Toni Campbell & Georgana Collins-Keech Turning Up the Heat Decades of Climate Change

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What's Up with the Weather SPED 6402

March 15, 2010

Global Warming: Tile Temperature is Rising

According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, global warming is the gradual increase in the -urth's surface temperature (TPee, 2001). /'.,::;c;otdi'l!;; c':; .;::,;,;a'J;, the temperature of earth revolves around the constant balance of energy, and in

order to maintain a balance of energy, equal amounts of energy must be exchanged between earth and the atmosphere (Baranzini, Chesney, & Morisset, 2002; Blaustein & Dobson, 2006;, Bord, Fisher, & 0' Connor. 1998; Hans- Werner, 2008; Kvenvolden, 1993~ Leiserowitz, 2008; Lubell, Zahran, & Vedlitz, 2007; Nordell, 20031 Plass, 2010; _ :: ..

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Schellnhuber, 2008; Vredenburg, Drewes, Hayes, & Swain, 20091) Due to gre(n}puse

gases the sun's energy is being trapped 0'1 ;>.9rth (Baranzini et al. 2002: Plass, 2010).

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Currently, the cause of global warming is debated: Is global warming natural or manmade? Can it be stopped or slowed down, and if so bow'? Thi s research paper will

review current literature to examine causes, effects, and perceptions of global warming.

It will also offer scientifically researched solutions believed to slow the current rate of

global warming, U1US lessening its effects.

Scienti sts agree <} at carbon dinx i de in the atmosphere is responsible for cl i mate

change which stimulates the earth's surface temperature to rise; huwever, the rnelhod.at" i. .J"" !

which glohal warminguccurs is debated. Researchers speeulater' thermal pollution, I

increasing sun temperatures, and geDtlierrnal heal flow are responsible for global

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warmi ng (Baranzin i eL al., 2002; Blaustein & Dobson, 2006; Bord el a I., 1998; Hans-

Werner, 200fl; Kvenvolden,1991; Ieiserowitv, 200S; Lubell et al, 2007; Nordell, 2001;

Plass, 20 I 0; Schell nhuber, 2002':; Vredenburg el al., 2009).

earth ~or \)5': for human utilization, and by doing this, equal amounts of energy are not

being exchanged between earth and its atmosphere. The unequal exchange of carbon

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dioxide exchange is thought to be the cause of global warming (Baranzini e1 al., 2002;

Hans-Werner, 2008; Nordell. 2003.) The idea that the sun is responsible for global

warming stems from the notion that ~:;_are in a sunspot cycle that has allowed for increased average surface temperature, which will eventually justify itself by means of

i ncreasi ug the so tar constant (Baranzini et al., 2002; Plass, 2010). The geothermal heat

flow idea explores the idea of earth's surface temperature increasing due 10 inactive

volcanoes (Nordell. 2003; Plass, 2010). The volcanic theory is tillable to be proven

because 01" volcanic inactivi ty; however, researchers h) pothesize numerous volcanic

explosions would emil carbon dioxide and volcanic dust into the atmosphere allowing the

earth's surface temperature to lower over u periud or time (Plass, 20 I 0)

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Since l!lSO'/~nrth has been expenencmg global wanmng (Nordell, 2003). The

effects of global warming are grad ual ilrul un eert a in ';' I r) Hi,-fi--x·IS i 'II' i U(\~: plant and an irual

extinction, depletion of forests, Icod scarcity, and climate change fmm carbon diox ide

emissions (Barunzini et nl., 2002; Bluustein & Dobson, 2006; Bord et al., 1991':; Hans-

Werner, 2008; Kvcnvolden, 1993; Leiserowitz, 2008; Lubell et al., 2007; Nordell, 2003;

Plass, 2010; Schcllnhubcr, 2008; Vredenburg C1 al., 2009),

Nature and its inhabitants respond to global warming in a similar manner,

Researchers suggest global warming is responsible tor worldwide amphibian declines and extinction (Blaustein & Dobson, 2006; Vredenburg ct al., 2009). Nearly one third of the world's arnphi bian population is threatened by a strand of infectious disease that has been altered due t-o climate change (Blaustein & Dobson, 2006). Some climatologists think that the events of global warming have lead to EI Nino, a heated pool of water in the Pacific Ocean that acts as a heat engine transforming heat energy into kinetic energy, causing havoc around the world (Hoover, 2008). Earthquakes, tornados, hurricanes, tsunamis, melting of polar icc and glaciers, floods, and droughts have ali been suggested

to be from the effects of global warming (Bord ct al., 199&: Hans-Werner, 2008; Kvenvuiden, 1993; Nordell, 2003)_

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Hans-Werner (2008) explains that our perceptions of

global warming generally focus on: levels of uwareness actual knowledge. degree or

concern, perceived risk, willingness [Q payor sacrifice tu mitigate or adapt 10 potential impacts (pg. 361). ()

Global warming is a concern for all mankind. In lllQ4_ the "{ Jnited Nations held a Framework Convention 00 Climate Change (UN Fel'l and their objective was to. __ .>

"achieve stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the ntrnusphere al a level that

' .... ould prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system" \lif .. 10). Regardless of the caus~,.Earth·s temperature is 110t in thermal equijibrium. outgoing long-

wave radiation is still not as high as earth's net generated heat (Norede!l. 2003). -""I_ --

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From a political perspective, substantial control of fossil fuel resources (7U% -

80%) an: owned by politically unstable countries: Venezuela, Arab countries, [ran, and

~.: rice;']' , :i1_1",'J Ura!!CH ,-",jl:;":,'_"; " )' ;; b.":~l:-.~i-It tho:: _ li{, 11(,( inc iudc emission limit" for ,,-

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A large number of Americans believe in global warming and think it is a serious

issue. but when stacked against other national and environmental issues h lacks urgency

(Leiserow itt, 200:;.) -

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': ir:~:rl .. :' [28(':;·). As the lurgest coni rihutor of carbon dioxide to the world's atmosphere,

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the United States plays II s ignificunt rule in term s of extract] on and consumption of foss! I

fuels, which result in greenhouse gases which presumablycause global warming,

Renewable resources are available, which do nnt deplete nor cause a need for a

carbon dioxide atmospheric exchange. Researchers agree thatconservation and waste

management are key components in decreasing a carbon footprint; however, the only

sustainable way to stop further global warming is 10 use renewable resources: water,

wind. SUllo and biomasscs (Bord ct al., 1998; Hans-Werner, 2008: L~ISefl)WL17., 2008:

Nordell, 20.03).

During the last twenty years, global warming has alarmed many, and respunses have included: renewabl e energy. energy efficiency. and rcfo res tat ion (Bord et al., 1998; Hans-Werner, 200.8; Leiserov v itz, 2008). Many countries now offer subsidies for alternate

power sources; however. incentives alone may no"[ be enough to curb emission

consumption from an efficiency perspective (Bord ct al., 19~)lj; Huns- Werner, 200.8).

Economists describe global .. varming as a problem affecting nil of mankind and speculate it will cost trillions of-dollars to decelerate (Hans-Werner, 2008).

While global warming otters many uncertairuies, research has proven Lhat the

earth is sufleringtrorn global warming, and mankind must work I;Ut laboratively in

response to this global ch all enge. Research suggests that efforts must be Lin i fled [0 obtai n knowledge and practices that will promote more environmentally friendly and

ecologically responsible decisions and Ii restyles. As a global society. failure 10 eollaboratively work toward utilizing renewable energy resources, recycling, energy l'ITh.:icllCY, and lessen the carbon footprint of each individual inhabiting earth, may result in earth's surface temperature continuing to increase.

References

Blaustein, ,\., & Dobson, A (2006). A message from the frogs, Nosure Publishing

Group. 439 (12), 143-144.

Baranzini, A.. hesney, M., & Ml)ris~el..I. (2002). The impact of possible climate

catastrophes on global warming policy. Energy Pol icy. 3 J, 691-70 I.

Bord, R.J" Fisher. A., & O'Connor, R .E. (199~). Public perceptions of global warming: lJnited_gates and international perspecti ... es. Climca Research. j I. 75-K4.

Hans- Werner . (2008). Public policies against global warming: a supply side approach.

Int. Tax Public Finance. 15. 360-344.

Hoover. M. (2008). Origins: EI Niflo. Environmenial Perspective. 116, 354-360. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (lPr:C). (200 1 ). Climate change 200 I:

Policj maker summary - impacts. adaptation, and vulnerability. The Third

Assessment Report. Retrieved January 15, 20 10. bttpli:wwY'.ipcc.ch!ptlb/waSPMfin~dr

K venvolden, K. A. (199 J). Gas hydrates - Geologice I perspectives and g 10001 change.

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American Geophysical Union. 2!,{2J, 173-187.

Leiserowitz, A. (2003). Communicating the risks of global warming: American risk

perceptions, affective images. and interpretive communities. Climate Research,

2, 44-63.

r .ubell. M .• Zahran, S .• & Vedlitz, A. (2007). Collective action and citizen responses to global warming. Political Behavior. 29. 391-413.

Marland. G., Boden, T., & Andres, H. (2006) Trends: /\ compendium of data on global change. Retrieved January 15, 2010.

hM: //cdi ac .csd.orl. gO v/trcnd s/erni sitQJ!200( ) .1.,1

Nordell, B. 2003. Thermal pollution causes global w arming, Global and Planetary Change. 38. 305-312.

67.

1:>lass, G. (2010). Carbon d ioxide and I he climate. American SciNUTS! Classics, 98. 5&-

Schcllnhubcr, II. J. (2008). (Hubal warming: Stop worrying, star! panicking? National Academy a/Science. 1O~;h8), 14239-14240.

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Vredenburg, V., Drewes, R, l layes, T., & Swaim. K. (2009). Worldwide amphibian

declines: how big is the problem, whut are the cau es and what can be done']

Trends in Ecology 42.464-479.

generations. Providing the data, experience through experimentation, and a forum for

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Connecting the Concept - Perspective

Perspective is one's opinion or individual feeling about a topic based on prior

knowledge, experience. and education. As peopleexplore thoughts and ideas, they gain

knowledge. This information allows individuals to understand the world Mound them

and how they are part of a much larger global society, Individuals form a perspective for

emy (:1': came c: rhEAS-C, ~')RSd. D!111e new information. Perspectives are able to change

over time as experience and education lice furthered. New or additional information will

either vnlidate a current perspective, or it will negate a current perspective allowing

individuals to form a new perspective.

