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Vallie!! or Urf.lon (erg.eml) Cbaraeleri,ing tbe Orie atatlen, Induelion and Dl5penioll In tu-adio n ~b"~n Ll I.:e Molecules

. Int.ucUon
){ol~ulel orle:>t.ot!on I I d lsperstcn -
InduCtion
CO 0.0034 0.1Xi1 61.5
ncr 18.6 5.4 105
HBr 6.2 4.05 116
HI O.~ L68 382
NH, 84 to 93
H~O 100 10 41 ~;,t; /b~'v,'

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--Aj. ~'re {"GCe>_3)~~;" _ -vJ~&<}

A/"", ce ~ ~ tP <-t:' t-.;. c.. .~ .. .:/!, "75,- f.:i." ~ .. c.u.. ~ r. ..

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Fig. 20.3. Ch.ange in volume of crystalline substances (<I) .nd .morphoU5 substances (b) when hili. ted

" ,

I

1/ .;. J' •

~-91~ ? I~'~ "/0.. •. ..-"24~ r-,~ ~ i-4

PL." l~tlvCe LA4-..-/o_- (tdbu-a O~" d~ s--?Oh4)

.b~

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. f'IcIn' L& ItnIUlInl cria&11iDa-1i rorma media.atc r.,p1LAtl della ~ (b) • ciuewl pwlto ~ lid I'Ctio:ob (.). 00udalId0 (C) .. ",",0 . riao<»a:>:R 51. ~ e qlliDli UUVJe iI ntic:olo pa. tiforme. Noll; impx(a 60-..:: Ii 1iItm>a b ~ -tdati...-..-..: &I puACo rcticol&re.. _

. ; .. -

,

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F~ 7. P\mti mi<:olln di UD rcti<:o10 spazia.!c bidimmsioll&lc_ T.ate k coppic di ".uori a, • 11000 "etten tr.ulazioll&li del lcticolo_ Ma ... eb.. 1111.11 1000 wnori tiU1az;ouali prilf<ilM ~ _ poW&IIIO (II.rmale la. lras!az.iooe reticolare T COli. u.a com~ liae&te. QX{. 6cia>. Ii ira tcri eli .... b,.. TUlle I •• ltre eoppie di • e b mll.stn.1c poAOGO ~ prese coeie l'I:«.ori eli tn.s1a.zi,:;,oe Jocimiti vi del retieolc, I paralldogrammi I, 2. 3 IwLII.o IR:I qua.Jc C ~o di css:i potrrl>bc c:sar:::t't pl'CllO eeme celLi. primitiYL D ~ 4 Iu; _"ala 4opp<a di qllClla

dcII.r. da pri.idva. -

(b)

1- . "_- ----_ .- .. ' --',- -~- ~, 1

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o

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roc-a' V.,.: cella 22ffiitiYJ ,puo eucre scclta. aadlc COlI i II:Jl.ICIIIC prcciclimClltO: I( I) ·si !d uepmo \val i -=sm=ti die ccnneuene '\Ill '<:er10 : opunto orctioolare 0;)0. bItIi i puntl n:ticolari :viCini; . '(2) ••• meu. e ~·.'<IUCltl."imCDtl. ' Ii -disegniDo ~.~ 0 piacl. JD _wohime . omiaore ~ Ia qllCllo ao4o t p.. «ua IPri· . ·miti.,.,. di ~~.seitt. TIItCO 10 lpUio lPuoirkm· ,pir.i ~ 'l...c:;cQ&; COllIe COD quc!lc.;dj ~gura 7.

_ ,

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-'

r-

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Tabcn.. 1 I ~ tip! Iii rdicolG bidlmeo3ioal

(La 110U:Z~ !mil signifo:D r:k SG110 prtUl1lf ~ Iii!« s~

Rcticolo

.

ASsl ddIa cdla unitaril coaYe!l~

Simmctria del gruppo pun tuaJc del rctieolo rbpc:ttO ai punti

. 'rcticoWi

0bIiqw ~ E~

Re~ primitivo Rettangola:re eentrato

arb, 4' "W' .-b, ,,-9Ir, .-b, .-120"

,.rb, ,,-90" ."b, ·,-W

2 "mm 6mm . 2m,." 2m,."

. "

..

T -1...<.... d,~ ~ 'cV "'- • / 4- &c,".J./t; ~ ~c-e'

g~'s) -"} 2JO n~~ CA-7$T~ue

".

