YORUBA

BASIC COURSE

This work was compiled and published with the support of the Office of Educafion, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, United States

of America<

EARL W. STEVICK, OlAlEYE AREMU

FOREIGN SERVItE INSTITUTE

WASHINGTON, D.C.

1963

D EPA R T MEN T

o F

S TAT E

FOREIGN SERVICE INSTITUTE BASIC COURSE SERIES Edited by

CARLETON ~ HODGE

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington 25. D.C. - Price 11.75

ii

YORUBA

PREFACE

Y oruba, unlike most African languages, has been made the subject of careful study by a number of competent scholars, who have produced for it highly useful dictionaries and grammatical studies. The primary goal of this book is therefore not so much to describe as to inculcate speech habits; matters of pronunciation and grammar which have, for the most part, been described thoroughly by previous writers are made the subject of an extensive set of drill materials, both printed and recorded.

This volume was prepared under an agreement with the Office of Education, Department of Health, EducatiOIl and Welfare, under the National Defense Education Act. The lessons which it contains were designed in the first instance for study with professional supervision and Y oruba-speaking instructors. The set of tapes which accompanies the course will be of value in supplementing work with a native teacher, and may also be used for study or review where no native speaker of the language is available. The tapes were prepared in the laboratory of the Foreign Service Institute, under the direction of Gabriel Cordova.

Most of the Y oruba sentences in this course were provided by Qlal'ty't Ar~mu and Josiah ~imar~n, with some additional materials being provided by Alexander Edwards and Samuel Adebonoj«. In addition, Ar'tmu and Edwards assumed important measures of responsibility in the revision of the original draft. The linguist in charge of the project was Earl W. Stevick, coordinator of the Special African Language Program.

The FSI staff members who have worked on the Y oruba text wish to express their gratitude for the existence of the dictionaries and other studies prepared in earlier years by Ida C. Ward, E.·C. Rowlands, R. C. Abraham, Hans Wolff, and the Church Missionary Society. Consultations with Robert Armstrong and Mark Hanna Watkins also proved most helpful. Without the labors of all these scholars, this book could not have appeared. The Foreign Service Institute of course assumes responsibility for the present work.

Howard E. Sollenberger, Dean School of Language and Area Studies Foreign Service Institute Department of State

iii

BASIC COURSE

Introduction

The organization of this course is based on three assumptions. (1) Yoruba is a moderately difficult language for Westerners to learn. (2) The greatest source of difficulty lies in the accurate hearing and reproduction of tone. These difficulties are sufficiently serious so that only the exceptionally talented student can learn rapidly and well from a course that slights the tonal aspect of the language. (3) Things to be learned--new skills to be acquired--should confront the student one at a time, and should be arranged in such an order that his progress will be as smooth as possible.

Accordingly, Yoruba Basic Course has been divided into a number of parts. First are three series of tone drills which concentrate respectively on the tone patterns of short vowels in short utterances, the tone patterns of long or double vowels in short utterances, and the tone patterns of longer utterances.

Following the tone drills is a series of 49 lesson units.

Of these, the first 20 introduce and drill those aspects of the grammar which involve changes in tone and vowel length. Notes and exercises accompany each unit.

Following the lesson units themselves is a series of sentences, somewhat in the style of a phrase book, from which the student is encouraged to choose those that suit his own needs. In addition to choosing the sentences, the student has the added responsibility of constructing his own exercises based on them.

The course as a whole, then, leads the student from tightly controlled work on qUite narrowly restricted drills, to the exercise of ever-increasing initiative and responsibility.

The ultimate goal of the present course is that the student should develop the ability to understand and use correct, idiomatic

iv

BASIC COURSE

Yoruba in the most common situations ln which he finds himself.

The development of this kind of competence will, however, require of teacher and student much that is not contained in this series of lessons. Omission of such material is Justified on the assumption that what has been provided will serve as a solid foundation for further development, and because it is believed that the contents of the published course will relieve the teacher of the most delicate and most tedious parts of lesson preparation.

There is, however, a necessary preliminary stage which must not be bypassed. This stage consists of mastering the mechanical aspects of the dialogues and exercises contained in the lessons. The immediate and indispensable goal and the sole criterion for evaluation of progress at this stage should be the students' ability to come forth with the 'desired responses', unhesitatingly and with accurate pronunciation.

The nature of the 'desired responses' to the tone drills is indicated clearly in the introduction to each series. For the dialogues, only three levels of achievement should be recognized, as implied ln the following questions:

1. Can the stUdents repeat accurately after the instructor all the sentences of the dialogue~ Books should be closed at this stage.

2. Can the stUdents read aloud from the book, with highly accurate pronunciation, all the sentences of the dialogue~

3. Can each student, with book closed, assume either role in the dialogue, going through it without hesitation and without mistakes~

For the exercises, the levels of achievement which are to be recognized are two:

1. Can the students repeat after the instructor all of the words and phrases in the exercise?

v

YORUBA

2. Can each student, with book closed, give the desired response to the 'cue' words or phrases in the exercise? (Ordinarily, the words or phrases in the left-hand column should be the first cues, and the phrases in the second column should be the desired responses to those cues. In a number of exercises, however, where there are three or more Yoruba columns, it is suggested that each column be used in its turn as a source of cues, with some other column as a source of the desired responses. Thus, the notation (1-2, 2-1) at the head of an exercise means that the first time through the exercise, the cues should be taken from Column 1 and the responses from Column 2; the second time through, the cues should be taken from Column 2, and the responses from Column 1.

The basic dialogues are presented in three parallel columns.

The left-hand column indicates pronunciation only. For this reaso~ it does not make use of capitalization, or of sentence-final punctuation. The center column gives a typical spelling of the same sentences according to present-day practice by educated speakers of the language. It does not claim to be representative of a standard, or norm, for spelling of the language. The third column consists of English equivalents.

Adherence to the following principles will help to assure smooth and efficient use of class time:

1. Hearing before speaking. The students should be given ample opportunity to hear a new word or phrase, with books closed, before they try to speak it __ still with books closed.

2. Speaking before reading. The students should achieve a highly acceptable pronunciation of each new word or phrase before they see it written on the blackboard or in their books.

vi

BASIC COURSE

3. Practice the lan~~. During the class per1od, there is little need for talking about the lesson, either in English or in Yoruba.

4. The student should correct his mistakes, not primarily by asking why they are wrong, or by requesting a grammatical explanation, but by repeating the correct form again and again until it becomes automatic.

NOTES ON THE PRONUNCIATION OF YORUBA

The Vowels of Yoruba

A general difference between the vowel sounds of Yoruba and those of English is that the Yoruba vowels are unglided. That is to say, there 1S no perceptible change in vowel quality during the production of the sound. The Jaw, tongue, and lips, whose pOSr tions determine vowel quality, remain relatively stationary during the pronunciation of a Yoruba vowel. By contrast, certain vowels in virtually all forms of English, and virtually all vowels in some forms of English, have a characteristic glide, which is most easily observable in words like ~ and~. During production of the vowel of ££, for example, the lips assume an increas1ngly rounded shape; in the vowel of may, the tongue moves toward a higher pos1tion, near the front of the mouth. This sort of motion of the organs of articulation is not characteristic of Yoruba vowels.

Yoruba has seven oral (i.e. non nasalized) vowels:

Spelling

Descr1pt1on

Examples

i

Reminiscent of the vowel ln English eat, but unglided.

IbI

'place' 'head'

,

or1

vii

YORUBA

IgI

Technically: a high front unrounded vowel.

'tree'

Next to a velar consonant, thls vowel sometlmes sounds

a bit different, something like the first vowel in

some Americans' pronunciation of silver, children.

Technically: a centralized high front unrounded vowel.

e

Reminiscent of the vowel In English fate, but more like

, d' e e

, v

lwe

'language' 'book'

, ,

the vowels in French ete.

It is important to avoid glidlng this sound.

Technically: a higher mid front unrounded vowel.

e

.

Similar to the vowel of English set.

,

~Sy

,

I~y

'leg' 'work'

Technically: a lower mid front unrounded vowel.

a

Similar to the vowel of Amerlcan English not.

,

awo

'pepper' 'plate'

Technically: a low central unrounded vowel.

o

Reminiscent of the vowel of loss in most English dlalects, but ungllded.

Dbo

. .

Dba

.

'monkey' 'king'

Technically: a lower mid back slightly rounded vowel.

viii

BASIC COURSE

of ,
0 Reminiscent the vowel of owo 'money'
but unglided. ,
English soak, odo 'river'
Technically: a mid back rounded vowel.
u Reminiscent of the vowel of otutu 'cold'
English toot, but unglided. ilu 'city'
Technically: a high back rounded vowel. Nasalized vowels. Three general statements may be made about nasalization of vowels:

1. Those vowels that are subject to nasalization are auto_ matically nasalized in a syllable that begins with a nasal consonant (i.e. m or n). The vowels 0 and e are not subject to nasalization in the same way in which the other vowels are.

2. All nasalized vowels are slightly centralized as compared with their non-nasal counterparts.

3. If a syllable containing a nasalized vowel begins with one of the consonants~, ~, £, then the nasalization includes the entire duration of the consonant as well as the vowel.

Notice that the letter n after the vowel letter is used as the orthographic symbol for nasalization in Yoruba.

An area of indeterminacy in the writlng of books In or on Yoruba is the treatment of the nasalized vowels written an and on. These probably contrast with one another in some dialects,

-

but not in others. The use of one or the other of these sounds

~x

YORUBA

in a glven word varies widely from one dialect to another. It has become customary to write £E after the labial consonants, and an

,

otherwise. This practice will be followed here, but the word rna

,

'don't' constitutes an exception. Compare ~ '(not) again.' These

words are pronounced alike by some speakers.

in

Reminiscent of the vowel ln English pinch.

, lSln

'worship' 'four'

, I

merln

,

Technically: a lower high front unrounded vowel, nasalized.

en

I

Reminiscent of the vowel in English bench.

'that'

Technically: a lower mid front unrounded vowel, nasalized.

an

Reminiscent of the vowel in British English aunt, or some times of the vowel in English bunch, sometimes the vowel in English launch.

on

I

eran 'meat'

..
lb6n 'gun'
,
..
m9 'to know'
..
na 'to flog' Technically: Respectively low central unrounded, lower mid central unrounded, lower back rounded nasalized vowels.

un

Reminlscent of the vowel in English June or the vowel in English won't.

sun

'to be angry' 'to sleep' 'for'

,

fun

Technically: a back rounded vowel with height varying from high to mid.

x

BASIC COURSE

These sounds are for all practical purposes the same as the corresponding sounds in English. The letter~, of course, always stands for the pronunciatlon of the first sound in ~, never for the flrst sound in gem.

The Consonants of Yoruba

b, d, g t, k

m, n

f

w, y

Before oral vowels, these letters stand for sounds that are virtually identical wlth their English counterparts.

,
we 'to sWlm,
.
bathe'
wu 'to please'
, v
eyl 'this'
,
ya 'to turn aside'
,
won 'they'
I
~Yln 'egg' Before nasal vowels, these consonants are nasalized, so that they sound almost

like sequences of a nasal consonant plus w or ~.

J

Reminiscent of the consonant sound in English

Joe, but with less friction.

,

JO

'to dance' 'far'

,

Jlnna

Technically: a vOlced blade palatal stop with little or no affrication.

h

Similar to the consonant of English hoe, but less strongly pronounced.

,

ho

ohun

'to boil'

'voice'

s, s Reminiscent of the con so- se 'do!
I .
nan t sounds In English lson 'muscle,
I, sinew'
xi YORUBA

~, she respectively, but the Yoruba sounds

,

se

aso

• I

'cook' 'cloth'

are higher in pitch

than their English counterparts. For some speakers, Yoruba s sounds almost like English

(and Yoruba) s.

n, m,

Yoruba has a syllabic nasal sound which is produced, depending on

its environment, ln the same position as the consonants m and n, or in the same position as the last consonant sound in English ~oEB' It differs from these other sounds in its

nkan

'something' 'I will come'

_, v

n 0 wa

length, and in the fact that it always carries a tone.

When it stands before a consonant, the syllabic nasal assumes the position of articulation which is characteristic of that consonant. When it stands before a vowel, it is dorso-velar (like

the EE in song), and is transcribed in these materials with the letter~. Note that in the transcription employed here, the letter WhlCh stands for the syllabic nasal always stands under a tone mark, and also that in this system of transcription a tone mark never stands over the letter E unless the E does stand for the syllabic nasal.

, ,
r Reminiscent of the rara 'expression
sound spelled £. ln of negation)
British English very, ,
rl 'to see'
or of the Spanish sound in pero. But where the xii

BASIC COURSE

European sounds consist of taps against the gum ridge from below it, the usual Yoruba £ begins with the tongue bent back so that the tip is behind the gum ridge. It then taps against the gum ridge on the way down.

gb, P

This palr of consonants are likely to cause the learner as much difficulty as all of the other consonants and vowels of Yoruba combined.

Both £E and p are 'co-articulated stops, I pro_ nounced with simultaneous closure at the lips

(as for English big or Eig), and at the soft palate (as for English Eave, £ave). The two closures are released simultaneously, without any aspiration (puff of breath). The two sounds are identical except that £E is voiced, while E is voiceless. (Sounds like Yoruba ~ are spelled ~ in most other languages where they are found).

An approximation to this type of stop sound may be made by pronouncing the English phrase big

---

boy, and then trying to divide it after the first

vowel: bi-~. In learnlng the sounds properly, however, there is no substitute for many short periods of work with a speaker of Yoruba who can both provide an authentic model for imitation, and also tell the student immediately whether

his attempt at mimicry is accurate. The exercises which follow this section may prove useful as gUldes in this klnd of practice.

In pronouncing the syllables ~, ~: £9, £E9,

it is important not to make the vowels too tense, or to spread the lips in the production of ~ after E and .BE.

xiii

YORUBA

b vs. gb

a.

6ba (name of a river)

I

..

ogba

I

'garden, yard'

..

6ba

t

ogba

I

D

..

oba

I

..

oba

I

s

..

ogba

I

oba

I

D

..

ogba

I

s

.. .. 'chin' .. .. (type tree)
b. agbon abon of
I I
.. .. .. ..
agbon ab6n D
I I
.. .. .. ..
agbon agbon S
I I
.. .. .. ..
abon agbon D
I I
.. ~ .. ..
abon abon S
I I c.

..

gba

'to get'

,; ,

agbada

'man's outer garment'

,

gbo

'old'

,.. .L

bE{ynl

'yes'

.. ..

bata

'shoe'

.. -

lbon

I

'gun'

, , bawo

thow~ ,

, ,

gblgbo

'old'

,

igba

'calabash'

.... ..

aabo

I

'half'

oba

I

'king'

.. -

agbon

I

'coconut'

, '"

baYl

'now'

.. '"

egbon

I I

'older sibling'

.. v

Obl

'parent'

.. -

obe

I I

'knife'

.. ..

