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ANSYS toturial for begineer and advanced level

ANSYS toturial for begineer and advanced level

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Problem:

For the loaded beam shown below, develop the corresponding shear force and bending

moment diagrams. The beam is in equilibrium. For this problem L= 10 in.

Shear and Bending Moment

Overview

Tutorial Overview

This tutorial is divided into six parts:

1) Tutorial Basics

2) Starting Ansys

3) Preprocessing

4) Solution

5) Post-Processing

6) Hand Calculations

Audience

This tutorial assumes minimal knowledge of ANSYS 8.0; therefore, it goes into moderate

detail to explain each step. More advanced ANSYS 8.0 users should be able to complete

this tutorial fairly quickly.

Prerequisites

1) ANSYS 8.0 in house “Structural Tutorial”

Objectives

1) Learn how to define keypoints, lines, and elements

2) Learn how to apply structural constraints and loads

3) Learn how to find shear and bending moment diagrams

Outcomes

1) Learn how to start Ansys 8.0

2) Gain familiarity with the graphical user interface (GUI)

3) Learn how to create and mesh a simple geometry

4) Learn how to apply boundary constraints and solve problems

2

Shear and Bending Moment

Tutorial Basics

In this tutorial:

Instructions appear on the left.

appear on the right.

labeled. However, only operations

applicable to the tutorial are explained.

options, or selections that the

user needs to click on

Type > Add/Edit/DeleteFile

would mean to follow the

options as shown to the right

to get you to the Element

Types window

notes

MB2 Click on the middle mouse

button

MB3 Click on the right mouse

button

mouse up and down.

3

Shear and Bending Moment

Starting Ansys

For this tutorial the windows version of

ANSYS 8.0 will be demonstrated. The path

below is one example of how to access

ANSYS; however, this path will not be the

same on all computers.

using:

> Start > All Programs > ANSYS 8.0

> ANSYS

or the desktop icon (right) if present.

each computer. Check with your local network manager to

find out how to start ANSYS 8.0.

4

Shear and Bending Moment

Starting Ansys

Once ANSYS 8.0 is loaded, two separate

windows appear: the main ANSYS

Advanced Utility window and the ANSYS

Output window.

also known as the Graphical User Interface

(GUI), is the location where all the user

interface takes place. Graphical User Interface

Output Window

The Output Window documents all actions

taken, displays errors, and solver status.

5

Shear and Bending Moment

Starting Ansys

The main utility window can be broken up

into three areas. A short explanation of each

will be given.

line approach to ANSYS and access multiple

menus that you can’t get to from the main

menu.

these pull down menus and familiarize yourself with them.

shown to the right. This menu is designed

to use a top down approach and contains all

the steps and options necessary to properly

preprocess, solve, and postprocess a model.

where all geometry, boundary conditions,

and results are displayed.

has all the visual orientation tools that are

needed to manipulate your model.

6

Shear and Bending Moment

Starting Ansys

With ANSYS 8.0 open select

> File > Change Jobname

and enter a new job name in the blank field

of the change jobname window.

> OK

from ANSYS will be placed, the working

directory must be set, in order to avoid

using the default folder C:\Documents and

Settings.

> File > Change Directory > then

select the location that you want

all of the ANSYS files to be saved.

the beginning of every problem.

ANSYS database (.db) file can be given a

title. Following the same steps as you did

to change the jobname and the directory,

give the model a title.

7

Shear and Bending Moment

Preprocessing

To begin the analysis, a preference needs to

be set. Preferences allow you to apply filter-

ing to the menu choices; ANSYS will

remove or gray out functions that are not

needed. A structural analysis, for example,

will not need all the options available for a

thermal, electromagnetic, or fluid dynamic

analysis.

> Main Menu > Preferences

next to the

Structural box.

> OK

on the “+” sign next to Preprocessor.

> Main Menu > Preprocessor

able are displayed in the expansion of the

Main Menu tree as shown to the right. The

most important preprocessing functions are

defining the element type, defining real con-

straints and material properties, and model-

ing and meshing the geometry.

8

Shear and Bending Moment

Preprocessing

The ANSYS Main Menu is designed in such

a way that you should start at the beginning

and work towards the bottom of the menu

in preparing, solving, and analyzing your

model.

rial.

on Element Type. The extension of the

menu is shown to the right.

> Element Type

Type window appears. Select add and the

Library of Element Types window appears.

> Add/Edit/Delete > Add

to be defined and used for the problem. For

a pictorial description of what each element

can be used for, click on the Help button.

will be used. The degrees of freedom for

this type of element are UX, UY, and

ROTZ, which will suit the needs of this

problem.

> Beam > 2D Elastic 3

> OK

Beam3 should be visible signaling that

the element type has been chosen.

9

Shear and Bending Moment

Preprocessing

Before closing the Element Type window,

and with Beam3 still highlighted select the

Options button.

> Options...

window change the the Member force

+ moment output from Exclude out-

put to Include output. This tells

ANSYS to include the moment and

force information needed to create the

diagrams.

> OK

> Close

to be chosen. This is done by adding a Real

Constant.

> Preprocessor > Real Constants

> Add/Edit/Delete

Select add to create a new set.

> Add

dow should appear. From this window,

select Beam 3 as the element type.

> Type 1 Beam3 > OK

appear. From this window you can interac-

tively customize the element type.

10

Shear and Bending Moment

Preprocessing

Enter the values into the table as

shown at the right.

> OK

> Close

element need to be defined.

> Preprocessor > Material Props

> Material Models

dow should now be open.

tural properties.

Models Available window:

> Structural > Linear > Elastic

> Isotropic

Properties for Material Number 1 now

appears.

0.3 for PRXY (Poission’s Ratio).

> OK

window.

> Material > Exit

11

Shear and Bending Moment

Preprocessing

The next step is to define the keypoints

(KP’s) that will help you build the rest of

your model:

> Preprocessing > Modeling

> Create > Keypoints > In Active CS

dow will now appear. Here the KP’s will be

given numbers and their respective (XYZ)

coordinates.

that will correctly define the beam.

Select Apply after each KP has been

defined.

time you click apply to finish adding a keypoint. If

you don’t it will replace the last keypoint you entered with

the new coordinates you just entered.

KP # 2: X=2, Y=0, Z=0

KP # 3: X=4, Y=0, Z=0

KP # 4: X=6, Y=0, Z=0

KP # 5: X=10, Y=0, Z=0

keypoints, select:

> Preprocessing > Modeling

> Delete > Keypoints

ple below.

12

Shear and Bending Moment

Preprocessing

At times it will be helpful to turn on the key-

point numbers.

> PlotCtrls > Numbering > put a

checkmark next to keypoint

numbers > OK

turned on in a similar manner.

of keypoints (or nodes, lines, elements,

loads, etc.). To generate a list of keypoints:

> List > Keypoint

> Coordinates Only

right should appear.

13

Shear and Bending Moment

Preprocessing

KP’s.

> Preprocessing > Modeling

> Create > Lines > Lines

> Straight Lines

appear. You will create 4 lines. Create line 1

between the first two keypoints.

manner.

For line 3: MB1 KP3 then MB1 KP 4.

For line 4: MB1 KP4 then MB1 KP 5.

specified keypoints. When you are done

creating the lines click ok in the Create

Straight Lines window.

> OK

steps to delete the lines:

> Preprocessing > Modeling

> Delete > Lines Only

the image shown below.

14

Shear and Bending Moment

Preprocessing

Now that the model has been created, it

needs to be meshed. Models must be

meshed before they can be solved. Models

are meshed with elements.

> Preprocessing > Meshing

> Size Cntrls > Manual Size

> Lines > All Lines

window should appear. From this window,

the number of divisions per element can be

defined and also the element edge length.

> OK

Note: you could change the element edge length after com-

pleting the tutorial to a different value and rerun the solu-

tion to see how it affects the results.

lines representing the beam can now be

meshed. Select:

> Preprocessing > Meshing > Mesh

> Lines

All.

> Pick all

segments that have been created.

the one shown below. This completes the

preprocessing phase.

15

Shear and Bending Moment

Solution

We will now move into the solution phase.

the beam, we will select to start a new analy-

sis:

> Solution > Analysis Type

> New Analysis

OK.

straints need to be added. Other problems

which ask you to find shear and bending

moment diagrams may require the use of

constraints.

It will be easier to select the keypoints (the

locations of the forces and moments) if the

keypoint numbers are turned on as previ-

ously explained. However, the current view

probably shows just the elements and not

the keypoints. You can see both the elements

and the keypoints on the screen by selecting:

> Plot > Multiplots

> Plot > Keypoints > Keypoints

way that will make it easier to complete

each step in tutorial.