'.

n&lDS 14 J qualtordici reticoli <Ii Bravais 0 ~ticoli ,pari.li. Lc: eelle n.ppreaeutate "'110 Ie celie uoilouie convellziondi cbe 11011 5000 -=mpre Ie: eelle primitive.

"

-1 ... at, -l"'~, -l - 2" (I. + f + 2).

J"Ic-'e U

~ ~ w.:to? tpe::i&d ill Eq. (4.3), '. tor lhc t9trgctersd S'IIm Banis ~ The kltia: .. ~ by tUm, alIlmeu eombiAa •. tic:a c( die prilIIitnoe ftIClorI; with =~ <'O""I'i *"mt:a. The poiDt " tor c:U.mpIc. Is , _

t.:J~ .. - ... :-.+:z.... . .

'. ~

·9' . .. ' ,

(4..3)

. . ,

~", .

A more tymm<'!n.:!!j ofprimitive vmors, .

rpo::ilicd in ~ for the body. eel! tcred c:ubic Bra val! La ulee. The point ' '. ror rumple, has the form P - 2.0, + •• + ••. '

III ( III III

·1 - 2 , + 2:). .~ - 2 (! + 1). ., - 2 (2: + n

(4.5)

r~.o

A set of primiti.-c vt:cton. u pm> in E<j. (4.5). far the f ace-o::ntcred cubic S~ va.is to. ttice, The L1bo:lo::I points &te P - I, + I, + I,. Q .. 2..0,. R .. I, + ',. ~ S .. _I, + I, + I,.

l<.

,.

s

TaNe4.1 ,..
I:J..l:',{D\TS WITH TIlE MONATOMlC FA~
cumc CRYSTAL Sl1I;lJCnJJtE
~ III (A) D..f),IDq a(A) IlDoIDIT a (A)
~ N !I~(4.2K) If 3.&4 Pt 3.92 -
A, 4.09 Kr 5.72(58 K) .I-PI!. 4.64
Al 4.OS· Lo. !I.3O R.h 3.&0
Au 4.OS r-:.: 4.43 (4.2 K) se 4.54
Ca S.!I& Ni 3.52 Sr 6.08
Cc: S.16 Pb 4.95 Th !I.08
J--Co 3.!iS Pd 3.89 Xe(SB K) 6.21)
c- 3.61 PI" 5.16 Yb S.49
Dlu. iz:o Tables 4.1 1.0 4.7 an: from It. W. O. W_y.;kotf. Crysral Strucuaes, 2ad cd .•
l.o!c::nc:ic::.x>; New Yoct. I %3. In IDOSt c=. the: d.a u. &tI: taken It lbout room faIl-
penorurc...d DoQ<1!lo1..1I~ pr=uo-e.. For e:laDeats that exist in many farms the
stable room Ic::mpCI"lltlire ton... (or I"or=s) is v.-. For more dewlcd information, more .' ."
precise lattice c:ollStanU, &Ild rderences, tho: Wyd<.otr work should be consul ted, Table 4.2
ELEMENTS wrrn TIlE MONATOMIC BODY-CE."ITIlI.!D
CUBIC CRYSTAL SIRUCIl.lRE
EUMENT a (A) aEMEN'f a (A) IlDoIDIT a (A)
Sa S.C2 Li 3.49 en K) T. 3.31
Cr 2.88 fda 3.U n 3.18
D 6.05 (78 K) N. 4.2.3(5K) V 3.02
Fe 2.87 Nb 3.JO W 3.16
K 5.23 (S K) Rb 5.59(S Jq e ~ ~ ~ .~ /~t-~ ;!)c: ;_g 24:rVdi-?5

(j) ;'u.$,~~ tPt.,' ~~~

ctJ I'~n~ 6/t... ·tAtY~· q~~ (j) 1~S4~ pt, .. T~~' A,I' ~~.ur&, ~ ok yT~

o

a

-,

(VU~. i!)~' UJ~t, '~ ", , ....-1A-C(.~

V,'c., 'e.-; p(... - U t.<. ..b. ~.,.,,_. Jet ~e') ~

~ • I.Z "1--tn/",:s -/

cs :;:; 6

. c.cc .: e q-c.._ 12-

'~Ig 2_

n ~ ;:. (

..