19ba

'time I

.. .. ..

lbusun

'bed'

ebi

'hunger'

,

gbe

'take'

xiv

BASIC COURSE

d. Sound sequences for practice with a live tutor.
gbi gbin gbu gbun igbi igbin ugbu ugbun
gbe gbo egbe ogbo
gbe gbo gbon egbe ogbo ogbon
I I I I I I I I I
gba agba
gb vs. p
, ,
a. Igba 'calabash' Ipa "e p t Lep ay '
, ,
19ba lpa D
, ,
19ba 19ba S
, ,
ipa 19ba D
, ,
lpa Epa S , , , ,
b. lpe 'call' 19be 'illegal punishment'
, , , ,
lpe 19be D
, ,
lpe lpe S
, , , ,
19be lpe D
, , , ,
19be 19be S , , 'field' gbadun 'interesting
c. papa
, , ,
gblgbo 'old' po 'cheap'
I
, v , , ,
9pa 'walking stick' lagbaJa 'so-and- so '
, v ' v
egbon 'older sibling' pelu 'with'
I I I
, , , , (name
adupe 'thank you' dugbe of a
, street)
, v , , (a city) , v ,
E(PE( Epe opopo 'street'
I I xv

YORUBA

, v

sugbon

I ,

'but'

'kill'

'forget'

,

egbe

I I

, c ornpa n i.o n '

, ,

P<;>Ju

'be abundant'

, v ,

apotl

'box'

- '

parl

'finish'

,
d. abo 'metal bowl'
,
,
agbo 'we heard'
I
,
apo 'we squeezed'
I
aba 'klng'
I
ogba 'equal'
I
opa 'wra t.h '
I
, , (type tree)
abon of
I
, ,
agbon 'chin'
I
, , (type frui t )
ap<;>n of e. Sound sequences for practice with a live tutor
pi pin pu pun ipi ipin upu upun
pe po epe opo
pe po pon ~PE( 9P<;> 9P<;>n
I I I
pa apa The Tones of Yoruba

In transcribing the pitch phenomena of Yoruba for beginning foreign students of the language, it is expedient to write in terms of six tones: four level ones, and two glides. This is true even though for those to whom Yoruba is the mother tongue,

xvi

BASIC COURSE

or for advanced non-Yoruba students, a three-way distinction among high, mid and low is sufficient for all practical purposes.

The tone marks have the following values&

Symbol

Value

,

a

High level pitch

Mid level pitch

I

a

, Se corid ' tone: level pitch slightly lower than mid level would be in the same tonal environments.

Examples

,

fe

I

'to want'

, ,

slle

'to the house'

- '

Slse

I I

'to work'

10 'go'
I
, 'with
n i sfl reference

to yam'
Smo 'child'
I I
, I
latl 'from, by, etc.
omo I child'
kan 'one
(some dialects only)
, I
meta '3 '
I , ,
a Low level pitch ra 'buy'
,
eYln 'palm nuts'
I
, It '
nl flla 'with ref. to a
hat'
(some dialects only)
" Rlsing pitch. slID. 'to the
a town'
(1) , v
After or , v
, rna wa 'don't come' XVll

YORUBA

the rise starts at lowest level and rises part of

the way toward the highest.

(2) After other tones, the rise starts approximately at the middle level and rises to the highest.

, A .., v

-ille marun

'5 shillings'

v

qm9 yl 'this child'

(some dialects only)

, v

llu

'town'

In general, the beginning and ending points of the glide vary somewhat with the tonal environment and with the style and tempo of speech •

Falling pitch. As with the rising glide, beginning and ending points vary somewhat according to the tonal environment and with the style and tempo of speech. Falling pitch is

...

a

'to the market'

, v

found almost exclusively after or

The special tone mark j( means that for some speakers the syllable has high tone, for others low tone, and for still others falling tone.

The symbol I stands for a high tone at the end of the last syllable that precedes it; this sign is most frequently found after a noun or noun phrase which is the subJect of a verb. After I, syllabl~s with baslc low tone have falling tone.

xviii

BASIC COURSE

Tonal differences among speakers of Yoruba

Depending on the anea from which a speaker comes, certain additional tonal phenomena may be noted. Low tone at the beginning

, , ,

of a word e.g. ewu 'garment' obe 'knife' is pronounced by most

~ ~

with low level pitch, but a falling contour may also be heard from

some. A mid tone followed directly by rise or second tone is pronounced by most speakers with mid level pitch, but a fall may be heard here also. Finally, the tone of a word in one part of the Western Region may be different from the tone of the same word somewhere else: the word ri 'to see' has high tone for most speakers, but mid tone for others.

Vowel length

What is phonetically a single vowel in Yoruba may occur with one of two contrasting degrees of length. If we use the word 'mora' to stand for a unit of vowel length, then a long vowel has two moras, while a short vowel has only one. In the system of transcription used in this course, two-mora vowels are indicated in three different ways:

(1) When the long vowel results from assimilation of a word-final vowel to the word initial vowel that follows it, the extra mora is indicated by a dot followed by the

, ,

vowel letter: se 6 16 s·o 16 'did you go?'

I I' I

(2) When the long vowel results from the assimilation of a word-initial vowel to the word-final vowel that precedes it, the extra mora is indicated by a dot following the

, , v " v

vowel letter: lIe lwe lle·we 'school'

xix

YORUBA

The same symbolism is used for moras that are not pronounced except following another word:

,

11e

'house'

.. v

baba

'father'

,.. -

11e· ma

'my house'

, ""

11eTbaba

'fa ther' shouse'

(3) Otherwise, the two-mora vowels are written with double vowel letters:

, ..

bee

I I

, ..

'like that' 'the, that' 'ball'

naa

, It ..

boolu

I I

It should be noted that as far as pronunciation is concerned, these three manners of writing two-mora vowels are completely

equivalent to one another: be pronounced identically.

s~6 16, s~Y In and s~o 16 would all

I I' T , I

Vowels may also occur in sequence with no intervening consonant, but with a syllable boundary between them. The hyphen 1S used when an explicit symbol 1S needed for this juncture.

, ,

o goT

I

'he 1S t1red'

, '-

o gq-q

'you are t1red'

In the system of transcription employed here, the space between words has no phonetic value. It is inserted to set off units that have been established on other than phonological grounds, and serves incidentally the orthographic function of distinguishing

the sequence (nasal vowel, oral vowel) from the sequence (oral vowel, E, vowel):

, 'v ,

aw6n o ba ·ml

I

'my parents'

, ..

aw6 naa

I

'the leather'

xx

BASIC COURSE

I Condensa tion I

Most frequently, each unit of vowel length in Yoruba carries one and only one of the six tones, and the tone on the second mora is either low, mid, or high. It sometimes happens, however, that a tonal sequence that ordinarily occup1es two moras is pronounced with the length of only one. Because in such cases the two-mora pronunciation is usually optional, the name 'condensation' has be been applied to this phenomenon. 'Condensed' forms are not ordinarily indicated in this course, but they may be represented graphically by writing the latter of the two tones over a blank

space:
, , ,
Uncondensed: e gbe'" 10 slle
I I
, - , ,
Condensed: e gbe 10 slle
I I 'take him, go home'

II

"

II

"

,

The vowel represented by gbe~ consists of two moras, while

,-

the vowel represented by ~ consists of only one.

Tone Drills

Tone 1S a difficult but indispensable part of the Yoruba language. It is used not only as a means of differentiating among the members of countless sets of otherwise identical words, but also as an 1mportant grammatical signalling device. Anyone who wants to understand Yoruba easily or speak it intelligibly must use tone with at least reasonable accuracy.

For this reason, three series of tone drills have been placed at the beginning of this course. Their length may seem formidable to the beginning student, but it is recommended that from 25 to

So hours out of the first 100-150 hours of study be devoted to them. Later, the stUdent will find that almost all of the words

xxi

YORUBA

and phrases which he has practiced under the guise of tone drills will reappear in the regular numbered units of the course, and the tonal difficulties in the dialogues and exercises of those units will be greatly reduced if they have first been tackled systematically.

Series I. Tone contrasts on one-mora vowels.

If a tape recorder is available, it is suggested that the student listen to each drill a few times before using it with a live instructor. At this stage, he should attempt to give the English responses only.

With a Yoruba-speaking instructor, the drills should be used first for listening practice, then for direct mimicry after the instructor, and finally as a script from which the student reads aloud to the instructor.

xxii

BASIC COURSE

Preface

TABLE OF CONTENTS

................................................

iii

In tr a du c t ion

Tone Drills
Series I-
I.
2.
3.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24·
25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

lV

Tone contrasts on Single-mora vowels ...••. 1-49

Low Rise vs. Low Low ••.•••••.•.•.••.•••.•• 1

High Fall vs. High High ..•••....•••.....•. 2

Low Rise vs. High Fall High High vs. Mid High

3 5 7 9 11

13 15 17 19 22

24 26 28 30 32 High High vs. Mid Mid ••...•.•............. 34

· .

· .

High Mid vs. Mid Mid ••.•.•..•.•.....•...•.

Mid Mid vs. Low Mid •..•...••........••....

High High vs. High Mid •.•....•.•••.•.••..•

Mid High vs. Mid Mid ••...•••..........•...

Mid Mid vs.

Mid Low

. .

Low Mid vs.

Low Low

. .

Mid High vs. Low Rise High Fall vs. Mid Low

. .

Mid Low vs. Low Low •••.•.•.•...•....•.•...

High Mid vs. High Fall · ...................
Low Rise vs. Low Mid · .....................
Mid High vs. Low Mid · .....................
High Mid vs. Mid Low · ..................... Mid Mid vs. Low Low ..••...•••............. 36

Review. • . • • . .•••• .• .••• . . . •. .. . •• •• •• • •.•• 39

40 42 44

Rise vs. Fall in larger context ......•.... 46

High Rise High vs. High Mid High 47

One mora vs. two, level pitch . ............
One mora vs. two, glides . .................
High Mid vs. High Second . ................. XXlll

YORUBA

26.
27.
2B.
29.
30.
Serles II.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
B.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
lB.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23. High Mid High vs. High Second High ..•••.• High High Fall vs. High X Low ....•.•••...

47 4B 4B 4B 49

ft r

If

II

rr

If

............

High Mid VB. High X .

Alternating Rises and Falls •......••..•••

Tone contrasts on two-mora vowels •.•.•••.

50-63 53

53 54

Low-RISE LOW-Mid VB. Low-LOW LOW-Mid Low-HIGH LOW-Mid vs. Low-MID LOW-Mid

Combination of Drills 1 and 2 .

Extension of Drill 3 to segmentally diverse

utterance s 54

Mid-HIGH LOW-Mid VB. Mid-MID LOW-Mid .•... 55 Mid-MID LOW-Mid vs. Mid-LOW LOW-Mld •..••• 55 Extension of Drills 5 and 6 to segmentally

diverse utterances ••..•..•.•..•.•....•• 55

Combination of all preceding drills •..... 56 High-HIGH LOW-Mid v s , High-MID LOvf-Mid ... 56 High-FALL LOW-Mid vs. High-MID LOW-Mid .•. 57 High-HIGH LOW-Mid vs. High-FALL LOW-Mid.. 57

Combination of Drills 9, 10 and 11 57

Extension of Drill 12 to segmentally

diverse utterances ••.•.••••••••.••.•••• 5B

Mid-HIGH MID-Mid vs. Mid-MID MID-Mid ••..• 5B Mid-MID MID-Mid vs. Mid-LOW MID-Mid...... 5B

Combination of Drills 14 and 15 5B

Mid-HIGH MID-Low vs. Mid-MID MID-Low •.••• 59 Mid-MID MID-Low VB. Mid-LOW MID-Low .••..• 59 Extension of Drills 17 and lB to segmentally

diverse utterances •..•.•.••.••.••••.••. 59

Mid-MID LOW-Mid VB. Mid-MID MID-Low .•.•.. 60 Mid-HIGH LOW-Mid vs. Mid-HIGH MID-Low.... 60 Extension of Drills 20 and 21 ...........• 60 Low-RISE MID-Low vs. Low-MID MID-Low •••.• 61

xxiv

BASIC COURSE

24·
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
Series III.
1.
2.
3.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9. Lesson Units

High-SECOND MID-Mid vs. High-SECOND SECOND-

Mi d •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

High-MID MID-Low vs. High-SECOND SECOND-Low High-HIGH MID-Low vs. High-MID MID-Low .... High-SECOND LOW-Mid vs. High-MID LOW-Mid .. High-SECOND MID-Low vs. High-MID MID-Low ... High-SECOND Low-Mid vs. High-FALL LOW-Mid.

Tone s in longer phra s e s .•.•••.•.... _ ••.•.•

· .

· .

· .

· .

· .

· .

· .

· .

· .

Units 1-20: Short dialogues; morphophonemlcs of tone and length; supplementary vocabulary

Unit 1

..............................................

A. Dialogue:

B. Notes:

'How are you,?'

1.

1 sg. and 2 sg. subject pronouns, mo and 0 s~, introducing yes-no questions

.....,_

,

'Assimilation' of the vowel of se -+-

61 61 62 62 63 63

64-71 64

65

65

66

66

67

68

69

70

73

C. Exercises

D. Supplementary material:

1. Places, and some activities associated with them

2.

,

2. 'Elision' with Sl 'to'

xxv

YORUBA

Unit 2

· .

A.

Dialogue:

'Are you in good health~'

B. Notes:

1. 1 pl. and 2 pl. subject pronouns a and e

, -+-

2. 'Assimilation' with s~

-+--

3. Tones of nI: mid or second depending on

environment. Alternation of mid and second tone s

C. Exercises

D. Supplementary material: 1. Days of the week 2. 'Elision' with nI

Unit 3

· .

A.

'Good evening. I

B.

Dialogue:

Notes:

1. Tone classes of verbs: low vs. mid.

2. Alternation of low and falling tones,

, A

in s9ja

C. Exercises

D. Supplementary material: Some greetings, and the words on which they are based

Unit 4

· .

A.

Dialogue:

'Excuse me. What is this~ r

B. Notes:

1. nI in a 'naming construction. '

2. Extra mora before rk{nI

3. Tone classes of nouns

4. 'Smoothing' of the rising tone before mid tone when there is no intervening consonant

5. The meaning of ~

xxvi

77

81

85

BASIC COURSE

C. Exercises

D. Supplementary material:

1. Miscellaneous useful nouns. Non-contraction of infrequent or ambiguous combinations

Unit 5

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ' •• It ••••••••

90

A.

Dialogue:

'How are you doing~ ••. Did you sell the km.f'e z'

B. Notes:

1. Literal meaning of a se t61uwa

2. Elision between verb and object

3. Quasi-automatic change of high tone to rise after low

C. Exercises

D. Supplementary material, Some modifiers of nouns

Unit 6

· .

95

B.

Dialogue I Notes:

1. Elision involving i

2. Low verb before an object in deliberate

'I want to buy a book. '

A.

style has mid tone

C. Exercises

D. Supplementary material: Some additional modifiers of nouns

Unit 7

· .

