 2, 13, 10, 12
AESIZE, ALL, 0.1 ! Specifies the element size to be meshed onto areas

REAL, 1
TYPE, 1 ! Select element type
MAT, 1 ! Select material type
ASEL, S, AREA,,1,2 ! Select a subset of area (type S = select a new set)
AMESH, ALL ! Mesh areas (AMESH, na1, na2, ninc)

REAL, 2
ASEL, INVE ! type INVE = invert the current set
AMESH, ALL

ASEL, ALL

## SFA,1,,PRES,P ! SFA, area, lkey, lab, value, value2

! Boundary Conditions

## NSEL,S,LOC,X,0 ! Select nodes with location X= 0

DSYM,SYMM,X ! Symmetry along plane with normal in X direction

## NSEL,S,LOC,Y,W ! Select nodes with location Y = 3

DSYM,SYMM,Y ! Symmetry along plane with normal in X direction

## NSEL,S,LOC,X, B ! Select nodes with location X = B

NSEL,R,LOC,Y, 0 ! Reselect nodes with location Y = 0 and Z = 0
NSEL,R, LOC, Z, 0
D, ALL, UZ, 0 ! Defines DOF constraints at nodes (D, node, lab, value)
NSEL, ALL

## /SOLU ! Enter the solution processor

SOLCONTROL,ON ! Use optimized nonlinear solution defaults
AUTOTS,ON ! Automatic time stepping
NLGEOM, ON ! Large Deformation Analysis
NSUBST, 20,30 ,10 ! Number of substeps to be used for this load step
OUTRES, ALL, ALL

SAVE

## /POST1 ! Enters the database results postprocessor

SET, LAST ! Read the last data set
PLESOL, S, EQV, 2 ! Displays the solution results (PLESOL, item, comp, kund)

Tutorial 9 6/6
ANSYS - Structural Analysis/FEA
Plane Stress Analysis

Problem: A 120mm square plate with a slot hole in the center as shown below is subjected to
distributed tensile force of 50 kN/m on each side of the plate. Given Young’s modulus 200
GPa and Poisson’s ratio 0.3, determine the maximum stress in the plate. Also, if the hole in
the middle of the plate is replaced by a 40 mm diameter circular hole (with no slot), find the
maximum stress in the plate.

50 kN/m

60 mm
20 mm
50 kN/m
40 mm

20 mm
60 mm

Tutorial 5 1/9
STEP 1: Start up
Preference> Structural
/UNITS, SI

## STEP 2: Preprocessor : Define Element Type

Preprocessor > Element Type > Add
In the pop-up window click Add...> Solid > Quad 4 node 42 (PLANE 42). Click Apply.
In the pop-up window click Options.... Keyopt 3 = Plane stress
( /PREP7
ET, 1, PLANE42,,,0)

## STEP 3: Material Properties

Preprocessor > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic> Isotropic
EX = 200e9 and PRXY = 0.3.
(MP, EX, 1, 200e9
MP, PRXY,1, 0.3)

STEP 4: Modeling
Create all keypoints and lines.
(Ex: K, 1, 0.02, 0 K, 2, 0.06, 0 etc. L, 1, 2 .etc.)

Tutorial 5 2/9
For arc line from node 5 to 6, Preprocessor> Modeling > Create > Arcs > By End KP’s & Rad.
Pick node 5 and 6 then click OK. Then, click the center of the arcline (node 7) and click OK.
In the pop up window, enter the radius of the arcline, RAD = 0.02. Click OK
(LARC, 5, 6, 7, 0.02)

Tutorial 5 3/9
Create areas by lines
Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Arbitraly > By lines
Pick all the lines, click OK.
(AL, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5)

Tutorial 5 4/9
Tutorial 5 5/9
Mesh area
Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Tool > Size controls: Areas > Set
Enter 0.002
(AESIZE, 0.002)

Make sure that in the Mesh section, Shape: Quad and Free meshing are picked. Click Mesh.
Pick the area then click OK.
(AMESH)

Tutorial 5 6/9
Apply pressure on line 2 and symmetry on line 1 and 4.

