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The Mosque and the Modern World

The Mosque and the Modern World

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Published by Tamil Islam
Authors: Hasan Uddin Khan, Renata Holod - Thames & Hudson,1997
Authors: Hasan Uddin Khan, Renata Holod - Thames & Hudson,1997

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Published by: Tamil Islam on Jun 06, 2010
Copyright:Public Domain

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08/27/2014

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1

Aijt hors' nate Irnr(ld 1;,1;11011

23

24 Sh~ifiq AmiBh M05qU~, Eldmt" li::lrllu'Ion 26 iBin M~d l'}Ia MosCjut, DutJa" IJA'E

:29' Bhong MosqiJe, I(l(~r H1!Ih~fflry[lf ~han, ~alki5to1m 12. EI-SaVyitl::l S!'!fiyy<l M05'elue, Caim, fgypl

33 MOsql.lE and CllIhJlmI Cf'otrle, Marbelila,5psl", 35 Ai-Ibrahi.m. Jsmr~ ('ar~~as, V'e:nezuel~1

~ 7 SuM. i ma n M 05'1 ue, Jeich:lah. Sa u di ,A,rra1b:ia

'3 9 AI- H:8 rithy Mosq UIt;, Jed d~ h, ~~ucli Ar~bj~

41. Jil.ll m m 1:1 M llsjid, Johann esb~.lIr9; SbUtl1 A:fri(p 42 !LsmlilrW Centre, SOUrti1l~elf1si!ng~c'l"l, t~Jr1(io'r!, 'LN

49 l5!tiI1~W j a mat khililili a nd C~r.ltJ'1e~ihmli!,by,BC, C~n8da 52 LalHa SoubiM Mos,qiJei BijlIbil, IMorocco

53 Ki'rl gl Abd I!J 1 Aziz M osq 1.IJf:! ,anti FOLil1ll1<1'liDO. Ciils<lblMta. Moroc.co 55 MQ~ElH~ ofltaS'53n H. Cag.ab~al'lca, MoroiOOo

'64 btiq Ila ~ lFrx:~domJ 'M'05:q ue, Ja~arta, I fldorr~ia

68 IMasjio Ne~l:a ra [Na tilo rlSil M0'5q Lliet Kura 113 LtlrHp ur" Malaysia 73 Negeri SembiilarnJ S~le M~:s~U'e, 'Sell:~mbilTI, rvla:h3ys.ia

75. Ma:sj1d Su Ita r'I Sa.fah L1ddill:'l ,AMu I Aziz Sntll~. S~JiJ rIIgor, a r'i'd

Stlf8 w~ k Stale MlOSQ~ e" KYch i ng, MtI:Iil!~ia 76 Ki rIIg f:tl is."al Miat~ ld, 151i1f11~baJd, p~ ki~lta rt

BO Great M@5G11J'~. ~uwi:llitrilV, lKuwaU

84 Slate Mosqu!!. Ba'ghd:a d [r.:OtlA ~~~t~Qnk J r<f~, ·91 AI Umm,iI. T ripgli,. Uhya tproj~'C~JI

94 [41 prt!] I e1)m~ lex M (rstllI.H~, [H!lai~a, r:lal'il'!'l!laJdeJi'h

100 Brand lNauiQI'1:t.!il As~rnbly Mosquf;, A'flIk:ilm. Turke:y

107'

nIB

111 'l VUlliiJge M'[)~ue,. Mi1I'ader, AlgrewltJl

114, BcrwmMiiffioe yijllage M.oGQu,e. I'i!'ear A:bdalar, Algeria

116 M J;,IS-q ue !Jflog rlaml'il'E: fgr Pa ha fig 5inH~1 Mia Ica~11i!

'118. Flou:sing am::! DI!WIll:lopm1erftliioo ru MQ5qlles.. :5irl g!a po Fe

121 CiH:lilal Develo~,me;nt Au~nowit,v MJOStlues" :lslM1atlald, l'l!kl5if'~111

1 ~4 N i,lc:il1 rv'OSIqIU~: Kina rlo{,lffl. Sl.id~u'1 .