99

B.

Dialogue:

Notes:

'He got a pair of shoes. '

A.

,

1. Third singular subject pronoun, 0

2. Low verbs have mid tone before objects that begin with consonants

xxvii

YORUBA

,

3. ~ assimilated to 2 sg., but elided

with 3 ag-

4. The 'X' tone: High Low Low becomes High High Low.

C. Exercises

D. Supplementary material:

1. Some additional modifiers of nouns Verb plus c,{- functioning as a noun modifier.

Unlt 8

· .

A.

Dialogue:

'What did Ojo buy~ 1

B. Notes:

1. Elision of mid verbs before a noun object that begins with a vowel

2. A low verb in deliberate style followed by a mid tone initial vowel has mid tone

3. ni plus most vowels becomes 1.

C. Exercises

D Supplementary material: Some useful nouns,

including common foodstuffs

Unlt 9

· .

A. B.

'Where are my books~ ,

Dialogue:

Notes:

1. ni plus most vowels becomes 1.

2. Possessives for 1 sg. and 2 sg.

C. Exercises

D. Supplementary material: Some nouns used in talking about locations.

Unit 10

· . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A.

Dialogue:

'I tore my book. '

x.xviii

104

loB

112

BASIC COURSE

B. Notes;

"

1. A separable pair of verbs: fa 1!

2. A verb (Ie) whose use makes it comparable to English prepositions.

c. Exercises

D. Supplementary material. Reasons for feeling

uncomforta ble.

Sample quiz to follow Unit 10 •.....•....•.•.. 119

Unit 11

· . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

120

A.

Dialogue:

'What do you want~'

B. Notes:

1. A high verb keeps its tone in elision.

C. Exercises.

D. Supplementary material:

1. Answers to 'What do you want~'

2. Answers to 'What do you want to do~'

Unit 12

· . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

125

A.

Dialogue:

'Do you have any writlng paper~'

B. Notes:

" .....
1. nje as a question marker.
2. A rising tone is r-e ta i ne d when elision
brings it into position directly after
a high tone. 3. 4.

The plural imperative.

, ,

fun rn.,

C. Exercises.

D. Supplementary materials: Numbers, 1-10.

Unlt 13

· .

130

A.

Dialogue:

'I'm starving. '

xxix

YORUBA

B. Notes.

1. Mid and low verbs in final position.

2. Mid and low verbs in elision.

3. Mid and low verbs in deliberate style before a direct object.

4. The verb jf is not intransitive.

C. Exercises.

D. Supplementary material: Seventeen foodstuffs.

Unlt 14 A.

.............................................

Dialogue:

'What did you have to drink this morning'"

B. Notes:

,

1. Another separable pair of verbs: fl ... Sl.

C. Exercises.

D. Supplementary material: Things to drink.

Unit 15

A. B.

'Bring the cutlass.'

Dialogue:

Notes:

1. Affirmative imperatives.

2. ' fetch' = , go, get _, come.' 3. Negative imperative.

C. Exercises.

D. Supplementary materials. Places.

Unit 16

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A.

Dialogue.

'Where are you gOing" '

B. Notes:

1. The n-tense.

2. Lengthening of the vowel of a verb.

C. EXercises.

D. Supplementary materials: Actions often expressed with the n-tense.

xxx

136

139

143

BASIC COURSE

Unit 17

· .

A.

Dialogue:

'I took our child to school.'

B. Notes:

1. Possessive, 1 plural.

2. Possessive, 3 singular.

3. f~n as translation of 'for'

C. Exercises.

D. Supplementary materials: Place names in the Western Region, and in the vicinity of Lagos.

Unit 18

· .

A.

Dialogue:

'Who are they'"

B. Notes:

1. Possessives, 2 pl. and 3 pl.

C. Exercises.

D. Supplementary materials: Nouns expressing personal relationshlps.

Unit 19

· . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A.

Dialogue:

'Father gave you gifts. '

B. Notes:

1. Pronoun object after high verbs, 1 sg., 2 p L, , 3 pl.

2. Noun plus noun, when the second noun is in a genitival relation to the first.

3. Possessive construction with nouns.

C. Exercises.

Unit 20

· .

A.

Dialogue:

'A thief got into our house. '

B. Notes:

1. Tone change of noun expressions before verbs.

xxxi

157

162

166

YORUBA

c. Exercises.

D. Vocabulary Review.

Sample quiz to follow Unlt 20 •.•..•......•• 169 Unit 21-49. Longer dialogues

Unit 21

· .

171

A.

Dialogue.

'Hello in there} ,

B. Notes:

1.

Full forms of personal subject pronouns. Subject pronouns with nl.

2. 3.

• v

pelu: an inseparable verb-noun combina-

~

tion.

C. Exercises.

Unlt 22.

· .

174

A.

Dialogue:

'Is there some reason for our

see ing you", '

B. Notes: 1-4. Negative with kG.

C. Exercises.

Unit 23

· .

179

A. B.

Dialogues Note s .

'I'm not angry any more. '

C. Exercises.

Unit 24

· .

181

A.

Dialogue:

'We should know one another. '

B. Notes,

1. 2. 3.

k{ plus subject pronoun.

The reciprocal/reflexive construction.

, ,

The noun bee. -++

C. Exercises.

xxxii

BASIC COURSE

Unit 25

· .

A.

Dialogue:

'I've Just arrived here.'

B. Notes:

1. nl with persons and numbers other than 3 sg.

, ,

2. k~·se ..• (negative counterpart of nl).

C. Exercises.

Unit 26

· .

A.

Dialogue:

'I'm a student.'

B. Notes:

1. 3 sg. object pronoun.

2. Tones of object pronouns with low verbs.

C. Exercises.

Unit 27

· .

A.

Dialogues

'Tio, I hear that you bought a house. '

B. Notes:

1. 2. 3.

,

kl as the first in a sequence of verbs.

, v , v

elo vs. melo.

Ei followed by a clause.

C. Exercises.

Unit 28

· .

A.

Dialogue:

'Do you know the way?'

B. Notes:

1. to plus impersonal objects.

--+

,

2. k9ja1 another inseparable verb-noun

c omb i na tion.

3. Noun plus noun in genitival relationship.

C. Exercise s ,

xxxiii

185

188

192

195

YORUBA

Unit 29

· .

A.

'Cross Duro Rd. '

Dialogue:

B. Notes:

1. 2. 3.

A separable verb combination: fo The impersonal verb lie

,

6wo in expressions of left and right. -t--+

,

da.

C. EXercises.

Review .

Unlt 31

· .

A.

Dialogue:

'My friend, I'd like you to know

me. '

B. Notes:

1. Absence of an extra vowel mora between

ti. and k{.

2. Final tone of a noun expression as
,
subject of a kl- clause.
3. Elision of nl with a following noun. C. Exercises.

Una t 32

· .

A.

Dialogue:

'Sam is two years old now. '

B. Notes:

,

1. Future tense with o.

2. Tonal alternation of high and mid verbs in the 6-future.

3. Absence of tonal change in noun subjects before 6-future.

C. Exercises.

Unit 33

· .

A.

Dialogue:

'My name is

xxxiv

198

202

204

208

212

BASIC COURSE

B. No te s:
, ,
1. k i. ••• to ... 'before. '
2. of of ' ,
One the uses la t i .
3. The future with a- . C. Exercises.

Unlt 34 A.

· .

Dialogue:

'I want to go to Kingsway. '

B. Notes:

1. Negatives with ki:.

2. The verb-noun combination Juwe.

C. Exercises.

Unit 35

· . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A.

Dialogues Notes:

'Get a bus along Ikoyi Rd. '

B.

, ,

1. tltl •.• fI ... 'until.'

,

2. tl in relative constructions.

C. Exercises.

Unit 36

· . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A.

Dialogue:

'I saw the things you bought. '

B. Notes:

1. latl after gbagbe.

2. An unusual parallel with English.

C. Exercises.

Unit 37

· .

A. B.

Dialogue. Notes:

'Will you eat eko~' -

,

1. ba plus object plus verb.

2. tI as an indicator of tense/aspect.

3. Tone-change on the last syllable of a clause used as the subject of a verb. xxxv

215

218

221

224

YORUBA

4.

, ,

naa as a translation of 'also.'

C. Exercises.

Uni t 38

· .

A.

Dialoguel

'Do you know our house~ ,

B. Notes:

1. The particle ma~ / ma~.

2. Hours and half-hours.

3. Times of day.

C. Exercises.

Unit 39

· .

A. B.

Dialogue:

Notes:

1. The particle ~.

'Sit down. We'll be right back.'

2. Negative counterparts of affirmative verbs with tI.

3.

The verbal expression f~re.

~

C. Exercises.

Unit 40

· .

A.

Dialogue:

'It is pounded yam you prepared. '

B. Notes:

,

1. Emphatic mao

2. ri 'be sated.'

,

3. tun plus verb.

4. Alternative ways of expressing the negative of repeated action.

C. Exercises.

Unit 41 A.

· .

Dialoguel

'I bought a mat in the market. '

xxxvi

227

231

234

238

BASIC COURSE

B. Notes:

1. Questions concerning quantity.

2. Independent possessive pronouns.

C. Exercises.

Unit 42

· . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A. Dialogue a 'How much is your cloth~'

B. Notes:

1. The numbers 11 to 30.

C. Exercises.

Unit 43 A.

· . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Dialogue:

'I want to buy another one. '

B. Notes I

1. The tens from 40-200.

2. The modern terms for Nigerian currency.

C. Exercises.

Una t 44 A.

· .

Dialogue:

'I'll be right with you.'

B. Notes:

1. 'Why'? '

2. Answers to why-questions.

3. Consecutive clauses wlth s~.

4. Names of some kinds of edible animals.

C. Exercises.

Unit 45

· .

A.

Dialogue:

'Buy some soup lngredlents.'

B. Notes:

1.

Negative future with ko

v

nl.

2. 'How many shillings' worth'?'

C. Exercises.

xxxvii

247

252

256

YORUBA

Uni t 46 A. B.

· .

Dialogue:

Notes:

'My work is difficult.'

1.

, .

An additional use of latl: 'must.'

C. Exercises.

Unit 47 A.

· .

B. Notes:

Dialogue:

'I am a clerk.'

, ,

1. Conditional if-clauses: bl ... ba ...

C. Exercises.

Unit 48 A. B.

· . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Dialogue:

Notes:

'I'm a Forelgn Service Officer.'

,

1. won as a pluralizer with demonstratives.

-

2. Derived nouns.

· . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A. Dialogue: 'Working late. '

50

A phrase-book supplement to Units 1-49 .....• Group 1: Talking about the use of Yoruba •••

Group 2:
Group 3:
Group 4:
Group 5:
Group 6:
Group 7:
Group 8: Classroom Phrases

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

256

261

265

267

270 270 273

Climate and Weather .•••..•.•.••.•• 278 Foodstuffs and cooking •..•.•.•..•• 283 House and furniture •.•.•••.•...•.• 289

xxxviii

Child care •••••••...•..•.•.....•.. 291

Illness and Ln jur-y •••••••••••••••• 296

Miscellaneous ..•.•.....•.•..•..•.• 302

Glossary 309

BASIC COURSE

Yoruba Phonologlcal Drllls

1. Low Rlse VS. Low Low.

.. v .. ..
a. 19ba 'locust tree '; 19ba
19ba .. ..
19ba
.. v 19ba
19ba
.. .. .. ..,
19ba 19ba
.. .. .. ..
19ba 19ba 'tlme'

D

s

1) S

.. v (proper name) .. ..
b. oJo 'OJo' oJo 'raln'
.. v .. ..
oJo oJo D
.. v .. v
oJo oJo S
.. .. .. v
oJo oJo D
.. .. .. ..
oJo oJo S .. .. .. v
c. llu 'drum' lwe 'book' D
.. .. .. ..
ewu "sh i.r t t llu 'drum' S
I
keke .. .. 'shoe (s) ,
"b r.cyc Le ' bata D
I I
keke .. v
lwe S
I I
.. v .. ..
9pa 'walklng stlck' wara 'rm Lk ' D
.. .. .. v
flla 'hat' 9pa D
.. .. .. v D
a de 'fetter' lwe
.. .. .. ..
lde flla S
.. v .. ..
lwe lde D
.. v .. ..
owu 'cotton' llu 'drum' D
_1_ YORUBA

d. Reply by namlng the tones of each word, elther LOW RISE
or LOW LOW.
, , 'drum' Low Low
llu
, ,
ewu Low Low

, v
lwe Low Rlse
, ,
oJo 'raln' Low Low
igba 'locust tree' Low Rlse
keke Low Rlse
I I
, ,
flla Low Low
, v
qpa Low Ri se
, ,
bata Low Low
, v
owu 'cotton' Low Rlse 2. Hlgh Fall vs. Hlgh Hlgh

Reply SAME or DIFFERENT.

, , , "
a. koko 'knot, lump' ; koko 'type of yam'
k6ko , ,
koko D
, '" , "
koko koko S
, , ,
koko kOko D
, , , ,
koko koko S , , , "
b. 0 wa 'he came' ; 0 wa
, , , '"
0 wa 0 wa
, , , ,
0 wa 0 wa 'he eXlsts'

D

S

-2-

BASIC COURSE

, 1\ o wa

, #

o wa

, ,.

o wa

, ,.

o wa

D S

, ,. , ,..
c. 0 ra 'he bought' won ra 'they bought' S
I
, ,. , ta
0 ra 0 'he sold' S
, ta , ,
0 0 rl 'he saw I D
, ,. , ,..
won ra 'they' 0 rln 'he walked' S
I
, ,. , ,
koko 'type yam' 0 fe 'he wants' D
I
, , , ,.
papa 'fleld' pup,? 'much' D
, , , ,.
papa won ra D
I
, ta , ,
0 koko 'knot I D
, , , ,.
won fe 'they want' pup,? D
I I
, ,. , ,.
pup,? koko 'type yam' S d. Reply HIGH FALL or HIGH HIGH
, , , kG.
papa Hlgh Hlgh 0 'lt remalns' Hlgh Fall
o ta , ,..
Hlgh Fall won ra Hlgh Fall
I
, ,.. Hlgh Fall , ,
koko won fe Hlgh Hlgh
I I
, , , ,.
koko Hlgh Hlgh pup,? Hlgh Fall
, , , ,
oku 'he d i.e d ' Hlgh Hlgh o rl 'he saw' Hlgh Hlgh 3. Low Ra se vs. Ha gh Fall

Reply SAME or DIFFERENT

a.

, v

koko 'cocoa';

, '"

koko

, v

koko

'type of yam' D

-3-

YORUBA

b.

odu

~ ...

koko

, v

koko

odu

odu

'klnd of pot herb'

'cocoa'

'locust tree'

'type yam'

d. Reply HIGH FALL or LOW RISE

c.

, v

lwe

, v

owu

, v

19ba

, '"

pup,?

, ...

pup,?