Tutorial 5 7/9
(SFL, 2, PRES, -50000
DL, 1, 1, SYMM
DL, 4, 1, SYMM)

STEP 5: Solution
(/SOLU
SOLVE)

STEP 6: Postprocessor
/POST1

Tutorial 5 8/9
Tutorial 5 9/9
ANSYS Structural Analysis/FEA: Tutorial
Simple 3-D truss

Problem: Analyze the tetra-pod and check if the members buckle elastically. The
tetrapod has a 5mx5m base and is 5m high. All members are round pipes 76.2 mmφ and
5.72 mm thick. A vertical force of 600 kN is applied at the top. Assume that all joints are
hinged. σy = 250 MPa. Check factor of safety against yielding.

600 kN

5m

5m 5m
Step 1: Start up & Initial Set up
Start ANSYS -- Start > Programs > ANSYS 9.0 > ANSYS
Set Working Directory -- File > Change Directory and enter the required path
Specify Initial job name -- File > Change Jobname
Set Preferences -- Main Menu > Preferences Æ Select Structural, H-method
Type the following command in the input window to set the ANSYS environment SI units.
/units, SI
Press Enter
Step 2: Set element type and constants
Pick Link in the left field and 3D finit stn 180 in the right field. Click OK to select this
element
Specify Element Real Constants
Enter the area of the link member.
1 1 
Area =  π × 76.22 − π (76.2 − 2 × 5.72) 2  ×10−6 = 1266.5 ×10−6 m 2
4 4 

## Step 3: Specify Material Properties

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models
In the frame labelled Material Models Available of the Define Material Model Behaviour
dialogue box, double-click on Structural, Linear, Elastic, and Isotropic. Enter the Elastic
modulus as 200e9 (Pa) and Poisson ratio as 0.28. Close the menus.
File > Save as Tetrapod.db
Step 4: Specify Geometry
Create Keypoints
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS
Enter 1 for Keypoint number.
Enter 0 for X ,0 for Y and 0 for Z. Click apply.
Enter 2 for Keypoint number
Enter 5 for X ,0 for Y and 0 for Z. Click apply.
Enter 3 for Keypoint number
Enter 5 for X , 5 for Y and 0 for Z. Click apply.
Enter 4 for Keypoint number.
Enter 0 for X , 5 for Y and 0 for Z. Click apply.
Enter 5 for Keypoint number.
Enter 2.5 for X , 2.5 for Y and 5 for Z. Click Ok.
Create Lines from Keypoints
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines >Straight Line
Select the two keypoints to be joined by the line.
Continue the same to construct lines.
After constructing all the lines, click OK.

You can change the directions of the coordinates by clicking the options on the right side of
the window.

Step 5: Meshing
This step makes the lines created above into finite elements. Note that simply creating the
geometry does not make it into a finite element model. You must still make into a finite
element mesh.
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Attributes > All Lines
Choose the corresponding material, real constant set and element type number. (In this
problem, we only have one set.)
Click OK
Set Mesh Size
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Lines > All Lines
Enter number of element divisions as 1
Click OK
Mesh
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Tool
Select Mesh Lines from the drop-down menu
Click Mesh

## Mesh Lines menu will pop up

Click “Pick All”
To see the elements created by meshing follow the menu path below:
Plot > Elements
Plot Ctrls >Numbering >Element/Attr Numbering
To see the nodes created by meshing follow the menu path below:
Plot > Nodes
Plot Ctrls >Numbering >Node Numbers
On Keypoint
Now select Keypoint 1,2,3,4
Select “ALL DOF” in the box showing DOF to be constrained.
Set Value as 0

Click Ok

On Keypoint
Now select Keypoint 5
In the Graphics window, click on Keypoint 5; then in the pick menu, click OK.
In the menu that appears, select FZ for Direction of force.
Enter -300000 for Force/ moment value.

