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,

1u

UNITS Name meter kilogram second ampere kelvin mole hertz newton pascal joule watt coulomb

2

PREFIXES Factor

10 9 10 6 10 3 10 10

−2 −3

= 1.66 10 -27 kg = 931 MeV/c 2

Symbol m kg s A K mol Hz N Pa J W C V

Ω

Prefix giga mega kilo centi milli micro nano pico

Symbol G M k c m

µ

Proton mass, Neutron mass, Electron mass, Magnitude of the electron charge, Avogadro’s number, Universal gas constant, Boltzmann’s constant, Speed of light, Planck’s constant,

m p = 1.67 × 10 −27 kg mn = 1.67 × 10 −27 kg me = 9.11 × 10

−31

kg

e = 1.60 × 10 −19 C

N0 = 6.02 × 10 23 mol −1

R = 8.31 J / ( mol ¼ K ) k B = 1.38 × 10 −23 J / K c = 3.00 × 10 8 m / s

h = 6.63 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s = 4.14 × 10

−15

10 −6 10 −9 10

−12

n p

eV ⋅ s

VALUES OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS FOR COMMON ANGLES

**hc = 1.99 × 10 −25 J ⋅ m = 1.24 × 10 3 eV ⋅ nm C / N⋅m
**

2 2 2

θ

0

o

sin θ 0 1/2 3/5

2 /2

cos θ 1

3 /2

tan θ 0

3 /3

Vacuum permittivity, Coulomb’s law constant, Vacuum permeability, Magnetic constant, Universal gravitational constant, Acceleration due to gravity at the Earth’s surface, 1 atmosphere pressure, 1 electron volt,

k = 1 / 4π

0

= 8.85 × 10

9

−12

**volt ohm henry farad tesla degree Celsius electronvolt
**

o

k

= µ 0 / 4π = 10 (T ⋅ m ) / A

−7

µ 0 = 4π × 10 −7 (T ⋅ m ) / A

0

= 9.0 × 10 N ⋅ m / C

30o

37o 45o 53o 60o 90o

H F T

C

4/5

2 /2

3/4 1 4/3

3

G

= 6.67 10 -11 m 3 / kg ¼ s 2

2

g = 9.8 m / s

4/5

3 /2

3/5 1/2 0

1 atm = 1.0 × 10 5 N / m 2 = 1.0 × 10 5 Pa

eV

1 eV = 1.60 × 10 −19 J

1

∞

The following conventions are used in this examination. I. Unless otherwise stated, the frame of reference of any problem is assumed to be inertial. II. The direction of any electric current is the direction of flow of positive charge (conventional current). III. For any isolated electric charge, the electric potential is defined as zero at an infinite distance from the charge. *IV. For mechanics and thermodynamics equations, W represents the work done on a system. *Not on the Table of Information for Physics C, since Thermodynamics is not a Physics C topic.

**ADVANCED PLACEMENT PHYSICS B EQUATIONS FOR 2002
**

NEWTONIAN MECHANICS

**ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
**

F= E= 1 4p F q 1 4p q1 q 2 r q1 q 2 r2

u = u 0 + at

x = x0 + u0 t + 1 2 at 2

u 2 = u 0 2 + 2a x - x 0

Ê F = Fnet = ma F fric mN ac =

0

5

u2

r

t = rF sin q

p = mv J = FDt = K = 1 mu 2 2

Dp

DUg = mgh

W = F Pavg =

a = F = f = h = J = K = k = l = m= N = P = p = r = r = T = t = U= u = W= x = m= q = t =

acceleration force frequency height impulse kinetic energy spring constant length mass normal force power momentum radius or distance position vector period time potential energy velocity or speed work done on a system position coefficient of friction angle torque

0

A B C d E

0

UE = qV = E avg = − V= C= C= 1 4p Q V

0A

V d

0

∑r

i

qi

i

d 1 1 Uc = QV = CV 2 2 2 I avg = R= DQ Dt

area magnetic field capacitance distance electric field e emf F force I current l length P power Q charge q point charge R resistance r distance t time U potential (stored) energy V electric potential or potential difference u = velocity or speed r = resistivity fm = magnetic flux

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

**Dr = FDr cos q
**

W Dt

ρl A V = IR P = IV

C p = ∑ Ci

i

P = F v = Fu cos q Fs = - k x Us = 1 2 kx 2 m k l g

1 1 =∑ Cs i Ci Rs = ∑ Ri

i

Ts = 2 p Tp = 2 p T = 1 f

**1 1 =∑ Rp i Ri FB = qu B sin θ FB = BIl sin θ B=
**

m0 I 2p r

FG = UG = -

Gm1m2 r2 Gm1m2 r

fm = B • A = BA cos θ

eavg = − e = Blu

Dfm Dt

ADVANCED PLACEMENT PHYSICS B EQUATIONS FOR 2002 FLUID MECHANICS AND WAVES AND OPTICS THERMAL PHYSICS

p = p0 + rgh Fbuoy = rVg A1u1 = A2 u 2 1 p + rgy + ru 2 = const. 2 D l = a l 0 DT Q = mL Q = mcDT p = F A