16

Shear and Bending Moment

Solution

The loads will now be applied to the beam.

> Solutions > Define Loads > Apply

> Structural > Force/Moment

> On Keypoints

now appear.

the symbol for the coordinate system) and

select OK.

appears change the direction to of the force

to FY and give it a value of 400.

> Apply

of the forces and moments. Moments are

applied in the same way except that in the

Apply F/M on KPs window MZ is chosen

as the direction. Select Apply after each

one you create and close the window when

you are done creating all of the them.

KP1 MZ 400

KP2 FY -400

KP2 MZ -400

KP3 FY 200

KP4 FY -200

KP5 FY 400

look similar to the picture below.

17

Shear and Bending Moment

Solution

The distributed loads will now be applied to

the beam.

> Solutions > Define Loads > Apply

> Structural > Pressure > On Beams

appear.

and 3 (there should be 20 in all).

> Apply

window should appear. From this win-

dow the direction of the pressure and its

magnitude can be specified.

field which will apply the pressure over

the beam from keypoints 2 to 3. A positive

entry in this field is defined as a down-

ward pressure.

> OK

the model.

18

Shear and Bending Moment

Solution

Add the other two distributed load in a sim-

ilar manner. Use the same commands as

shown, but with the following changes:

the elements between KP3 and KP4 (should

be 20 of them). Set the value at node I to be

-100 (this will make the load act upward).

> OK

elements between KP4 and KP5 (should be

40 of them). Set the value at node I to be 100.

> OK

19

Shear and Bending Moment

Solution

If you wish to view a 3D picture of your

model select

> Plot Controls > Style

> Size and Shape

the check box next to Display of Element to

turn on the 3D image.

> OK

CTRL + MB3 , the model should appear to

be 3D. You should see something similar to

the image below.

20

Shear and Bending Moment

Solution

The next step in completing this tutorial is to

solve the current load step that has been cre-

ated. Select:

Solution > Solve > Current LS

appear. To begin the analysis select OK.

telling that the load data pro-

duced 1 warning, just select

Yes to proceed with the solu-

tion.

complete a Note window should appear

that states the analysis is done.

Command window.

view icons on the right of the screen to bring

the model to a front view again.

21

Shear and Bending Moment

Post Processing

There are several different ways to view the

results of a solution. To find the shear and

bending moment diagrams we define what

is called an element table and then plot a

contour plot.

than a way of telling ANSYS which solution

items you want to see.

ing:

> General Postproc > Element Table

> Define Table

appears. Select Add..

> Add...

using the “By sequence num” option. For

the Beam3 element, the sequence numbers

for the I moment (at left end of beam) and

the J moment (at right end of beam) are 6

and 12. The sequence numbers for the

forces in the Y direction are 2 and 8. The

sequence numbers can be found for any ele-

ment in the help documentation. Simply do

a search in help for the element that you are

using, and then scroll down in the text to

find the table that lists the sequence num-

bers.

22

Shear and Bending Moment

Post Processing

Give the first item a label name of I

moment, select By sequence num-

ber, select SMISC, and type in the

number 6 as shown to the right.

> Apply

J moment, select By sequence num-

ber, select SMISC, and type in the

number 12

> Apply

I force, select By sequence number, select

SMISC, and type in the number 2 as shown

to the right.

> Apply

J force, select By sequence number, select

SMISC, and type in the number 8 as shown

to the right.

> OK

items in the Element Table Data window.

> Close

23

Shear and Bending Moment

Post Processing

The shear force diagram will now be plot-

ted.

> General Postproc > Plot Results

> Contour Plot > Line Elem Res

now appears.

JFORCE as the table item at node J.

> OK

screen and shown below. From the dia-

gram, the max and min shear force can eas-

ily be seen.

24

Shear and Bending Moment

Post Processing

The bending moment diagram will now be

plotted.

> General Postproc > Plot Results

> Contour Plot > Line Elem Res

now appears.

I and JMOMENT as the table item at node J.

> OK

the screen and shown below. From the dia-

gram, the max and min bending moment

can easily be seen.

25

Shear and Bending Moment

Hand Calculations

Generally, shear and bending moment diagrams can easily be constructed by hand for

problems such as the one shown in this tutorial. The purpose of the tutorial was to show

how to find shear and bending moment diagrams in ANSYS, so that the process could

then be applied to more complex geometry and load conditions. Please note the nota-

tion used for the hand calculations (shown at the bottom of the diagrams) as it explains

why the shear diagram given by ANSYS and the one shown in the hand calculations are

opposites.

26

ANSYS - Structural Analysis/FEA

Problem: Analyze the 2D truss as shown below. All the members have cross-sectional

area of 5000 mm2 and are made of steel with Young’s modulus 210000 MPa. The

settlement at support B is 10 mm. The roller at C is on a floor 45° from horizontal

direction.

(a) If the applied force P is 200 kN, determine the member forces and stresses.

(b) Determine the maximum value of P in which the maximum member force does

not exceed 600 kN.

2P

P P

D E F

P/2

G H L = 3000 mm

A B C

45°

δ = 10 mm

L L

1

Step 1: Start up & Initial Set up

Start ANSYS

Set Working Directory

Specify Initial job name: 2DTruss

Set Preferences: Structural

Set the unit system to SI by typing in “/units, SI” in the command line.

Check the output window for the units in SI system.

Specify element type: Main Menu > Preprocessor> Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add

Pick Link in the left field and 2D Spar 1 in the right field. Click OK.

Click Close.

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/ Edit/ Delete, and click ADD

Enter the cross-sectional area as 5000E-6 m2

Click OK. Click Close.

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear >

Elastic > Isotropic

Enter the Elastic modulus as 210Ee9 (Pa).

File > Save as Jobname.db

Step 4: Modeling

Create Keypoints

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS

Enter the keypoint number and coordinates of each keypoint. Click Apply after each input.

Click OK when finish.

Note that: If the keypoint number is not blank, the program will automatically use the

smallest available number (that has not yet been specified)

Create Lines from Keypoints

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines >Straight Line

2

Select the two keypoints to be joined by the line.

Continue the same to construct lines.

Step 5: Meshing

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Tool

There will be a Mesh Tool window pop up. In the third section Size Controls >Lines

Click Set.

Select Pick All.

Another window pops up. Enter the number of element divisions (NDIV) as 1. Click OK.

In the Mesh Tool pop up (fourth section), Mesh: Lines. Click Mesh.

Select Pick All

Then close the Mesh Tool window.

To see node and element numbering, use: Plot Ctrls >Numbering>Node Numbers and Plot

Ctrls >Numbering >Element/Attr Numbering

Choose Plot > Elements to see the elements and the nodes

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement >

On Nodes

Now select point A.

Select “ALL DOF” in the box showing DOF to be constrained.

Set Value as 0

Click Apply

Select point B. Constrain “UY” and set displacement value to -10e-3 m. Click OK.

Since the roller at point C is 45° from global x axis. We cannot apply the support directly.

We need to create a local coordinate system at point C in the orientation of the support.

Work Plane > Local Coordinate Systems > Create Local CS > By 3 Nodes

Read the instruction at the bottom of ANSYS window. It says Pick or enter 3 nodes: origin,

X axis and XY plane.

Choose the nodes in that order by clicking node 3, 5and 2, respectively (See figure below).

Note that node 5 defines the direction of the x-axis and node 2 defines the xy plane. The

direction of y-axis is perpendicular to the x-axis toward node 2.

3

2

3 1

After you clicked the 3 nodes, there will be a pop up window asking for Reference number of

new CS and its type. The Reference number starts at 11 by default. Choose Cartesian CS.

Click OK.

Select List > Other > Local Coord Sys. You can see that the Active CS is now CS no. 11

(which is the local CS we just created). CS number 0 to 6 are global CS. Check the origin and

orientation of CS 11.

4

Now we have to rotate the orientation of node 3 from global CS to the local CS

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Move/Modify > Rotate Node CS > To Active CS

Pick node 3. Click OK

Next, constrain “UX” at node 3. Check the orientation of the triangle at node 3 (Plot > Multi-

Plots).

Apply Loading:

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment >

On Nodes

Now select Node 4 and 6

In the menu that appears, select FY for Direction of force.

Enter -200e3 for Force/ moment value.

Click Apply.

Similarly, you can apply other forces.

You can check your applied loads by from the graphic window or

List > Load > Forces > On All Nodes

Step 7: Solve

Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS

Click OK

Plot Deformed Shape

Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape

Select Deformed+Undeformed

Click OK

5

Animate the Deformation

PlotCtrls > Animate > Deformed Shape

Main Menu > General Postproc > Element Table > Define Element Table > Add >

Select By Sequence number in the left list box, and SMISC in the right list box. Type “1”

after the comma in the box at the bottom of the window.