, v

lwe

, ...

koko

, v

lwe

, "

pup,?

Low Rlse

Hlgh Fall

, "

koko

, ,..

koko

,

o du

odu

odu

, '"

o du

, '"

koko

, v

,?pa

, '"

pup,?

, v

koko

, v

lwe

, "

o rln

, ,..

pup,?

-4-

S

D

S

'he competed'

'type yam'

'clty'

'type yam'

t c a tiy '

D

S

D

S

D

S

D

S

S

D

D

D

D

S

Low Ri se

Low Rlse

BASIC COURSE

• v

'locust tree' Low Rlse

owu

'type yam'

4. Ha.gh Ha.gh v s , Mld Ha.gh Reply SAME or DIFFERENT

a.

" , o wa

,

b. 6 fe

I

c.

6 f~

,

, ,

o wa

,

6 wa

, ,

o fe

I

6 f~

I

, ,

koko

, ,

papa

, ,

o wa

, ,

o wa

,

6 wa

,

6 wa

,

(5 fe

I

,

6 fe

I

, ,

o fe

1

, ,

o fe

,

'he came';

'you want';

'you want'

'he call1e'

'you came'

'he wants'

'you want'

Low Rlse

Hlgh Fall

,

6 wa

, ,

o wa

, ,

o wa

,

6 wa

, ,

o fe

I

6 f~

I

6 f~

I

, ,

o fe

I

, ~

won ra

I

w~n gba

1

,

(5 wa

~ f~

I

, ,

koko

,

ila

, ,

papa

, ,

papa

(5k~

1 ,

, ,

o wa

,

'0 wa

-5-

Hlgh Fall Hlgh Fall Hlgh Fall

'you came'

D

s

D

s

'he wants'

'knot'

t o kr-o '

'spade I

'he came

D

s

D

s

D

D

D

s

s

s

'you came'

D

YORUBA
- ' , ,
»k» 'spade' papa 'fl.eld' D
- ' , ,
l.la 0 fy 'he wanted' D
, , k1i
ako 0 'he dl.ed' D
I I
d. Reply MID HIGH or HIGH HIGH
ako 'spade' Ml.d Hl.gh oko
I I I I
, ,
papa Hl.gh Hl.gh papa
, ,
o wa 'he came' Hl.gh Hl.gh owa
ila Ml.d Hl.gh l.la
, , 'knot' Hl.gh Hl.gh
koko koko
, 'you want'
a fe Ml.d Hl.gh 0 fe
I I
, ,
0 fe 'he wants' Hl.gh Hl.gh o fe
I I
, ,
0 wa 'he came' Hl.gh Hl.gh o wa
,
a wa 'you came' Ml.d Hl.gh o wa
- ' 'calabash' Ml.d Hi.gh l.gba
l.gba e. Reply MID HIGH
two syllables.

, ,
a fowo
, , ,
0 fowo
, ,
a fowo
, , ,
ile nko
I
, , ,
kl.lo de or HIGH HIGH wl.th respect to the fl.rst

'you want money' Ml.d Hl.gh
'he wants money' Hl.gh Hl.gh
'we want money' Ml.d Hl.gh
'how are they at home~' Ml.d Hl.gh
'wha t happened' Hl.gh Hl.gh -6-

BASIC COURSE

f. Reply MID HIGH or HIGH HIGH w1th respect to the last two syllables.

, - '

k1lo fe

I

'what do you want~'

" ,

k1lo fe

I

'what does he want?'

,

mo roko

I I

M1d Ha.gh H1gh H1gh M1d H1gh M1d H1gh M1d Ha.gh

,

a. ragba

'I bought a spade'

'we bought a calabash'

, , A _,

amer1kB. n1wa

I

'we are Amer1cans'

g. The words and phrases from (d) are repeated 1n reverse order. Th1s t1me, the tape does not tell the names of

the tones. Cover all of (d) except the r1ght hand column. F1ll 1n the tone marks as you l1sten to the tape. Then check yourself by uncover1ng the left hand column.

5. H1gh M1d v s , M1d M1d

a.

,

o 10

I

'he went';

6 16

I

o 16

I ,

o 16

I

o 16

I

o 16

I ,

o 16

I

(J 16

I

6 16

I

6 16

I

b. 6 ga

'you are tall';

,

o ga

(5 ga (5 ga

,

o ga

,

o ga

,

o ga.

6 ga. 6 ga.

,

o ga.

c. eyin

I

, -

dara

eJa.

I

,

o 1(5

I ,

o 1(5

I ,

dara

'egg'

'1S good' 'f1sh'

-7-

'you went' D

S

D

S

'he 1S tall' D

S

D

S

'he went' 'he went'

D S D

YORUBA

8Ja eYln S
I I
IsD: 'yam' 15 115 'you went' S
I I
,
dara IsD: D
I
,
tobl 'lS blg' eYln 'egg' D
I
,
eJa tobl D
I
, ,
dara tobl S
, ,
tobl 0 10' 'he went' S
I
d. Reply MID MID or HIGH MID
eYln 'egg' Mld Mld E(Yln
I
eJa Mld Mld E(Ja
I
,
tobl Hlgh Mld tobl
IsD: Mld Mld lSU
I I
,
0 10' 'he went' Hlgh Mld 0 10
I I
,
dara Hlgh Mld dara
a 10' 'you went' Mld Mld 0 10
I I
,
kara Hlgh Mld kara
,
dara Hlgh Mld dara
a 10' 'you went' Mld Mld 0 10
I I e. Reply MID MID or HIGH MID wlth respect to the flrst two syllables.

, ,
kll0'7fe 'what do you wantz' Hlgh Mld
I
,
rna rO'ko 'I bought a spade' Mld Mld
I I
, ,
0 ri5ko 'he bought a spade' Hlgh Mld
I I
,
a ri5ko 'you bought a spade' Mld Mld
I I
, ,
soreYln 'dld he buy palm nuts? ' Hlgh Mld
I I f. Reply MID MID or HIGH MID wlth r~spect to the last two syllables.

,

o rasD:

I

, '-

o rlSU

I

'he bought yam' 'he obtalned yam' -8-

BASIC COURSE

,
a se toluwa 'we do God's wlll' Hlgh Mld
I
" , v there trouble?'
se ko slyonu 'lS no Mld Mld
I I
, v , ni 'It lS a box'
apotl Hlgh Mld
g. Now go back and flll In the tones In the rlght hand
column of (d) • 6. Mld Mld v s , Low Mld (1)
,
a. aro 'crlpple'; aro 'funnel'
I I
,
aro aro D
I I
aro aro s
I I
,
aro aro D
I I
.. ,
aro arc S
I I
,
b. awo 'pIa te '; awo 'secret'
,
awo awo D
, ,
awo awo S
,
awo awo D
awo awo s
, eyin
c. obe 'knlfe' 'egg' D
I I I
epo 'oll' mo-Ie 'r 'Went S
I
, , -
obo 'monkey' obe S
I I I •
mo 10 ' - D
<?bEf
I
, ~Ja 'flsh'
lbon 'gun' D
I
, ,
awo 'pIa te ' obo S
I I
,
oko 'husband' obo D
I I I I (1) What lS here called mld tone, when It stands after low tone, lS actually a blt lower In pltch than mld tone after mld or hlgh tone. It lS In fact at the level of what In later drllls wlll be called 'second tone. I

-9-

YORUBA
..
obe eyin 'egg' D
I I
mO' 10' .. - D
lbon
I I
epa ..
obO' D
I I d. Reply MID MID or LOW MID

.. - 'knlfe' Low obe
obe Mld
I I I I
epa Mld Mld epo
..
lbon Low Mld lbon
I I
eJa Mld Mld Epa
I
mala Mld Mld mo 10
I I
eyin 'egg' Mld Mld E(Yln
I
.. - Low
obo Mld obo
I I I I
..
ode 'outslde' Low Mld ode
aka 'husband' Mld Mld oko
I I I I
..
awO' 'plate' Low Mld awo
.e. Reply MID MID or LOW MID wlth respect to the flrst two
s;y:llables. .. ..

mO' gba bata

.. v" _ #

O'mO' sukuru nlml

I I I

atomO'

I ,

'I got some shoes' 'and a hat'

'I'm a student'

I and a c h i Ld I

'go tear (off) two'

Mld Mld Low Mld Mld Mld Low Mld Mld Mld

.. - .. ..

atl flla

~ ,.

10' ya meJl

I

f. Reply MID MID
s;y:llables.

~ ..
beeni a 10'
I I I
..
mO' gba Mn
.. ~ ..
mO' fawe'mi ya
, .. -
mO' nl obe
I I or LOW MID wlth respect to the last two

'yes, we went' 'I got one'

I I tore my book I 'I have a krn.re t

Mld Mld Low Mld Mld Mld Low Mld

g.

Now go back and flll In the tones In the rlght hand column of (d.)

-10-

BASIC COURSE

7. Hlgh Hlgh v s , Hlgh Mld.
# # took' ; #
a. 0 mu 'he 0 mii 'he drank'
, I ,
0 mu 0 mii D
, , , ,
0 mu 0 mu S
, , ,
0 mii 0 mu D
, ,
0 mii 0 mii S
, , ,
b. dako 'clrcurnclse'; dako 'make a farm'
, , ,
dako dako D
, , , ,
dako dako S
, , ,
dako dako D
, ,
dako dako S
, , ,
c. papa 0 10 D
I
, , , , (a name)
papa popo S
, , ,
0 de 'he arrlved' 0 10 D
I
, , , k~
0 de 0 'he shouted' S
, , ,
dara 0 ke D
, , ,
papa tobi D
, , ,
koko 'knot I tobi D
, , ,
dara 0 de D
, , , ,
papa koko S
, , ,
0 ku 'he dled' tobi D -11-

YORUBA

d. Reply HIGH HIGH or HIGH MID
,
dara Hlgh Mld dara
, ,
papa Hlgh Hlgh papa
, ,
0 de Hlgh Hlgh 0 de
,
0 16 Hlgh Mld o 10
I I
, - Hlgh Mld tobl
tobl
, ,
koko 'knot' Hlgh Hlgh koko
,
won 16 'they went' Hlgh Mld won 10
I I I I
, ,
won rl 'they saw' Hlgh Hlgh won rl
I I
, ,
o fe 'he wants' Hlgh Hlgh o fe
I I
,
slgi 'to the tree' Hlgh Mld Slgl e. Reply HIGH HIGH or HIGH MID wlth respect to the flrst two syllables.

, ,

kll"'o fe ,

'what do you want?' Hlgh Mld
'dld he buy palm nuts?' Hlgh Mld
'dld he buy eggs~ , Hlgh Mld
'what happened~' Hlgh Hlgh
'he wants money' Hlgh Hlgh " ,

ka.Lo de

, "

o fowo

f. Reply HIGH HIGH or HIGH MID wlth respect to the last two syllables.

, , ,
kllo fe 'what does he want~ , Hlgh Hlgh
I
,
a se t61uwa 'we do God's wlll' Hlgh Mld
I
, v , ,
ko Sl rara 'there lS none' Hlgh Hlgh -12-

BASIC COURSE

.. v ,

apotl ni

'It lS a box'

, , ... , ~

kll"'ofe'se nlle

I 1

'what do you want to do In the house~'

g. Now go back and flll In the tones In the rlght hand column of (d).

8. Mld Hlgh vs. Mld Mld
, aka
a. ako 'hoe, spade' ; 'husband'
I I 1 I
- , aka D
oko
I I I I
- , ,
oko ako s
1 I I 1
,
aka ako D
I 1 1 I
aka aka s
I 1 1 1
,
b. igba '200 '; igba 'calabash'
,
igba igba D
igba igba S
,
igba igba D
, ,
igba igba S
- , 'spade' isu D
c. oko
I I I
,
epo igba 'calabash' D
epo igba '200 ' S
,
eJa ila D
I
aka isu S
I I I
igba '200' okB S
I I
, epa
igba 'calabash' D
-13- YORUBA
# oko
0 de 'you ar-r-ave d ' 'husband' D
I I
a 10 'we went' - # D
J.la
I
#
oko mo de 'I arrJ.ved' D
I I
d. Reply MID HIGH or MID MID
- # 'spade' MJ.d HJ.gh oko
oko
I I I I
oko 'husband' MJ.d MJ.d oko
I I I I
19ba '200' MJ.d MJ.d a.g ba
#
19ba 'calabash' MJ.d HJ.gh J.gba
eJa MJ.d MJ.d EfJa
I
, MJ.d Ha.gh J.la
1la
, arrJ.ved' MJ.d HJ.gh
0 de 'you 0 de
0 10 'you went' MJ.d MJ.d 0 10
I I
omo 'chJ.ld' MJ.d MJ.d omo
I I I I
,
odo 'mortar' MJ.d HJ.gh o do e. Reply MID HIGH or MID MID wJ.th respect to the fJ.rst two syllables.

, ,

a fowo

, , ,

1le nko

I

'we want money' MJ.d HJ.gh
'how are they at home?' MJ.d HJ.gh
'I'm a student' MJ.d MJ.d
'who threw J.t out?' MJ.d HJ.gh
'I drank coffee' MJ.d MJ.d
'I took toffee' MJ.d HJ.gh " v,... _,

omo sukuru nJ.mJ.

I I I

, ", ,...

talo da : nu

- ,

mo mil kofJ.

I

mo mu tofl

I

-14-

BASIC COURSE

f. Reply MID HIGH or MID MID w1th respect to the last two syllables.

,

o ras'll

I

'v __

1we t1tun ni

'he bought yam' M1d M1d
'what do you wantcz ' M1d H1gh
'It 1S a new book' M1d M1d
'why are you sad? ' Mld Hlgh
'why do you look mo r-o sej '
'what d i.d you eat? , Mld Mld
. " ,. . ,

k1lo de t·o rOJu

g. Now go back and flll 1n the tones ln the rlght hand column of (d).

9. Mld M1d vs. M1d Low
eke 'husband' , - .. 'conveyance'
a .. oko
I I I I
ek; eke D
• j I I
okS eke s
I I I I
eke oke D
I I I I
eko eke s
I I I I
.. 'palm nuts' , eyin 'egg'
b. eY1n
I I
.. eyin D
eY1n
I I
.. ..
eY1n eYln S
I I
..
eyin eY1n D
I I
eyin eyin S
I I -15-

YORUBA
, ,
c. eYln 'palm nuts I abe 'soup' S
I I I
,
lYO lSU D
I I
,
lSU iyo D
I I
, - '
awo 'spectacles I obe I soup I S
I I
,
epa eYln 'palm nuts' D
I
'200 , ,
igba O'ko 'conveyance' D
I I
, ,
O'ko 'conveyance' eYln 'palm nuts' S
I I I
,
eYln 'egg' rna ta 'I sold' D
I
,
a 10' 'we went' lYO D
I I
epa akO' 'husband I S
I I
d. Reply MID MID or MID LOW
,
abe 'soup' Mld Low obe
I I I I
eyln 'egg' Mld Mld EfYln
I
O'kO' 'husband' Mld Mld oko
I I I I
,
O'ko ' ,::unveY8.nce I Mld Low oko
I I I I
epi5 Mld Mld epo
igba 1200 ' Mld Mld 19ba
,
iva Mld Low lyC;
iLl
mo 10 'I went' Mld Mld mo 10
I I
,
1110' ta 'I sold' Mld Low mo ta
, 'palm nuts'
eyln Mld Low EfYln
I -16-

BASIC COURSE

e. Reply MID MID or MID LOW wlth respect to the flrst two syllables,

, " (off)
10 ya meJl 'go tear two' Mld Mld
I
.. .., ... ya
mo fawe"mi 'I tore my book' Mld Low
, ,
mo fl sl daradara 'I put In enough' Mld Mld
a .. kan got
gba 'we one' Mld Low
.. .. ..
mo Jamala 'I ate amala' Mld Low f. Reply MID MID or MID LOW wlth respect to the last two syllables.