Our topic of global warming will allow students 10 explore the causes and effects

of the ;tarth' s surface temperature rising through interactive and d iscovery based

acti vities jStudents wi II be able to explore nature's reaction to earth's rising temperature

and form all educated opinion about global warming. They will look at global warming

from the perspective of a climatologist exploring the weather and natural disaster patterns

due (0 global warming, lind an ecologist learning of the problems that drought, acid rain,

and flood have on vegetation, humans, and animals in a global society. /After Hopefully.

the summer cam p 20 10 expe ri ence will provi de an n pportu n i l Y for rI evel opment 0 r

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perspective on the hot topic, global warming. This-generation will be faced with issues

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and decisions that will impact the world, issues that may differ from previous

discussion will assist in developing 11 rnlindatillil for open-mindedness when forming a

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perspect i ve,

Unit Goals and Objectives

Unit Goals

I, Conduct investigations H1 demonstrate an understanding of the errOCIS of climate change, ;

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2, Develop an informed position about global warming utilizing a variety of 11:!SOureeS (j.c. specialists, literature, researehj:

Unit Objectives

As a result of this unit, the students will know:

).'1~1Y climate change is an significant even! with specific causes and many 'effecl~, ,

1 he ctu~rncteristics that determine the d i tference bel ween weather and climate

Why scientists disagree on global warming and its future impact on the earth- 'j

, •. <Ice cores can btl used to tell the history of climatic events-",

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A ' a result of this unit. students will understand thai:

.. __ecrtain change due to industrialization have made our ecosystems more Iragilc

.. ,.,That [he current rate of rising surface temperature Aruanica ice sheets are meting and species arc endangered

.. ,Xgriculturc relies on a specific set of climatic conditions and can be negatively affected when these conditions changeo

• Certain pecies require a pecific set of cl imalic conditions and can become endangered or extinct wb 11 these conditions change..-:--

As a result of this units students will be able to: \,/

• ,E'illcuhdt: their own carbon diets and determine the effects on tbe environrnent--

• ,e'reate a public service announcement und share it with community members [0 express their own voice and perspective 011 global warming and proactively respond to global warmingc,

• -Identify and respond to positive and negati'v'e human actions that are aITecling the global clirnate->,

Express the importance in educating ones self on a hot topic, f rruing a perspective 011 the tupic, and acting proactively in response to the perspective to make a difference for one's sell, one's community, and one's world"

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Puints 10 Ponder

I. Global warming is the cause of extreme weather, 1/

1. Mankind's contribution to the increasillQ,(greenhnllse gas has changed the global climate.

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3. @1TTicane intern ity and frequency is linked to global warming. .'

4. Glorn.1 warming affects all global societies,

5. Extreme weather is predictable and possibly preventable. v'

Technology Infused Authentic Product Paper

Data gathered from global temp ratures. weather patterns, icc core .. tree rings. and changes in ecosystems captured on computer models ~X{ point lO 8 global warming I '

trend. Some scientists suspect human activity is responsible for the changes; however.

others support the theory of Earth's history of rising und falling average temperatures,

carbon dioxide levels, and debate there may not be a connection between (he warming

trend and the human activity of burning fossil fuels, l'he Intergovernmental Panel on

Climate Change was established to examine global warming. The rllmdp,consisl: of ,A

hundreds of scientist who are studying the issue. The Intergovernmental Panel 011

The gases, namely carbon dioxide, methane. and nitrous oxide are released from

Climate Change is SPOIlSOred by the United Nations and the Wnrld Meteorological

Organization.

burning fossil fuels and are trapped in earth's atmosphere creating II greenhouse effect.

Despite the debate over human responsibility, how Ul) we reduce these harmful

emissions? Global leaders around the world realize the problem is real enough [0 attempt

making changes. The industrial ized nat i nns ure working on an agreement to reduce thei r

collective greenhouse gas emissions. The United States plays a major role in global .'

warming due to the lifestyle of its citizens requiring mass amounts of energy. The

popular wily to travel in America L by car, and cars emit carbon ioxide as lill!. hum

gasoline. Americans are also fond or sports utility vehicles which nrc notorious tor

requiring abundant amounts of gasoline. It only makes intellectual good sense to invite

01.JI gift~ youth on a journey to explore the j"sues presented 10 them, thus providing the

technology iuols to design. develop, and create what their natural talents will allow. Our

gi fled youth can affect change of personal behavior and rna also be pan of a community,

national, or a global solution using the technology resources available.

Throughout the week, students attending our seminar. Turning Up tire Heal

Decades o(r:limale Ch(mge, will be exposed 10 multi ple forms of digital media daily:

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PowerPoint presentations and interactive web pages. Students w ill video conference with

an expert about global warming using Skype 011 "Ely •. ,-0 ,}. carnr., They wi II also be

exposed to a digital message board. where they will keep a digital journal oftbcir

synthesis of information, allowing them In fonn their own perspective about global

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:~hgLe!" ,.''if. -::'['YO.1- .'~itl·J her help vt« lire: r-f1-:H' i:lf!

We intend for our students to engage ;1) digital conversation about global

warming. Our students will use thi::. digital convcrsati n as a public service

announcement about global warming. III this digiral conversation, the students in our 1 I

group will produce a digital medin public service announcement, _sing I.'oi,," Ihrcad.

our students an d alsc :,ec'jl!!';';- i, IS : vhllnbJI' at >JO cost. ..; cice Thread uses sl I images

-l ve th trough sounds and i ill agee,.

Prior II) creating the public service announcement, tbe students will explore a

variety ofinteractive media I.wr;;bjtc" 'I iueo conrcrcncing. online discussion I X "it'lJS) investigating global warming and current perspecti ~ related to the topic. v,Je will LIse

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': [0 form thci r

OWTI opinions about global warming bused upon fact and scientific research. After

anal yzj ng ihcsc data, tbe students will synthesize 1 he i nformation and form their O\\IJI

perspective abuul global warming.

It is our goal to allow lhe students the opportunity to share their perspective with

members within the community, -OULl .,:l!':'::'" Ill' L _~'t '_' rs. to __ L'':_.l ,ll";r,

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The students will create a digital journal using a free ,- i0f5.Yo:C·T nles~ing board to keep

their daily notes from what they Jearn. They wUI then use their ideas and information to

create n digital conversation to share their perspective with community members that

have the ability til make u difference with regards to global warming and fellow members

_:'lr society 10 inform them about the global changes that are occurring.

, Interactive Media on. Climate Cbanl?;e

Sites that may be utilized in the lesson are not limited to the following:

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Department or l\UVY: interactive Arctic Climate Map http://wwu;.weather.n[ls.navy.mili--psgucst .. polarmct/cl i rnate/arcrnap. him I

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Climate Cllallge l{esolJrce Center

http://www.f..Teenlearning.clIi.clirnate/ science!

Information on climate change and the policies ill place and what is being proposed 1.0 stop il.

011';: World Journeys: \1I:'n:urY_Rising: Dearing Witness to Climate Chung£ http://wv..W.onewoddjourneys.com/expedh.ions/ eli mate.'

Interactive photo-documentary expedition ro get a glimpse at Earth's response to glohl:ll warming,

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Global '.lv'arlTling Fncts: Projected Clill1alo:: Ch:mgc http://www.koshJaJld-sciencc~muscum.orgiexhihij~l:c/predictcdO I .jsp

Computer-based climate models and their use in projecting future climate change. S<.;im(i!H.: American Slideshow' Fklrlh in Heat: T~n Vic'x~ of a Wilrmin!,\ World http://wwW.5cienlificamerican.com/slidt: how.cfrn?id '" s-of .. warming-world Illustrations uf the effects of global warrni 11g, from shrinking glaciers to rising St:1J levels,

NASA.. Glohal Chrnate Change hnp:/iclimate.lla~l;1.gu\'/

NASA keeps it. eyes un the Earth with news about ihe planers climate change, -,VWF. A Call to Cha.'gl' Polar Bears

h Up:/.I\\VJ\\I. ww r.calpol arbears/ho rTI e.htm 1#

Polar Bears in their natural habitat & how their environment is being destroyed.

Associated Press: Jt's Gt:llmg Hot in Here: Surface Temperature Comparisons http://hosled.ap.org/specials.'illlt:ructivesl~ sciene ... Ii mate _ species.swf

Interactive map 10 visualize global temperature changes. descriptions of animals and plants that have been impacted,

http:.I/w''f'I'o<·,thefutUIt':sclIUirnei com!mo\'ies/cflvi fO 11m!: Illai llll" it's QhQ htTp://wv.'IA,.epa.gov/climakdllil1.,geJkidslglobal wannin g version'), hIm i hllp:!Jwww.Llrbanrivers,org/resc;ln:ll.hlml

Georgana Cllilills-Keecb & Toni Campbell Content Outlin

1. Environm~olal Science

/\., 1 he study of the natural process (humans consumption of resources) and how humans can affect Eanhs environment

J L So I ution to Environmental LS~lIe~

A. Levels of Choice

I, Personal

a) Definition - those chang's that can be made on a person by person basis

b) Example: r>ri 1,'1:': car or take bus

Z. l.ocal

a) Definition those changes which are m de on a city or regional basis

b) l-xample: reate a new landfill or build an incinerator

1. Nationa I

ai Definiri n - those changes which are made at the federal level and etten are made by legislators. represemativ .. s. the president

b) Example: Whether to allow off shore oil drilling in a wildlife refuge

4. Global

a) Definition those changes which are made in conjunction with many countries a ross the globe

b: Example: Protecting the Earth's ulrnusphere

IIL Earth' s Resources

A, enev able

I, Definition: Natural resources that may be replenished in a sustainable fashion

al Wood

(1) Obtained from trees

Georgana Collins-Keech & Toni Campbell ontcnt Outline

2) l Ised for: Building homes, furniture. etc.

b) 'olar power

(I) Energy derived dir ctly from the sun

(2) Completely renewable

.) Hiornasses

(1) Plants grown for an energy sources such as fuel

(2) Used for: automobile fuel

d) Wind energy

(I) Ener ) derived fro: the wind

(2) Completely renewable

R Nonrenewable

L. A natural resource which cannot he produced, re-grown. regenerated, or reused on 11 scale which can sustain its consumption rate

a) Fossil fuels

(t) Coal

{Ill Readily comhustibl sedimentary rock. found beneath Eart . - surfa e

(2) Natural Gas

(a) A gas c nsisring or primarily methane. fo nd u kmg with other fossil fuels. beneath ·w's surface