Click OK.
The negative sign for the force indicates that it is in the negative z-direction. You'll see a
vector indicating the applied force in the Graphics window.
Step 7: Solve
Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS
Click OK in the Solve Current Load Step pop up window
ANSYS performs the solution and a yellow window should pop up saying "Solution is done".
Congratulations! You just obtained your first ANSYS solution.
Close the yellow window.

## Step 8: Post Processing

Plot Deformed Shape
Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape
Select Deformed+Undeformed
Click OK

## Animate the Deformation

PlotCtrls > Animate > Deformed Shape
List Member Forces & Stresses
Main Menu > General Postproc > Element Table > Define Element Table > Add >
A new window will pop up. Select By Sequence number in the left list box, and SMISC in
the right list box. Hence, “SMISC, ” appears in the text box below the right list box. Type “1”
after the comma.

Click Apply
Do the same as above

## You can go to help>ANSYS element reference>Element library>LINK180 to see the element

output definitions.
To list the member forces and stresses
Main Menu > General Postproc > Element Table > List Element Table >
Select SMIS1 and LS1
Click OK
Now you can see the element forces and the stresses.

Plot Stresses
Main Menu > General Postproc > Element Table > Plot Element Table >
Select LS1
Click OK
Plot Forces
Main Menu > General Postproc > Element Table > Plot Element Table >
Select SMIS1
Click OK

250 Mpa
Factor of safety : F.S. = =1.72
145 Mpa

π 2 EI min
Pcr = KL = 0.5 L = 0.5 × 6.12 = 3.06 (L is the length of the bar)
( KL) 2
π
I= (76.24 − 61.164 ) ×10−9 = 9.6815 ×10−7 m 4
64
π 2 × 200 ×109 × 9.6815 ×10−7
Pcr = = 204093 > 183712 N -- “No buckling”
3.062
List the Deflections
Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution
Click 'DOF Solution' and in the sub-list select 'Displacement vector sum’
Click OK
List Reaction Forces
Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Reaction Solution
Select All Items or All Structural Forces
Click OK
To display the geometry and the boundary condition after the solution in case if you are
not able to see the loading and the boundary conditions in the model, do the following:
Plot Ctrls > Symbols >
Click the radio button corresponding to the “All Boundary Conditions” in the second line
Click OK
Now you will be able to see the loading and the boundary conditions
Capturing Image of the Graphics Window
Plot Ctrls > Capture Image >
You will see a new window with the image, save it. This can be used to capture the images of
the Finite Element Model with the loading and B.C and result plots.
Practical Application of Finite Element

## VII. Simplified ANSYS model

ANSYS 10 or 11 ED (Education version or Academic version) will be used for modelling the
structure. A disadvantage of this software is the limitation of nodes (10000 nodes) and the
amount of elements (1000 elements). Therefore, the reinforced concrete is restricted to model
in the range of element given. The results may be acceptable in this situation.

Figure 5

## VII.1. Element types

Choose Concrete 65 (SOLID65)

Figure 6
Similarly to choose: BEAM -> PLASTIC 23 (BEAM23)
In the OPTION of BEAM23, choose ROUND SOLID BAR at Cross-section K6

## VII.2. Real Constants

- Choosing SOLID65 as SET 1 and no input data at here because the rebar will be modelled as
BEAM23. In addition, SOLID65 element only supports 3 rebars however there are 4 rebars in
this problems.
- Similarly to choose BEAM23 as SET 2: OUTER DIAMETER OD: 0.012

## VII.3. Material properties

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Practical Application of Finite Element
There are 2 material properties needing to be input. One is concrete, one is rebar.
Preprocessor -> Material Props -> Material Models

Figure 7
+ Concrete (Material Model Number 1):
- Structural -> Linear -> Elastics -> Isotropic:
o EX (Young’s modulus): 3E10
o PRXY (Poisson’s ratio): 0.2
- Structural -> Nonlinear -> Inelastic -> Rate Independent -> Isotropic Hardening Plasticity ->
Mises Plasticity -> Multilinear

In this situation, the ratio between stress and strain must be equal to Young’s module at the
first data, and then this ratio is decreased to the last data when the compressive strength
increases. As the figure below shown, the cross-area is safe-area, where the reinforced
concrete does not crack or crush.