I /'I.;f...

''C''ft "-IS

The Wimec.SriU c:dl fOf the !2h..a:otemi cubOc Bn""is lanicc (a "1nU>C:I.s..d octahedroa'"). The ~ n:bc is a con\lenti(>nal body~ c:ubOc: cd! willl a 41~ point al its center and on cada ~ 1'b: beu~ fao:s bded the linC$ joining the ~ po<m '0 the poillu on u..: 'tert.iccs (drawn as 5O!icllio:s). ne.~ {..ca bi=t the !ir!l!Sjoinlnc the o:ntnl point to the c=tnl poUlts ill ClIdI 0( the w. DciV>boring cubic eells (00< dnWll). The beu~ are n-pUu (_ Problem 4<1).

F~"-13

~ &lid co,r-..:ntiooal -.nil c:e!ls lOr die .!l2:!xttt\t~ MlM Bravais latti<x. The pimici\lc «II (Wded) hu b&tr the w!ume 0( t~ ~"<Cllional C"llbi<; cdl.

.-

F","41.16

WipneT'Sdtz 0:11 ror the f.ao::..:mtmd calli, Bnnis ~ (a "r1>onlbic ~'1. Tho: ~1UIdUI, QI:,e is _ IX o:>a~Sl~ wbi<; cd! 0( F~ 4.11. t.t co: ia nidl1aa.ia: poiDu an: at tbc o:eIter 0( clIe QI.bc aDd at Ibo: c:=tct oltbc 12 edccs..£ad1 oCtbe 12 (cootn>=t) t'.aa:s • pet~ to a IiPe joOaioc !be e>:Dtt"d poiIIt to a poiIlt OQ tbe co:ot« 0( &Q ed&e.

".

f"II:WCUl .

~ ano! __ ~ IIlIit cdls rQr the ~

~ o;:ubje Bnnis t.tti«. The COIIWlIItional a:U is ~ l&~ cubo:. The primitive cd! • d>e ~ wilb all; .paraUelogmJI &.::a.. II bas one quarter tbe votlSm.eof "the cube •• nd rather las~. . .. • .',

F'le-'e 4.11

Coa.-rntional cubic cell or the dj~ond ]atti«. For darily. fitc:s com:sporading to one or the two ira~ ~tered Qlbic laltia::l

J are ~ (I.a tb.: .zil!ebknde I!OIC!ure the

". ~ dIAded 1:11= ~ ~ by ooc: kind or ion: - - ,.

! (! • f • n and the ara.aIwIcd by &DQlher.) Nc:arcs! .1ICi;h bQ r

.... • banda hive been d.n. WI1 ira. The fou r nea rut

• oonei.¢ooo or ead\ PO;"'! form the vertices of I rttuJ.at tctrailcdron.

......._ __ .---111 .

i

Table 4.3

El.E:\{DTS WITH mE DIA.\.fO:-'"D CltVST.u. snttJCTUU

CUl!E SIDE a (A)

C(diamond) Si

Gc:

... S<! (gr,,)')

3.57 5.43 5.66 U9

.'._"

- _- ~

tnc,p: .. T~"

,lc..u. G~'" lie"

t.... w. n..c.. i-co

l~ ,_

tI \of ~k_tr<~J«

(f~/-t~)

U
T.!;>Ic,c.,c
Il.EMEl"TS wrm nu: HEXAGO!'IAL-aOS&PACKED CRYSTAL
srsucruaz
DD!ENT a (A) c cIa EiarEm a (A) c cia
Be 2.29 3.~a I~ Os 2.7.( .(.32 !.S8
ce 2.98 5.62 U9 PI" 3.67 5.92 1.61
Ce 3.65 H6 1.63 ftc 2.76 U6 1.62
.. -Co ;2.$] .(.07 1.62 Ru 2.70 4.28 1.~9
Dy 3.19 5.65 1.$7 se 3.31 5.27 1.~9
Er 3~ ~.59 1.$7 10 3.60 5.69 IS!
Gd 3.&4 5.71 1.19 Ti 2.95 "-69 1.$9
. Hep Ie) 3.57 5.U 1.63 n 3.46 5.53 1.60
Ht 3.20 5.06 1.53 Till ).s.. 5.$5 1.57
Ho 3oS! H2 1.57 Y 3.55 !_13 U7
La 3.75 6.07 1.62 Z4 2.66 .(.95 1.86
l.g 3.50 5.$5 1.$9 -u 3.23 S.1S 1.59
M, 3.21 Soli 1.62
. , Nd 3.66 5.90 1.61 ~Jdcar 1.63 Sc