1 'J7 O~man libn Affan MOst! LIe'" Oata,r (proj.eeU '129 AI.~Klrrd~ PI(l~Jaml, ,Iiliya'd~", Sa,ud~ ~~bia

132 ll'nall) TYlrkj b~1\1 Abi:iurlllf'l Jami (l1:asr A.Hlioki'l1J. RiV::H'Jh. Saudi Arablil 1 34· S~a'rn:~!1 t rIIIlosq ues (lslafld. Comkhe an d AI ~,Ru wa.ls /ill! osq uesl,

Jeddal'1; ~alud i A~[lJb i iii

1,311 NJim"f mos~u ~ [:0"1 p~rl tien

'1 ,41') Shlushta.l' New Town Mosq ues, ~'1ute'St:3 11, I r~il'a 1,42 ft:h u,l;Sf~ Mosq I.I~, 9~9 ildad, haq

11411 Saiid N;;IOfil Mp8quc, Jskarta, Intlonl1'Sla

lli!li:S Abu BakOir :l,$<-SidLiiq MGlSfllkle. Kuala l~rl'lpu(, M .. ta'fSjEl

Mm,SqU!!i 1'1'f iPllIb:lic :ulIIllI 'eDII11Ii1~erd 11 I in51t1Jm w~ OrtiiS i 161 _,..- , ",,:. ~ I I B~ d

_ 152 -$3,llfI'lIlIr'l1 M(lsql~,JiI:!', I !'ISU tu t e no ega rn Ju n gl, I fiI di}fi1 I~

I '15:5, Jondi5hapur Ul'lli~mi'l1I Mo&qul!, A'~~'ttl, ' 'hiuz- sUln., ~ran

1 $6 N(]ffl2l'Z grlJi.n'l~h~ Telfulnj, lran -

'~16[] ljl'lliversity erf p,eTlro~~lUml ar1di Mine~,3tls, 1M'~IU~d DI-J,a~nan, Sa~-tli Ar~tJ

162 I1n'9 I'olsal I'Ollnd'li'O" Mosque, R"vadh, 5a.dl Ar.;bia I,

~ 6'31 I _ H S]l1ia IlJI fI~vl!rS; tv IMtDsq'iIU:, Halma da n •. I r:llin h'jr,oJ e~~

f65 ,~~a.m~c C~n[reror rec:nl'llirsl~ and Vacat~'on:all r'~:aining andl

Re'S~alrch, ~11'at~a~, Ba ngtllBdesh

16~ ILl n iv-efSi tv aif KerwrU1ln Ma&Q !.U!~ I'ra,n

170 University ,,,if h'ild.one§ia M D!!qU e, .De po • j:aika,f'LtiI, lAd onHl8

17:2 Hotell ,~ndl Gc,nl:rer,~nce Cre'ntr- Mosque, MlecCD" Saudi Ar,a,b~

'1174- Ki I'Ig ;~ha led Int€: rna U Dnall] AmflP.ort M osq'U'e:1 RiVa d hjS~UJdr Ala Ilia '1177 AvJ~ellm~: Millitalrrt HDsp[ta,l, tMlarwakec'hi Morm:.co

~ a,'~1 Dar I~m'i;]ne Mosque, near Carsablalnc8!, MQf!CU:OD

-18-1, 6n~a'~ Mosqlue~ NjiDn~~ Mali

lS9 Ys,ama IMosqUl,!i T;alito1ua, Niger '193: M'asj id- i Te c'oa~ K3f3,chm! Palk~s;til n

1 SIS She,refudd i 11":5 Wth lte Mc~qut, \rl'som~ 105m ia

:2.01 ISlllami'c ICen'~I'~' 31nd Mosqu e. lag reb. Croatia

205 Bailt ul~-,M,u~a rra Oil. Dhaka, IBa ng 13d~

209 AI-Ghad'ilr Uosque., T:enra n, I fi!!'n

:2: '~3 Eas:t, ILa ndon an dllirlid: liU'!!.'! MD:§q ues, lOndon, lIIl

214 Clair a 1~1~13 m', ,Abiq u~ L1!, NM, USA,

::n 7la,rk I's:~amic Cefl~re', 'Drgl1itiO~ On,talrio. Canada 2'1,8, ~S!NA Islamli,r Cent~r, IPllainfifld,. II.N', USA

,2211 U 11 ivelrn;i[y of Arkans.al~ MaSCI ue, jo n,estic rCll AfiI, USA ,223 IBait ul-Is~am; Ma,p~'e, Tomnlo" IChil'tario. canada

'224, ~c5lamic lc:en~l'iI.l'!Kings~Dn. Ontario, Canallla,

==~ ~!~2~27~'~ ~ __ ----~----~----------------

f 228 Mosqlur.! ,and MusJim Institu~e, P,arlS. france

:23(;1 Londen crntnllll.Rlil:grr'H'S Par' 1 MOsqur.~nd(ll"l'. u-

l'3:3 Is! a m Ie C:e n~tr, W~sh un_i,tol1 IDC', USA . .