Click Apply

For member stresses, choose By Sequence num> LS, 1

Main Menu > General Postproc > Element Table > List Element Table >

Select SMIS1 and LS1

Click OK

Now you can see the element forces and the stresses .

Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution

Click DOF Solution and in the sub-list select Displacement vector sum

Click OK

6

Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Reaction Solution

Select All Items or All Structural Forces

Click OK

(b)

From (a), the maximum member force (consider both from compression and tension) for P

equal to 200 kN is 1146.4 kN. Since this is an elastic problem, you can find the maximum P

that the member forces do not exceed 600 kN simply by

1146.4

7

ANSYS - Structural Analysis/FEA

3-D Structure with Shell elements

subject to 30 kN/m2 pressure on an area (1 m × 2.5 m) in the middle of the plate as shown in

the figure below. The plates are made of steel (E = 2 × 105 MPa, ν = 0.3).

1.5 m

3m

1.5 m

0.3 m

1m 2m 1m

1.5 m

z y

1.5 m

0.3 m x

1m 1m

Tutorial 7 1/5

STEP 1: Start up

Preference> Structural

/UNITS, SI

STEP 2: Preprocessor

Select the element type to be Shell Elastic 4-node (SHELL63)

Create 2 real constant sets for the above thicknesses (0.02 and 0.008)

1 – (0, 0, 0.3) 2 – (1, 0, 0.3)

3 – (2, 0, 0.3) 4 – (0, 1.5, 0.3)

5 – (1, 1.5, 0.3) 6 – (2, 1.5, 0.3)

7 – (0, 3, 0.3) 8 – (1, 3, 0.3)

9 – (2, 3, 0.3)

Copy points 1-6, 8 and 9 a distance of 0.3 in the negative z-direction as follows:

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Copy > Keypoints – then select the keypoints to be

copied. Click “OK”. Enter the z-offset “DZ” as -0.3

Now 3 extra keypoints shall be used to identify the area upon which the load is applied:

18 – (0, 1.75, 0.3)

19 – (0.5, 1.75, 0.3)

20 – (0.5, 3, 0.3)

Tutorial 7 2/5

Assign the meshing attributes such that the stiffeners will have the smaller thickness.

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Attributes > Picked Areas – select the areas of

the plate and assign the appropriate real constant set, then repeat the command and select the

areas of the stiffeners and assign the other real constant set.

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Tool – Click “Set” in front of areas, “Pick

All” and set the element length to 0.05

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Tool – make sure that both “Quad” and

“Free” are selected, then click “Mesh” and select all the areas.

Apply the pressure load to the middle area as -30000

Set Symmetry B.C. for all the lines on plane X = 0, and for those on plane Y = 3.

Now set UZ to zero for all the lower lines of the outer stiffeners.

STEP 5: Solution

STEP 6: Postprocessor

Check the deformed shape and Von Mises stress distribution.

Batch File

Tutorial 7 3/5

/FILNAME, 3DShell

/UNITS, SI

*SET, W, 3 ! SET, par, value

*SET, T, 0.3

*SET, WL, 1.25

*SET, BL, 0.5

ET,1,SHELL63 ! Specify element type (ET, itype, ename)

R, 2, 0.008

MP,EX,1,2 E11 ! MP, lab, mat, c0 (label EX = Young’s modulus - Pa)

MP,PRXY,1,0.3 ! PRXY = Poisson’s ratio

K, 2, B/2, 0, T ! K, npt, x, y, z

K, 3, B, 0, T

K, 4, 0, W/2, T

K, 5, B/2, W/2, T

K, 6, B, W/2, T

K, 7, 0, W, T

K, 8, B/2, W, T

K, 9, B, W, T

KGEN, 2, 8,9,,,,-T ! KGEN, itime, np1, np2, ninc, dx, dy, dz

K, 19, BL, W-WL, T

K, 20, BL, W, T

L, 1, 2 L, 2, 3 L, 3, 6 L, 6, 9

L, 9, 8 L, 8, 20 L, 20, 7 L, 7, 18

L, 18, 4 L, 4, 1 L, 4, 5 L, 5, 6

L, 2, 5 L, 5,8 L, 10, 11 L, 11, 12

L, 12, 15 L, 15, 17 L, 13, 14 L, 14, 15

L, 11, 14 L, 14, 16 L, 1, 10 L, 2, 11

L, 3, 12 L, 4, 13 L, 5, 14 L, 6, 15

L, 8, 16 L, 9, 17 L, 18, 19 L, 19, 20

! Generates an area bounded by lines ( AL, l1, l2, l3, l4, l5, l6, l7, l8, l9, l10)

AL, 7, 8, 31, 32 AL, 9, 11,14,6,32,31

AL, 11,26,19,27 AL, 14,27,22,29

AL, 11,10,1,13 AL, 1,23,15,24

AL, 13,24,21,27 AL, 5, 14,12,4

AL, 12,27,20,28 AL, 4,28,18,30

Tutorial 7 4/5

AL, 12,13,2,3 AL, 2,24,16,25

AL, 3,25,17,28

AESIZE, ALL, 0.05 ! Specifies the element size to be meshed onto areas

TYPE, 1 ! Select element type

MAT, 1 ! Select material type

ASEL, S, AREA,,1,2 ! Select a subset of area (type S = select a new set)

ASEL, A, AREA, ,5, 11, 3 ! ASEL, type, item, comp, vmin, vmax, vinc

AMESH, ALL ! Mesh areas (AMESH, na1, na2, ninc)

REAL, 2

ASEL, INVE ! type INVE = invert the current set

AMESH, ALL

ASEL, ALL

! Boundary Conditions

DSYM,SYMM,X ! Symmetry along plane with normal in X direction

NSEL,S,LOC,Y,W ! Select nodes with location Y = 3

DSYM,SYMM,Y ! Symmetry along plane with normal in X direction

NSEL,S,LOC,Z,0 ! Select nodes with location Z = 0

D, ALL, UZ, 0 ! Defines DOF constraints at nodes (D, node, lab, value)

NSEL,S,LOC,Z,0 ! Select nodes with location Z = 0

NSEL,R,LOC,X,B ! Reselect nodes from the current set (only at X = B and Z = 0)

D, ALL, UZ, 0 ! Defines DOF constraints

NSEL, ALL

SOLVE ! Solve the current load step

SAVE

PLDISP, 2 ! Plot deformed shape (PLDISP, kund)

PLESOL, S, EQV, 2 ! Displays the solution results (PLESOL, item, comp, kund)

Tutorial 7 5/5

Example: ANSYS and 3D element (solid45)

In this example, we revisit problem #3 of homework 5a. This problem will now be solved using

a 8-node 3D element (solid45) rather than the beam (beam3) element. Input commands for this

problem are show below. Students are encouraged to consult the ANSYS online help on solid45

element for its features and limitations.

/prep7

et,1,45 !solid45: 8-node 3D element

mp,ex,1,66e9 !modulus of elasticity

mp,prxy,1,0.3 !poisson ratio

k,1,0,0,0 !keypoints

k,2,0.025/2,0,0

k,3,0.075/2,0,0

k,4,0.075/2,0.025,0

k,5,0.025/2,0.025,0

k,6,0.025/2,0.1,0

k,7,0,0.1,0

k,8,0,0.025,0

l,2,3,2 !third number represent the number of divisions along the line.

l,3,4,2

l,4,5,2

l,5,6,8

l,6,7,1

l,7,8,8

l,8,1,2

l,5,8,1

l,2,5,2

a,2,3,4,5 !clockwise or counter clockwise order.

a,5,6,7,8

!esize command must be issued prior to vext command

vext,1,3,1,,,3 !extruding the areas parallel to global z-axis to create volumes

!vext,first area,last area,increment,x,y,z

vmesh,all !mesh all volumes

dsym,symm,x !apply symmetry

nsel,s,loc,z,0,0 !select a new set of nodes from z = 0 to z = 0

nsel,r,loc,y,0,0 !select nodes from the previous set from y = 0 to y = 0

d,all,all,0 !constain ux, uy, uz

nsel,s,loc,z,3,3 !select nodes on the other end of the beam

nsel,r,loc,y,0,0

d,all,ux,0 !constrain ux

d,all,uy,0 !constrain uy

nsel,s,loc,z,1.2,1.2 !select node on the top of the beam

nsel,r,loc,x,0,0

nsel,r,loc,y,0.1,0.1

f,all,fy,-5400/2 !apply load

nsel,all !reselect all nodes

fini

/solu

solve

fini

/post1

lpath,1,7 !create path between node 1 and 7

pdef,sigbot,s,z !store sz under sigbot for this path

lpath,381,397 !create path between node 381 and 397

pdef,sigtop,s,z !store sz under sigtop for this path

plpath,sigtop !plot sigtop

plpath,sigbot !plot sigbot

fini

ANSYS TUTORIAL

Analysis of a Beam with a Distributed Load

In this tutorial, you will model and analyze the beam below in ANSYS. Step-by-step

instructions are provided beginning on the following page.