Figure 8
A: Safe area, B: Starting cracking, C: Totally collapsed
Strain Stress
0.0005 1.5E7
0.0010 2.1E7

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Practical Application of Finite Element
0.0015 2.4E7
0.0020 2.7E7
0.0025 3.0E7
0.0030 2.4E7

- Structural -> Nonlinear -> Inelastic -> Non-linear Metal Plasticity -> Concrete
o Shear transfer coefficients for an open crack (ShrCf-Op): 0.5
o Shear transfer coefficients for a closed crack (ShrCf-Cl): 0.9
o Uniaxial tensile cracking stress (UnTensSf): 3E6
o Uniaxial crushing stress (positive) (UnComSt): 3E7
+ Rebar (Material Properties 2):
- Structural -> Linear -> Elastics -> Isotropic:
o EX (Young’s modulus): 2E11
o PRXY (Poisson’s ratio): 0.3
- Structural -> Nonlinear -> Inelastic -> Rate Independent -> Isotropic Hardening Plasticity ->
Mises Plasticity -> Bilinear
o Yield Stress: 460 N/mm2
o Tang mod: 0

Figure 9

VII.4. Modelling

The beam given is symmetrical geography and concentrated load, therefore, one half of the
beam will be taken for simplification of computer model.
L = 5.5/2 = 2.75mm D = 0.4m

## B = 0.25m There are 4 rebars, the cover is 0.05m

Therefore, the model will have 780 nodes (6 nodes in Z direction, 5 nodes in Y direction, 26
nodes in X direction and have 4x5x25 = 500 elements < 1000 elements.
Modelling structural form with first-six-nodes in Z direction, after that using COPY function to
finish the model.
Preprocessor -> Modelling -> Create -> Nodes -> In Active CS
Node X Y Z

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Practical Application of Finite Element
1 0.00 0.00 0.00
2 0.00 0.00 0.05
3 0.00 0.00 0.10
4 0.00 0.00 0.15
5 0.00 0.00 0.20
6 0.00 0.00 0.25

## - These nodes need to copy to become the structural model.

Co-ordinate Distance from NODE I to NODE J
Axis X 0.11
Axis Y 0.1
Axis Z 0.05
+ Generating node in Y direction
Modelling -> Create -> Copy -> Nodes -> Copy
- ITEM NUMBER OF COPIES: 5
- DX (X-offset in active CS): 0
- DY (X-offset in active CS): 0.1
- DZ (X-offset in active CS): 0
+ Generating node in X direction
- ITEM NUMBER OF COPIES: 26
- DX (X-offset in active CS): 0.11
- DY (X-offset in active CS): 0
- DZ (X-offset in active CS): 0

## VII.5. Creating element

SOLID65 will be created with all nodes. The node list should be opened to simply create each
element.
Element Attributes of SOLID65:
- Element type of number : SOLID65
- Material Number: 1
- Real Constant set number: 1
Creating SOLID65 element, Command-line should be input E,1,31,32,2,7,37,38,8 because of a
simple creation in three-dimension (3D). Similar way to the other SOLID65 element.