(J Petroleum or Crude Oil

(Ll) Flammable liquid formed of complex hydrocarbons, found beneath Earth' S surface

( lenrgana Collins-Keech & TOlli ampbell Content Outline

b) ucleur Pow r

(v. Effeet ofpopulurion growth on the environment

A. When pupulations increase it creates a Ittrgl;r demand for res urccs

V. Biotic Fuctors

A. Definition: The part oft ecosj stem that is living

R Exam pies

I. lIumans

2. PI<lnts

.1. Animals

4. Worms

5. Fungi

6. Bacteria

VI. Abiotic Factors

A. Definition - The pari uf the ecosystem that is nonliving but vital tor living organisms 10 survive'.

H. E umples

a) \Vater

(I) ,'111 living organisms require water

(2) Hur ans are compo ed of65% v at r

(3) Important to plants and algae

(4) Vitul for photosynthesis

(5) ,4, basic need for survival

b) Sun

(a) Plants can not grow in dark caves

Gcorgana Collins-Keech & Toni Campbell ( 'untent Outline

'j xygcn

(1) Vuul fur function of the human body

(2) Vital for animals, fish. and other water orgurusrns

d) lernperature

(1) DeI~nnines the types of organisms that can live in an area

(a) Organisms und vegetation are specific to particular areas of a certain climate

(i) Arctic - Polar bears ideal environmental tcmperuture - 40 '>F ill the winter to 77 or in the su miller

(ii) Warm tropical areas - Hibiscus ideal environmental temperature bet ween 1i0 OF and 90 01-'

Georgana Collins-Keech & l'oru Campbell Content Outline

VII. Pollutants

A. Definition - A substance or onditiou that comaminates air. water, or oil

O. Location - Pollutunts can be artificial substances, such as pesticides and PCBs, or naturally occurring substances such as oil or carbon dioxide, that occur in harmful concentrarion in a given environment

V Ill. Main Iypes or pollution

A. Sewage and wastewater

I. Sewage is tbe lem used for wa rewarer that often wnlains feces. urine. and IUlImJr_ waste

8. I ndustrial waste

I. Many industrial flldli!ie~ use freshwater to carr, away waste lrorn tile plant urul into rivet'S. lakes. and oceans.

C. Oil pollutants

1. cean are polluted by oil on a daily basis from il spills, routine

shipping. run-offs, und durnpi ng

D. Atmospheric deposition

I. Pollution that is transferred b. air

E. Marine dumping

1. Placing rnaterials in designated places in thc ocean

F. Rndioacrive waste

1. Waste product containing radioactive muteriul lire often buried 0\1 land or al sea

2. Heat transmitted to natural waterways through warm water discharge from power plants and uncontained rudiuaciivity trom nuclear wastes are also considered pollutants

(i lIrulergruund storage leaks

1. There are appro x i mate ly 61 1.000 underground storage tanks fo l' the United States

2. llndergrcund storage has the greatest potenti I to leak contaminates ..

Georgana rollin -Keech & T Ili Campbell {_\mlt:l1t Outline

0\_ E1Tel:ts IIf pollution

A, Global warming

I, The warming or Fart "s surface t mpcrarure presumably ca . ing ha 0(' around the world

a) Melting ofpolar ice caps

( I ) Average temperatures in the Arctic region are rising twice as fast as they arc elsewhere ill the world

(2) The melting of once-permanent icc i already affecting IUI1I\e people. wildlife. and pia ts.

(3) Polar bears, whales, walru .nnd ,,,::als are changing their feeding and migral ion patterns. ms king it harder for native people lo hunt them

b) Extreme weather

( I) Du I storms

([I) 2U09 - The east coast of Australia experienced its largest dust storm to date affecting millions ami shutting down transport

(2) Iropicalcycloncs

(a) 2008 - 12 or rhe must deadly ever reported. killed hundreds of thousands. cost billion. an d affected Fiji, Madagascar, the Philippines, Vietnam. India, and the Untied Stutes

(3) \v'iJd tires

(a) 2008 - In alifornia wildfire burned over one million acres, killed 8, and destroyed o v er 500 homes

(4) Winter Weather

(a) 2008-20 I record ruin and snow wurld wide in areas unequipped 10 handle the heavy downfall and l:llld

Gcorgana Collins-Keech & Toni Campbell ontenl Oull i II

'5) Tornadoes

(a) 2008- Super Tuesday Tornadoes outbreak

across the southern United tares with more than 80 confirmed tornado and 51! lit:alhs, tlre outbreak was the deadliest in the U.S since the early gO's

U]) Heat waves

fa) 2005-2010 spanning fmm Australia to Antarctica, and all places in between, causing rnelti ng of polar ice caps and extreme dry conditions res lting in lurge numbers of human deaths

c) Plant and animal extinction in regionally spccific s ecies

(I) PI nts and animal are being forced to adapt to climate changes that arc resulting in death and extinction in extreme cases

(<I) Regillrlilily specific animals, reptiles. and plants

(i) List of Animal Extinctinns: gt\lllen toad, baiji dolphin. 'West A fricun black rhino. cruugustor escoces, holoridge's toad. spix's rnacav • po'o-uli, hawaiian Crow. pyrenean ibex

(ii) List of Plant xtinctions: galapagos amaranth, rio de ja nei ro myrtle, anta cruz bryophyte, Cuban ruta tree. jamaican psidium, thismia americana

Georgana ollin -Kccch & Toni Campbell Content Outline

X 'vlaking environmental dcci ions

,1.,. Development

I. Definition improv ments in managing an area's natural mid human resources in order to create wealth or improve people' - lives

a) The idea thai humans alter Earth's original tate to meet their own wants and needs

B. Preservation

I. Definition a'liuns taken to prevent il1juT, . peril, r harm; 10 keep in perfect or unaltered condition

a) The idea that humans do not disturb the environment lor self benefit

I. Definiti 11- Re toration from I ss damage or negle '1; the protection. preservation .. manage: m. or restorurion of \ ildlife and natural resources

a) lbe ideu HUll humans mange resources fOT the future

XL COSLS versus benefits of bei Ilg proactive about global warming?

A. Balancing different opini ns, decision maker weigh the COSt and b nefits of a pr p sal [rom many perspectives

Economic

a) Revenue and expenditure

2. Produce jobs

a) Increase ernploymem rate

3. Cost

a) The total dollar amount in and out

4. Scenic COSI

a) TIle amou

f monej pent t revitalize the environment

5. lIealth benefit/risk

a) Human health is bettered or worsened

Georgana Collins-Keech & Tuni Campbell Content Outline

6. hort and long term eff cts

(I) Weighing options

(a) Pros and cons of ,1 dt!l;i~ioli

0) The means rn 1I s l j usl i ry the end rcsu 1 t

Academically Rigorous Enrichment Lesson Plans For Camp Lesson 2010

DAY 1

Lesson Objective: After completing this lesson students will be able to justif), tbelr own thoughts ahout global climate change, based on iufurnration gained in today's session. Further, they will be able to ver balize th e im pact ofelim alech II II ~e: person ally, locally, na tiona II),. IIIlII globally, from multiple perspectives: development, preservation, and conservation.

1. Define tbe Content

II. Preplanning: Bl'l!in with the End in Mind
It is important for students to know the impact or .lim te hange affect 11 living
A. Wbllt i· wurth organisms globally. Students should be aware that scientists are divided 0 er the
knowing? cause of global clirnure change and the extent of its affects. The underlying
(Think about tbe q uest ion tn he ex a 111 i ned: Is global climate change caused naturally or is it
content you 1111"" e i nfl uenced by human activity? lt is important thai students understand Earth is not
select eel ¥t'h at is only examined trorn En rth bu ( ;~ 1,0 lrom satellites j n outer space. From outer
important ror pace scienrist ure able to record information about the weather and climate
students to know?) change, from a removed perspective.
H. Whitt ix important Upon gathering information students will construct their own opinion about the
for students to know influencing factor on global climate change. Thu , they will be able to explain
and do? ami justify the impact of climate change OD economic value, health value,
(Define what students recreational value. ecological value, and scenic value. Jl is vital that students
should be ahle In do as understand the imp rtance of obtaining factual evidence to support their opinion.
a re. ult of our
lesson.)
C. What arc the I( is important fur students to evaluate the effectiveness ofvalid and thorough
enduring scientific research about global climate change. Students shou Id he able relate
understandings that current research to the existing situation and think about applying it future
tudent hould take situations.
away from the lesson"?
(Define the hig ideas.) _!!_l Planning
B. Essential Have experts been uble 10 eval uare d ta that proves or di proves global warming?
Questions: Will they be able 10 justify and explain their opinion based on [his data? What
(One 0 erarching and conclusions will the students be able 10 draw basedon this information?
one or more topical)
C. Aue ment: Students will complei . II sel r assessment and use a teacher made rubric to
[Perfurmunee Task) L:DIll p lete the set f assessment.
D. Content: 1. Effects of pollution
(Outline 'he content A. Global warming
you" ill teach)
t. lilt: warm ing of Farth 's surface temperature presumably causing havoc around the world

([1) 2U[J!5- Super Tuesday Tornadoes outbreak across the southern United tate with more than 80 confirmed tornados and 58 deaths, the outbreak wus the deadl iest in

a) Melting ofpolar ice caps

I) Average temperatures in the Arctic region arc ri sing twice as fast as they are elsewhere i n the world

(2) The melting of once-permanent ice is already affecting nativ people, wildlife, and plants,

(3) Polar bears, whales, walrus, and seals are changing ieir fe ding and migration patterns, making it harder for native people to hunt them

b) .xtrernc weather

(]) Dust storms

(a) 2009 - The east c ast of Australia experienced its largest till u sturm to date affecting millions and shutting dO'A"D transport

(2) I rupical cyclones

(a) 2008 - 12 of the most deadly ever reported. killed hundreds 0(" thousand. co t billions, an d affected fiji. Madag scar. the Philippines. Vietnam, India. and the ntied

tates

(3) Wild tires

(a) 2008 In Culi fnrnia \ ildfires burned (J1't:T nile million acres. killed 8. and destroyed over 500 homes

(4) Winter Weather

(<I) 200~·20 I 0 record rain and snow world wide ill areas unequipped to handle the heavy downfall and cold

(5) Tornadoes

(i) List of Animal Fxt inctions: golden toad, baiji dolphin, west African black rhino, craugastor escoces, holdridge's toad, spix's macaw, po'o-uli, hawaiian Crow, pyrenean ibex

the U.S since the early 80's

(6) Heat waves

(a) 2005·2010 span ning from Australia 10 Antarctica, and all places in bel ween, causing, melting of po Jar ice caps and

ex lreme dry conditions resulting in large numbers of human deaths

c) P lant and animal extinction in regimmlly specific specres

(I) Plants and animals are being forced to adapt to climate changes that are resulting; in death and extinction in extreme l;;,Jses

(a) Regionally specific animals, reptiles, and plants

(ii) l.ist of Plant Extinctions: galapagos amaranth, rio de Janeiro myrtle, santa cruz bryophyte. Cuban ruta tree, jamaican psidium, thismia americana

11. Making environmental decisions

A. Development

I. Definition - improvements in managing all area's natural and human resources in order to create wealth or improve people's Lives

a) The idea that humans alter Earth's original slate to meet their own wants and needs

13. Preservation

1. Definition - actions taken to prevent injury, peril, or harm; \0 keep in perfect or unaltered condition

a) The idea til at humans do not disturb the environment for self benefit

C. Conservation

E. Houk: (Describe how you will grab students' 1\ ttentiun.)

F. I nstruction: (Ten, step-by-step. what you will do.)

I. Definition - Rcsicrutiun from loss damage or neglect; the protection. preservation. management, or restoration of wildlife and natural resources

a) The idea that humans mange resourc lor the future

Trust \t\c lrn a Scientist!

l'oduy we are going to talk to a rncteorologist and a physician arid sec how Liley relate climate change and global warming. We \ ill examine the scientific research they lise 10 do so.