Preprocessing:

1. Change Jobname.

2. Define element type.

3. Define real constants.

4. Define material properties.

5. Create keypoints. (5 total)

6. Create lines between keypoints. (4 total)

7. Specify element division length.

8. Mesh the lines

Solution:

9. Apply constraints and loads to the model.

10. Solve.

Postprocessing:

11. Plot deformed shape.

12. List reaction forces.

13. List the deflections.

13. Exit the ANSYS program.

_____________________________________________________________________________

Notes:

Moment of Inertia, I = 394 in4 (enter as IZZ in ANSYS); Cross-sectional area, A=14.7 in2; Height = 12.19

in; Modulus of Elasticity, E=30E6 psi (enter as EX in ANSYS); <=0.29 (enter as NUXY in ANSYS).

Note: The instructions below do not provide every single mouse click, but, hopefully all steps

needed will be apparent from the instructions. Also, as noted in other tutorials, the commands

can be entered directly at the command line instead of using the menu picks. In this tutorial,

however, the commands are not provided. They can be determined, however, by selecting

“HELP” on a related dialogue box. If something is not clear, please ask.

Preprocessing:

1. Change jobname:

Enter “beam2”, and click on “OK”. (or choose some other Jobname)

Click on “Add..”, highlight “Beam”, then “2D elastic”, click on “OK”, then “Close”.

Note that in ANSYS this element is sometimes referred to as “BEAM3”, because it is

element type 3 in the ANSYS element library.

3. Define the real constants for the BEAM3, which are moment of inertia, cross-sectional area

and height:

After filling in the values, click on “OK”, then “Close”. Note that in this case, the cross-

section shape was not provided, so nothing was input for “SHEARZ”. In this case, shear

deformation effects will be neglected.

“OK” for material set number 1, then enter the values for EX and NUXY, then “OK”.

In this tutorial, you will create keypoints, then lines, then mesh the lines. In the meshing process,

ANSYS automatically creates nodes and elements.

5. Create 5 keypoints: #1 at the left end, #2 at the first pin joint from the left, #3 at the end of the

distributed load, #4 at the second pin joint, and #5 at the right end.

To create keypoints:

Enter 1 for keypoint number (ANSYS would automatically number keypoints if you

leave this blank). Enter the location as (x,y,z)=(0,0,0). Note that we will enter the

locations in inches, with keypoint 1 located at the origin of the global x-y-z Cartesian

coordinate system. (Note: For this problem, all keypoints will be in the x-y plane, with

z=0). Click on “Apply”. Continue defining keypoints 2-5, using the locations based on

the sketch of the beam. But, after entering the keypoint 5 location, click on “OK” instead

of “Apply”.

As a check to ensure all keypoints were entered correctly, list the keypoints:

If any errors were made in defining the keypoints, you can redefine a keypoint by

repeating the procedure of step 5. Of course, you don’t need to redefine all keypoints

simply to move one. Just repeat the keypoint creation command for the incorrectly

placed node.

Check “keypoint numbering”, then click “OK”. The keypoint numbers may already be

showing, but this will force the display of keypoint numbers on subsequent plots.

A picking menu appears. Pick keypoint 1, then keypoint 2, and a line is created between

the two keypoints. Continue creating lines in this way, one between keypoints 2 and 3,

one between keypoints 3 and 4, and one between keypoints 4 and 5. After the last line is

created, you can just click on “CANCEL” in the picking box. The lines are already

created, so this will close the box.

7. Instead of using the default mesh for each line, specify a number of element divisions per

line so that all elements in the model are 4 inches long (this length is arbitrary):

In the box that appears, enter “4” for SIZE, then “OK”.

Preprocessor ->-Meshing- Mesh -> Lines -> Pick All

At this point, the nodes and elements are created. To see a node plot, go to the top utility

menu, and choose Plot -> Nodes. There will be a dot for each node. Now, go back and

replot the lines: Plot -> Lines.

Solution:

Click on keypoints 2 and 4, then click “OK” in the picking menu that has appeared.

Choose UX and UY, and use the default value of zero. If the “ALL DOF” label is

highlighted, make sure to unselect the “ALL DOF” label! If the “ALL DOF” label is

highlighted, unselect it by clicking on it. After confirming that only “UX” and “UY” are

highlighted, click “OK”. These elements have 3 dof per node: 2 translations (UX and

UY) and one rotation. We do not want to constrain the rotation.

Pick keypoint 5, then “OK” in the picking menu, choose “FY” for “Lab”, and enter -8000

for the force value. Click on “OK”.

DO NOT CHOOSE “On Lines” – this does not work for beam elements!

A picking menu appears. Click on the line between keypoints 1 and 2, and the line

between keypoints 2 and 3, then “OK”. A box appears. Enter “150” for VALI. You

don’t need to enter anything else. Click “OK”.

Postprocessing:

General Postproc -> Plot Results -> Deformed Shape

General Postproc -> List Results -> Nodal Solution -> DOF Solution -> ALL DOFs

If desired, one could plot and list the element stress components, but first tables of these stresses

must be defined via the ETABLE command. This is overviewed in the first beam tutorial.

ANSYS - Structural Analysis/FEA

Dynamic Analysis

Problem: Determine the mode shapes and frequencies of a cantilever conical pole as shown

in the figure below. The pole is 3 m long, 30 cm diameter at the bottom and 15 cm diameter

at the top. The pole is made of wood with Young’s modulus = 13.1 GPa, Poisson’s ratio =

0.29 and density = 470 kg/m³.

Also, reanalyze the cone for the case that there is a cylindrical-shape defect (φ 15 cm, 0.5 m

height) inside the pole as shown.

Ø 15 cm Ø 15 cm

0.6 m

0.5 m

Ø 15 cm

Defect

(no material)

3m

1.9 m

Ø 30 cm Ø 30 cm

Tutorial 8 1/5

STEP 1: Start up

Preference> Structural

/UNITS, SI

STEP 2: Preprocessor

Select the element type to be “Structural Solid Brick 8-node 45 (Solid 45).

Material Model

Modulus of elasticity = 13.1 GPa

Poisson’s ratio = 0.29

Density = 470 kg/m³

Modeling

For the first model,

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Volume > Cone > By dimensions

Enter the dimension of the pole without the cavity.

The bottom radius is 0.15 m and the top radius is 0.075 m. Z1 is the z-coordinate of the base

and Z2 is that of the top.

The starting and ending angles define the sector of the base circle that will be generated to a

cone.

Create the main cone as explained in the previous step. Then create another cylinder for the

defect. Subtract the cylinder from the cone as follows:

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Volumes

Select the cone first then click OK. After that, select the cylinder and click OK.

Meshing

Assign an element length of 0.05 for all the areas as follows:

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Tool

Click “Set” in front of areas and enter 0.05. Click “OK”

Tutorial 8 2/5

Make sure that the “Tet” and “Free” options are selected then click OK and select the volume

to automatically mesh it.

Analysis Type

Set the analysis type to modal.

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Analysis Type > New Analysis

Select “Modal” and click “OK”

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Analysis Type > Analysis Options

Set the number of modes to extract = 20 and click “OK”

In the next dialogue box, don’t change the frequency range. Just click OK to accept the

defaults.

Boundary Conditions

Fix the base of the cone by set the All DOF of the base area to 0.

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement >

On Areas

Pick the base area. Select “All DOF.”. Click OK.

STEP 3: Solution

STEP 4: Postprocessor

The results for this type of analysis must be read first before it can be displayed.

Select the frequency for which the results shall be read and displayed. To select the frequency

Main Menu > General Postproc > Read Results > By Pick

Select the required frequency and click “Read”, then click “Close”

Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape

Repeat the same analysis and post-processing for the two models and observe the change

in the natural frequencies and the mode shapes (use Results Viewer to view animation).