## Element Input Command-line

Concrete block 1 E,1,31,32,2,7,37,38,8
Concrete block 2 E,2,32,33,3,8,38,39,9

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Practical Application of Finite Element
Concrete block 3 E,3,33,34,4,9,39,40,10
Concrete block 4 E,4,34,35,5,10,40,41,11
Concrete block 5 E,5,35,36,6,11,41,42,12

## Element Attributes of BEAM23:

- Element type of number : BEAM23
- Material Number: 2
- Real Constant set number: 2

## Element Node I Node J Comment on creating

Rebar 1 8 38 To simply create element in 3D, at command-line: e,8,38 for
Rebar 2 9 39 Rebar 1.
Rebar 3 10 40 Similarly to creating node, the rebar 1 should be copy to the
Rebar 4 11 41 end of the beam: ITEM NUMBER OF COPIES: 25, and NODE
NUMBER INCREMENT: 30

1
ELEMENTS
FEB 12 2010
11:21:44

Reinforcement

## Figure 10 – Rebar created in concrete

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Practical Application of Finite Element

ELEMENTS
FEB 12 2010
12:12:54
Y

Z X

Reinforcement

## VII.6. Applying boundary condition

- Solution Type
o Solution -> Analysis Type -> New Analysis -> Choose Structural
o Solution -> Sol’n Controls
 Frequency: Write every substep (Investigation cracks start to take shape in
the reinforced concrete)
 Number of substeps: 20
 Max no. of substeps: 1000000
 Min no. of substeps: 20
o Solution -> Define Loads -> Apply -> Structural -> Displacement -> On Node
UX is applied for nodes from 751 to 780 at the end of the structural model.
UY and UZ is applied for nodes 1,2,3,4,5, 6.

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Practical Application of Finite Element

TS
FEB 12 2010
16:51:33

Z X

## Support of the beam

Figure 12

o Solution -> Define Loads -> Apply -> Pressure -> On Elements (External load
applieds for investigating cracks and crush of concrete at L/3 = 1.8666)
The 500000N applies at sixteenth element on top of the reinforced concrete.

VII.7. Results

## To view the region of crack and crush:

- General PostProc -> Read Results -> By Pick,
- General PostProc -> Plot Results -> Concrete Plot -> Crack/Crush
o Plot symbols are located at: Integration pts
o Plot crack faces for: any cracks

Time history:

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Practical Application of Finite Element

## Figure 13 – Time history

Investigation of a cracked line is at 0.9 of time-line:

FEB 12 2010
STEP=1
15:56:05
SUB =18
TIME=.9

Y
Z X

## Figure 14 – No Crack and Crush

However, crack and crush start occurring in concrete block at the last step:

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Practical Application of Finite Element
1
CRACKS AND CRUSHING
FEB 12 2010
STEP=1
16:06:37
SUB =999999
TIME=1

Y
Z X

## Figure 15 – Crack and crush with Element Centroids

1
CRACKS AND CRUSHING
FEB 12 2010
STEP=1
16:11:52
SUB =999999
TIME=1

## Figure 16 – View at the region of crack

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Practical Application of Finite Element
1
CRACKS AND CRUSHING
FEB 12 2010
STEP=1
22:18:49
SUB =999999
TIME=1

Y
Z X

## Figure 17 – Crack and Crush with Integration pts

Reinforced concrete has more cracked line when the analysis of plastic criteria with 170kN
1
CRACKS AND CRUSHING
FEB 12 2010
STEP=1
15:09:47
SUB =11
TIME=.002737

Y
Z X

## Figure 17 – Analysis of plastic criteria

TU T NGUYEN @00221721 10
ANSYS - Structural Analysis/FEA
Thermal Analysis

Problem: For the two-dimensional stainless-steel shown below, determine the temperature
distribution. The left and right sides are insulated. The top surface is subjected to heat
transfer by convection. The bottom and internal portion surfaces are maintained at 300 °C.
(Question 13.26 page 507 - Logan, 2000)

T∞ = 40 °C
2
h = 50 W/(m ⋅ °C)

300 °C
0.4 m

0.2 m
300 °C 300 °C

## (Thermal conductivity of stainless steel = 16 W/m.K)

Tutorial 4 1/8
STEP 1: Start up
Set Preferences: Thermal analysis

## STEP 2: Define Element Type

Choose element type: Thermal Solid Quad 4-node 55 (PLANE55).