238 Islam!L Cultural Fourui31tion Mosque,. ~ti[ Saoonna G~n~ SV.I[I~

~l4~ 15:1 aim ie' Ceintrr' and MClISIque, Rcme. l~:al'

248: isJli!llmlie' C1U It III mi' Cel'lllrr of Ne_ YOt , USA

2'~4 2'7'4 2,80 2'85 286 281

N:!J~llS on the texl

Kt!:V mgsql)~ 31'11di liSlam co CtntrfS Se-It't't bibllDg ra,ph,

IGlgssary

'Scl!,m::~ en 1'lhJ~mUlOn:!i, limtfli.

Personal patronage

ilnrhe pas~ ~Cls~ules have been fir'ha,m;~d_:ai'i1d buH~ by wt:aHhy il'l(li~du~1 p~lr.ons ilnd g.1vtn by til1~m ttl their own eomm u nliti~!H!lnd! in 'So me C2lS~S; to 00 tumlu'nHie5~thef than lhelW 'own, ,as: m.~ni~lllltions Ofth e:ir pie ty and:·:so.clQ I ~taWs. S·lJt1h PltmrtS W(:'ifii: general!!\!' mt:mb~r5 ®f:o:! ruUI1g er 5oC'i~11 eilite. such as 0'31 m01'lfllrcll, a prInce Of prifloess, a ~hdkffQf dl religious leOi!de'F,:il hU1!downt'r or m~il"Chal!'lt The bu~lIdil1g ef'a nrm.sqlu!! wcr~ (;onsider~d lU be a chantil bie ac I on t-h~ ps rt of the flan:ol'!, and w1I.sgefieraily a(joornp~ni!;:d b'y·ltIf~ pT!J'.:IrVisioi1 of ill nendJowment in peqn:tui tv thl~lm!:lh th ~ ereatlon r.i

il t,'/(1qf OT piol!sfou n1Id'atilon. It W,i:!S w~d ely be-liit;:ve:!i:I, th:<I t

th<l ritabl~ ~C't;S .constHuteone of U'II;: 'rhire,e tncl.ll rim] iegacies cirO! MusUm 's ,I rfe.1 Yet" att~t' ~rme: tij1rll e, ma ny fl<lit rons Wl;:fll:

SY ~l!Jy mothl,Hed to blJ i I d mo~que8 as symbollS. of ppl,ntka I or dY1l"ll1lstic ppwer, or of th e prt:~n£"e".D'rth~ r!JI1 rng power 1 n a Ii r1 dl"{J'fH1 u er~d twrl'leforee8, of I slam, ~jl the pu~'"'m(:jderfl periods 5u:~h sets 'OOulrj alSo b~·~ategl~ritro 'as am G'f tile sta~~ If thlf~alr~'n r;.,'a$ a n,J,ler .Ellld if rL~ rtl8I.idls[iJ1cttQn between ~f1\i\l1n: i1itnG Sill te <lets C301J Ii::! b:e m~e.. I'n tQdilY's< world, indi\li~ilJiid .p<IDtrOJ1'ilgt:~ thoil,Jgh far o~tr'l""mbt:Qtd by ol:her form:;, wnti fl!.JIf$ 10 bt 1O¥©'w.ftehTi! IflQ,I,y by rilJCi1lfl, ilnd is,tll'll y r.llri:! IV ,a~stl:an aet of :J.ta~e. ~