,

o memil

I

'- --

~"o rEfYln

'he drank palm Wlne' Mld Mld
'dld he buy palm nutsz' Mld Low
'dld you buyeggs1' Mld Mld
'yes, we sold' Mld Low
'he ate yam' Mld Mld , , - '

beeni: a ta

, ,

, --

o JE(~u

g. Now go back and flll In the tones In the rlght hand column of (d).

10. Low Mld vs. Low Low
.. - .. ..
a. llu 'awl' llu 'drum '
.. - .. ..
llu a.Lu D
.. ..
llil llli S
.. .. ..
llu llil D
.. .. .. ..
llu llu S -17-

YORUBA
, .. ,
b. awon 'net '; awon 'they'
I I
.. .. ..
awon awon D
I I
.. .. .. ..
awon awon S
I I
.. .. ..
awon awon D
I I
.. ,
awO'n awon S
I I
.. .. ..
c. a Lu 'drum' obe 'knlfe' D
I I
.. - ..
obo 'monkey' awon 'they' S
I I I
.. - ..
~bon 'gun' awon 'they' S
I I
.. .. ..
awon 'net' ~bon Igun' D
I I
.. .. ..
ewu ~lil 'awl' D
I
.. .. .. ..
bata awon 'net' S
I
abO' .. ..
oJO 'ra~n' D
I I
.. - .. ..
~bon f~la D
I
.. .. ..
~gba ' t.ame ! obe 'kn~fe' D
I I
.. .. .. ..
ewu awon 'net' S
I I
d. Reply LOW MID or LOW LOW
.. .. Low ~lu
~lu 'drum' Low
.. .. Low
bata Low bata
.. .. Low
ewu Low ewu
I I
.. 'they'
awO'n Low M~d awon
I I
.. .. Low Low
oJo 'ra~n' oJo
.. - Low M~d obo
obo
I I I I
.. .. Low f~la
f~la Low
.. ..
awon 'net' Low Low awon
I I
-18- BASIC COURSE

.. -

J.lu

'awl'

Low MJ.d

J.lu

.. -

J.bon

I

Low MJ.d

J.bon

I

e. Reply LOW MID or LOW LOW WJ.th respect to the fJ.rst two syllables.

, '"

ati sokoto

'and trousers'

Low MJ.d

.. l' v

ko Je-un ana

I

'he dJ.dn't eat yesterday'

Low MJ.d

.... -

awon nJ.

I

, J. t J. sane t '

Low Low

'... 'IV A

fl.la rneJJ.

'two hats'

Low Low

..

J.borni

'vessel for gettJ.ng water'

Low MJ.d

f. Reply LOW MID or LOW LOW wlth respect to the last two syllables.

,. .... i'_ ' da.d you put rnJ.lkr
s·o fi wara SJ.· Low MJ.d
I
.. ..
rno ra fJ.la 'I bought a hat' Low Low
.. kan
rno gba 'I got one' Low MJ.d
a .. .. bought a net'
rawon 'we Low Low
I
a .. - 'we ate coLi porrldge' Low MJ.d
Jeko
I I g. Now go back and fJ.ll J.n the tones J.n the rlght hand column of (d).

11. 11J.d Hlgh v s , Low RJ.se

a.

- ,.

ore I I

'WhlP' ,

.. v

qrEt

'frlend'

- ,.

ore

I I

.. v

ore

I I

D

- ,

ore

I I

,.

ore

I I

s

-19-

YORUBA
.. .., ,
ore ore D
I I I I
.. .., .. ..,
ore ore S
I I I I
.. .., - '
b. J_bu 'breadth '; lbu 'large expanse of water'
.. v ,
lbu ibu D
.. .., .. v
lbu lbu S
- ' .. v
lbu lbu D
, ,
ibu ibu S
, .. ..,
c. ore 'WhlP' lwe D
I I
.. V .. v
ore 'frlend' lwe S
I I
.. .., tree' - '
19ba 'locust lla D
, .. ..,
mo fe 'I want' Cfpa D
I
.. .., - , 'coffee'
keke kofl D
I I I
, .. v
iyan 'pounded yam' Cfpa D
, .. ..,
owo 'money' Cfpa D
.. .., ,
ore tfrlend' owo D
I I
, .. v
egbe t ccmparu.on ' ore 'frlend' D
I I I I
.. .., .. ..,
pelu 'wlth' lwe S
I
d. Reply MID HIGH or LOW RISE
,
ore 'WhlP' Mld Hlgh ore
I I I I
.. ..,
ore 'frlend' Low Rlse ore
I I I I
,
owo Mld Hlgh owo
,
ila Mld Hlgh lla
.. ..,
lwe Low Rlse lwe
-20- BASIC COURSE

- , Mld Hlgh egbe
egbe
I I j I
, Mld Hlgh
ryan 'pounded yam' lyan
.. v Low Rlse keke
keke
I • I I
- , Mld Hlgh kofl
kofl
I I
.. v Low
qpa Ri.s e 9pa e. Reply MID HIGH or LOW RISE wlth respect to the flrst two syllables.

.. v "

ko Sl rara

- " -

ore·ml

• I

, , ,

talo dao

,..

nun

.. v ..

elo 10 ra

, x ....

mo fe sokoto

I

'there lS nothlng at all' Low Rlse
'my WhlP' Mld Hlgh
'who threw It down~ , Mld Hlgh
'how much dld you pay for lt~' Low Rlse
'I want trousers' Mld Hlgh f. Reply MID HIGH or LOW RISE wlth respect to the last two syllables.

, ,

kll"'o fe

I

- .. y

roo r-ave

, A _ '

kyru"'wqn wqle

roo hlo eko

I

, -'

roo n Slse

I • I

'what do you want~ , II bought a book'

Low Rlse

'brlng In thelr loads'

'I'm gOlng to Lagos'

Low Rlse

'I 'm do a.ng work'

g. Now go back and flll In the tones In the rlght hand column of (d).

-21-

YORUBA

12. Hlgh Fall vs. Mld Low
.. , ,.,
a. oro 'ldol '; 0 ro 'he stlrred'
.. , '"
oro 0 ro D
.. ..
oro oro S
, ,., ..
0 ro oro D
, '" , ,..
0 ro o ro S
b. ' '" 'travelled' ; - ..
dale dale 'broke oath'
I I
, ... ..
dale dale D
I I
, '" , '"
dale dale S
I I
.. , ,.,
dale dale D
I I
.. - ..
dale dale S
I I
, A ..
c. 0 gba 'he got' ogba 'you got' D
.. , ,.,
0 rln 'you walked' won rln D
I
.. ..
eYln 'palm nuts' rye; s
I
, '" , ta
koko 'type of yam 0 'he sold' S
- .. , '"
oko 'car' koko 'type of yam' D
I I
.. ..
ile 'floor' oko 'conveyance' S
I I I
, '" ..
o gba 'he got' abe 'soup' D
I I
, ,., , ,.,
glgun 'long' koko 'type of yam' S
- .. , '"
oko 'car' glgun D
I I
, , ,..
lIe 'floor' glgun D
I
d. Reply HIGH FALL or MID LOW
, '" Hlgh Fall
glgun glgun
.. 'floor' Low lIe
ile Mld
I I
-22- BASIC COURSE

,. ,.

koko

'type yam'

H1gh Fall

- ..

obe

, I

'soup'

M1d Low

, ...

won r1n I

'they walked'

H1gh Fall

'palm nuts'

M1d Low

'you walked'

M1d Low

, ,.

pups>

o ta

'much'

H1gh Fall H1gh Fall H1gh Fall

'he sold'

,. A

o wa

'he 1S all r1ght'

koko

obe

I I

won r1n ,

pups> o ta

o wa

e. Reply HIGH FALL or MID LOW w1th respect to the f1rst two syllables.

'\ , "

o ra kan lana

'you bought one yesterday'

, ,.., v' , I

o rna tOJo meta

I ,

'I haven't seen you for some tlme'

,. ,.

n i.gba wo

'when?'

.. ., '\

mo fawe"mI ya.

'I tore my book'

'''' V v

slle marun I

'f1ve ah a.L'La.ng s '

M1d Low

H1gh Fall H1gh Fall

M1d Low

H1gh Fall

f. Reply HIGH FALL or MID J..,()1JI vilth respect to the last two syllables.

'yes, we sold'

'\ '"

o be g i.gun

I I

, -"

~"o rE(Y1n

'a long kn1fe'

'd1d you buy palm nuts?' 'I went to the market'

,. ,.

mo 10 sOJa

I I

- ..

mo rawo

'I bought spectacles'

Mld Low

H1gh Low

M1d Low

H1gh Fall

M1d Low

g.

Now go back and f1ll 1n the tones 1n the r1ght hand column of (d).

-23-

YORUBA

13. M~d Low vs. Low Low.

a.

owo

I I

'broom'

.. ..

owo I I

' Owo I (name of town)

I I

- ..

OWO I I

.. ..

OWO

I I

D

- ..

owo I I

.. .. owo I I

- ..

owo I I

s

- ..

owo I I

D

.. ..

owo I I

.. ..

OWO

I I

s

.. .. ..
b. oko 'spear '; ako 'conveyance'
I I I I
.. .. ..
oko ako D
I I I I
.. .. .. ..
oko oko S
I I I I
- .. .. ..
oko oko D
, I I I
- .. ..
oko ako S
I I I I
.. .. .. ..
c. oko 'spear' oJo 'ra~n' S
I I
.. .. ..
a de 'fetter' ako 'conveyance' D
I I
-1 .. .. ..
~ e 'floor' ~1u 'drum' D
I
.. .. ..
ey~n 'palm nuts' ewu D
I I
.. .. .. ..
bata ewu S
I
ob~ ..
'soup' awo 'broom' S
I I I I
.. .. ..
awo 'broom' f~la D
I I
.. .. ..
oko 'spear' 'iyq 'salt' D
I I
.. .. ..
ewu ako 'conveyance' D
I I I
.. .. ..
ma ta 'I sold' ~lu 'drum' D -24-

BASIC COURSE

d. Reply MID LOW or LOW LOW
... ...
oko 'spear' Low Low aka
I I I I
...
MO 'conveyance' MJ.d Low aka
I I I I
,
obe 'soup' MJ.d Low abe
I I I I
" ...
ewu Low Low ewu
I I
... ...
fJ.la Low Low fJ.la
... ..
J.lu 'drum I Low Low J.lu
..
owo 'broom' MJ.d Low owo
I I I I
..
eYJ.n 'palm nuts' MJ.d Low EfYJ.n
I
..
iyC? MJ.d Low J.yq
.. ..
owo 'Owo' Low Low O~...JO
I I I I , , e. Reply MID LOW or LOW LOW wJ.th reference to the fJ.rst two syllables.

- ' ,

mo rewu I

'I bought a shJ.rt'

MJ.d Low

" Y A

EfWU meJJ.

'two shJ.rts'

Low Low

- .. ...

obakan"re

I I

'hJ.s half-sJ.blJ.ng'

MJ.d Low

- ' ,~

n ko mo·

I

'I don't know hJ.m'

MJ.d Low

.. ... v

ko kawe

'he da dn ' tread'

Low Low

f. Reply MID LOW or LOW LOW wJ.th reference to the last two syllables.

- , ..

a rawon I

'we bought a net'

Low Low

, .. ...

beeni a ta

I I

'yes, we sold'

MJ.d Low

~- -"

S'O reYJ.n

I I

, , X .. ...

a fe sakata I

'dJ.d you buy palm nuts?'

MJ.d Low

'he wants trousers'

Low Low

-25-

YORUBA

.. -"

atr owo

I I

'and a broom'

Mld Low

g~ Now go back and flll In the tones In the rlght hand column of (d).

14. Hlgh Mld vs. Hlgh Fall

a.

,

o ta:

b.

, '"

kara

c.

, '"

koko

, '"

koko

, -

tobl

, -

tobl

, -

tobl

, '"

gbadun

, '"

s a.Le

I

, '"

slle

I

, '"

slle

I

, '"

SlSl

,

o ta

,

o t[

, ....

kara

, '"

kara

.. -

kara

, -

kara

'he shot';

'for us to buy';

'type yam'

'lnterestlng'

-26-

,

o ta

,

o ta

, -

kara

, "

kara

, '"

kara

, -

kara

,

kara

,

dara

, '"

s i.Le

, '"

o gba

,

dara

, '"

slle

I

,

tobr

, '"

SlSl

, -

dara

'he sold'

D

s

D

s

'deeply'

D

s

D

s

'shllllng'

'he got'

'6 d !

D

s

D

D

s

s

D

s

s

D

BASIC COURSE

d. Reply HIGH MID or HIGH FALL

# -

dara

, ,.,

gbadun

# ,.,

s1.le I

# -

tob1.

, ,.,

S1.S1.

# ,.,

won ta

I

# -

o 10

I

# ,.,

koko

#

won so

, I

H1.gh M1.d H1.gh Fall H1.gh Fall H1.gh M1.d H1.gh Fall H1.gh Fall H1.gh M1.d H1.gh Fall H1.gh Fall

'they spoke'

dara

gba dun

s1.le

I

tob1.

S1.S1.

won ta

,

o 10

I

koko

won so

I I

e. Reply HIGH MID or HIGH ~ALL w1.th respect to the f1.rst two syllables.

, A , V

o ra kan lana

, A

n1.gba wo

,

o Je-un

I

'what do you want~ ,

'he bought one yesterday'

'when~ ,

'he ate somethlng'

'5 shllllngs'

H1.gh Mld Hlgh Fall Hlgh Fall Hlgh Mld Hlgh Fall

f. Reply HIGH MID or HIGH FALL w1.th respect to the last two syllables.