## STEP 3: Material Properties

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity >
Isotropic
Set the thermal conductivity (KXX) as 16 W/(m K)

Tutorial 4 2/8
STEP 4: Modeling
Due to symmetry, we can create only half of the structure.

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS
Keypoint 1 – Localed at 0, 0, 0
Keypoint 2 – Localed at 0.4, 0, 0
Keypoint 3 – Localed at 0.4,-0.4, 0
Keypoint 4 – Localed at 0.1,-0.4, 0
Keypoint 5 – Localed at 0.1,-0.2, 0
Keypoint 6 – Localed at 0,-0.2, 0

## Create Lines from Keypoints

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines >Straight Line

Tutorial 4 3/8
Create Areas Using Lines
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas> Arbitrary >By Lines
Select all lines and click OK

Tutorial 4 4/8
STEP 5: Meshing
Assign element length of 0.05 for the area
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Tool
In Size Controls, click Set next to Areas. Click on the area and click OK. In the pop-up
window enter Element edge length = 0.05. Click OK.

Tutorial 4 5/8
In the Mesh Tool window, choose Mesh: Areas, Shape: Tri, Free
Click Mesh and select the area to automatically mesh it.

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Temperature > On
Lines
Select the appropriate lines and input the temperature

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On
Lines
Select the appropriate lines and input the convective heat transfer coefficient and bulk
temperature

Tutorial 4 6/8
Tutorial 4 7/8
STEP 7: Solve
Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS
Click OK in the Solve Current Load Step pop up window

## STEP 8: Post Processing

Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution.
In the list click Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Temperature
Click OK. A list of the nodal temperatures will be displayed.

Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution > DOF
Solution > Temperature
Click OK
A contour plot will be displayed for the distribution of the temperatures within the
element calculated based on the shape function of every element and the calculated nodal
temperatures.

Tutorial 4 8/8
ANSYS - Structural Analysis/FEA
Water Tank (Axisymmetric model)

Problem: Analyze a cylindrical water tank with inside diameter 50 meter as shown in the
figure below. The tank is made of concrete 30 cm thick (σy = 35 MPa). Assume live load on
the cover of the tank is 0.7 kN/m2 and the cover dead load is equal to the live load.

Stiffness of the soil below the tank is 25000 kN/m. The active and passive pressure
coefficients are 0.27 and 0.49, respectively. Soil density is 1842 kg/m3. Neglect the upward
pressure from the soil below the tank.

0.15 m
2
D.L. = L.L. = 700 N/m

2m

γ = 1842 kg/m3 3m
Ka = 0.27
Kp = 0.49

50 m
0.3 m

Tutorial 6 1/6
STEP 1: Start up
Preference> Structural
/UNITS, SI

## STEP 2: Preprocessor : Define Element Type

Preprocessor > Element Type > Add
In the pop-up window click Add...> Solid > Quad 8 node 82 (PLANE 82). Click Apply.
In the pop-up window click Options.... Keyopt 3 = Axisymmetric

## Preprocessor > Element Type > Add

In the pop-up window click Add...> Surface Effect > 2D structurl 153 (SURF153). Click
Apply.
In the pop-up window click Options.... Keyopt 6 = Negative pressure only.

Tutorial 6 2/6
STEP 3: Real Constants and Material Properties

Element type for Real Constants – Select Type 2 (SURF153)
In the next pop-up window, EFS = 25E6 N/m

Preprocessor > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic> Isotropic
EX = 30E9 Pa and PRXY = 0.2.