F~~,tl.J red 1 n lti is'l'n:8Ipter ~ Fe m~.q'I;r!e:s ~ Ftll,( were 1 n i [1sI~rzI a rJ rnlfitt'l~need by indiV!idl,la,~s \i\l'no did neil n~[tn3Uy hial"\lL! ~er"'u rs.e In ei[(tensi~ g);J~rnm ent:r,!'I "Of Cilf]:':! muri1l~ !i~,Mi f'ig ill r1 d 1t"~i1!~ n,~d ~!JF1l{OI P\f\er' de~'9J'1 {jOO~1Q F1~ '5u~flI persorial t:omrol do~ nOt DC.t'~;l'$.lrlily vie:ld maTe caring delPa'rtIl,ues hom tlicp e or IJfooiU!Ze 1 f1 n Qv.ati ~n'5 '~f m"s.qu~ de'sign, ;f~f[he l;lI~q: afthe In d.ivi.dillii I ~,tr'!Jn is u:wally ~im ,ted bYlh"3l 01' thff .gwml!J.p lOr '~i"]~ 5J)ti~ ly. I ~ prai(i! Ihfe, i ml ivTd'i:~.':Ir p:at:r~oo have fJifh~J'I s~I:J.g,ht tile. rttF-VlllI!S, of ;;J u~hi'~e~tl; a,1 ready kflown rolr s,peClfic t¥)les ·of deslglfl, 1~~iI,[Ji"I~ 1Iu:!~ mom for t:h~,arridl\tl~l· ttl p~f()w ~ d~i~fJ wi'llr'h r.iep.arm:Glln mV major w~y foom the ~as!il¥ reco£l'nilahle and uflr:lcr&to~d teatur~S: tlf Lh~ rnlJSque. 011'11 V In r<irre i r'iSUH1tC'S dpllIl> the p:a (rtf) n Slf't tl'1e overnU sttyl*~ h; ~11f1 "IIL'?~ i ltttl.1 ~sd o1l'gerlld<l,.3S can bt7 see I ~n

I he nl5e Df King H,1I!5!ii!fJ II of r;.~'5rO~a or of the' liiglli:'l<fa Fl.

ElecOiI;i~ ~,11r ~m'fiI'~ discussitd havt' ~~~!'1 dra,wnfrOIH a large uu'l flot com p reh~mi\l'~sa! rn ple, it Im'!V h~ tQI1IIe-ar Iy ~Q m:l,kr a mI~flf'1lt~ve chiHuctefilrnUOM. Aifl irflpressforl (HI.l~rgtl'S,

'~'il;~ Ai ~llt~~ Iflro.;I!h~ m~1 ~ derne orthf. AI-H~riqhv M(j~!1,ue [19<86), JrodQh (~po Jsl iIm~ Dfnh~ ~I~ !iF m~~1!5 ~~nM I:l'f AlidEI w~"~ EHIV::;l~jl, 5I\t;lWrlltg th~ Ilm~'tE~ I!.ri,~ foni!iu,uc~lon Qf lJ!llt ~~ml:lentmu~illhc !Ie01T'l:'ttl~ ~0!1lll:'\riil ,;In he d1~nd.~[i~~.

IO~pr;i~~~~j Th~ ulipcr p~rt cf~~e lIlil'll:l r~ IIIf

the f'll'l;Isq ue [If H~SF.a1l II f!1 ,l':<!5!llllil"t':<i, t~c

ta I~t ~!~lltwn!l:5"SOO.3~~i:I. wliUrt n rcli~l00 bl!llclinfJ ~ n~\lJljlUr!ll~ th~ W(!rlrl f.~IIl~ !P' 'i!4,J II' 11O~~ a Nilfl'lpurtff~n~ fra~~ ~l'Ii~h ~~nit'~ I $iC~ vrt\~ t~f~u9!101;I1 ~I'!l:. l!!1ilf~l!J:~ ~olllpri!'~ ~rt· ~(I"l!ra!I~: Il~ illffporF.lIll~ oCci'a5il;lroi OJ IHImrful I~e:r b~am ~~n ~t ~cW:c:t~d rom the rol'l1mlt