Tutorial 8 3/5

For Model 1

SET TIME/FREQ LOAD STEP SUBSTEP CUMULATIVE

1 34.007 1 1 1

2 34.084 1 2 1

3 141.56 1 3 1

4 141.94 1 4 1

5 342.15 1 5 1

6 343.63 1 6 1

7 482.30 1 7 1

8 573.41 1 8 1

9 622.57 1 9 1

10 625.38 1 10 1

11 972.71 1 11 1

12 976.88 1 12 1

13 1003.1 1 13 1

14 1378.4 1 14 1

15 1381.8 1 15 1

16 1385.2 1 16 1

17 1576.1 1 17 1

18 1825.8 1 18 1

19 1832.6 1 19 1

20 2163.3 1 20 1

Mode 8 (elongation)

Tutorial 8 4/5

For Model 2

1 36.781 1 1 1

2 36.846 1 2 1

3 135.28 1 3 1

4 135.88 1 4 1

5 349.63 1 5 1

6 351.06 1 6 1

7 496.21 1 7 1

8 595.08 1 8 1

9 621.37 1 9 1

10 623.90 1 10 1

11 945.73 1 11 1

12 959.75 1 12 1

13 964.36 1 13 1

14 1176.0 1 14 1

15 1402.8 1 15 1

16 1407.6 1 16 1

17 1518.1 1 17 1

18 1840.5 1 18 1

19 1845.9 1 19 1

20 2157.4 1 20 1

Mode 20

Tutorial 8 5/5

ANSYS - Structural Analysis/FEA

Nonlinear Analysis

m × 2.5 m) in the middle of the plate.The plates and stiffeners are made of steel (E = 2 × 105

MPa, ν = 0.3). Assume elastic plastic material and yield stress σy = 207 MPa.

(a) Find limit pressure for the plate if it is simply supported all around the outer edges (no

stiffeners).

(b) Reanalyze for the limit load the plate if there are stiffeners (30 cm width x 8 mm thick)

around the outer edges of the plate and the plate is supported at the corner as shown in the

figure below.

Sym.along y = 3

Sym.along x = 0

z y 3m

0.3 m x

2m

*note: Apply pressure 100000 and see when the structure collapse (or the analysis stops)

Notice buckling of the stiffeners in case (b)

Tutorial 9 1/6

STEP 1: Start up

Preference> Structural

/UNITS, SI

STEP 2: Preprocessor

Select the element type to be Shell 8-node 93 (SHELL93)

Create 2 real constant sets for the above thicknesses (0.02 and 0.008)

- Main Menu> Preprocessor > Mat Props > Material Models> Linear > Elastic> Isotropic

Enter EX = 2e11 Pa and PRXY = 0.3

- Main Menu> Preprocessor > Mat Props > Material Models> Inelastic> Rate Independent>

Isotropic Hardening Plasticity > Mises Plasticity > Bilinear

Enter yield stress = 207 e6 Pa and Tangent modulus = 0

Click “Graph” to check your material model.

Tutorial 9 2/6

Create plate model (as explained in Tutorial 7)

Set the element size of the all the areas to be 0.1 and mesh all the areas. Don’t forget to

assign meshing attribute corresponding to the thickness of the plates for case (b).

Set Symmetry B.C. for all the lines on plane X = 0, and for those on plane Y = 3.

For (a), set UZ = 0 for outer edge of the plate (plane X = 2 and plane Y = 0).

For (b), set UZ = 0 for the corner node

STEP 5: Solution

Main Menu > Solution > Analysis Type > Solution Controls

Analysis Options –Small Displacement Analysis

Time Control – Time at the end of load step = 1

– Automatic time stepping = Program Chosen

Tutorial 9 3/6

– Number of substeps = 20, Min no. of substeps = 10

Write Items to Results File – All solution items

Frequency – Write every Nth substep, N= 1

Click OK

Analysis Options –Large Displacement Analysis

Time Control – Time at the end of load step = 1

– Automatic time stepping = Program Chosen

– Number of substeps = 20, Max no. of substeps = 30, Min no. of substeps = 10

Write Items to Results File – All solution items

Frequency – Write every Nth substep, N= 1

Click OK

Tutorial 9 4/6

STEP 6: Postprocessor

Main Menu > General Postproc > Read Results > By Pick >

Pick the substep of interest and check Von Mises stress/ strain distribution.

You can also use Results Viewer to view results and animation of the substeps.

/FILNAME, NonlinearPlate

/UNITS, SI

*SET, W, 3 ! SET, par, value

*SET, T, 0.3

*SET, WL, 1.25

*SET, BL, 0.5

*SET, P, -100000

ET,1,SHELL93 ! Specify element type (ET, itype, ename)

R, 2, 0.008

MP,EX,1,2 E11 ! MP, lab, mat, c0 (label EX = Young’s modulus)

MP,PRXY,1,0.3 ! PRXY = Poisson’s ratio

! Activate a data table for nonlinear material properties (Bikinematic hardening)

TB,BISO,1

TBDATA,,207E6,0 ! Data table, Yield stress= 30000 psi, Second slope = 0

K, 2, B, 0, T

K, 3, B, W, T

K, 4, 0, W, T

KGEN, 2, 1, 3,1,,,-T ! Generates keypoints from a pattern of keypoints

K, 9, BL, W-WL, T

K,10, BL, W, T

L, 1, 2 L, 2, 3 L, 3, 10 L, 10, 4

L, 4, 8 L, 8, 1 L, 8, 9 L, 9, 10

L, 5, 6 L, 6, 7 L, 1, 5 L, 2, 6

L, 3, 7

! Generates an area bounded by lines ( AL, l1, l2, l3, l4, l5, l6, l7, l8, l9, l10)

AL, 4, 5, 7, 8

AL, 3, 8, 7, 6, 1, 2

Tutorial 9 5/6

AL, 1, 12, 9, 11

AL, 2, 13, 10, 12

AESIZE, ALL, 0.1 ! Specifies the element size to be meshed onto areas

REAL, 1

TYPE, 1 ! Select element type

MAT, 1 ! Select material type

ASEL, S, AREA,,1,2 ! Select a subset of area (type S = select a new set)

AMESH, ALL ! Mesh areas (AMESH, na1, na2, ninc)

REAL, 2

ASEL, INVE ! type INVE = invert the current set

AMESH, ALL

ASEL, ALL

! Boundary Conditions

DSYM,SYMM,X ! Symmetry along plane with normal in X direction

DSYM,SYMM,Y ! Symmetry along plane with normal in X direction

NSEL,R,LOC,Y, 0 ! Reselect nodes with location Y = 0 and Z = 0

NSEL,R, LOC, Z, 0

D, ALL, UZ, 0 ! Defines DOF constraints at nodes (D, node, lab, value)

NSEL, ALL

SOLCONTROL,ON ! Use optimized nonlinear solution defaults

AUTOTS,ON ! Automatic time stepping

NLGEOM, ON ! Large Deformation Analysis

NSUBST, 20,30 ,10 ! Number of substeps to be used for this load step

OUTRES, ALL, ALL

SAVE

SET, LAST ! Read the last data set

PLESOL, S, EQV, 2 ! Displays the solution results (PLESOL, item, comp, kund)

Tutorial 9 6/6

ANSYS - Structural Analysis/FEA

Plane Stress Analysis

Problem: A 120mm square plate with a slot hole in the center as shown below is subjected to

distributed tensile force of 50 kN/m on each side of the plate. Given Young’s modulus 200

GPa and Poisson’s ratio 0.3, determine the maximum stress in the plate. Also, if the hole in

the middle of the plate is replaced by a 40 mm diameter circular hole (with no slot), find the

maximum stress in the plate.

50 kN/m

60 mm

20 mm

50 kN/m

40 mm

20 mm

60 mm

Tutorial 5 1/9

STEP 1: Start up

Preference> Structural

/UNITS, SI

Preprocessor > Element Type > Add

In the pop-up window click Add...> Solid > Quad 4 node 42 (PLANE 42). Click Apply.

In the pop-up window click Options.... Keyopt 3 = Plane stress

( /PREP7

ET, 1, PLANE42,,,0)

Preprocessor > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic> Isotropic

EX = 200e9 and PRXY = 0.3.

(MP, EX, 1, 200e9

MP, PRXY,1, 0.3)

STEP 4: Modeling

Create all keypoints and lines.

(Ex: K, 1, 0.02, 0 K, 2, 0.06, 0 etc. L, 1, 2 .etc.)

Tutorial 5 2/9

For arc line from node 5 to 6, Preprocessor> Modeling > Create > Arcs > By End KP’s & Rad.

Pick node 5 and 6 then click OK. Then, click the center of the arcline (node 7) and click OK.

In the pop up window, enter the radius of the arcline, RAD = 0.02. Click OK

(LARC, 5, 6, 7, 0.02)

Tutorial 5 3/9

Create areas by lines

Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Arbitraly > By lines

Pick all the lines, click OK.

(AL, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5)

Tutorial 5 4/9

Tutorial 5 5/9

Mesh area

Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Tool > Size controls: Areas > Set

Enter 0.002

(AESIZE, 0.002)

Make sure that in the Mesh section, Shape: Quad and Free meshing are picked. Click Mesh.