, , ,.,

won 10 sOJa

, "

, _ 'v_

n1.bo 10 nlo

I

'- , , #

eml'" lagbaJa nr

'they went to the market'

'where are you g01.ng1'

'I'm So-and-so'

-27-

H1.gh Fall H1.gh M1.d H1.gh M1.d

YORUBA

, , v , , (not)
~'E( b~nu s amf 'are you angry w~th me~ , H~gh M~d
" '''' 'I was angry formerlyl
mO' b~nu tele H~gh Fall
I I
g. Now go back and f~ll ~n the tones ~n the r~ght hand
column of (d) • 15. Low Rlse vs. Low Mld
'1 ., 'Clty' ; , - 'awl'
a. 1 u llu
.. v ..
llu llu D
, v .. .,
llu llu S
.. .. v
:).lu a.Lu D
.. - ..
llu llu S
.. .. .,
b. lWO 'you '; lWO "umb i.La ca I cord'
I I
.. , v
lWQ lWO D
I I
.. - ..
lWO lWO' S
I I
.. v ..
lWO lWO' D
I I
.. v .. v
lWO lWO S
I I
.. v .. .,
c. ada 'cutlass' lwe S
.. v ,
lwe obe 'knlfe' D
I I
.. , v
obO' ,?pa D
I I
.. v 'father' .. -
baba llu 'awl' D
, .. -
lW9 'you' obe ' krn.f'e ! S
I I
.. v 'slbllng , .. .,
egbon baba S
I I
.. V ..
lya 'mother' lWO' 'you' D
I
-28- BASIC COURSE

'IV 'c~ ty t ' V S
a u baba
abo tmonkey' , v 'awl'
~ya D
I I
, v , -
<j>pa ~lu D
d. Reply LOW RISE or LOW MID
" v Low R~se egbon
egbon
I I , I
,
~wo 'you' Low M~d ~wo
• I
, v
<j>pa Low Ra se <j>pa
, v ' c a ty '
~lu Low R~se ~lu
, v baba
baba Low R~se
,
~lii 'awl' Low M~d ~lu
, - 'krllfe' Low M~d obe
abe
I I I I
, v Low
ada R~se ada
, v
~ya Low R~se ~ya
..
obo 'monkey' Low M~d obo
I I I I
e. Reply LOW RISE or LOW MID w~th respect to the f~rst two
syllables.

, , , ,
ati sokoto 'and trousers' Low M~d
, v d~ra
oJo tOJo ~s good' Low R~se
,
~bomi 'vessel for gett~ng water' Low M~d
, v , ,
el0 10 rae 'how much d~d you pay
for ~t? ' Low Rlse
, v , , t~le 'but I
sugbon mo b~nu was angry before' Low R~se
I I I I -29-

YORUBA

f. Reply LOW RISE or LOW MID w~th respect to the last two syllables.

, y
rno rawe 'I bought a book' Low R~se
,
rno gba lean 'I got one' Low M~d
,
a JEtkq 'we ate cold porr~dge' Low M~d
, , y
0 ra keke 'he bought a b~cycle' Low R~se
I I
, , , kan
0 ra bata 'he bought one pa~r of shoes' Low M~d
g. Now go back and f~ll ~n the tones ~n the r~ght hand
column of (d). 16. M~d Ha.gh v s , Low M~d
, ,
a. ewe 'leaf' ; ewe 'young person'
, •
ewe ewe D
, ,
ewe ewe S
, ,
ewe ewe D
• ,
ewe ewe S
, ,
b. awo 'plate' ; awo 'gu~nea fowl'
, ,
awo awo D
, ,
awo awo S
, ,
awo awo D
, - ' S
awo awo
, ,
c. ryan 'pounde d yarn' awo 'gu~nea fowl' S
, - ,
eko 'cold porr~dge' awo 'pIa t e ' S
I I
-30- BASIC COURSE

, -k' 'hoe'
ewe 'leaf' o 0 S
I I
, ebe 'kn~fe'
odo 'mortar' D
I I
, - - , 'calabash' D
~bon ~gba
I
, ,
ila 'okra' 0 de 'you arr~ved' S
, qb~
egbe 'compan~on ' 'kn~fe , D
I I
, (name c~ty) - ,
sak~ of kof~ S
I I
, - 'mashed potato' - , 'calabash'
~bct J.gba D
, "
ewe 'leaf' awe 'pIa te ' D d. Reply MID HIGH or LOW MID
,
iyan MJ.d HJ.gh J.yan
" - Low MJ.d J.bon
J.bon
I I
,. 'leaf'
ewe MJ.d HJ.gh ewe
" Low
ewe 'young person' MJ.d ewe
"
awO' 'plate' Low MJ.d awo
,
awo 'guJ.nea fowl' MJ.d H~gh awo
kO'ff MJ.d HJ.gh kofJ.
I I
" - 'cold por-r-a.dge ' Low MJ.d eko
eko
I I I I
, 'knJ.fe' Low
<rb~ MJ.d obe
I ,
- ' 'okra I MJ.d HJ.gh J.la
J.la e. Reply MID HIGH or LOW MID wJ.th respect to the fJ.rst two syllables.

, )( " "

mO' fe sokoto

,

'I want trousers'

" """

ati sokoto

'and trousers'

MJ.d HJ.gh Low MJ.d

-31-

YORUBA

"

lbomi

'vessel for gett1ng water'

Low M1d

"

Hto'P tani

,

'who 1S It?'

Low M1d

, I "v

oJo kan pelu

I I I

'one more day'

f. Reply MID HIGH
syllables.

, ,.
mo nsise
, I I
,. - ,
kllo"" fe
,
, eru"'won ,.
ko wole
I , I
a " -
reko
I I
g. Now go back and
column of (d) • or LOW MID w1th respect to the last two

'I'm workJ.ng

'what do you want?'

'brJ.ng the1r loads J.nto the house'

M1d H1gh Low M1d

'we bought cold porrJ.dge'

f1ll 1n the tones J.n the r1ght hand

17. Ha.gh MJ.d v s • M1d Low
, 0 " grumbled I
a. 0 so 'he spoke' ; so 'you
I I
, "
0 so 0 so D
I I
, ,. s6 S
0 s5 0
I I
" ,. so D
0 so 0
I I
.. ..
0 so 0 so S
, ,
" , ta
b. 0 ta 'you sold' , 0 'he shot'
" ,. ta D
5 ta 0
.. ..
0 ta 0 ta S
, " D
0 ta: 0 ta
~ ,
0 ta: 0 ta: s
-32- BASIC COURSE

.. ,
c. tayo 'play ayo' dara D
, ..
0 ya 'he tore' o rl.n 'you walked' D
.. ,
0 lu 'you hl.t' obe 'soup' S
, ,
.. 'palm nuts' ,
eYl.n 0 10 'he went' D
I I
, ,
s imf 'to me' tobl S
, ,
0 10 'he went' dara S
I
.. ..
eYl.n 'palm nuts' 0 rl.n 'you walked' S
I
- .. , - D
tayo tobl.
.. ,
o lu 'you hl.t' 0 ya 'he tore' D
, - ..
tobl. awo 'spectacles' D d. Reply HIGH MID or MID LOW
- .. Ml.d Low tayo
tayo
,
dara Hl.gh Ml.d dara
, 'he tore'
oya Hl.gh Ml.d oya
..
awo 'spectacles' Ml.d Low awo
.. 'you hl.t' o lu
o lu Ml.d Low
, - Hl.gh Ml.d tobl.
tobl.
.. 'you walked' Low
o rl.n Ml.d o rln
.. 'palm nuts' Low
eYl.n Ml.d E(yl.n
I
, - 'he went' Hl.gh Ml.d
o 10 o 10
I I
,
s amf 'to me' Hl.gh Ml.d s arm, -33-

YORUBA

e. Reply HIGH MID or MID LOW w1th respect to the f1rst two syllables.

, "

so rey1n

I

'dld he buy palm nuts~' 'h1S half-s1bl1ng'

" "

obakan .... re

I I

M1d Low

, ,.

k1lo'" fe

I

'what do you want~'

H1gh M1d

" "

mo rewu

I

'I bought a shlrt'

M1d Low

~ " A

o domo odun me Jl

I I I

'he 1S two years old'

f. Reply HIGH MID or MID LOW w1th respect to the last two syllables.

~ , -"
k'e to pada 'before you return' M1d Low
I
" " , " ni
em i. lagbaJa 'I am So-and- so' H1gh M1d
, [w1ll] !
a se toluwa 'we do God's H1gh M1d
I
, " "
beeni ata 'yes, we sold' M1d Low
I I
" y , ni 'It box'
apot1 1S a H1gh M1d
g. Now go back and f1ll 1n the tones In the r1ght hand
column of (d) • 18. H1gh Ha.gh v s , M1d M1d
, , 0
a. o mu 'he took' ; mu 'you drank'
, , D
0 mu i5 mil
, , , , S
0 mu 0 mu
mil , , D
i5 0 mu
i5 mil i5 mil S -34-

BASIC COURSE

, ,
c. omo 'chlld' papa D
I I
fUnfun 'whlte' omo S
I I
, ,
dudu 'black' eyin 'egg' D
I
, ,
funfun papa D
, ,
pupa 'red' papa D
ide 'copper' pupa s
I
, ,
eJa dudu D
I
, , , ,
dudu papa S
titun 'new' pupa s
funfun titun s d. Reply HIGH HIGH or MID MID
fUnfun Mld Mld funfun
, ,
papa Hlgh Hlgh papa
pupa Mld Mld pupa
omo Mld Mld omo
I I • I
, ,
dudu Hlgh Hlgh dudu
titun Mld Mld tltun
15ba 'klng , Mld Mld oba
I I
, , 'less money' Hlgh Hlgh
dlnwo dlnwo
, ,
0 de 'he arrlved' Hlgh Hlgh 0 de
epo 'palm o i.L" Mld Mld epo -35-

YORUBA

e. Reply HIGH HIGH or MID MID w1th respect to the f1rst two syllables.

, ,
rno rnu t11 'I drank tea' M1d M1d
, , ,
k1lo de 'what happened?' H1gh H1gh
, ,
a Je tuwo 'we ate truwo ' Mld Mld
.
, , , nl
se daadaa 'lS everythlng OK? ' Hlgh Hlgh

, ... tear out two'
10 ya. meJ1 'go Mld M1d
I f. Reply HIGH HIGH or MID MID w1th respect to the last two syllables.

, ,
a. dupe
I
, ..
beenl a. 10
I I I
, ko v
se slyonu
I I
.. v , ,
ko Sl rara 'thank you'

'yes, we went'

'lS there no troubleQ'

M1d M1d

, " ,

ewoleese

I I I

'there lS noth1ng at all' (a greet1ng)

g. Now go back and f1ll ln the tones 1n the r1ght hand column of (d).

19. M1d M1d vs. Low Low
.. ..
a. epo '011' ; epo 'weeds'
.. ,
epo epo D
epo epo s
.. , epo D
epo
.. , .. ..
epo epo S
-36- BASIC COURSE

, .. lWO
b. ~wo 'hook' ; 'po~son'
I I
, ..
~wo lWO D
I I
.. .. .. ..
~wo ~wo S
I I
lWO .. ..
~wo D
I I
lWO lWO S
I J
eyin , ,
c. 'egg! ~wC> 'hook' D
I I
, ~ ~Ja
~lu 'drum I D
'o~l' " ..
epo ~wo 'hook' D
I
, ..
nara 'rest' f~la D
'leather ... .. (k~nd of food)
awo sheath! dodo D
I
" " (k~nd of food)
ewa lSU D
I I
.. .. " "
ewu ewa S
I I
" "
bata nara D
.. " ... ,
a.Lu 'drum ' bata S
EfJa nara S
d. Reply MID MID or LOW LOW
, "
ewa Low Low ewa
I I
~Ja M~d M~d EfJa
epo 'o~l' M~d M~d epo
, ..
epo 'weeds I Low Low epo
.. ..
~wo 'hook' Low Low ~wo
, I
iWQ rpo~son r M~d M~d ~wo
• I
... ..
bata Low Low bata
.. ...
dodo Low Low dodo
-37- YORUBA

eyin

I

'egg'

Mld Mld

, ,

a.Lu

'drum'

Low Low

llu

e. Reply MID MID or LOW LOW wlth respect to the flrst two syllables.

, ,

EfWU pupa

'brown shlrt'

Low Low

#

bomi fun won

I

'glve them water'

" " " v

a.kcr-o du

(place name)

Low Low

" " V A

ko me;> pe temi ni

'dldn't he know that lt

was mlne?'

Low Low

# ,.

19 ya meJl

'go tear out two'

f. Reply MID MID or LOW LOW wlth respect to the last two syllables.

, ,

ewu pupa

'brown sh1rt'

, , Y A-

ko mo pe temi ni

I

'd1dn't he know that lt

was mlne2'

Mld Mld

~ '" v • _

~e ko slyc;>nu

'lS there no troubleZ'

, ,

a rawon

I

'we bought a net'

Low Low

, '" ,

o ra sokoto

'he bought trousers'

Low Low

g. Now go back and f1ll 1n the tones In the rlght hand column (d).

-38-

BASIC COURSE

20. REVIEW
a. Reply 1M, MH or LR
, y abo
keke LR 'monkey' LM
I I I I
, .. y
Ise MH Obl 'parent' LR
I I
, y .. - 1M
sugbon LR lbon 'gun'
I I I
, , 'calabash'
ore 'WhlP' MH igba MH
I I
, ,
odun 'year' MH Inu 'lnslde' MH
I
.. v ..
ore 'frlend' LR atI 'and' 1M
I I b. Reply HM, ML or HF.
, " ,
glgun HF 0 ]0 'he went' HM
I
, - HM - .. 'soup! ML
tobl obe
I I
, ,
ile ML dara HM
I
, '" , '"
s a.Le HF won rln 'they walked' HF
I I
, '" , '"
pup 9 HF sodo 'to the r-ave r ' HF
- ' ML - , 'palm nuts' ML
oko EtYln
I I c. Reply HM, ML, HF· L"'1, MH, LR.
,
, A
glgun HF glgun
,
inu MH lnu
, y
ore 'frlend' LR ore
I I I I
- .. ML lIe
lIe
I I
,
dara HM dara -39-

YORUBA
..
ati LM at1
..
1bon 'gun' LM 1bon
I I
, " '6
SlSl d' HF SlSl
" v
19b1n ' sna1l' LR 19b1n
,
rul1n 'tooth' MH eh1n
- .. 'rope' ML okun
okun
" v
egbon 'older brother' LR egbon
I I I I
..
1fun 'lntest1nes' LM 1fun
..
agbon 'coconut' LM agbon
I I
- " 'heart' ML okan
okan
I I
..
okan 'a slngle one' LM okan
I I 21. One mora vs. two, level pltch.

a.

"

fo

" "

f'o '

'Jumped' ;

....

foe

"

fo

.. ..

foe

....

fo·

..

fo

" "

f'o :

fO

"

fo

b.