pV = nRT K avg = 3 k T 2 B 3 RT = M 3k B T

u rms =

m

W = - pDV Q = ncDT

DU = Q + W DU = ncV DT

e = ec = W QH TH - TC TH

A = area c = specific heat or molar specific heat e = efficiency F = force h = depth Kavg = average molecular kinetic energy L = heat of transformation l = length M= molecular mass m = mass of sample n = number of moles p = pressure Q = heat transferred to a system T = temperature U = internal energy V = volume u = velocity or speed urms = root-mean-square velocity W = work done on a system y = height a = coefficient of linear expansion µ = mass of molecule r = density

u = fl c n = u n 1 sin q1 = n 2 sin q 2

sin q c = n2 n1

1 1 1 + = si s0 f M = f = hi s = - i s0 h0

R 2 d sin q = ml xm ml L d

d = separation f = frequency or focal length h = height L = distance M= magnification m = an integer n = index of refraction R = radius of curvature s = distance u = speed x = position l = wavelength q = angle

**GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY
**

Rectangle A = bh Triangle 1 A = bh 2 Circle A = pr 2 C = 2 pr Parallelepiped V = lwh Cylinder V = pr 2 l S = 2 pr l + 2 pr 2 Sphere 4 V = pr 3 3 S = 4 pr 2 Right Triangle a 2 + b2 = c2 a sin q = c b cos q = c a tan q = b

**ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS
**

E = hf = pc Kmax = hf − f

l =

A= C= V= S = b = h = l = w= r =

area circumference volume surface area base height length width radius

h p

DE = ( Dm) c 2

E f K m p l f

= = = = = = =

energy frequency kinetic energy mass momentum wavelength work function

c q b 90

a

**ADVANCED PLACEMENT PHYSICS C EQUATIONS FOR 2002 MECHANICS ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
**

F= E= 1 4p F q Q

0

u = u 0 + at

1 2 at 2 u 2 = u 0 2 + 2a x - x 0 Ê F = Fnet = ma dp F = dt J = F dt = Dp p = mv F fric mN x = x0 + u 0 t +

0

5

I

W = K = P = P = DU g ac =

IF

dr

1 mu 2 2 dW dt F v = mgh

r t=rF Ê t = t net = Ia

u 2 = w2r

I = r 2 dm = Ê mr 2 rcm = Ê mr Ê m u = rw L = r p = Iw 1 K = Iw 2 2 w = w0 + at q = q 0 + w0 t + 1 at 2 2 Fs = - kx 1 Us = kx 2 2 2p 1 T = = f w m Ts = 2 p k l Tp = 2 p g Gm1m2 $ FG = r r2 Gm1m2 UG = r

I

a = F = f = h = I = J = K = k = l = L = m= N = P = p = r = r = T = t = U= u = W= x = m= q = t = w= a =

acceleration force frequency height rotational inertia impulse kinetic energy spring constant length angular momentum mass normal force power momentum radius or distance position vector period time potential energy velocity or speed work done on a system position coefficient of friction angle torque angular speed angular acceleration

0

q1 q 2 r2

A B C d E F I L l n

q1 q 2 r

E • dA = dV E=− dr 1 V= 4p 0

e

∑r

i

qi

i

= = = = = = = = = = =

UE = qV = Q C= V k A C= 0 d C p = ∑ Ci

i

1 4p

0

1 1 =∑ Cs i Ci dQ dt 1 1 Uc = QV = CV 2 2 2 rl R= A V = IR I= Rs = ∑ Ri

i

P = Q= q = R = r = t = U= V = u = r = fm = k =

area magnetic field capacitance distance electric field emf force current inductance length number of loops of wire per unit length power charge point charge resistance distance time potential or stored energy electric potential

velocity or speed

resistivity magnetic flux dielectric constant

1 1 =∑ Rp i Ri P = IV FM = qv × B B • d ø = m0 I F = I dø × B Bs = m0 nI

fm = B • dA

I

dfm dt dI e = −L dt 1 2 U L = LI 2

I

e=−

**ADVANCED PLACEMENT PHYSICS C EQUATIONS FOR 2002 GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY
**

Rectangle A = bh Triangle 1 A = bh 2 Circle A = pr 2 C = 2 pr Parallelepiped V = lwh Cylinder V = pr 2 l S = 2 prl + 2 pr 2 Sphere 4 V = pr 3 3 S = 4 pr 2 Right Triangle a 2 + b2 = c2 a sin q = c b cos q = c tan q = a b

A= C= V= S = b = h = l= w= r =

area circumference volume surface area base height length width radius

c q b 90

a

CALCULUS

df d f du = dx du dx d n n -1 x = nx dx d x e = ex dx d 1 (1n x) = dx x d (sin x) = cos x dx d (cos x) = - sin x dx 1 n +1 xn dx = x , n -1 n +1 e x dx = e x dx = 1n x x cos x dx = sin x

2 7 2 7

I I

I

I I sin x dx = - cos x

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