Pick the area then click OK.

(AMESH)

Tutorial 5 6/9

Apply pressure on line 2 and symmetry on line 1 and 4.

Tutorial 5 7/9

(SFL, 2, PRES, -50000

DL, 1, 1, SYMM

DL, 4, 1, SYMM)

STEP 5: Solution

(/SOLU

SOLVE)

STEP 6: Postprocessor

/POST1

Tutorial 5 8/9

Tutorial 5 9/9

ANSYS Structural Analysis/FEA: Tutorial

Simple 3-D truss

Problem: Analyze the tetra-pod and check if the members buckle elastically. The

tetrapod has a 5mx5m base and is 5m high. All members are round pipes 76.2 mmφ and

5.72 mm thick. A vertical force of 600 kN is applied at the top. Assume that all joints are

hinged. σy = 250 MPa. Check factor of safety against yielding.

600 kN

5m

5m 5m

Step 1: Start up & Initial Set up

Start ANSYS -- Start > Programs > ANSYS 9.0 > ANSYS

Set Working Directory -- File > Change Directory and enter the required path

Specify Initial job name -- File > Change Jobname

Set Preferences -- Main Menu > Preferences Æ Select Structural, H-method

Type the following command in the input window to set the ANSYS environment SI units.

/units, SI

Press Enter

Step 2: Set element type and constants

Specify element type: Main Menu > Preprocessor> Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add

Pick Link in the left field and 3D finit stn 180 in the right field. Click OK to select this

element

Specify Element Real Constants

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/ Edit/ Delete, and click “ADD”

Enter the area of the link member.

1 1

Area = π × 76.22 − π (76.2 − 2 × 5.72) 2 ×10−6 = 1266.5 ×10−6 m 2

4 4

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models

In the frame labelled Material Models Available of the Define Material Model Behaviour

dialogue box, double-click on Structural, Linear, Elastic, and Isotropic. Enter the Elastic

modulus as 200e9 (Pa) and Poisson ratio as 0.28. Close the menus.

Save your work

File > Save as Tetrapod.db

Step 4: Specify Geometry

Create Keypoints

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS

Enter 1 for Keypoint number.

Enter 0 for X ,0 for Y and 0 for Z. Click apply.

Enter 2 for Keypoint number

Enter 5 for X ,0 for Y and 0 for Z. Click apply.

Enter 3 for Keypoint number

Enter 5 for X , 5 for Y and 0 for Z. Click apply.

Enter 4 for Keypoint number.

Enter 0 for X , 5 for Y and 0 for Z. Click apply.

Enter 5 for Keypoint number.

Enter 2.5 for X , 2.5 for Y and 5 for Z. Click Ok.

Create Lines from Keypoints

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines >Straight Line

Select the two keypoints to be joined by the line.

Continue the same to construct lines.

After constructing all the lines, click OK.

You can change the directions of the coordinates by clicking the options on the right side of

the window.

Step 5: Meshing

This step makes the lines created above into finite elements. Note that simply creating the

geometry does not make it into a finite element model. You must still make into a finite

element mesh.

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Attributes > All Lines

Choose the corresponding material, real constant set and element type number. (In this

problem, we only have one set.)

Click OK

Set Mesh Size

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Lines > All Lines

Enter number of element divisions as 1

Click OK

Mesh

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Tool

Select Mesh Lines from the drop-down menu

Click Mesh

Click “Pick All”

To see the elements created by meshing follow the menu path below:

Plot > Elements

Plot Ctrls >Numbering >Element/Attr Numbering

To see the nodes created by meshing follow the menu path below:

Plot > Nodes

Plot Ctrls >Numbering >Node Numbers

Step 6: Specify Boundary Conditions & Loading

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement >

On Keypoint

Now select Keypoint 1,2,3,4

Select “ALL DOF” in the box showing DOF to be constrained.

Set Value as 0

Click Ok

Apply Loading:

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural >Force/Moment >

On Keypoint

Now select Keypoint 5

In the Graphics window, click on Keypoint 5; then in the pick menu, click OK.

In the menu that appears, select FZ for Direction of force.

Enter -300000 for Force/ moment value.

Click OK.

The negative sign for the force indicates that it is in the negative z-direction. You'll see a

vector indicating the applied force in the Graphics window.

Step 7: Solve

Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS

Click OK in the Solve Current Load Step pop up window

ANSYS performs the solution and a yellow window should pop up saying "Solution is done".

Congratulations! You just obtained your first ANSYS solution.

Close the yellow window.

Plot Deformed Shape

Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape

Select Deformed+Undeformed

Click OK

PlotCtrls > Animate > Deformed Shape

List Member Forces & Stresses

Main Menu > General Postproc > Element Table > Define Element Table > Add >

A new window will pop up. Select By Sequence number in the left list box, and SMISC in

the right list box. Hence, “SMISC, ” appears in the text box below the right list box. Type “1”

after the comma.

Click Apply

Do the same as above

output definitions.

To list the member forces and stresses

Main Menu > General Postproc > Element Table > List Element Table >

Select SMIS1 and LS1

Click OK

Now you can see the element forces and the stresses.

Plot Stresses

Main Menu > General Postproc > Element Table > Plot Element Table >

Select LS1

Click OK

Plot Forces

Main Menu > General Postproc > Element Table > Plot Element Table >

Select SMIS1

Click OK

250 Mpa

Factor of safety : F.S. = =1.72

145 Mpa

π 2 EI min

Pcr = KL = 0.5 L = 0.5 × 6.12 = 3.06 (L is the length of the bar)

( KL) 2

π

I= (76.24 − 61.164 ) ×10−9 = 9.6815 ×10−7 m 4

64

π 2 × 200 ×109 × 9.6815 ×10−7

Pcr = = 204093 > 183712 N -- “No buckling”

3.062

List the Deflections

Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution

Click 'DOF Solution' and in the sub-list select 'Displacement vector sum’

Click OK

List Reaction Forces

Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Reaction Solution

Select All Items or All Structural Forces

Click OK

To display the geometry and the boundary condition after the solution in case if you are

not able to see the loading and the boundary conditions in the model, do the following:

Plot Ctrls > Symbols >

Click the radio button corresponding to the “All Boundary Conditions” in the second line

Click OK

Now you will be able to see the loading and the boundary conditions

Capturing Image of the Graphics Window

Plot Ctrls > Capture Image >

You will see a new window with the image, save it. This can be used to capture the images of

the Finite Element Model with the loading and B.C and result plots.

Practical Application of Finite Element

ANSYS 10 or 11 ED (Education version or Academic version) will be used for modelling the

structure. A disadvantage of this software is the limitation of nodes (10000 nodes) and the

amount of elements (1000 elements). Therefore, the reinforced concrete is restricted to model

in the range of element given. The results may be acceptable in this situation.

Figure 5

Choose Concrete 65 (SOLID65)

Figure 6

Similarly to choose: BEAM -> PLASTIC 23 (BEAM23)

In the OPTION of BEAM23, choose ROUND SOLID BAR at Cross-section K6

- Choosing SOLID65 as SET 1 and no input data at here because the rebar will be modelled as

BEAM23. In addition, SOLID65 element only supports 3 rebars however there are 4 rebars in

this problems.

- Similarly to choose BEAM23 as SET 2: OUTER DIAMETER OD: 0.012

TU T NGUYEN @00221721 1

Practical Application of Finite Element

There are 2 material properties needing to be input. One is concrete, one is rebar.

Preprocessor -> Material Props -> Material Models

Figure 7

+ Concrete (Material Model Number 1):

- Structural -> Linear -> Elastics -> Isotropic:

o EX (Young’s modulus): 3E10

o PRXY (Poisson’s ratio): 0.2

- Structural -> Nonlinear -> Inelastic -> Rate Independent -> Isotropic Hardening Plasticity ->

Mises Plasticity -> Multilinear

In this situation, the ratio between stress and strain must be equal to Young’s module at the

first data, and then this ratio is decreased to the last data when the compressive strength

increases. As the figure below shown, the cross-area is safe-area, where the reinforced

concrete does not crack or crush.