• •

IOc..w

(.N~ J Ce-) ~. /'~~

e C~ - e-t ~-f..O" ~ (-x+y+~ ).-_

~O

-FIgure 4.2<4 •

The sodium chloride structure, 0 ce type or iau ii rqx-e. 'en t=d by black balls, the oth er type by .... hi te, The b!adr;: and while balls rorm inlcrpe!lelrating fcc: lIttio::s..

Tahlt,c.:s .. -
SO~ COMPOUNDS"'mt TRt 5OOO.JM 0fL()RIDE SnUCTtlU
CRYStAL .a;(A~ . - Cl.nTAL • (A) aY'STAl. III (A)
'LiF _":02 , JbF 5.54 CaS S.69
·LiO -5:1S DO 6.53 case 5.91
UBr S.:SO . bar U5 CaTe 6.).4 •
lUI· '6.00 ~ 7.).4 SfO 5.16
NaP .4;62 ce 16.01 SrS 6.Ol
N.C ·5.64 A# 'U1 - ~ . SeSe • . 6.ll
N&Br "5.91 AcC S.u Me U7
N.J '6.(:7 . AcBr 5.77 laO . 5Jl;,.
KF 5.35 M&O . 4.21 B&S : 6.39
KC 16.29 MaS 5.20 BaSe 6.60
KBt -6.60 M,se 5.<C5 . BaTe 6.99
KI 7.07 c.o Ut
:~ ., .. .. c

.. '"

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-'.

Fig-on. 11 G6 in<! id di M ilia pet lkIrci pUlIi impm.u Ii iII1 "" cri<ulla r;u bOca. n pia 110 (200) ~ por:alklo d po:.r.o (100). k'\a di...;Je iI eebo l1Iiurio hi due patti .po.li.

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V'/~ ~_.,n~1) ~ ~ 6c., .. //~~ e;~'.' .

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»<

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0,11 5 10 so 100

&...rliOo de; fotoni hv)

Erw'Sio de< neytroni (0,01 eY)

E--S ~ degr. e Ie It .on' (I 00 • V)

(e1:,~~ ~~)'

[ :- 0C

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E --V (CJ + s» Ir-~

A/~'1A?~. {/~ ~.~) pL hZ

l.. =. iH = 214).2-

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r~ 11 (a) QuaD&:> Ia rona appIicata viene lolla ; preeessi di collisione lendono .. riporure iI tUt=.a 1IC1lo SUl<> koDdameutale. Bisogna Imferi'" gli elenroni dagli !tati picni Clucati COli k croci (+) a '1ue1li ..-..c>(j lIlaTeall COil i eerchi (0). Un elettrene in A puo compiete UII3 trtwVooc a IN>O stalO Y"IoOI.O, per esempio B, medianle I'em;gip" sl.i pn Ceppn, di opportllDi vtttote .foooda e (r.qwnza. (1:» 1.0 sca!lorilll elutico di UII cleurenc ia A da parte di UD& impetf"cziOlle satica 0 imp~ po6 portare I'elettroee ill \Ill PUIIIO '1ualsia.li,.per ~Illpio B, die Ii 110n. .ulIa .fera I CIIerp COSIalI1I: fA' 1.0 seanerillg elu!ico rideni a zere "impulse total. modillli. 13 ridistribcuzione degli stali occuparl (+), rna sono neeesSari I!ro~s.sif0nl'mj;j GQm; B-C pet riportarc b distribcuziooo al10 Ita!O COlldamcntale.