To include material self weight in the calculation – enter the material density
Preprocessor > Material Models > Structural > Density
DENS = 2400 kg/m3

STEP 4: Modeling

Create keypoints
Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS
Enter the location of each keypoint
K, 1, 0, 0 K, 2, 25.3, 0 K, 3, 0, 0.3
K, 4, 25, 0.3 K, 5, 25.3, 3 K, 6, 25, 4.85

Tutorial 6 3/6
K, 7, 25.15, 4.85 K, 8, 25.15, 5 K, 9, 25.3, 5
Create area
Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Arbitrary > Through KPS
Select keypoints (1-2-5-9-8-7-6-4-3-1) to create an area.

Mesh area
Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Tool > Size controls: Lines > Set
Click Pick All.
Enter Element edge length = 0.15, click OK.
Mesh: Areas – click Mesh

## Apply contact surface to the bottom of the tank

Select > Entities...
In the pop-up window select Nodes, By location, Y coordinates
Enter 0 in the Min, Max box
Click OK

Plot > Nodes

## Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Attributes > Default Attribs

Change TYPE to Type 2 (SURF153)

Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Surf/ Contact >
Surf to Surf. Click OK and Pick All in the pop-up window.

## Now the contact elements are created.

Reselect all the nodes by

Tutorial 6 4/6
Select > Entities... > Nodes, By Num/Pick, OK, Pick All
To see the full structure of your axisymmetric model
PlotCtrls > Style > Symmetry Expansion > 2D-Axisymmetric > Full Expansion

Calculate design load from the tank cover.
Total load = (1.5L.L. +1.25D.L.)*Area / perimeter = (1.5*700+1.25*700)*25/2

Case 1: The tank is empty. – There will be an active earth pressure acting outside the tank.
Maximum active earth pressure at the bottom = Ka*γsoil*soil depth = 0.27*1842*9.81*3
Apply triangular pressure to line 2 (be careful of the direction of the line)

Case 2: The tank is full. In this case, the loads are from water pressure, water weight and
passive earth pressure.
Maximum water pressure at the bottom = γwater*water depth = 1000*(5-0.3)
Apply triangular pressure to line 7.

## Water weight (/m) = 1000*(5-0.3) - Apply uniform water weight to line 8

Tutorial 6 5/6
Maximum passive earth pressure at the bottom = Kp*γsoil*soil depth = 0.49*1842*9.81*3
Apply triangular pressure to line 2.

STEP 5: Solution

STEP 6: Postprocessor
Determine the maximum displacements.
Check the maximum compressive stress with the allowable stress
σ a = ϕ cσ y = 0.6 × 35 × 10 6 = 21× 10 6 Pa

Tutorial 6 6/6
ANSYS - Structural Analysis/FEA
2D Continuous Beam with Distributed Load

Problem: For a steel continuous beam with distributed loads as shown below, calculate
the load factor if the moment capacity of the cross section is limited to Mmax = φ zFy,
where, φ = 0.9. The beam is made of steel with Young’s modulus of 200 GPa, Poisson
ratio 0.30 and the allowable stress (Fy) 350 MPa. The beam has a box cross-section
(HSS 356x250x16) (Figure 2) with plastic section modulus (z) 1910×103 mm3. (not the
same as elastic section modulus).

50 kN
200 kN/m
150 kN/m
50 kN/m

A E B C D
7.0 m 7.0 m 2.1 m
3.0 m

14.29 mm

356 mm

254 mm

## Figure 2: Beam cross-section

Tutorial 3 1/14
Step 1: Start up & Initial Set up
Set preferences and unit.

## Step 2: Specify Element types and Material Properties

Use BEAM3 element.

## Step 3: Specify Sections

Main Menu > Preprocessor > section > beam > common sections.
We can define the cross section from this window.
Choose sub-type of the beam to be a box cross-section and select Offset to: Centroid. This
defines the reference axis of the beam.
Click Preview to see the data summary.

Now look at the values of Iyy and Izz. In this figure, y-axis is in the horizontal direction and
z-axis is in the vertical direction.