Figure 8

A: Safe area, B: Starting cracking, C: Totally collapsed

Strain Stress

0.0005 1.5E7

0.0010 2.1E7

TU T NGUYEN @00221721 2

Practical Application of Finite Element

0.0015 2.4E7

0.0020 2.7E7

0.0025 3.0E7

0.0030 2.4E7

- Structural -> Nonlinear -> Inelastic -> Non-linear Metal Plasticity -> Concrete

o Shear transfer coefficients for an open crack (ShrCf-Op): 0.5

o Shear transfer coefficients for a closed crack (ShrCf-Cl): 0.9

o Uniaxial tensile cracking stress (UnTensSf): 3E6

o Uniaxial crushing stress (positive) (UnComSt): 3E7

+ Rebar (Material Properties 2):

- Structural -> Linear -> Elastics -> Isotropic:

o EX (Young’s modulus): 2E11

o PRXY (Poisson’s ratio): 0.3

- Structural -> Nonlinear -> Inelastic -> Rate Independent -> Isotropic Hardening Plasticity ->

Mises Plasticity -> Bilinear

o Yield Stress: 460 N/mm2

o Tang mod: 0

Figure 9

VII.4. Modelling

The beam given is symmetrical geography and concentrated load, therefore, one half of the

beam will be taken for simplification of computer model.

L = 5.5/2 = 2.75mm D = 0.4m

Therefore, the model will have 780 nodes (6 nodes in Z direction, 5 nodes in Y direction, 26

nodes in X direction and have 4x5x25 = 500 elements < 1000 elements.

Modelling structural form with first-six-nodes in Z direction, after that using COPY function to

finish the model.

Preprocessor -> Modelling -> Create -> Nodes -> In Active CS

Node X Y Z

TU T NGUYEN @00221721 3

Practical Application of Finite Element

1 0.00 0.00 0.00

2 0.00 0.00 0.05

3 0.00 0.00 0.10

4 0.00 0.00 0.15

5 0.00 0.00 0.20

6 0.00 0.00 0.25

Co-ordinate Distance from NODE I to NODE J

Axis X 0.11

Axis Y 0.1

Axis Z 0.05

+ Generating node in Y direction

Modelling -> Create -> Copy -> Nodes -> Copy

- ITEM NUMBER OF COPIES: 5

- DX (X-offset in active CS): 0

- DY (X-offset in active CS): 0.1

- DZ (X-offset in active CS): 0

+ Generating node in X direction

- ITEM NUMBER OF COPIES: 26

- DX (X-offset in active CS): 0.11

- DY (X-offset in active CS): 0

- DZ (X-offset in active CS): 0

SOLID65 will be created with all nodes. The node list should be opened to simply create each

element.

Element Attributes of SOLID65:

- Element type of number : SOLID65

- Material Number: 1

- Real Constant set number: 1

Creating SOLID65 element, Command-line should be input E,1,31,32,2,7,37,38,8 because of a

simple creation in three-dimension (3D). Similar way to the other SOLID65 element.

Concrete block 1 E,1,31,32,2,7,37,38,8

Concrete block 2 E,2,32,33,3,8,38,39,9

TU T NGUYEN @00221721 4

Practical Application of Finite Element

Concrete block 3 E,3,33,34,4,9,39,40,10

Concrete block 4 E,4,34,35,5,10,40,41,11

Concrete block 5 E,5,35,36,6,11,41,42,12

- Element type of number : BEAM23

- Material Number: 2

- Real Constant set number: 2

Rebar 1 8 38 To simply create element in 3D, at command-line: e,8,38 for

Rebar 2 9 39 Rebar 1.

Rebar 3 10 40 Similarly to creating node, the rebar 1 should be copy to the

Rebar 4 11 41 end of the beam: ITEM NUMBER OF COPIES: 25, and NODE

NUMBER INCREMENT: 30

1

ELEMENTS

FEB 12 2010

11:21:44

Reinforcement

TU T NGUYEN @00221721 5

Practical Application of Finite Element

ELEMENTS

FEB 12 2010

12:12:54

Y

Z X

Reinforcement

- Solution Type

o Solution -> Analysis Type -> New Analysis -> Choose Structural

o Solution -> Sol’n Controls

Frequency: Write every substep (Investigation cracks start to take shape in

the reinforced concrete)

Number of substeps: 20

Max no. of substeps: 1000000

Min no. of substeps: 20

- Define loads:

o Solution -> Define Loads -> Apply -> Structural -> Displacement -> On Node

UX is applied for nodes from 751 to 780 at the end of the structural model.

UY and UZ is applied for nodes 1,2,3,4,5, 6.

TU T NGUYEN @00221721 6

Practical Application of Finite Element

TS

FEB 12 2010

16:51:33

Z X

Figure 12

o Solution -> Define Loads -> Apply -> Pressure -> On Elements (External load

applieds for investigating cracks and crush of concrete at L/3 = 1.8666)

The 500000N applies at sixteenth element on top of the reinforced concrete.

VII.7. Results

- General PostProc -> Read Results -> By Pick,

- General PostProc -> Plot Results -> Concrete Plot -> Crack/Crush

o Plot symbols are located at: Integration pts

o Plot crack faces for: any cracks

Time history:

TU T NGUYEN @00221721 7

Practical Application of Finite Element

Investigation of a cracked line is at 0.9 of time-line:

FEB 12 2010

STEP=1

15:56:05

SUB =18

TIME=.9

Y

Z X

However, crack and crush start occurring in concrete block at the last step:

TU T NGUYEN @00221721 8

Practical Application of Finite Element

1

CRACKS AND CRUSHING

FEB 12 2010

STEP=1

16:06:37

SUB =999999

TIME=1

Y

Z X

1

CRACKS AND CRUSHING

FEB 12 2010

STEP=1

16:11:52

SUB =999999

TIME=1

TU T NGUYEN @00221721 9

Practical Application of Finite Element

1

CRACKS AND CRUSHING

FEB 12 2010

STEP=1

22:18:49

SUB =999999

TIME=1

Y

Z X

Reinforced concrete has more cracked line when the analysis of plastic criteria with 170kN

1

CRACKS AND CRUSHING

FEB 12 2010

STEP=1

15:09:47

SUB =11

TIME=.002737

Y

Z X

TU T NGUYEN @00221721 10

ANSYS - Structural Analysis/FEA

Thermal Analysis

Problem: For the two-dimensional stainless-steel shown below, determine the temperature

distribution. The left and right sides are insulated. The top surface is subjected to heat

transfer by convection. The bottom and internal portion surfaces are maintained at 300 °C.

(Question 13.26 page 507 - Logan, 2000)

T∞ = 40 °C

2

h = 50 W/(m ⋅ °C)

300 °C

0.4 m

0.2 m

300 °C 300 °C

Tutorial 4 1/8

STEP 1: Start up

Set Preferences: Thermal analysis

Choose element type: Thermal Solid Quad 4-node 55 (PLANE55).

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity >

Isotropic

Set the thermal conductivity (KXX) as 16 W/(m K)

Tutorial 4 2/8

STEP 4: Modeling

Due to symmetry, we can create only half of the structure.

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS

Keypoint 1 – Localed at 0, 0, 0

Keypoint 2 – Localed at 0.4, 0, 0

Keypoint 3 – Localed at 0.4,-0.4, 0

Keypoint 4 – Localed at 0.1,-0.4, 0

Keypoint 5 – Localed at 0.1,-0.2, 0

Keypoint 6 – Localed at 0,-0.2, 0

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines >Straight Line

Tutorial 4 3/8

Create Areas Using Lines

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas> Arbitrary >By Lines

Select all lines and click OK

Tutorial 4 4/8

STEP 5: Meshing

Assign element length of 0.05 for the area

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Tool

In Size Controls, click Set next to Areas. Click on the area and click OK. In the pop-up

window enter Element edge length = 0.05. Click OK.

Tutorial 4 5/8

In the Mesh Tool window, choose Mesh: Areas, Shape: Tri, Free

Click Mesh and select the area to automatically mesh it.

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Temperature > On

Lines

Select the appropriate lines and input the temperature

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On

Lines

Select the appropriate lines and input the convective heat transfer coefficient and bulk

temperature

Tutorial 4 6/8

Tutorial 4 7/8

STEP 7: Solve

Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS

Click OK in the Solve Current Load Step pop up window

Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution.

In the list click Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Temperature

Click OK. A list of the nodal temperatures will be displayed.

Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution > DOF

Solution > Temperature

Click OK

A contour plot will be displayed for the distribution of the temperatures within the

element calculated based on the shape function of every element and the calculated nodal

temperatures.

Tutorial 4 8/8

ANSYS - Structural Analysis/FEA

Water Tank (Axisymmetric model)

Problem: Analyze a cylindrical water tank with inside diameter 50 meter as shown in the

figure below. The tank is made of concrete 30 cm thick (σy = 35 MPa). Assume live load on

the cover of the tank is 0.7 kN/m2 and the cover dead load is equal to the live load.

Stiffness of the soil below the tank is 25000 kN/m. The active and passive pressure

coefficients are 0.27 and 0.49, respectively. Soil density is 1842 kg/m3. Neglect the upward

pressure from the soil below the tank.