SOMMERFELD IUlCH
QUANTUM NUMBERS "Ihk. is tK 1. If {U; is the crysial J:Il<lmen1 urn
(EXCLUDING SPfN) momen!U<n.) and " is the band me...)
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cOllditiOll.. Q)QditiOG; II! ,_ 1hroo.t&h m ia4aicc
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WAVE FUNCT10N llIe ... ave 6.mc:IioIl of l1li I The .... vc{UDetiOQ'Ilf'u·iI~1I wich
dcc;uoa ...;cb trrne Wl:tor ' 'band illaa.,,,aod ..... vc Ve:;tor""S:
.. is: • ; . . 'i:..'(r) - M!·"~I1 .. -{r)
... ~III' wWe the·tui3i:tioli'~~!hu 'DO simplF
P.{r) - jim", • SUEt 'form. CfhepDlYjiencral popt:tt'l
.isJPeriodicity'hi)he ~~Illttioe: .
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f"1P'" 9.3

Pial of the energy bands ,iv('ll by E4. (9.26) fOf II para !lei 10 X. The Io~ band corresponds 10 the choice or a minus sO," in (9.26) and the upper band 10 a plus sign. When ~ - !K. the two band$ are separated by a b:ind ,ap of trU&' nitude 2jU.I. When q is far removed (rom 1M Bragg plant, the levels (10 leading order) an indi$tinguishable from their tree elc:ctroo valild (denoted by dotted lincs~

... .. Ks4

~

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(.)

If{L

o t.( .( (b)

r~M

(a) The fro: eI«tron & "- ~ par:;oola in one dim=ion. (b) Step I in the CO!Iu!'1>CIion ·10 determine ·(he diuoction in the: free electron parabola in the neighborhood of a Bragg -p!ane.~ due rc a weak periodic potemiaL rr the Bragg ~p!ane~ is that d~tQ" U1ine4 by K. a seconc frcc: dcd.ron paraoou is dra"'D"

. centet'Od on K. (,,) SlqI 2 in the CDaS(NCtion 10 dt;tet. mine the d1sLortkn in the free electron parabola in the oci&.hbomood 0( a Bra" -piazlc." The dezeneracy 0( the t'rto panboW It K{2 ts split. (d) ThQ5e ponion.s of part (e' a;m::spondlDc to the ori&irW free eIcaroa pmbob pven in tal. (el fr, S:a 0( all additional Ika&s "planes- 011 the fn:e e!ect.fOII paraboX&. This pattic;ulat way 0( di$p1ayins the deo;. troct<: bd$ ill • periodK: poc.:ntiiJ • boWl! as the ~~._~.(I)Tlle IC'VCb d (c), dispIa]QS in • f'~,_ sdI.:Mt. (.c) Free electroa Ic:YtIs of (e) or (I) itt • rqMlI.d,~ Jd,~.

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(~) Free eleetren sphere cutting Brau pi ace loea ted at ! 1{ from the origin (U ... O~ (b) Dd'o~tioo ol the fr .. ck<uOQ <phen: Dat the Sr&?$ ~.lllC whc:A U." (\ Tbc ':00$1.1111 CDerD' ~ int=n=s the pWle in two c;in:ks.. whose radii an: (3l. cubtt<! in Problem t.

('0)

_?'7/J--=-~ __ ~_~_' ~~ ~

o: q=-o) t.4 po.s ~~ ~

~ I~..<A..K~ ~~e-<."_""

i Fl~ure 9.1

Illustration of the definition of U>c Bri1loWn zones [or a t"!2:dimens;onal ~ Brau;" I. t1 ice, The reci p roca1 lattice is &.Iso a sq IW"C ~ of side h. The figure $hows an &tu pl~nes (lines, in two dimensions) that!>e .. itla.iD the square of side 2b centered OIl the ~ These Bragg planes divide that square into regiom bclongins to zones I to 6. (Only zones 1, 2, and 3 are entirel)' contained within the square, however.)

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Surf.= of the fi~t. se nd, UId Ihird Br;n<luin ;r.On ror (al body<mterui ~bic and (b) lao.~nterN ~bic crystals. (Only Ihe urtrlor IlIr· raCl:' .~ jho"'D. II: foUows from the definition on page 163 that the uuriM lurfao. of th. .. rh ;r.01I'I is idenl icaI 10 the C1lctWr iu.rfaa: of the (II - I)th ;r.One.) Evidently the 11Ir!a= bounding the ~ l-ecome inQUSinsly

~compla-'p the ~M number i~ In rraaice it is onen lim plest to Q)Ntruct f~ cleo;t ron Fermi ,unaoes by p!"ocedurc:s (,ud IS those dc:saibed in Problem~) Ihlt .void making use of the a· plitil form of Ihe Brillouio zones. (Arter R. Lllck. d 00:' lon-I d iueru lion, T cchni • ",he Hoo:hs.;hule, SIUIlP.", 1965.)

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