Tutorial 3 2/14
z y
y z
The orientation of the beam ( or ) is defined by the value of Area moment of
z y
y z
inertia you enter for Real Constants (Enter the value of Iyy for and Izz for ). Note

that the axis for the cross-section is not necessarily the same as the Global Axis.

In general, we want the beam to have larger dimension in the global Y-axis. Thus, we define
Real Constants by entering Iyy in the Area moment of inertia box and the Total beam height is
0.356.

## Step 4: Specify Geometry

Create keypoints (at point A, B, C and D) and connect them to create lines.
Note that Keypoint 2 and 3 are needed to define the boundary conditions.
Another point E at 3 m from Keypoint 1 is also needed to define a concentrated load.

Tutorial 3 3/14
To create point E,
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Operate > Booleans > Divide > Lines w/ Options.
Pick the line to be divided by clicking on L1. Click Ok.
Enter NDIV = 2 and RATIO = 3/7. Click OK.

Tutorial 3 4/14
Step 5: Meshing
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh Attributes> Default Attribs
Click OK.

## Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Tool

There will be a Mesh Tool window pop up.
In the third section Size Controls >Lines, click Set. Select Pick All.
Another window pops up.
Here, you can either define the element edge length or number of element divisions.
Enter the element edge length to be 0.1. Click OK.

Tutorial 3 5/14
In general, the size of element will influence the accuracy of the solution. Smaller size of
elements (or more numbers of elements) gives more accurate results but requires more time
to obtain the solutions.
However, for this beam problem, only 3 elements are needed (AB, BC and CD) to obtain the
exact solution. In the example, we use more numbers of element in order to obtain a smooth
bending moment diagram.

In the Mesh Tool pop up (fourth section), Mesh: Lines. Click Mesh. Select Pick All

To see node and element numbering, use: Plot Ctrls >Numbering>Node Numbers and Plot
Ctrls >Numbering >Element/Attr Numbering
Choose Plot > Elements to see the elements and the nodes

Tutorial 3 6/14
On Keypoint

## Now select Keypoint 1, select UX, UY.

Set UX, UY as 0. Click Apply.

## Next, constrain UY of Keypoint 2 and 3.

On Keypoint
Now select Keypoint 5.
Select FY and enter -50000 as the Force value.

Tutorial 3 7/14
Now select all elements between point A and B by click on Box and drag a box to cover all
the elements.
Click OK.
For uniform distributed load, enter VALI = 200e3 kN/m
Note that, the positive value indicates the direction of pressure acting inward the beam
surface.

Tutorial 3 8/14
Tutorial 3 9/14

Step 7: Solve
Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS
Click OK in the Solve Current Load Step pop up window.

## Step 8: Post Processing

Plot Deformed Shape
Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot> Nodal Solution
Select DOF solution> UY
In Items to be plotted, select Deformed+Undeformed
Click OK

Tutorial 3 10/14
Create Element Table

Main Menu > General Post Proc > Element Table > Define Table
In the next window select By Sequence number, in the right window select SMISC and enter
SMISC, 6 at the bottom text box. (MMOMZ = Member moment at node i1)
Click Apply.
Then add SMISC, 12 (MMOMZ = Member moment at node j1)
Then add LS, 2,5 (SBYT = Bending stress on the element +Y side of the beam1)
Then add LS, 3,6 (SBYB = Bending stress on the element -Y side of the beam1)
Click OK
Click Close

1
See BEAM3 - Table 3.2 (Element Output Definitions) for description of each option.

Tutorial 3 11/14
Plotting Bending Moment Diagram

Main Menu > General Post Proc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Line Element Res

Tutorial 3 12/14
Similarly, you can plot the stresses at the top (or bottom) fibers of the beam by selecting LS2
(or LS3) from the list

## List Stress Values

Main Menu > General Post Proc > Element Table > List Element Table >
Select LS2 and LS3
Click OK
You will be able to see the bending stress values of each element in +Y and –Y direction and
the maximum stresses.

Tutorial 3 13/14