0.15 m

2

D.L. = L.L. = 700 N/m

2m

γ = 1842 kg/m3 3m

Ka = 0.27

Kp = 0.49

50 m

0.3 m

Tutorial 6 1/6

STEP 1: Start up

Preference> Structural

/UNITS, SI

Preprocessor > Element Type > Add

In the pop-up window click Add...> Solid > Quad 8 node 82 (PLANE 82). Click Apply.

In the pop-up window click Options.... Keyopt 3 = Axisymmetric

In the pop-up window click Add...> Surface Effect > 2D structurl 153 (SURF153). Click

Apply.

In the pop-up window click Options.... Keyopt 6 = Negative pressure only.

Tutorial 6 2/6

STEP 3: Real Constants and Material Properties

Element type for Real Constants – Select Type 2 (SURF153)

In the next pop-up window, EFS = 25E6 N/m

Preprocessor > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic> Isotropic

EX = 30E9 Pa and PRXY = 0.2.

To include material self weight in the calculation – enter the material density

Preprocessor > Material Models > Structural > Density

DENS = 2400 kg/m3

STEP 4: Modeling

Create keypoints

Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS

Enter the location of each keypoint

K, 1, 0, 0 K, 2, 25.3, 0 K, 3, 0, 0.3

K, 4, 25, 0.3 K, 5, 25.3, 3 K, 6, 25, 4.85

Tutorial 6 3/6

K, 7, 25.15, 4.85 K, 8, 25.15, 5 K, 9, 25.3, 5

Create area

Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Arbitrary > Through KPS

Select keypoints (1-2-5-9-8-7-6-4-3-1) to create an area.

Mesh area

Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Tool > Size controls: Lines > Set

Click Pick All.

Enter Element edge length = 0.15, click OK.

Mesh: Areas – click Mesh

Select > Entities...

In the pop-up window select Nodes, By location, Y coordinates

Enter 0 in the Min, Max box

Click OK

Plot > Nodes

Change TYPE to Type 2 (SURF153)

Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Surf/ Contact >

Surf to Surf. Click OK and Pick All in the pop-up window.

Reselect all the nodes by

Tutorial 6 4/6

Select > Entities... > Nodes, By Num/Pick, OK, Pick All

To see the full structure of your axisymmetric model

PlotCtrls > Style > Symmetry Expansion > 2D-Axisymmetric > Full Expansion

Apply load

Calculate design load from the tank cover.

Total load = (1.5L.L. +1.25D.L.)*Area / perimeter = (1.5*700+1.25*700)*25/2

Distributed load on line 6 = Total load/0.15.

Case 1: The tank is empty. – There will be an active earth pressure acting outside the tank.

Maximum active earth pressure at the bottom = Ka*γsoil*soil depth = 0.27*1842*9.81*3

Apply triangular pressure to line 2 (be careful of the direction of the line)

Case 2: The tank is full. In this case, the loads are from water pressure, water weight and

passive earth pressure.

Maximum water pressure at the bottom = γwater*water depth = 1000*(5-0.3)

Apply triangular pressure to line 7.

Tutorial 6 5/6

Maximum passive earth pressure at the bottom = Kp*γsoil*soil depth = 0.49*1842*9.81*3

Apply triangular pressure to line 2.

STEP 5: Solution

STEP 6: Postprocessor

Determine the maximum displacements.

Check the maximum compressive stress with the allowable stress

σ a = ϕ cσ y = 0.6 × 35 × 10 6 = 21× 10 6 Pa

Tutorial 6 6/6

ANSYS - Structural Analysis/FEA

2D Continuous Beam with Distributed Load

Problem: For a steel continuous beam with distributed loads as shown below, calculate

the load factor if the moment capacity of the cross section is limited to Mmax = φ zFy,

where, φ = 0.9. The beam is made of steel with Young’s modulus of 200 GPa, Poisson

ratio 0.30 and the allowable stress (Fy) 350 MPa. The beam has a box cross-section

(HSS 356x250x16) (Figure 2) with plastic section modulus (z) 1910×103 mm3. (not the

same as elastic section modulus).

50 kN

200 kN/m

150 kN/m

50 kN/m

A E B C D

7.0 m 7.0 m 2.1 m

3.0 m

14.29 mm

356 mm

254 mm

Tutorial 3 1/14

Step 1: Start up & Initial Set up

Set preferences and unit.

Use BEAM3 element.

Main Menu > Preprocessor > section > beam > common sections.

We can define the cross section from this window.

Choose sub-type of the beam to be a box cross-section and select Offset to: Centroid. This

defines the reference axis of the beam.

Click Preview to see the data summary.

Now look at the values of Iyy and Izz. In this figure, y-axis is in the horizontal direction and

z-axis is in the vertical direction.

Tutorial 3 2/14

z y

y z

The orientation of the beam ( or ) is defined by the value of Area moment of

z y

y z

inertia you enter for Real Constants (Enter the value of Iyy for and Izz for ). Note

that the axis for the cross-section is not necessarily the same as the Global Axis.

In general, we want the beam to have larger dimension in the global Y-axis. Thus, we define

Real Constants by entering Iyy in the Area moment of inertia box and the Total beam height is

0.356.

Create keypoints (at point A, B, C and D) and connect them to create lines.

Note that Keypoint 2 and 3 are needed to define the boundary conditions.

Another point E at 3 m from Keypoint 1 is also needed to define a concentrated load.

Tutorial 3 3/14

To create point E,

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Operate > Booleans > Divide > Lines w/ Options.

Pick the line to be divided by clicking on L1. Click Ok.

Enter NDIV = 2 and RATIO = 3/7. Click OK.

Tutorial 3 4/14

Step 5: Meshing

Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh Attributes> Default Attribs

Click OK.

There will be a Mesh Tool window pop up.

In the third section Size Controls >Lines, click Set. Select Pick All.

Another window pops up.

Here, you can either define the element edge length or number of element divisions.

Enter the element edge length to be 0.1. Click OK.

Tutorial 3 5/14

In general, the size of element will influence the accuracy of the solution. Smaller size of

elements (or more numbers of elements) gives more accurate results but requires more time

to obtain the solutions.

However, for this beam problem, only 3 elements are needed (AB, BC and CD) to obtain the

exact solution. In the example, we use more numbers of element in order to obtain a smooth

bending moment diagram.

In the Mesh Tool pop up (fourth section), Mesh: Lines. Click Mesh. Select Pick All

To see node and element numbering, use: Plot Ctrls >Numbering>Node Numbers and Plot

Ctrls >Numbering >Element/Attr Numbering

Choose Plot > Elements to see the elements and the nodes

Tutorial 3 6/14

Step 6: Specify Boundary Conditions & Loading

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement >

On Keypoint

Set UX, UY as 0. Click Apply.

Apply Loading:

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural >Force/Moment >

On Keypoint

Now select Keypoint 5.

Select FY and enter -50000 as the Force value.

Tutorial 3 7/14

Apply distributed load

Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Pressure> On Beams

Now select all elements between point A and B by click on Box and drag a box to cover all

the elements.

Click OK.

For uniform distributed load, enter VALI = 200e3 kN/m

Note that, the positive value indicates the direction of pressure acting inward the beam

surface.

Tutorial 3 8/14

Tutorial 3 9/14

Similarly, distributed loads on beam BC and CD can be added.

Step 7: Solve

Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS

Click OK in the Solve Current Load Step pop up window.

Plot Deformed Shape

Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot> Nodal Solution

Select DOF solution> UY

In Items to be plotted, select Deformed+Undeformed

Click OK

Tutorial 3 10/14

Create Element Table

Main Menu > General Post Proc > Element Table > Define Table

Click Add.

In the next window select By Sequence number, in the right window select SMISC and enter

SMISC, 6 at the bottom text box. (MMOMZ = Member moment at node i1)

Click Apply.

Then add SMISC, 12 (MMOMZ = Member moment at node j1)

Then add LS, 2,5 (SBYT = Bending stress on the element +Y side of the beam1)

Then add LS, 3,6 (SBYB = Bending stress on the element -Y side of the beam1)

Click OK

Click Close

1

See BEAM3 - Table 3.2 (Element Output Definitions) for description of each option.

Tutorial 3 11/14

Plotting Bending Moment Diagram

Main Menu > General Post Proc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Line Element Res

Tutorial 3 12/14

Similarly, you can plot the stresses at the top (or bottom) fibers of the beam by selecting LS2

(or LS3) from the list

Main Menu > General Post Proc > Element Table > List Element Table >

Select LS2 and LS3

Click OK

You will be able to see the bending stress values of each element in +Y and –Y direction and

the maximum stresses.

Tutorial 3 13/14

Calculate Load Factor

In this problem, the maximum moment is 979907 N ⋅ m

Load factor = 601650/979907 = 0.614

Tutorial 3 14/14

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