.. '"

obe meJ1

I I

'- ~"

obe "'meJ1

I I

'two km.ve s t j

'- ''''

obe meJ1

I I

" , ,.

obe "'meJl

I I

" , "

obe meJ1

I I

" ,,,

obe meJl

I I

.. , "

obe "'meJ1

I I

.. , "

obe meJ1

I I

" , "

obe "'meJ1

I I

.. , ,..

obe "'meJl

I I

-40-

(expres10n of degree)

D

s

D

s

'the tW1n's krn.f'e I

D

s

D

s

BASIC COURSE

c. Reply FIRST, SECOND, NEITHER or BOTH, accord1ng to Wh1Ch of the two express10ns conta1ns a long vowel.

" ,

11u .... y1n

'your awl'

" v ,

apot1

'box'

F

'we bought

palm nuts' F

, -

<5ruko

I

'name'

ibomi

'vessel'

N

" " v

1yawo

'w1fe'

" v ,

apot1

'box'

N

omo"'wa

I I

'our Ch1ld'

B

" .. '\

bata're

I

'your shoes'

.. ..

1bom1

F

, v

baY1

'llke t.h i s t

, v

lana

N

'palm nuts'

, v

lana

N

'palm nuts'

'llf " SOOSl I I, ,

s

, "

"'efa

I

, "

pUP9

F

,.. "

aaro I

'morn1ng'

, "

'refa

I

B

, "

"'efa I

B

d. If you hear a long vowel, reply LENGTH. If you do not
hear a long vowel, do not reply.
"
oko"re 'her husband' L oko're
I I I I I I
, oruko
oruko 'name'
J I
'" - 'your conveyance' L oko're
Oko're
I I I I I I
.. .. v
ayawo 'w1fe' 1yawo
, " L 'efa
"'efa
I I
, " , (a greet1ng) L ewoleese
ewoleese
I I I I I I
''It .. L
SOOSl 'church' 800S1.
I I I I I I I I -41-

YORUBA

, lC.' ,

mo fe sakata ,

pUP9

mo fe sakata ,

L

abe "me J l

, I

e. Now go back and flll In the tones In the rlght hand c'olumn of (d).

22. One mora vs. two, glldes.

, v , , ,
a. ma wa 'don't come' ; ma wa'
, v , , ,
ma wa ma wa'
, v v
ma wa ma wa
, , , v
ma wao ma wa
, . , , ,
ma wa· rna wao 'don't row It'

D

s

D

s

Thls contrast lS absent from some varletles of Yoruba In thls palr of expresslons.]

, v , , , , ,
b. ma ml mo 'don't breathe ma rm.> mo 'don't shake
I I lt
a ga i n ' ; agaln'
, v , , , , ,
ma ml mo rna ml· mo D
I •
, v ,
ma ml mo ma ml mC( S
I
, , I' , , v ,
ma mlO mo ma ml mo D
I ,
, , , , , . ,
ma mlo mo ma mo' mo S
I , -42-

BASIC COURSE

c.

.. y ,..

a.we da

'where 18 the blcycle? '

'where 18 the book" '

,y ,.

awe da

"- ' ,

obe naa

I I

'the km.f'e '

eyin n~~

I

,. "

omo glgun

I I

'WhlCh egg~'

, I" ,

mA. mu' mo I

,. y ,.

ma wa mo I

'don't come agaln'

'don't drn.nk lt agaln'

- ,. .. y

lle'we

, school'

'wha t lS thlS" ,

'" -

lwe nl

,. ..... -

nlgba wo

'whenZ'

, 1 t lS a book'

.. ,., - ,

awe "rm, da

'they are on the floor'

'where a s my book?'

#" v v

811e marun

I

'what dld OJo buy?'

'5 aha.Ll.a.ng s r

-" "-

lwe 'W'klnl

,. , v

o 10 lana

I

'he went yesterday'

'what klnd of bookZ'

,. , ,

S'o 10 811e

I I

'dld you go home~'

d. Reply DOUBLE or SINGLE wlth respect to the last vowel only.

, v .-
lwe da Sg lwe da
, - ' ,
obe naa Db obe naa
I I , ,
,. ,. ..,
klnlYl Sg klnlYl
,. , ,.
ma wa' 'don't l'OW lt' Db ma wa
,. y 'don't Sg
I11a wa come' ma wa
, " ,. , " elo 10
elo 10 rae 'how much dld he pay Db ra
for lt~'
,.." ,.. 'In the mornlng' Sg laaro
laaro
I I
.. ,. ,..
su-uru 'patlence' Sg su-uru -43-

N

s

F

F

S

N

F

N

F

s

YORUBA

, , '"

mo fe meJl I

'I want two'

Sg Db

mo fe meJl I

, ,

mo sun le'"

'I slept on l t '

mo sun leo

e. Reply DOUBLE or SINGLE wlth respect to the mlddle vowel only.

, v

lwe

dB.

, A ~ "

mu su-uru

'have patlence'

Sg lweda
Db lle'we
Db keke'ml
I I
Sg nlgbawo
Db egbon're
I I I
Db mu su-uru
Sg o gbawe
Db obl're
I
Sg ablku 'my bycycle'

, ,.

nlgba wo

'your brother'

o gbB.w8

'he got a book'

'hls parents'

, v ,

ablku

'somethlng that lS born and d.i.e s '

'wha t lS thls" ,

Sg

f. Now go back and flll In the tones In the rlght hand column of (d) and (e).

23. Hlgh Mld vs. Hlgh Second

a.

,

loWn

'Wl th strength';

, I

lokun

'Wl th the sea'

, , I
lokun lokun
, ,
lokun loWn
, I ,
lokun lokun
, I , I
lokun lokun
-44- D

s

D S

BASIC COURSE

b.

, I

lawo

, I

lawo

, I

lawo

,

lawo

, -

lawo

, I c. sode

, I

bawo

, I

bawo

, I

meta

I

, -

Slgl

, I

latl

, I

latl

,

lata

, I

bawo

'havlng a plate';

'to the outslde';

'how7 '

'3 r

'onto the tree'

d. Reply HIGH MID or HIGH SECOND

, I

sode

,

dara

, I

bawo

,

tobl

, I

latl

, I

meta

I

, I

laro

-45-

,

lawo

'havlng a secret'

,

lawo

, I

lawo

, .

lawo

,

lawo

, -

dara 'good'

, -

dara

, I

sode

, I

s o de

, I

s o de

, -

dara

, -

tobl

, -

lata 'wlth pepper'

D

S

D

S

D

D

S

S

D

S

D

D

, I

laro 'wlth a funnel' D

I

, I

latl S

Hlgh Second

Hlgh Second

Hlgh Second

Hlgh Second

Hlgh Second

sode

dara

bawo

tobl

latl

meta

I

laro

YORUBA

, -

loWn

'w~ th the sea'

H~gh M~d Hlgh Second

lokun

, I

lokUn

'wlth strength'

lokun

e. Now go back and fll1 ln the tones ln the rlght hand column of (d).

24. Rlse vs. Fall ln larger context

a. (Alternate examples)

, " I

me Jl wole t

'two (of you) come ln'

F R

, 'I '

meJl w~le

'two entered the house'

b. Reply R~se or Fall wlth respect to the second syllable.

;,. , (lmperatlve) F ' " - , (lmperatlve)
meJl w~le me f'a wole F
I I
" , (statement) , " , (lmperatlve)
meJllwole R mefa wale F
I I I
, 'I ' (sta tement) m~falwol~ (statement)
meJl w~le R R
I I
#" -' (J.mpera tlve) F '" , (~mperatlve)
meJl wqle mefa wale F
I I
, 'I ' (sta tement) , 'I ' (statement)
meJl wi?le R mefa wale R
I I c. Reply Rlse or Fall wlth respect to the second syllable.
, 'I - ' ( s ta tement) , " , (lmperatlve)
meta wole R meJl wale F
• I I
" , (J.mpera t~ve) , I I ' (statement)
meJl wqle F meta wale R
I I
, 'I ' (sta tement) , 'I ' (s ta tement)
mefa wale R meJ~ wale R
I I I
, 'I ' (s ta tement) R m~falwol~ (sta tement) R
m~r:Ln wi?le
I I
, " , (lmperat~ve) , " , (1IDpera t ave )
mefa wale F meJl wole F
I I I
-46- BASIC COURSE

a. (Alternate examples)

, v,

:rna. b~nu

'don't be angry'

R

, -t' mara an

'get ready'

M

b. Reply R~se or M~d w~th respect to the second syllable.

, -'

o wole

I

'he entered the M house'

, ,

daraya

'~s cheerful' M

, v'

rna b~nu

'don't be angry' R

, 'I '

meJ~ wa

'two came' R

, ,

fun tiy~n

'for yourselves' M

, ,

kekere

'small' M

, v ,

gbaguda

'cassava' R

, ,

o lole

I

'he went home' M

, y ,

rna ku mo

I

'don't d~e aga~n' R

, v ,

ma nn, mo I

'don't breathe aga~n'

R

26. Ha.gh M~d Ha.gh v s , Ha.gh Second Ha.gh

There are no pal.rs of words or phrases whl.ch are completely rdent aca L ari sound except for bha,s contrast.

Contracted form (Uncontracted form)
, I , (rn~ .. ')
mobe wa obe wa 'brl.ng the km.f'e '
I I I I
, , (k~ ~yin w~)
keyin wa 'brl.ng the eggs'
I
, , (k~ aso w~)
kaso wa t bm.ng the cloths'
I I I I
, - , (gb~ orno w~)
gborno wa 'brl.ng the cha.Ld '
I I I I
, I , (k~ , wa)
kopon wa l.pon Ibrl.ng the ladles'
I J
. I , (gb~ , wa)
gba g.a wa aga 'brl.ng the cha a.r-"
, , ,
rna 10 rno 'don't go agaln'
I I
, ,
0 ti de 'he has arrlved'
-47- YORUBA

27. Hlgh Hlgh Fall vs. Hlgh X Low.

The tone WhlCh lS here deslgnated wlth the symbol x varles notlceably from dlalect to dlalect. For some speakers, It lS hlgh level. For others It lS falllng. For others It may be low level.

'wlth reference to a hat'

, )( ,

n i ba ta

'wlth reference to shoes'

'came to market'

, ><"

o bere

I •

'he began'

, '"

o gba dun

, x"

won soro

, I

'they spoke'

, , '"

o le:wa

, >< ..

o s i.na

,

'he mlssed the way'

, , "

o d rnku

'It ]S reduced'

, "<"

o mona

I

'he knows the way'

28.

, ~,

In thls drlll, the vowels and consonants of phrases nl flla

, ,,.

nl meJl are replaced by nonsense syllables. Try to dlstlngulsh

tonal patterns.

and the

29.

Hlgh J'.hd v s , Ha.gh X

Try to dls.t_:;lngulsh between the tonal patterns of:

, .. , ..

s· etobe naa

I I I I

II , ~ ,

(contracted form of se eta obe naa

I I I I

'dld you sell the knlfe?')

'x" , ..

s'etobe naa

I I I I

II '" , , ,

(contracted form of se e ko ta obe naa

I I I I

'dldn't you sell the knlfe?')

Reply AFFIRMATIVE or NEGATIVE -48-

BASIC COURSE

30. Al terna tn.ng Ri.se s and Falls

Pract1.ce the follow1.ng phrases.

Three syllables:

, ". V

o tawe

'he sold a book'

'a t present'

.. v ".

adugbo

'ne1.ghborhood'

.. v ".

okanla

I

(a name)

'w1.th reference to th1.s book'

, v v

sotuny1.

I

'here to the r1.ght'

Four syllables:

" A v,..

o wa ru.be I

'he 1.S there'

, ,.. V A

won wa IOJa

I I

'they are at the market

.. V A v

1.gbekele

I I

' corrr a.dence I

'he doesn't want a b1.cycle'

, A V Y

o we lana

I

'he bathed yesterday'

~ V A V

ma da keke

I I

'don't break the b1.cycle'

Pive syllables:

'v A V ,..

atunkatunka

'repeated read1.ng'

~ ,.. V A"

o S1. tun kawe

'he then re-read the book'

-49-

YORUBA

Se r-a.e s II.

Tone contrasts on two-mora vowels.

Most of the dr~lls ~n th~s ser~es are based on one or two pa1rs of m~n~mally d~fferent phrases. Dr~lls of th1s k~nd are summar~zed 1n the book, but ~n actual use they must be expanded by the ~nstructor. Dr~ll 2 ~s used as an example of the way ~n wh~ch th1s may be done:

The f~rst goal 1S to teach the student to hear the tonal d~fference that ~s the top~c of the dr111.

Instructors

.. "-

1lu 'ma ,

student.

D~fferent.

Instructor:

D~fferent.

... " ..

1lu 'mL ~lu 'mL

student:

Same.

Ins truc tor:

Same.

Student: D~fferent.
Instructor: D1fferent.
" '" - .. ""
~lu·m~. ~lu·ml..
Student: Same.
Instructor: Same.
, -' - ..
~lu·m~. ~lu "mi.
Student: Same.
Ins truc tor: Same.
, -" - .. ..
~lu"m~. 11u"ml.. Student:

D~fferent. (mak~ng an error)

Instructor:

Same.

-50-

BASIC COURSE

st Ident:

Dlfferent.

Tr,e drlll may be contlnued ln thlS way untll the student MS demonstrated that lt lS easy for hlm, but no longer than two or three nn.nube s at a t ame ,

If, at the end of three mlnutes, the student lS stlll havlng ser rous dlfflculty, the f'c l.Lowa.ng t e chm.que may be helpful:

The student's rlght hand lS used as a slgnal for one of the phrases, and ha s left hand for the other phrase. He s a.gna Ls a.n

thrs way wha ch 1 tem he wants to heal', and the a.ns truc tor pronounces lt for hlm. As soon as he thlnks he can hear the dlfference, revert to the SAME-DIFFERENT dr i.Ll, de s cru.be d above.

After the student has learned to detect the presence or absence of the da.f'f'er-ence between the two a t.ems , the next step lS to learn to a.dentn.ry wha ch lS wh i.ch s

Instructor.

Student.

Clty. Clty.

Instructor.

o. '\_

llu'ml

student:

Awl.

Ins truc tor I

Awl.

Student:

Clty. (makl~g an error) Awl.

Instructor:

o. V"

11u "mi.

Student:

Clty. Clty.

Instructor.

-51-

YORUBA

It lS posslble to use the names of the tones lnvolved, lnstead of the Engllsh words Clty and awl, lf the lnstructor 18 already accustomed to the labelllng of tones ln hlS language.

After the student has learned to ldentlfy the two contrastlng phrases, the next step lS mlmlcrYI

, ,
Inst-ructor: llu "mi.
, ,
Student: llu "ml.
Instructor: Rlght.
.. v' _
llu"ml.
, , (maklng an error)
Student: llu"mi
Instructorl No.
" "" -
a Lu "ma •
.. v' _
Student: llu"ml.
Instructor: Rlght. The drll.1. may be c orrt i.nue d urrt i.L the student has demons tir-a te: that lt lS easy for hlm, but not for longer than two or three ml~ utes at a tlme. If, at the end of three mlnutes, the student 18 stlll havlng serlOUS dlfflculty, lt may be well to revert to the ldentlflcatlon drlll, or to change to some entlrely dlfferent actlvlty before comlng back to m~lcry.