• .Sh:iI'flq A~h MOsq~C' ~ 19a~J. ~frut~ h¥ 'Nitbbll r~'b~:JI'iI.

~~~ rlgM1S"~cIJCln of~h~ mDSWe shQ"t'lli'l!l th~ g~~mav ~J1Id (IiJ;~ Imill'l~u!t ph~m GYlS\!l~ the 'i11 aln l'n!J5$ of ~n!: p~r 'kii~l.

!AiJl!D~1 J\.!.l_or;run~l1~ 'villW:Il1i~' ffi:nrl ~~ ,of the ~~ ~ ~ i~_strI1!:d ["00' ~~~fricf'~ ~rt~. wH:i:J ~'n~m~1')l fl!i~i~Ii!:S' bctoiO'!' g~oulnD r~~L

~a~tDVo~ ~r'it~Jlilflll' th~. ~~!r m.11\ ~in~ fhe IiJtll~' ",,~II ~p:arakil, f~r!J Ihe SllWIllifil I:q~iI'rle~ns ,~fllil; ~(l~ ~ IrDm, Qf wiOOm~ ,th~ '~oO~in,~i5 ai'~' ~,I'!.i!.:u1~~d a/io~g.';o~~ nl~l'ies, pwniWng \.iie;ws. ~r*) 1hli $~m~!i:.

pr I the ~~C at I!)., (dN'It'jrd UJ nlmtt to ij JleW tocar.olll

~ ('ool1rl' w I ose ~(h~l111 h r mJ I ns Obst:1U ~ e ~l:n~MI.I;I v

ckma ltod '~n(d tar th I 'i ~II rnese In [hI."' ~ er Ril~- e t'lfilll OiSUld 5;:Jcb S. 'a. m, th~ farml!:" Pfllfl¢ M1n~!'ilcr or ~l!bal1on mil Jlf~l[:ifnt o1lhe M('I1<l~"Mnlid A1-An'~lrlt:' lslermc

~ mM n, w.1!i i'l ,rlFlm f" mQVf ~ H1 In ~ pmj!:C I, .lml R .. blh '~~lHl ~ h.c', CtlOllf ma n Df Flam m Construe-lion Com p.l n~. ou(relillO lfini:lnrr 1"1:: I:o~m.lclifln of the mosque III ml:'mof\' 0 J lUI§: 101 te fa I her lh OU Q h '~~['h 11~('.IlIiV (his ml.lSqu!I!! \trill! hHld~ ~y:l numixr of ptopll!', dearly the m~jor \i'Orcc:

In tfu~ dlesl!il n detlSIOfl was lh.n of ttl e ,Pt!"SOfI C I gIUMl!e5t r('un~ ill ;m~ a ulhoflt~, who carl bt:: oonllidcr'l:d i1S th~ Wm1ilIY patron, it aot rill." ipi l ron o I rrttl r d

Sa~b S"~i3 am eomrmssicn 00 Nabbllhbbara, a kbJ n ese :Ift'hitK'l, 10 prepare' UII: dllwir19~ fm .11 Ilew mosqUI: lo'.'ltt1

iii SIImU [OJTImllll~t¥ centre Bef1)n.:' startll'lgl th.: dC-::;f~n, the ;m::hirtcCl ron d'1JC't.:::d <I lhmou gh 5-1 .. Hvev of ~isting m05q u es 10 [h!.' city I n an iu.:mpt to d isrover ,(I n d Id!!m~ fv me

,p:utJru rar ('Mar acre ri~j,[ Its 01'1 !'IiI osq lJ~ design in PJel~ U L These rharacteris tiL:"5, h L! d!::lC'fm i n [d. \',i,eI(' baSijeallly dli:fi ru:d ib,t the budding m'HI!""alS mast commonly used in thr city, such <liS toc!!1 sandstone ilIl1d n~rracotu til£5 In ord!:; to reflect this VoIs1l31 g~!;!I«! ~n h is. d~.gn conlZe~ved I t'l a modc.JtiI Idiom,

he ~ Uolvl"ftille .'i~1! Il Will I ~ to suggest sa n dstone, wh 11 ~ ket::PII1Ql tfadl'lHll'la ~ roof files.

Thi:' msigll dlU~ l?C'tlru:d0!9V employ~d in [,he case eHhis masque a rt' based CI n Vi ria tions of S(jU!'Ire a n d cube The site was V~N re5llT(::[cd, Wilh OJ ni:m!~ of on~v20G sq_ m (2, 19[] sq. m Bnd was 1.1Ordf.,~d OJ'll two si cl!:'s by busy .5tr'f!::'ts. 1'h t:

bt!!rior 'Il'J~"5'wci!lln!ll1Ji1c 1t~i:J '~311 r~It:oto1:1 ~nd ~ Qf,u~r of 1i1l~ millt(lb l'rlll: ~I d1.!lf'if "f~Urd In loc~1 '>o)flds~oll~. drrn n I$, ot

th~ I'fIIj!~moHnd !n.c W!Or--1 Fe-~p~'ClI ~ I'fiMllm~ntlJ c ~~ Thl: 51ll1'lg a~' ~flc i'1Il.Il~I~1 ('~r kit} ~I rI~ (I;1Irl!\~r ~nli'UfI$

tn~ t ooth I~ ~ml d'ic mO:JQ UI:' ilI.a rll];o'~

~ Fe F-fgml "~M~~ ,i~~1' tlOf.i'lt~ I rf i"! ~11" Or il~3fW 111Q1'1-rl5C bLt'klln~

7

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'i!I'~' utll"!11(

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lIIighllJ lihf 'sl~jijnm' m/hrall nl~h~. willl'l 5h1U!lIWI my blll~'~njjl b~rg~' d'~~~iOfi! Inco:rpol1!tiR!I Cil.!~la"it, I~ YlltatiOlll5J in gl~~fe.

jRdcw) T'Il~ 'brid,-dalll: ~~~lillr or Ul~ rn!lSqU~ oolill_ts wllll1 In~ 5:!lI,i.!-;]n1' IT!~nar~t wil~ 15 w~il~ haltom'll ~nd obllq-qt fdgli\~

lBl=tlwJ SI~C' pi!! " a I i:' m~r CClI'llIJ/ I" ~DWI"!J '1.1 rC:lnli nsh p 10 ilu: III liI~1!'

m;[

18o\iom,ll'lalt;arid ,«?lIt" 01 '''t 11'1-.1;1 Ii r ,y.~r 91 I'~p. f ,til

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) ,t;,ln~1li1of

1 ~tu"l1nti illl"alli ~'JCiII'I'1iIW S.N~till'll"lt &\",1."'.1';

I r.rfll'l!r a"u Ir"';ill'

Cw'I~' d 1 rl~ ~1'f.~rlJ.Jm 1,''1f1oiiUd

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1 iirr~n~< 'l~.t~'d 3~'riIl~

~ MiI~~!J:I

E,I,~Sawida ,SafiiYYSI ~l'hJ,sque. C-,;a~ro. Egypt

- - - - - - -

1 UIIII"lIfJIUgn~ I"D"'! "ll'5l1'.i.11ll~i"II~P1I ~J..I>I~\-~

l~'1l", .. ~11

~ t"II"i:<b

:5 l..-rlil[""\ Lf,~~!t'

7

ll!~lowJ iI'1~ at~orar ~'~ I1lMl!lwall. iJih! ,upprJ' lJ!iirl oJ th~ ~""",~~m!f~ mibRlb i n~mpDil;tts smllllm9~

~Ab~j S .... !'Idlll~ onl hoe San~ Res<! B~!!IIC'f.I"'fd, [I'i~ bui IdJl:i!J ~cld!s ,Itsowil illi almpot'liQ~ re! .~Uli:~liion wiHI a ~Ftio of major r~jg~ riiltl1lJt,IJI ~:i'ld m~Wm buildll!ll9~~~ntJcAgl!Iti5'~U~L.

I

1 51! ee l ~IIIIJ.1I'IC~

2 M~j'f~ pr,)~~r":lr('~

J Wan\cn'~ m'n~mnl! '1MIl'lrao

~ Mlrol'ret

B Par iltjJllrta

I[Wtl' ~ection showin,9 U'lf' I'npSqLJf: stiJrl'lJl'ifl9""oo iii f,ajs(;:a platform to ,give It 9 r~,'te.r heigh' , atTICl en h~l'It:td vi,:s,i'bility rrorn 'ti'l e itrW.

r,~;~ 1 ~~ 11iIi'1;'~