First we will lip n with a Plus/Delta, on chan paper, whole group. We will examine what our students know about global climate c ange and where they have gained there information from,

Our students " .. iJI then receive their "Daily 1i ion" - lop secret straight from the White House. The mission - you arc being u iked In converse with two experts and gain information from them ubout the: r perspecti ve on global climate change and it affects on living orgalli~llIs. You will be responsible for Iorrning your OWl] opinion based on prior knowledge and new inforrnntion [rom experts and research.,. Further y u will need 10 explain and justify your per pectiv about global climate change and reportthis in a debriefing post A AP.

Students will explore research about tropical, mid-latitude, und polar climates, how III y have changed and their affects 011 living organi~lIls. Websites whole group these will be available from Wiki Space: https:i/invesLigatingclimatechange.wikispaces-com

Student will develop questions to investigate the perspectives of experts on global climat change.

1Hrviu Daughtery - local meteorologist will be visiting our .lussruorn. He will be able to relay climate change data from the perxpccti I'C of a scientist

James Collins M.D_ Plastic Surgeon, will be Skyped in. ILe will be able (0 relay the effects of glohal climate change n human from a health perspective.

Our students will then form a conclusion about global climate change and it aftect r on t:lnlh and it:-- inhabitants. tudents will post their findings to th .. While House on the dai I y discussion board. This wi II be used 10 create the fiual product this week.

We will close the lesson by discussing student opinions and revisiting (he Plus/Delta chart clearing up all misunderstandings: Vv'e will review the lab rules for the next day if time ermits. These will be nosted in the classroom.

Academically Rigorous Enrichment Lesson Plans For Camp lesson 2010

DAY 2

Lesson Objective: The students wi II evaluate the short term and 10 ng term aflec LS that poll ut i on as nn the environment and the ecosystem.

I. Define the .Centent

II. Preplanning: Begin with the End in Mind
r t is i. rn portant rOT students 10 determ ine the over all affects, short or long
term, that pollution has on water and air. Relationships between chemicals
and disease and the environmental risk olpolluted air und water in the
cycling ofmauer. Energy is transferred from one organism to another.
.t\. 'Wlml is worth knnwing? Students will come to us with a basic knowledge of this; however, we want
(Think about tile content you them to think at different levels: personally, locally, nationally, and
have selected. \\I'hat is globally, Also, it is important for the students to understand the
important for studcnts to perspect i ve 0 r 1 h eir own 0 pi n ion of these affects. Students will compare
lmnw?) and contrast from various perspectives: economic. preservation, and
conservation.
B. What is important for The student will be able to develop an informed position on environmental
students to know and do? issues. 11 is important for students IO investigate pollutant and respond
(Define what students should proactively to them.
be able t:lI do as II result uf
your Iesson.]
C. What are the enduring The student will understand environmernal issues are a complex global
understandings that students conCC111. The next generation will be faced with unique problems that have
never been confronted before. Their efforts ui ide nu r y and seek nut
should tuke IlWIIY Irum the solutions many make the future more enjoyable for all global citizens.
lesson? (Define tbe big ideas.) III Planning -----
B. Essential Questions: How do environmental changes affect people? Why is this important to
(One overarehing und nne or !JI1:l us lin adolescent in North Carolina')
more topical)
C. Assessment: Students wi II eva] uate eac h other usi nga teacher created rubri c. Students I
[Perfurmunce 'I'asl .. ) will report their findings from their assigned center and we will Ell so
discuss their findings as a whole gnIU[1.
Ill. Earth's Resources
IJ. Content: A. Renewable
(Outline the content you will
teach) 1. Definition: Natural resources that may be replenished
ill ,t sustainable fashion
a) \Vood ( 1) Db lai ned from trees

(2) Used for: Building homes, furniture, etc,

b) Solar power

(1) Energy derived directly from the sun

(2) Cornpletelv renewable

c) Biomasses

(I) Plants grown for an energy sources such us luel

{2} Used for: nutornobile fuel

d) \liilld energy

(I) Energy derived from the wind

(2) Completely renewable

B. ]\ onrenewable

I. A natural resource which cannot be: produced, re-grown, regenerated, or reused Oil a scale which can sustain its consumption rate

a) Fossil fuels

(1) CUlIl

(a) Readily combustible sedimentary rock, found beneath Earth's surface

(2) Natural Gas

(a) A gas consisting of primarily methane, found along with other fossil fuels, beneath Earth's surface

(3) Petroleum or Crude Oil

(a) Flammable liquid formed of complex hydrocarbons, found ben ea l h Ea rth 's S IJ rface

IV. Effect of population growth on tile environment

A. When populations increase it creates a larger demand for resources

v. Biotic Factors

A. Definition: The part of the ecosystem that is living

B. Examples

1. Humans

2. Plants

1. Animals

4. Worms

5. Fungi

fl. Bacteria

VI. Abiotic Factors

A. Definition - The part of the ecosystem that is nonliving but vital lor living organisms III survive.

"R. Examples

a) Water

(! 1 All living organisms req ui rc water

(2) .H umans are composed of 65% water

(3) Important to plants and algae

(4) Vital fo I" photosynthesis

(5) A basic need for survival

b) Sun

(I) Necessary for photosynthesis

(a) Plants can not grow in dark caves

c) Oxygen

(I) Vital for function of the human body

(2) Vital for animals, fish, and other water organisms

d) Temperature

(I) Determines the types of organisms that can live in an area

(a) Organisms and vegetation are specific to particular areas or a certai n climate

0) Arctic - Polar bears ideal environmental temperature " 40 OF in the winter to 77 or in the summer

(ii) Warm tropical areas Hibiscus ideal environmental temperature between 60 OF and 90 cF

V 11. Pollutants

;\ Definition - 1\ substance or condition that contaminates air, water, or soil

B. Location - Pollutants can be artific ial substances, such as pesticides and PCBs, or naturally occurring substances such as nil nr carbon d i ox ide, that occur in harmful concentration ina gi ven en vironment

V [11. Main types of pollution

A. Sewage and wastewater

1. Sewage is the tern used fur wastewater that often contains feces, urine. and laundry waste

B. Industrial waste

\1any ind ustrial raci I ities use freshwater to carry away waste from the plant and into fivers. lakes. and oceans.

C. Oil pollutants

1, Oceans are polluted by oil on a daily basis from oil spills. routine shipping. run-offs, and dumping

D_ Atmospheric deposition

Pollution that is transferred by air

E.Marine dumping

Eo Hook:

, (Describe how you will grab students' attention.)

I. Placing materials in designated places in the ocean

F. Radioactive waste

1. Waste product containing radioactive material are often buried on land or at sea

2_ Heat trunsrni ued to natural waterways through warm water discharge Irorn power plants and uncontaiued radioactivity from nuclear wastes are also considered pollutants

G. Underground storage leaks

1_ There are upproximutely 611,000 underground storage tanks for the lJ 11 ited States

2. Underground storage bas the greatest potential to leak contaminates.

Yesterday we posted on our class discussi on board and rccci ved our first mission. Today we will introduce students electronically 10 the cumulative Pro.1 ect they will be- creut I ng_ Students wi ll rece i VI: thei r TOP S ECR ET flash drive that contains their daily assignments, surveys, lab sheets, articles, photos, and a contract outlining their role as a "Special Agent" investigating environmental issues. The electronic discussion beard will be located on our class's Wiki Space.

F. Instruetion:

(Tell, step-by-step, what you will do.)

In this uctivity we will CUI](.hu.:L primary investigations about en- ... -irnllmelltal issues, by investigating examples of pollutants.

Students will complete a (JU.lCK survey about pollution Ibis will allow LIS 10 dele rm i n e the i r level of p rinr kn owledge.

Students will participate in "Learning Stations." These will be set up in the classroom to aJlow students to complete lab activities. These will be independent and i ndi vidual acti vities. Each student will only complete one lab activity; however, they will report their findings to the group on this same day

Safety rules will be posted, and we will go over them, along with how to use safety equipment.

Station 1 ."" IR rOLUJTlON: EFFECTS 0'11 VISIBI i.rrv AND PROPERTY Station supplies: laptop, picture prompts, and effects on visibility question and answer form.

The student wi II answer questions 011 the effects 0[1 visibi lily question fOIID_ The student will respond to four picture prompts. TIle student will report his/her findings during the wrap up.

Stati on 2 AI R PO LLUTIO "i: RFFECTS ON VI Sill ILl TV

Station 3 _I\em RAIN: EFFECTS ON VE(;n ATIO~ A 'i [} WATER

Station supplies: goggles, graduated cylinder, spray bottle, cups, mixing bowl, ph strip, timer, lab instruction, and lab note sheet.

I Station Supplies: chalk, water, 2 lest Lubes, note laking sheet

I The student will place a section of chalk in eacb test tube, one labeled A and one labeled B. The student will then place vinegar in test tube A and Water in B. The student will document what they see on their note taking sheet They will document this after one minute and again after five

III i nutes, TIle stude nt wi 11 repo rt h i s/her fiud i 11 gs duri n g the WI"aP up.