After the student has learned to mlmlC accurately the pronunclatlon of the two phrases, the next step lS productlon of the contrastlng ltems wlthout havlng heard them lmmedlately beforehand. ThlS may be done through havlng hlm read them aloud, or through use of any other klnd of stlmulus that does not requlre the lnstructor to say aloud the same phrase that the student lS supposed to produce.

It should be noted that the serles of actlvltles outllned above emphaslzes hearlng before speaklng, and speaklng (mlmlcry) before readlng. It should be noted also that the lnstructor and student have no need to talk wlth one another ln Engllsh-or ln Yoruba-whlle the drllls are ln progress. Flnally, It should be

-52-

BASIC COURSE

noted that the total amount of tlme requlred for thlS serles of actlvltles wlll vary greatly accord~ng to the dlfflculty of the tonal contrast whlch It lS deslgned to teach. Wlth an extremely easy contrast, the entlre process may be completed In two mlnutes; wlth some of +he more subtle d af'f'e r-e nce s , repeated pr-a c t a.c e for short perlods spread over several days may prove to be necessary.

1. Low·-RISE LOW-Mld vs. Low-LOW LOW-Mld.

(Gross ctlstlnctlon between two-mora vowels.)

Responses:

(1) SAME/DIFFERENT. (2) RISE-LOW/LOW-LOW •

.. y ..

a.Lu 'mi

rmy c a ty '

.. ....

a.Lu 'mi

rmy drum r

.. y ..

llu're

I

ryour c i.by r

......

a.Lu 'r~

ryour drum'

As Ward pOlnts out (par. 85), the rlse before a second mora wlth mld or low tone lS almost lnaudlble, and sometlmes completely so. Even when It lS not pronounced wlth phonetlc rlse, however,

.. y"

the flrst part of the two-mora vowel of 11u'mi lS stlll dlfferent

from slmple hlgh tone In that It lS a blt lower In pltch (cf. Ward par.89). On purely phonetlc grounds, lt mlght be ldentlfled wlth elther H or R, Slnce there lS no contrast; It lS here asslgned to R.on morphophonemlc grounds.

2. Low-HIGH LOW-Mld~. Low-MID LOW-Mld.

(Flner dlstlnctlon between two-mora vowels.)

Responses:

( 1 ) SAME/Dr FFERENT • (2) RISE-LOW/MID-LOW.

rmy clty'

.. ..

llu'mi

'my awl'

.. y"

llu're

I

ryour clty'

, -' -

llu're

I

'your awl'

-53-

YORUBA

3. Comb1nat1on of Dr1lls 1 and 2.

Responses:

RISE-LOW/MID-LOW/LOW-LOW

... y'"
1lu"mi 'my c1ty' RL
... .. ...
1lu,'mi 'my drum' LL
.. ...
l.lu·mi 'my awl' ML
... y'"
1lu'mi 'my C1ty' RL
... ...
1lii "mi 'my awl' ML
... ,
1Iu'r~ 'your awl' ML
... .....
1lu"re 'your dr-um' LL
I
... Y'
1lu're 'your c1ty' RL
... ,
1luore 'your awl' ML
I
... Y'"
1luore 'your c a ty ' RL
I 4. Extens10n of Dr111 3 to segmentally dlverse utterances.

Responses:

RISE-LOW/MID-LOW/LOW-LOW

... ..., parents' RL
oba "ml: 'my
, '"
kekeomi 'my blcycle' RL
I I
, ,
oboomi 'my monkey' ML
I I
, .. ...
ebilll"mf 'my glft' LL
I
, ... p La be ' VIL
aw<5 Om! 'my
... ,
awoore 'your plate' ML
I
, ....
ewuore 'your garment' LL
I I
, ...
agaore 'your cha1r' ML
I
-5h- BASIC COURSE

, , ...

epa're

I ,

'your ground nuts'

LL RL

, v'

em~'r~

I I

'your Il.fe'

5. M~d-HIGH LOW-M~d vs. M~d-MID LOW-M~d

Responses,

(1) SAME/DIFFERENT (2) HIGH-LOW/MID-L01tl

, ,

oko 'mi

I I

'my hoe'

oko 'mi

I I

'my hus band'

, ,

ako're

I I I

'your hoe'

..

ako're

I I I

'your husband'

6. M~d-MID LOW-M~d vs. Mld-LOW LOW-M~d

Responses:

(1) SAME/DIFFERENT (2) MID-LOW/LOW-LOW

,

oko'mi

I I

'my husband'

, ..

oko 'mi

I I

'my car'

,

oko're

I I I

'your husband'

, ..

oko'rA

I I 1

'your car I

7. Extens~on of Dr~IIs 5 and 6 to segmentally d~verse utterances.

Responses,

HIGH-LOW/MID-LOW/LCW-LOW

" HL
ako'mt 'my hoe'
I I
,
oko're 'your husband' ML
I I I
" - 'my conveyance' LL
okoom~
I I
, , '
obeomi 'my soup' LL
I I
, t _ 'my house' HL
iIe 'm~
..
ama °mi 'my ch i.Ld ' MI,
I I
-55- YORUBA
# ,
iyan're 'your pounded yam' HL
I
..
aso 'mi 'my cloth' ML
I I
#,
inu'mi 'my stomach' HL
....
ob~ 'mi 'my kola nuts' LL 8. Comb~nat~on of all preced~ng dr~lls.

Responsesl

HIGH-LOW/MID-LOW/LOW-LOW/RISE LOW

# ..
owo're 'your money' HL
I
, ~
agaomi 'my chaa.r . ML
#"
apaomi 'my arm' HL
- .... - 'your gourd' LL
agbe're
I
" ..
agbon'mi 'my coconut' ML
I
#"
aJa"mi 'my dog' HL
" V" cutlass'
ada Ore 'your RL
I
.. "
agbon'mi 'my basket' LL
I
- _, - 'my body' ML
ara'm~
.. ....
agbo're 'your ran' LL
I 9. H~gh-HIGH LOW-M~d ~. H~gh-MID LOW-M~d
Responses: (1) SAME/DIFFERENT
(2) HIG H- LOW /MI D- LOW
# ,,, # ~
foko'mi 'for my hoe1 foko"mi 'for my husband'
I I I I
, , .. ~ -' -
foko're 'for your hoe' foko're 'for your husband'
I I I I I I -56-

BASIC COURSE

10. Hlgh-FALL LOW-Mld ~o Hlgh-MID LOW-Mld

Responsesl (1) SAME/DIFFERENT

( 2 ) FALL- LOW /MI D- LOW

, ,... , -

1eYln·ml.

I

'palm nuts'

, ..

1eyin Om!

I

'eggs'

11. H1.gh-HIGH LOW-Mld v s , Hlgh-FALL LQ1;'J-Mld
Responses: (1) SAME/DIFFERENT
(2) HIGH-LOW/FALL-LOW
, , .. , ""
foko 'mi 'for my hoe' foko'mi 'for my car'
I I I I
, , .. , ""
foko 're 'for your hoe' foko're 'for your car'
I I I I I I 12. Comblnat1.0n of Drl11s 9, 10 and 11.

Responses.

HIGH-LOW/MID-LOW/FALL- LOW

, _ .... - 'for my husband' ML
foko'ml
I I
, ..... FL
foko'mi 'my car'
I I
, ,." FL
foko'mi 'my car'
I I
, , ..
foko °mi 'my hoe' HL
I I
, ..
foko'mi 'my husband' ML
I I
, _, ..
foko're 'your hoe' HL
I I I
, ,."
fokoore 'your car' FL
I I I
, ..
fokoore 'your husband' ML
I I I
, ..... FL
foko're 'your car'
I I I
, , ..
foko're 'your hoe' HL
I I I -57-

YORUBA

13. Extenslon of Drl1l 12 to segmentally dlverse utberances.

, -" -

nlsu·ml I

, ,

leyin'mi

I

, " ,

leYln'ml

I

, ",

lobe'ml

I I

, , ,

lorl'mi

, '" '

lokun're

I

, ,

loko're

, "

laso're

I I I

, "

nl1'le're

T I a

'my yam'

ML ML FL

'my eggs'

'my palm nuts'

'my soup'

FL

'my head'

HL

':your rope'

FL

'your farm'

ML HL ML

'your eye'

'your cloth'

'your work'

HL

14. Mld-HIGH I'1ID-Mld VS. Mld-I'1ID MID-I'1ld

Responses: (1) SAME/DIFFERENT (2) HIGH-MID/MID-MID

-' -

oko .... wa

I I

15.

'our hoe'

'our husbands'

Mld-MID MID-I'1ld Responses: (1) (2)

VS. I'1ld-LOW I'1ID-I'1ld SAME/DIFFERENT MID-MID/LOW-MID

lour hus bands'

..

O'ko'''wa

I I

'our cars I

16. Comblnatlon of Drllls 14 and 15.

Responses:

ok~"wa

I I

HIGH-I'1ID/I'1ID I'1ID/LOW-MID

'our hoes'

EM

-58-

BASIC COURSE

..

oko"'wa

I I

..

oko"'wa

I I

..

eYln'W'wa

~r~,.Iwa

'our husbands'

MM

'our cars'

LM

'our husbands'

MM LM

'our cars'

'our palm nuts'

LM HM MM LM

'our relatlves'

'our eggs'

'our rope'

lour bo da.e s , ourselves

MM

Mld-HIGH MID-Low Responses: (1) (2)

vs. Mld-MID MID-Low SAME/DIFFERENT HIGH-MID/MID-MID

17.

# ..

oko"'re I t I

"h i.s hoe'

..

oko"'re

I I I

'her husband'

18. Mld-MID MID-Low vs. Mld-LOW MID-Low

Responses: (1) SAME/DIFFERENT (2) MID-MID/LOW-MID

..

oko· ... re

I I I

'her husband'

.. ..

5ko"'re

I I I

'hls car'

19. Extenslon of Drllls 17 and 18 to segmentally dlverse utterances.

Responses,

HIGH-MID/MID-MID/LOW-MID

oko :Ore 'her husband' MM
I I I
.. - .. t ha,s car' LM
oko're
I I I
-59- YORUBA

, ,
oko"re 'hlS hoe' HM
I I I
' .. ' 'hls ear' HM
etl re
I
, palm
emu-re 'hlS wlne' MM
I I
'- ,
eru're 'hlS load' LM
I I
'- , 'hlS companlon' HM
egbe're
I I I
,- , leg'
ese're 'hlS 1M
I 1 I
.. ..
okun~re 'hls rope' LM
1
,
ara';'re 'hlS body' MM
I
20. Mld-MID LOW-Mld vs. Mld-MID MID-Low
-
Responses: (1) SAME/DIFFERENT
(2) MI D- LOW /MI D-MI D ..

Okoore

I I I

'your husband'

- - ..

oko"'re

I I I

'her husband'

21. Mld-HIGH LOW-Mld vs. Mld-HIGH MID-Low

Responses: (1) SAME/DIFFERENT (2) HIGH-LOW/HIGH-MID

, ..

okoore

I I I

'your hoe'

, ,

oko"'re

I I I

"h i.s hoe'

22. Extenslon of Drl11s 20 and 21.

Responses:

HIGH-LOW/HIGH-MID/MID-LOW/MID-MID

- ,,, -

odo ore !

'your mortar'

,

oyin're

I

'your honey'

HL ML

- ,- ... orlOre

I

,

omoore

I I I

'your ch i.Ld '

HM ML

' ha,s head'

- _- ,

oseOre

I I I I

'hlS soap'

MM

-60-

BASIC COURSE

, ch1.1d'
omo ..... re 'h1.s MM
I I I
,
oyin're 'your honey' ML
I
, ,
odo "re 'h1.s mortar' HM
I
- , ML
oS~'re 'your soap'
I I I
"
orl're 'your head' HL
I
23, Low-RISE MID-Low vs. Low-MID MID-Low
-
Responsest (1) SAME/DIFFERENT
(2) RISE-MID/MID-MID 'h1.s awl'

24. H1.gh-SECOND MID-M:ld VS. H1.gh-SECOND SECOND-}11.d Responses. (1) SAME/DIFFERENT

(2) SECOND-MID/SECOND-SECOND

'our krn.f'e t

1, I I -

qbEt·wa

'our soup'

N.B. The tonal pattern wh1.ch 1.S here marked as H-22-M 1.S except1.onal 1.n that 1.t conta1.ns an 1.nstance of second tone on a second mora 1.n contrast w1.th m1.d tone. The tonal pattern wh1.ch one would expect 1.n the contracted

, ,

form of n1. obe ~wa 1.S of course H-FM-M, and -FM-M does

I I

a.n fact occur a.n some c r r-cums t.a nc e s, but apparently not w1.th phrases of the k1.nd used 1.n th1.s dr1.11.

HJgh-MID MID-Low Re sporise s s (1) (2)

vs. H1.gh-SECOND SECOND-Low SAME/DIFFERENT MID-MID/SECOND-SECOND

, - '

foko"re

I I I

'for her husband'

, I I ,

foko·re

I I I

'for ha.s car'

-61-

YORUBA

26. H1gh-HIGH MID-Low vs. H1gh-MID MID-Low

Responses I

(1) SAME/DIFFERENT (2) HIGH-MID/MID-MID

" ,

foko"re

I I I

'for h1S hoe'

'for her husband

27. H1gh-SECOND LOW-M1d vs. H1gh-MID LOW-M1d

INSTRUCTIONS: In th1S drlll and In all other dr111s In th1S format, the lnstructor should read aloud all three expreSSlons 1n L1St A, followed by the f1rst expreSS10n 1n L1St C. Then, he should read aloud all three expreSS10ns In L1St B, followed by the f1rst ltem In L1St C. The stUdent lS to declde whether the expresSlon from L1St C belongs tonally wlth L1St A, or wlth L1St B. The same procedure lS repeated for each expresslon In L1St C, or untll the stUdent has demonstrated that the exerClse lS easy for h1m. Then, the class should proceed to dr11ls In ldentlflcatlon, mlmlcry, and r nde pe nderrt pr-odu c t.r cn by the student, as ou t.Li.ne d on pp. 50-52,

In th1S exerC1se and In other exerClses whlch conslst of

, ,

expresslons that begln w1th~, the word ~ lS not translated 1nto

Engl1sh.

The format of th1S exerC1se lS made necessary by the absence of sU1table m1n1mal pa1rs of phrases 1n Yoruba.

L1St A L1St B
, I , , ,
laga'mi: 'my cha1r' lemu'mi: 'W1ne'
I
, I ' , ,
lagbon'mi: 'my coconut' leran'mi: 'mea t'
I I
, I , , , ,
leko'mi: 'my eko' leyi:n'mi: 'eggs'
I , , , , L1St C

la ta "rm,

'plate' 'herb brew' 'cloth' 'pepper'

lawo·m1 lagbo·m1 laso·m1

I I

62

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