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RQ'b~IL ~I'ilr~~w,.!.ln ~ also ibailti;t1 Qn ~ SIl:nCI'I"IIi; ,rISpif~~. m~ L"l!I: IWlidillrm.:il h~~~t~i~ ru.U, "~ne Intt lIilblm :!ip:fr~ 15 nI~;tWlt!il in ba'{!> 't<M~h illel ~~!I:~ ~~ SIIPPllri 1fil!'ll ~~DW 1M fJ;ni;l ~:> df~':Oratt.d !>tTl':!: m~ip~ri!lllt"l Ul t~c.l!jri!J1~ w~1! Tn~ ~~ rWM~ WIIM 11iUIiI:!l'1 ~(lmi~ FNjrllll'! ~~"'~~~d ~ ~ !l1.QIIII mu~rn!:!~{/RI1l!SQI, Ttlt: il{,1rr;111~loJi:l~1., I'I!:~t~rl~.:! ~"ql~ fr,~~;j11i!11l9 fl1ITI1~rl!l. ~~ b~l"rn ~~r~l ],j~I'.' rll;:!ljil~1I 00i tic '~l:lD 11ft aJ1lull~11 ml~ ~rnU 111~11 c!U ml,l~M r~~~l:d numan !.C.ak o'til'hin tli!:r, ~1'!'111't:~lh~r

e prt:~ Inonum!!i!'nrnlrtV.11'l arl.::hTtl'(!'lUIl' iiI!i w~III-as. hlUIrL;;lfl ~<11~; III whfch th~ 5p,<:lP!il~ 1~}i'fJl,lt IS uneqULViClriillllll'f1I"OI'. '

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and W here S.VJTI OOllf ekm!;'n ls 5.m::hf.<l~ <I F.~,;rde5, IOfl1'~ ll1~nt . ,

~([m~, muq~1"'11l'l5. crend!!i!tLOr'i5 <lnd fl1imrr~l ha\ircCl~~r ' I iimo ;;i~ept~bte rdfrelf115',L Fr.om tihe~ ba~lt pN~mlfl~!i, It~ n3iS dleveloped a ~,esign p;re~ ram me in whioo fQ rm ~Fld ornilffi!;"ntatloA_ 6Pcer1lt~ on \I'L1p levthl thu~, tit!! desl.yn ~k& ttl pmd~t:'e f"Of'S~~y refflglnll~b1~ :a r'ld re:a.;i'i.lblf'SymbolsliMt.·t

, ,lilt!

00:yl1'1'9 wi ~h e:liipecta [ioo~, afild illusion i Ii a prQ'!lrJC·~ live

mall1lf71eJ'. This tendm1t.'Ii' 1'SI~V1d.eflt !til hiS,tre3tm~i'lr ef ;h~ hyposlyle 1'1;:1 n" li1f domE!'!l ianr:l I:h~ jns'~i ~'t Ion progf1Jf!'I m~.

fm his d~~lopml1:l1't Df the' l'il'l'flin hYJ:io&tvh~ hell, V~ntu r I roeuSl:ld eethe same :kev his;oor itil l m oM:!e!s 'as th<:lle u~L1 bv the ether l.rd1i~~l5, b'Utch~~e. l h!!:.Mrasqu,~ oJ ~bn if.iJ11'lIn Irl Cairo ~I filS i I'lsf,lJfiJ ti'OA fl;;lr c:lmerj ng the VEKil, i nterirn :Sj'r:;y~e The repeb~Qn oftlle-llZI,ng ~eell:i r.lIf 1ir~nes, ~~C~ o",e with a btl n d (:)f t:a11'ig rail)hnc. in~r'illltiQ ns, 'O'l,,!§ the oor'l'!Ipd 1m!! lma;g,e h~f ua~fOrmed :£l,nd e.1:abn'r;'jl~d M tne flec~ril'l'~l m I~ Gfttk~ new mosque, Me longer t;onm@ij'J.oo bV!iUl:lttl,;lflll

n miMtfQn~,slllCi'I as ttl ~ 'nsed to llt.llPpOr1 ~l'1e ar'Ches; l.iVi~i"I ~ielrs. t1c ,c:ho~ lU'SU5p,ell,d t~t w;:rt'erlS 'fr'r;l1'Il tne>\;(lUirrg 8I'1d~I'Iii1S free llleilDJ;lr. In md~r ttl reli®'e. t~~ ¥;l:5~n!"!SSI!l'f I he; rtIl.!~tin~ open '5P8J~~i rows,ot low ~nctel;atwa~ 1!Ii1lu~ pl;)nned, Thf