Again explain as if student has had 110 prior lah experience, proper use of equipment, goggles required, and safety in the lise of glassware. Explain ph level nnd how to measure it. The Student will follow tbe lab experiment instructions and record their Iirulings on the lab note sheet. The student wilt report his/her findings during the wrap up.

Stat jon 4 EFFECTS ON VEGETATION

Station suppl ies: sample leaves from the same plant, tupe, paper, spmy bottle with vinegar solution, Lab note sheet, and timer.

The student will spray leaves with vi negar and water solution. He/She will make notes 0 f any changes 10 the leaves after 5 rn in ute i nterva!s. F-Ie/S he will report his/her findings during the wrap up.

Early Finishers

Wi11 visit K ids for the Future ul hllp:/lww\V,kidsfurflitme. nel.lindex.php a Link for this will be provided Oll each laptop desktop.

There the srudent will read ideas and respond on our daily discussion board titled. Kids for Future - Literature Response. On the discussion board I he student will in their OWTl words tell what they think about what they read, while they are waiting for all Leaning Station lab activities to finish up ..

finally we will wrap up our day hy discussion the findings a1 each lab station. Each student will briefly describe their experiment findings, and any conclusions they have made,

LEARNING STATION 1: Effects on Property Acid Rain

Name: ~ _

I. What do you think might be causing the trees to lose their needles?

2. Why does the air appear "cloudy"?

4. What is causing the outdoor statue 10 wear away more quickly than an indoor statue

1. What do you think might be causing the trees to lose their needles?

2. Why does the air appear "cloudy"?

3. What causes the colors of the sunset to be so intensefbright?

4. What is accelerating the erosion of the statue?

Learning Station 2 Name;_----------

NOTE: Remember your Lab Snfct~1 Rules

Directions

1. Plan! n piece of chalk in Te t Tube A. 2_ Place a pie e of chalk in Te t Tube B. J. Place ~'~ cup vinegar in Test Tube A

4. Place \1, CLIp water io Tt!~l 1 ube B.

5. Set the timer for I minute.

6. After one m ill ute note any observable chunges rrnm either test tube in the note

space provided.

7_ et the timer rlJr 5 minutes.

R. After 5 minutes note an. observable change from either test lube in the note pace PI' vided,

NOTES for observations after one minute A

B

NOTES for observations after five minutes

A

B

Which piece of chalk is more worn away, the piece in the water or the piece in the vinegar? Explain why?

EARLY F.INISlffiR ACTIVITY for ANYDA,Y

~ame: ___

Effects on Visibility

1. Click on the Haze Cam Pollution Visibility Camera Network website; http://Wv.N;.hazecam.net/defau]t.htm

2, Click on and review the links located in thc upper navigation bar ("Whut causes pour visibility", "Gallery of good & bad days", ctc.) for helpful information lo answer the questions in the next section,

3, Click on the u [J of the Li v <:l S ires II sled ! 11 the I eft -ha nd s ide of the screen, view current images from all of the CAt-1NET sites. and answer the following questions:

• Are any of the locations experiencing poor visibi lity? If so, please identify

them: _

Name one weather condition that can contribute to poor visibility,

Name two pollutants that contribute 10 poor visibility,

4. Com pare the Hartford, Connecticut and Basion. Massachusetts real time images. Cl ick on Camnct Realtime Air pollution and Visibil ity monitoring

IlILp:i/ ,"",Wv.' .bazecHill ,neLldefaul t.htm

• Are there any similarities nr eli lferences in visibility?

5. Click on the real time air qual it)' information for Hartford and Boston.

• Do the teal time images reflect whatthe skies mig,hliulik. like with the predicted AQllevel?

Obtain the current weather conditions for Hartford and Boston, Record them Hartford

Boston

Do you think the weather will increase or decrease the visibility? Why?

" Rem ember: Poor air q ua I i1 Y can cause poor visibili ty, but poor visibility docs not necessarily result in poor air quality

Nnw look at North Carolina at

htlp :/i'1i\I(Vo,·. aimow, gOY/index .cfm?acti nn=a i mnw _showm (m&pol! II tant-OLO/\ E

Wha1 is the air quality in Raleigh? _

Learning Station 3: Acid Rain t:ffel:ts on Vegetation

Name:

Prior Knowledge

pH measures the relative acidity of the water DO a scale of 0-14. A pH level of7,O is considered neutral. P lire water bas a p I-I of 7, O. Water with a pI-! level less than 7.0 is considered to be acidic. N01111al rain is slightly acidic, with a pH of abo ut 5.5. Water wifh a pH greater than 7.0 is considered to be basic or alkaline. As of the year 2000, the most acidic rain falling in the U.S had [I pH of aboutd.J.

I, Fill a graduated cylinder with 100 ml of vinegar (or another solution with a pH of 4,0)

2. Pour the I VO ml of vinegar into II spray boule.

3. Place 1 SOO ml of water (6 cups) into a 2 quart mixing bowl.

4. Measure the pH of tile water and record: _

5, Spray the so lution on tile bowl of water for 10 seconds. Let stand for 30 seconds.

6, Measure the amount of vinegar/solution used and record: ml

7. Measure the pH ofthe water again and record: _

Answer the following questions:

Was there a difference in the pl l level? If so, what was it?

What do you think woul d happen to the pH level of the water if you sprayed it for

30 seconds _

I minute _

• How do yon think acid rain affects the pH in lakes, rivers und streams?

Learning Station. 4: Effects on Vegetation

Name: _

Prior Knowledge.

pH measures the relative acidity ofthe water on 11 seale 01'0- I 4. A pH level of 7.0 is considered neutral. Pure water has 11 pH of7.0. Water with a pH level less than 7.0 is considered 10 be acidic. Normal rain is slightly acidic, with a pH of about 5.5. Water with 11 pH greater than 7.0 is considered to he basic or alkaline .. tv; of the year 2000, the most acidic rain falling in the U.S. had a pl I of about 4.3.

I _ Use 3 fresh, green leaves from the same tree or plant.

2. Tape one leaf (control leaf) to a piece of white paper, label, and place in a dry, snte location.

Are there any immediate effects \0 the leaf' _

4_ Spray the second leaf away lrorn the control, then place the lea r next to your control leaf overnight in tile classroom

What docs the leaf look like the next day? _

5. Spray a third leaf all over with the vinegar/Sol ution every 5 minutes for 15 minutes, place it next to the other leaves and leave overnight.

Nole the observable chanzes for leave 3

.... . -
llME OBSEI:<.V ARI ,F. CHA NGF.S
o minutes (before spraying)
-- -
Spray and observe after five minutes
Spray again and observe after five minutes
Spray again ami observe after live rni nutes Answer the foUowmg qucsrions:

How do you think acid rain affects trees and other plants?

runc: _

I)ale:

Project Title: Climate Change

Teacherts): Mr'. lJ1l1pbell & \1rs. Ke ch

What's up with the weather?

ProcESS Storm.y ParUy ClII udy Clear
I. Has clenr vision nffinnl prorturl 1,2,3 4,5.6 7,8,9
:!. Properly organized tu complete project 1,2,1 4, ", h 7,11,9
3. Managed rime wisely 1,2,3 4,5, (1 7, S, 9
4. Acquired needed nowledge base 1,2. J 4,5.6 7,8,9
5. Comnrunicated drurl~ with teacher t. 2,3 4,S,o 7, 11,9
Product (Project) Stormy Purtly CI.oudy Clear
t. Format 1,2. J 4.5.6 7.8.9
2. Meehan ics of speaking/writ ing 1,2,3 4.5,6 7,8,9
J. Organization and structure 1.2. J 4.5.6 7.8.9
4. Creaiivny 1,2. :3 . ~. n 7,8,9
5, Demonstrates knowledge 1,2,3 4.5.6 7.8,9.10 Total Score : _

Additional Comments:

.i

ame: _

Date: _

Performance Task Assessment List I nves tiga ting a Con trovcrsial Issuc

Element

The student gathers sufficient information and support materials for his/her positi n.

The learner uses material from, news reports, and resource materials.

The student organizes the information and prepares an argument ror hi·.Jh.:r r(1~ill(\I1,

Sufficient examples and derails re used to support the argument.

The position/argument i. cl arty stated,

The student listens tu. usks probing questions about, and understands the opposing position.

The student is able to state the sU'englh~ arul weak nesses 01,each position.

The student discusses the positions/arguments .. iih his/her opponent criticizing idea. n 1 the person. Listening is active and poluc.

Opposing students IT)' 10 reach a ccnscn us or develop an alt e mal i ve. F. vidence III' com prom ising is noted,

The student prepares a voice thread, Sllrpllr1.iTJg the position he/she finally take .

Total:

Additional Cornmncts:

Extrume ly HOT

€I

Possible Heat

Warm Cool e

I. Define the Content

Academically Rigorous Enrichment Lesson Plans For Camp Lesson 2010

DAY 3

Lesson Objective: The Students will be able to explain climate cnun~t: (IS an example or ornplex and uncerta io phenomena. T he student wi 11 be able 10 j ustify and explu i n how sc ience can he] p us address climate change through making observations about the causes using computer models to generate simulations. Students will able to analyze evidence to make predict ions about possible consequences,

IT. PreplaDDing: Be~n with the End in Mind

A. What is It is important for students lu know the cause or climate change. With this they will be

worth able to make predictiuns about what may happen, It is important for students III know thaI

knowing'! every action has a reaction. Students need to be able to think about I he: cousequences (or

(Thin], uhuuj life on Earth, Further, it is important for students III know that research is not perfect, and

the content there arc many uncertainties ill research un eli mate change. Students must know that there

you have nre rnuny influences ill decision making practices.

selected.

Wbat is

important for

students t41

know'!)

B. Wltul is important for student to know and do'! (Define ",Iud students should be able

to do as a result ur'ylJ II r lesson.)

C. 'What are the enduring understundin g~ that students should take away from the Ie 41n'~ (Define the big ideas.)

Students must be ble 10 develop a position on climate change, With this they must he able 10 justify and explain their perspective. Students must be able to ach ieve negotiation skills, TI1CY must be able 10 speak to others about thei r perspective and listen feedback for or against 1 hei r perxpecl i ve and cri ticall y anal yze and synthesi s what is bci ng discussed. It is important to identify the key stakeholder. in rh global warming conrlict.

Students will take away the understanding thut not everybody agree;; on everything. It is essential 10 be able 10 Ii uen to urhers' perspecti _ and synthesis and analyze the information. to ste 1 further research and expand ne' son perspective.

Students will learn what il means 10 hecome a global citizen and how by becoming an active participant in a global society it aids in keeping the world in balance. rudcnts will lake away an understanding their actions have more (hun j ust a personul IIITt.'l..:1. Oflen they will have a locnl, nutionul, or global affect as well.

ill. Planning B. Es~ential Questions: (One

uveru rehing

and one or

more top.icall _

C.

Asse menl: (performance TlISk)

Is climate change an international phenomena? Justify and explain why climate change will require cooperation from a glubal society to be adequately addressed: What arc the characteristics of climate change

Peer Assessrnent c fthe following task: Justify and explain why climate change will require cooperation from a global society 10 be adequately addressed. A teacher made rubric will be used for tbc students to assess their classmates.

D. Content: (Outline the cunlenl you will teach)

IX. Etfc cts of pollution

A. Global warming

I. The warming of Earth's surface temperature presumably causing havoc around the world

a) Melting of polar ice cap

(l ) Average temperatures in the Arctic region arc rising tWICC as fast as they are elsewher in the world

(2) The melting of once-permanent ice. is already affecting native people. wildlife. and plants,

(3) Polar bears. whales. wa' rus. and seals are changing their feeding ami migration patterns, rna 'ing it harder tor native people to hunt them

b) Extreme weather

( I) Dust storms

(a) :2U09 - The east coast or Australia experienced its largest dust storm to date all ciing millions and shutting down trunsport

(2) Tropical cyclones

la) 2008 - 12 of the most dead I 'ever reponed. killed hundreds ofthousands, cos: billions, an d affected Fiji. Madagascar, the Philippines. Vietnam, India, and the Untied States

i) ) w: Id fires

(a) 200S - In California wildfires burned over one millilln acres. killed 8. and destroyed 0\1 r SOD homes

l4) Winter Weather

(a) 2008-2010 record ruin and snow world wide in ar as ncquipped to handle the heavy downfall and cold

(. I Tornadoes

(a) 2008- Super Tuesday l'ornudoes outbreak across tbe outhern United Slates with more than 80

con finned tornados and 58 deaths. the outbreak WIl:-' the deadliest in the U.S since the curly 80's

(6) Heat waves

(a) 2U05- 010 spanning from Au tralia to Antarctica, urul all places in between. causing mel ling of polar ice caps and extreme dry conditions re 'lilting in large numbers of human deaths

c) Plant and animal extinction in rcgionally sp cific specie

(I) Plants and animals are heing forced to adapt to climate changes Ihal are resulting in death and extinction in extreme cases

(a) Regionally specific animals, reptiles, and plants

(i) List of Animal E>..1inctions: golden load, baiji dolphin. west African black rhino. craugastor escoces. holdridgc's toad. spi .s macaw, PO'O-LIIi, hawaiian Cro w , pyrenean ibex

(ii, List of Plant Extinctions: galapagos

am arant h. ri 0 de j aneiro m yrt I e, santa cruz bryophyte, Cuban ruta tree. jamaican p id iurn, thisrnia americana

\1aking environmental deci ions

A. Development

I. Definition - improvements in managing an area's natural and human resources in order to create wealth or irnpr c people's lives

a) The idea that humans ,LIter l::ul'lh's migillELI slate to meet their

0 .... 11 wants and needs

B. Preservation

I. cfinition udions taken 10 prevent injury. peril. ur harm: to keep i

perfect or unaltered condition

a) The idea that humans do not disturb the environment for elf benefit

C. Conservulion

I. Definition - Restoration frum loss damage or neglect: the protection, pr servation, management. or restoration of wildlife ami nat uraJ resource

a) '1 he idea that humans mange resources for the future

Xl. Costs versus benefit of being proactive about g,lohnl warming?

A. Balancing different opioio . decision makers weigh the cost and benefits uf proposal from many perspecn ve~

1. Economic

a) Rev nue and expenditure

2. Produce jobs

a) Increase employment rate

3. Cost

a) The total dollar amount in nnd nul

4. Scenic co t

a) 1 he amount ofmoney spent to revitalize the environment

5. Health benefit/risk

a) Human health is bettered Of worsened

6. Short and lOll!.; term effects

(I) Weighing options

fa) Pro and cons oi" a decision

(i) The mean mustjustily the end result

tudents will further

E. Hook: (Descrihe how you will grab student' attention.)

Students will have n TOP SECRET envelope on their desk when they come in. They will be instructed to open it and read its contents. In the envelope will be a check list or five items und students will be asked to answer these yes or 110 questions by circling ye~ nr no and then they .... ill be instructed to tully their results.

I. Did you turn the water (1 IT wh i 1 e you brushed your teet h thi b morn i ng

2. Did yOll make certain that all the lights were turned off before leaving your borne today?

3. Did )"ou t.:tlrpLllll with another child to camp"

4. Uid you recy le your trash this week - paper, plastic, glass all separate?

5. You have EVER microwa ed anything on any thin pl sti .

lfstudcnts circle 3 or more no',<; GLOBAL \VARMING IS THEIR FAULT (:J;1 They must

We will complete a KWl chart whole group 011 (he bourd or nn chart paper. We will ponder. what we know about climate chs nge and who's fault il is.

\Ve will explain 10 students that negoriation is a proce s in which twu ru more parties seek to understand line another' interest and creme options that will reduce or remove conflict between them. Yeah, ok so it is friendly discussion remembering that everyone has an

pinion and everyone wants I ) share what they think and we have to be careful nut It, hurl un. one's leeling!-.©

_Ii,

Instru ct ion: (Tell. step-bystep, what) uu \ ill do.)

The expected outcome of a negotiation is thai everyone communicates in a friendly manner, gaining good information from what others have tried. The goal is to find creative options that everyone can agree with. Remember you are nut demanding what '()U want or con eding to go with the rlow. The goal is to 1i~I~Jl In I e needs and perspectives of others and seek a resolution on which ,~\I parties Call agr e.

'tep 1

Hxplain that the U.S. is the largest contributor of greenhouse gases, hut in a fev years China is expected to assume the role.

~lep 2

We will go over the posted ground rules lor the role play debate,

• Be friendly

• One person talks at a time

• Respond 10 each others' ideas

• Remember" you position is important to you

• Remem ber the needs and perspeci i ves of the peopl c you represent

Step 3

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SiC 4

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. ,

Flags will be pr vidal ;JI tables to depict what country each student will represent,

tudents \ ill e iven a 0 'FIDENTlA envelope, and time 10 rcviev its c ntents, Inside tile envelope tbe students will be given hack ground knowledge of the country they represent and their country' s opinion on global warming. Please see the lullowing pages from more explicit instruction.

One teacher wil] be the time kee er and th other the moderator, Students will keep note 011 there Debate ote Sheet

Step 5

After students have reviewed their instructions and background knowledge, the moderator Will begin with the background knowledge on the situ lion or climate change. key facts, predictions for our future.

Step 6

\Ve will review what they h ve learned and discuss th ... cause of conflict in this debate. We wil 1 com pare and C011lraST perspectives of ibe stakeholders; and decide if they shared a common understanding. Finally we \ ill rei te this debate to real life. '\' would hypothesize how this difference in opini n might be solved in real life. Also, we will determine how we may apply our negotiation skills in settings such as: horne, cummunity, school,

OilY 3 Negutiution

\\1 t: will take turns readin g the information below before the stud ems beg ill the i I' discussion.

WHO WT!.!. TAKF: THE HEAT?

Background

The challenge of climate change:

Tuday the U.S. is the biggest contributor to global warming, also called global climate change. Fifty years from now, China is expected to be the biggest. How can these two countries work together to deal with the problem of globa I warm ing'

Here are some key facts:

People around the world, especially in richer. industrialized countries. are burning more and more coal, oil, and gas ('"fossil fuels"). Over the pa<;1 I 'iO years, the Industrial Revolution in the l l.S.; Western Europe, the former Soviet Union, and Japan has created societies that depend all fossil Cuds for most of their energy. Today, people in the U.S use more fossil-fuel energy per person than in any other country Over the past century, Earth has warmed by about I degree F In fad, len of the warmest year's have occurred since 198:1, with seven of them since 1990. Earth could be getting Walmer on its own, but many of the world's leading climatologists believe the things people do are helping to make Earth warmer. When we usc fossil fuels to drive our cars, run power plants. lind heat and cool our homes lind offices, UD!;; Dr the byprod LIds is a gas called carbon dioxide (C02), Carbon dioxide goes into tile atmosphere, where it traps heat rising from the Earth's surface (acting like glass in a greenhouse). figuring out to what extent the human-induced accumulation of greenhouse gases is responsible for global cl irnate change is difficult, because other factors, both natural climatic vuriations and human actions, affect Earth's temperature. Global climate change could cause very serio us problems. Though scientists are not sure now serious the impact of global warming will be, they believe that it could:

• lead to stronger, more damaging storms, and longer, more costly droughts all over the world;

• seriously damage food production in parts of the world thut me ul ready warm and dry;

• cause the extinction of many plant and animal species; and

• possibly raise sea levels by enough to put large coastal areas where millions of peo ple now I ive underwater.

Over the next 20 years. some large developing countries. especially China. arc likely to burn much more coal ami ui I, increasing globul warming. 111 the past 20 years, Olin"

I.~I:I matenats tOT the ncgonaion 011 climate change were r~tl ieved Frcm WGEJ r Educat.oual Fuuudaicns

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and some other large developing countries have developed their industries. their cities, and their roads very quickly. New. China and others are about. to make big new invesrrnerus in industry, power plants, city buildings, roads, and cars. Because China has huge amounts of coal, it is planning to use coal as the main fuel for its power plants

and industries. China will also need to use huge amounts of oil for the large number of cars it is planning to build fer the Dew Chinese middle class. If things continue the way they are now, by 2020 China is likely [0 bum more fossi I fuel and contribute more to global 'Warming than the L.S.

Inrernational uegotiatums on climate change

The U.S. and China have both signed the Framework Convention 011 Climate Change, un intern ali onal trent y that com m its the nations of the world 10 work to gether to reduce global warming. The Convention says, however, that the U.S. and other rich industrial countries sho uld take most of the responsi bi Ii ty for action. Duri ng negotiations, 1 he governments of China and other developing; countries argued thai the climate change prnhlem had been cr-eated by the richer countries over the past 150 years, They also pointed out that rich countries still use much more fossil fuel per person than poor countries, and that they have more resources to deal with the problem, For all these reasons, China and other developing countries insisted that the P.S. and other

i ndustrial i zed countries should reduce the i r greenhouse-gas emi ssions first, and shou ld help poorer countries protect themsel yes from the impacts of climate change.