~ rr ghit t{lloIJ r and a\;l~~i~ed ~31e Olf the ta111ig I1!phy iri: [~ve<lled inthei[ t'"~ti't~ eJlI tht- mJhrab, \I'illhndllS' [reated as~ f1at-:fi'am~~ 'U(!~1" A ~1l~trllttd ~pmr I3f milld~J ~.rQP(]rUIil~ admits Ilgl1'l to the: spa£~ In fliQ nt ot~h[ mfhrofi, in'f~ 'rrn;rrks Ib r[n:ati~1li 1 n the qfbJ{l W1.!I~ wh't,n Vi!lw~,(j from ollt5ld~.Q;

The 5J'}~{:~n~;;r l~OIil~ m'r~, ~pe r~t!;!. d~li 1'1 pra¥5f fi;Ji11 a nd a "!lI1 ~ fur w~men ,aUo~\!ed tile $~rl~ ill!!'{ C to plaee th eiil1 0 n, ert~~cr side of <I! 9 rei l ~Q!.J rt wh~"fi ww r;~d .[It 56 'IllCOOfflm od~,m the OIle:rflOW o'fworsb I ppe:{5 Gm sp!:d all holrda~ I r W~~ til~ titz~ of me nfsUlI~i t:19 .eeurt !;Ind ~he: r'lltl mat it' wm.lld I:::@cCinJe a (iJmRIif'le~~ QP.ll':l'1, :iUn-ifl spat:erbJal'::l'lgll'lJ'lr]~fcti tI'I~ mea of Rl'mli:tjfngll Itl'l:t!.de: or pllrml ferit:. Thr~ rn rum, wa:!\,a pr~l~t 'for rhe irl~lusiQ n jilll the complrEi Or'll' dldIglrl fe.alumUln i~lJ~ 1£1 the a ~eh i l!':[t\!reClf 1~I~m - til e frJ1f#l>l7mfls" TW! ~ rn'Oi:leL fll~ I hi:

P rr,)p[)~ed mUqMl1It!~ pairastll Vi'OlSon ot il :$~n!ire ill a r1"p!,e, t:lU'~ a n~mbel'9fsmrre and plaster porUls<Inirl dom~!i; 1'3"!J~I'IQ fromth'[;l Iman Our mii!~:t1D learn rtear Salnl:a r~d ~n .k<l.l1 IQ .[Il~ rJ:CClMt:rU rtr;<d muq(lfflQ':S dome from 1'H . h H "SuJtilJlffil In

I ran, lllll' ''fUllJrded and pieroM ~mnble:·shel'l t."l'hDP-V w'",s

to !:Ie r.a1~c;t1 !;In ~i~ I'll SLJ~p[lr~$J.1bQ\li! Un! Clp~n .!'IP:!!~; it [~ impcu'TEmil to Jlnl~ lhat Whlii: ns d'J"umreref'let: C,OUffal

, d (It @n!IV ~h~ WI,clUI of th~ In~r.t','l.rn9iul<! r CQ lJ"lyl.lrd, tfi~ ~ S.

ttre long!!1 ~klL::!i We'fe ,left OpIN'1 to lhe;;slW - an[llh~r

L y "I

in iftliiationJllfth'~ j::J3tawl n(l tlA['e of tnl!' u 1lr:l1C •

CO'rlstd t!:ring the prCl1!p.ect of the ~h tral'ltt fa!;'adl: seen from ,,10SIt. u~l.B,nd- froll'\..'!l d~st"f1~t h~dpe~ ttl dr[~Hl1'if1~ [hf:

, f' ' " 'ThD tl'l~~i'I cdilur.

'h~~gh t <lRr:i e:>lt~r1[)r (1l[Ilmrr rilt:J~e t'all I:lP¥, .. ' , , ~

1'l!1tJ!~.IS echoed ~n thf' 1'!'1O.r::!ILlmen~ I fror'l'r ws 11,1 til il tried ~fn ' 1I!J Irh al1 inooriplir.ro in whne Ku fie sen pt, knclirtg <) §~1l§C t ~o'bne'\j tt:! H;ic enSt'llfb I~, Tilt: iBflEi,maJif 1l'1!IJ!lf et, pie t:f!I!i a rnf: ~nd @r [fillS W-;Jlr!, r:ompletC'!' ttl~l':I:'lifr~or.

TIre hel:l~11"19 alnd ~lher f<l~ihU~~~I'f~rJ tor Ilfl rJn: tr'!i!<I~ed liIyWnrLl!rr <Is urhen ~PQJef1~",gi'Swhjclt

c~ ni"'· :1 Co· ~ ~ ,'" Mo· He' O'h·,aka e"'n ··,1·" ,des'h

.,all"" 1,0 .mp~eA .... sq~ >. .. .• <;:II Q a .

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