However, the governments of the U.S. and other industrialized cuuntries have been reluctant to take strong act i on to reduce cl i mate change. There are three main ways

to reduce greenhouse-gas em issio ns: swi tching to non- fossil energy sources (such as hydroelectric, solar. wind, and nuclear), increasing energy efficiency and tnking carbon nut () I' the atmosphere by planting trees. lhe problem IS I1ltll till of these strategies cost money in the short run, even though many environmentalists and some economists argue that they wi II make the environment and the economy better 0 ff in the long run.

All of the richer countries have democratically elected governments whose leaders are focused on doi ng things that benefit voters today. It is politically very difficult to convince leaders or voters to lake action thai costs money 110W and provides benefits many years in the future. lt 's even more difficult to ccnv ince them to take HC lions that are likely to have mort': benefits for the cil iklren and grandchildren of people living in poor countries than for their own children and grandchildren. These basic economic and politic-al problems have made it di tficult for the richer countries to take strong action 10 reduce their greenhouse-gas em issions

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The U.S., China, and climate ebunge

Ih LS_ and China are in man, ways the world's tw m 1 important countries when it comes to the is ue of climate change. The U,S, is the world's wealthiest country and the biggest emitter of greenhouse gases. American scientists have led much of the

res t!u rch

on climate change. while American industries, workers, and political leaders have

been politically divided on what III do about climate change. ome people and politicians want to take action III reduce 1 L •. greenhouse-gas emissions even if it requires

SI1n1e economic sacrifices. Oth r do not think that the problem is significant enou h to justify any costly action,

l'hJDU is soon 10 become the second-biggest emirt r of grccnhou c gases and will

likely overtake the U, .as the bigge I emitter sometime in the next 2U yearx. With

J.3 billion people, a very rapidly growing economy. and huge coal fields that it plans

to continue using to g merute electric pnwer and heat, the decisions China make on climate change over the next 20 years will be absolutely critical to the long-term impact ofhLllTIW1S on the global climate. Traditionally, China's Communist Party leuderxhip has emphasized economic growth over environmental protection, <II III China's people are

ju t beginning to become aware uf environmental issues .. till. hina is changing very Iast politically, and there is a strong movement to deal with the environmental problems created by burning coal. MWlY of those problems affect Chinese people's health

today. so it might be in China' interest to reduce i Is use 0 r coul even if i L didn't care about global warmi g.

P liticalleaders in the .. and China will respond to d mesne public opinion a d interest groups. Btlt international businesses and environrnental gruups will also shape their uctinns. I ntemational business groups want to have more certainty about whether and how greenhouse-gas emissions may be regulated. They can offer new technologies to improve energy efficiency and bring down the cost of luw-curbun fuels. Technology transfer ofthis type providing Chin» and other developing nation with more efficient technologies before they begin implementing them on a large cale-c-offcrs a lot of potential. l lowever, China may need financial assistance 10 adopt them. Environmelltal groups want the U.S. nnd China til rnuk e linn commitments 10 limit their greenhouse-gas emissions. They can help build political support for action on climate change through public awareness campaigns.

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Your assignment

Political leader in the U.S. and hina have agreed to send representatives III a special meeting 1I1 discuss ow the two co ntrics can work together to deal with t e problem of climate change. They have also invited representatives ofinternational business and the global euvironmenrul movernent to join them.

They arc seeking an agreement for the U.S. and China 10 work together on climate change, in WHyS that would SCI an example for other industrialized and devclopi Ilg countries,

You will Hike on the role of one of these representatives. You will review confidential instructions fnl your rule and then meet with rbe other rcprc enratives, You will need to consider scientific and economic information uhou] trends and possible futures,

and inforrnatlon about the goals and interests of other representatives. Together, you should lry to reach an agreement that meets everyone's main goals. But none of you should sign nnlu all agreement lhm d es not meet your own goals.

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WHO WILL TAKE TilE HEAT"

Confidential lnstructions

I nteruatlona I B usin ess

You represent large ccrporarions (hal do business in many countries around the world, The larges: 1.000 corporationsemploy !I111rt' than 50 million people. You produce about 20 percent ofthe world's goods and services. and 8U percent of the world's manufactured products.

TIle businesses you represent have a very strung interest in the issue of global climate change for several reasons. Their operations depend Oil reliable energy supply; thecost or energy j s a si gn ificant portion of nil their costs: and they develo p most of LIlt: technologies that could improve energy efficiency in power plants, factories, automobiles, and household appliances (televisions, refrigerators, etc.).

Large corporal ions have been accu sed by some environmentalists of I ryi ng III stop governments from taking action 011 C I inuue chunge, Nothing cou Id be further from the truth, You ugree that climate change is a potentially serious long-term problem. The key question is how 10 manuge that problem in ways that allow businexses 10 keep on producing profits and juh!'>.

At the meeting. you want to:

In the meeting that you will be attending, the slakes wil I be very high lor intcmational business. The U.S. and China are two of the world's most i mpnrtnnt economics. The U.S. economy is the hlggest in the world .. and its consumers drive the demand lor energy and manufactured goods more than any other country'S. China is fast becoming one of the wo rld's biggest producers of low-cost goods, h<::CiUJ ~o:; i I has [I hu ge, inexpert si ve labor market. Chinn is also becoming one of the world's biggest markers ror consumer goods.

Your goals

\. Get the group to ag ree 1 hal ne i lher the L. S. nor C nina agrees to lirni t its greenhousegas emissions 100 quickly. because that could seriously hurt the glllhul

ecunumv, You think that holding U.S. carbonemissions to 1.53 billion tons/year in 20 IS-would he as much as lb; 1I. ~, con hand Ie. eh ina sbou ld be all owed to increase its emissions to at least 1.6 billion tons/year ; n 2015

2. Governments should let businesses ligun: out how 10 reduct: emissions. rather than telling business what

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technologies to usc.

3. Gel a 101 0 r 11 nancia I i nee nl i ves (low-cost loans and tax breaks) for husi ness to hel p Ch i na become more energy-effici em and less dependent on coal. Without those incentives. business cannot make a profit on those activities.

4. Get the U.S. government to agree to use financial incentives (loans and lax breaks) rather than penalties (taxes or fines) to motivate business to reduce greenhouse-gas ern issions in tile IJ. S,

The international business role in climate change

Most greenhouse- gas em issi on s Irom hu man acti viiy come rill rn th e use n I' energy. Energy is at the center of business operations. Jt takes energy to run factories; move goods on trucks, trains, and ships; move people in cars, buses, trains, and planes: and run the household goods that businesses produce, like TVs and refrigerators.

The international business community agrees that climate change is a significant problem and that the world should take steps to address it. There arc. three maio ways that the work] CW1 address the problem. Each could have a serious impact on business ami

the economy if it's done too fast or at 100 high a cost, rni leage target, we could probably produce the SUV for no more than it costs today.

What business Deeds from the ll.S. and China

The international business community provides millions of jobs and produces the majority orthe technologies and manufactured goods that people around the world need. Hecause businesses are so directly involved in all of the activities (hat produce

green house gases, env i ron mental ists are dern and i ng Lila l governrne n Is I-mee the busi ness community to make huge investments immediately to reduce carbon-dioxide emissions. That won ld be a big m istakc, one that co uld seriously hurt the economies ofthe U. S., China, ami [he rest of the world.

Business is willing to take a major role ill managing the problem of climate change. To do that, you need four things from the U.S. and Chinese governments:

• gradual change

• certainty

• tlexibility

• financial incentives

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Gradual change

As discussed above, tbe key to making products much more energy-efficient or making big changes in fuel sources is to do it gradually enough so that it isn't too cosily to business and consumers.

Certainty

In order for businesses to make the long-term invcsuncnts necessary to achieve these goals, tile governments or lhe US and China need 1.0 make a rirm curnmi lrnenl I.UdH.Y that they will not change the emissions targets that they agree to now, Businesses cannot figure out the least expensive way 10 reduce emissions if governments keep changing the emissions targets. You want the U.S. and China to make a firm commitment not

to change any em issions targets they agree III until after 201 5.

Flexibility

You want the two governments and the environmental representatives to agree that business should be

allowed to bring dllVVI1 carbon emissions in any way that is profitable and legal. Government should not tell business how to do it.

Financial incentives

This last point is absolutely critical. If the U.S. and China want business 10 make investments to develop more energy-efficient cars or refrigerators, or to make power plants that run on wind instead of coal, they have to realize [bat those investments will cost you more and may earn YDU lower profirs than cnruinuiug "business as usual." You want the U.S. and China to give you tax breaks and other financial incentives (like low-interest loans or free land for planting trees) to make sure that these investments don 't end up hurling your companies: Under no circumstances can you accept any agreement that uses taxes or other financial penalti es 10 force business to take ad inn

on climate change. Taxes would be unfair to business and harmful 10 the two countries' ecou Dill I es.

Strategy to achieve your goals

Your mai It COllCCIll is t 1131 tile en v I runrnental representa ti ve will make extreme demand s for The U.S. and China to reduce their carbon emissions and for business 1n make very

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expensive investments til achieve those reductions. To avoid this, you should

• Emphasize that climate change is a long-term problem uuu cannot be solved overnight,

• Explain that the world \ leadiug corporations are committed to helping solve the problem and the problem cannot be solved without th iT help.

• take it clear that busine 'can only help the U .. and Chinn ifthey agree to make gradual rcducti n . and give certainty, Ilexihility, ,HlU financial incentives 10 business,

• Argue that emissions targets of 1.53 billion tons/year It)!' the U,S. and J.6 billion tons/year for China in (J 1. lift: I he best that can he achieved without hurting the global economy. You cannot upport any agreement that commits the U.S. or China to have emissions lower than 1,5 billion tons/year by 2015.

(food luck I

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WHO \\'l_LL TAKE THE I-IEAT'"

Confidential Instructions

People's Rep 11 b I if.: uf Ch Lilli

You are a high-ranking diplomat representing the Chinese government. Your country has the largest population in the world, 1.3 billion people. China's economy is one of the fastest-growing in the world; but most Chinese people are still very pour, earning less than S2.00 a day.

YOllT government is controlled by the Communist Party, which came to power at (he end ofa long civil war in 1948. The Communist Pnrty leadership sets the cnunu ys goals and po lie ies. The P ri In e Min i ster and the State Counci II ead the ministri es and local governments. The government also controls many economic activities, including land lise nnd energy lise.

The Party's leaders want China to become a richer and more powerful country. Since the late I 970s, the government has encouraged private investment and private: profit. and the country has experienced an economic boom. Many farmers have migrated to Chi ria's coastal cit ies, where there is a growing middle class hut a shortage of jobs. To combat the poverty that remains, the Party and the government plan 10 continue developing China's natural resources 10 promote manufacturing and international Trade. and to increase the number of available jobs.

Your goals

Climate change is a very important issue for China. As Chinn's representative to the meeting with Ihe 1.l.S_, and business and environmental representatives, your goals are to:

I . (Jet 11 U.S. commitment to red LIce its own green house-gas emissions to 110 more than I A hi llinn tons/year hy 20 15.

2. Get the other representatives to help China become more energy-efficient in transportation, industry, and home healing. Abo get their help [0 begi n reducing China '5 dependence on coal by investing in natural gas, nuclear power. and hydropower.

* **3. Only agree to slow dO\\11 the growth of China's carbon emissions if the U.S. political. business, and environmental representatives agree to help China become rruire energy-efficient and reduce its usc of coal. Even with that help. China cannot agree to an emissions target any lower than 1.6 billion tons/year by 20! 5.

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The role of China in giobul chmate !:han~e

China produces and uses more coal for electric power and tor home and factory boilers than any other country. Coal accounts for roughly two-thirds of your country's fossiltucl consumption, and air pollution from burning coal hits become a big problem. Coal burning is also the biggest source of China's carbon emissions,

Because coal is such II ~Igni rkanl source of carbon, ell ina is the world's second-largest carbon emitter (China emitted roughly 760 million taos of carbon in 2(00). But when you divide up China's emissions among the country's population of nearly 1.3 billion people, each perSllTl in China was responsible ["or Dilly 0.0 metric tons of emissions.

In contrast, the U.S., the biggest emitter, is putting more: than t.5 bi Ilion tons of C02 into the atmosphere each year. That's more than double China's emissions. And because the populuuon or the Ll.S. is s(] m uch smaller than the population of China, and Americans are so much r icher than tile Chinese, each person in the U. S. was responsi bl e tor 5.7 tons of emissions-nearly ten ti mes the number for each Chi uCS( person.

What China is doilll!. ahout climate change

You need to explain to the other rcprcscntati vcs that China is already making; great progress in reducing the amo lint 0 f energy used to prod lice goodsand serv ces. Over the past 15 years, the amount of energy needed to produce one dollar of goods and services in China has dropped by over 50 percent.

• China is making maim investments in energy-efficient power plants and industrial and home boilers .

• Chiou is also increasing lhe amo unt o r energy i 1 prod uces lrom nat urul gas II nd nuclear, hydroelectric, and wind power sources. Natural gas produces much less carbon than coal to produce the same amount of energy. Nuclear, hydroelectric, and wind power produce no carbon at all.

• China is planting millions of trees and plants that absorb carbon dioxide and also help improve China's environment,

I f China tries to do much more than it is already doing to limit the growth of its greenhouse-gas omissi ons, it will deprive hundreds of mi I Ii ons of poor peop Ie the opport unuy to improve their lives. Electric power and adequate trunsporuuion are basic necessities for any industrial society. China's families need more energy to light their homes and to power their refrigerators, telephones, and computers. They need cars and other forms of'transporration to tree them to take jobs in areas farther from their homes

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and to travel tor personal needs. Today, Chiou's families use very little electricity and have very little access \0 home communications or automobiles compared 10 people in many other countries,

Taking these measures into account, experts expect China's carbon emissions to grow from 760 million tons/year in 2000 to 1_8 billion tons/year in 2015_ China can only commit to keeping its emissions below 1.8 million tons/year in 2015 if it receives financial help from the U _S_ lind other rich countries, pi us investments and new technologies, from businesses. If you get financial help from the O.S., investments in your energy and transportation sectors from business, and help in public education from the environmental movement, you can agree to lim il Ch inn's em issions to l . 6 bi II ion Lons/year in 2015_ limiung China's emissions any more U13l1 that would require too

much sacrifice from China's people.

Why the U.S. needs to do more

You need to he clear with the U.S. and the other representatives on these points:

• The U.S. emits tar more carbon and other greenhouse gases than any other country.

• It is tbe wealthiest country in the world.

• lis people use more energv per person than almost any other country.

• The U.S., like all the other developed countries, signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change in 1992. That international agreement commits the

developed countries to "lake the lead in combat ing climate change.' I t also says

that the developed countr i es should try to reduce thei r em issio ns as soon as

possi b le so that they are emitti ng no more than the y were in 1990.

• The U .S_ has filJlen tar ShOT! of Ihid curnmitrnent. In 2000, its emissions, 1.53 bi lli on tous of carbon. were more than 15 percent higher than they were in 1990 ..

• Other developed countries (Germany, France, Britain, and Japan) have agreed to make signi Ii cant reductions in their greenhouse-gas emi ssions,

What is at stake here is a basic issue oftaimess, The US_ is responsible

for more of the greenhouse-gas problem than anyone else. It has more money to deal with the problem than anyone else. It has signed an international agreement committing

il to take action. The U.S_ simply has no excuse 1101 to reduce its greenhousegasemissions by a substantial amount.

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.;\S Chinn's representative. you want the U.S. 10 agree to bring it emission> duwn to

1.4 billion tons in 2015. his would • a reduction of9 percent from the 2000 emissions of 1.53 billion tons. The U.S. 1_;,U1 easil. achieve this goal by:

• increasing uu iurno hi Ie fuel efficiency,

• replacing sume of its coal-fired po .. cr plants with natural ga: and nuclear. hydroelectric, and wind power, and

• requi ri t1g manufacturer- tn produce 1110re energy-efficient refrigerators, dishwash ers, clothes w hers and driers. and other appliances.

Strategy for achieving your gouls

As noted above, yOLI want the U.S. to bring its emissions down to 1.4 billion tons of carbon in 2 IS: )'OU want no restrictions on China', emission unle s the U.S., business. and the cnvironmcnral movement gi v e you bell': an the 10weSI limit you can agree to on Chinu'x emissions in 2015 is 1.6 billion tons ofcarbon.

U*To achieve these goms. you should:

• ernphusize fairness: the L.S. has an obligation to lead the world and lake responsibility for its actions:

• remind everyone or Chinu's poverty and the work China is already doing to increase ib energy efficiency and reduce its dependence on coal:

• offer to work coopcraii vel)' with btl iness lind environmental groups to continue improving China's energy efficiency and reducing coal LISC: and

• offer to limit China' s emissions in 2015 to 1.6 billion tons in ex change for an agreement by the ,S. to reduce its emissions to 1.4 billion \OI1S.

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WORLD IN THE BALANCE

WHU WILL TAKE TIlE 11 EAT?

Con fidential J nstrucrions

Ell" ironru en ta I Movem en t

You represent millions of people around the world who are committed to protecting the glnhal environmeru=-our air. water, soil, plants. animals. ecosystems. and climate, The envi ronmental movement is mol i vated and united by these belie Ii,:

• we must protect the environment tor oursel ves and for future generations;

• the world's plants nmJ animals have as much right toexist as humans do:

• people in the world's richest countries (including the U.S.) must reduce their consumption and waste; und

• people in developing nations (including Cbina) must find more environmentally sustainable ways \0 industrialize and mise t heir standard of Ii ving, so thai they

do not repeal the mistakes (1 r I he !: ... and other rich countries.

The environmental movement is deeply concerned ubout the growing problem of climate change, The climate-the air. its tempera lure, the winds. douds. and weather-is

the most complex system in the g,lvhal environment. Over the past 200 years. humans have begun to disrupt nne of the most basic parts of that system: the WUy lhtll the air is healed and cooled hy the "greenhouse effect." By burning more arnl more coal, oil. and natural gas for fuel, we have begun to change (be climate

The impact ofchmute change on this generation may be small, but we have a respn.ll~ihility to our grandchildren 10 begin solving, the problem that we created. Do we want them to inherit a world where storms. floods. and droughts make life even more miserable. tor many of the world' s poorest people? Where even the rich cannot escape the misery HI' hurning heat waves and rising seas that wash away thousunds II r mi les of coastal land each year? We have the power to protect the global eli mate and reduce the risks that we pass on 10 future generations. We need the political will toact,

Your goals

Su lur, governments have signed agreements, but those agreements don't amount to much unless governments. businesses. and individunls luke: action. To move governments and business toward real action, your goals are:

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I. Gc:1 the 'J.S. and China 10 make r 'al progress on climate change, by increasing energy efficiency. switching to renewable fu Is. and plal1ting trees to capture carbon.

2. GCI the lI_S. and I ina to commit to real limits on their carbon crni ssions

3. Gcr the international business community to make carbon commitments and investments III energy-eificient technologies and c rbcn-tree energy (sl1lar, wind. and hydroelectric power).

Why the ll.S., China, and the business cummunity must take the lead

Because all countries and all people share the climate. and all are hurting the climate 10 some degree by burning fossil fuels, nil countries 11 ve a responsibility to deal with this problem. Howe er, the Lnited SUtll!S i .. releasing far more carbon into the atmosphere than any other country. The U.S. has about 5 percent otthe wurlds people, but it' responsible for 25 percent of the world's total carbon em issions, That means the U_S. also emits 1110re carbon per person thun almost any other country.

The underlying problem is thai American businesses and consumers ure behaving in irresponxible way. _ A large p r mage of all ne curs sold in t e last decade ba e been sport utility vehicles ~ SVs). These gus-grr/1.ling monsters are among the most energyincfflcicnt cars ever bui II. hut they are very profitable ['or automobile manufacturers. Americans are also using more electric power each year tor air conditioning, beating, and home electronics, That wouldn't be a problem if the sources of energy for electricity \ ere carbon-free (s lar. ind, r hydroelectric). bUI most electric power in the

conti u to come from coal-fired power plants. The U.S. government simply must

gel businesses and cunsurners to become more energy-efficient and LIse lower-curbun fllds.

China mUSI also change the path t ul il is on. China produces and uses more coal fc r electric power and rill' home and fa tory boilers than any other country. Coal accoums for roughly two-thirds of China's fossil-fuel consumption, and uir pullulion from burning coal has become 11 big problem. Coal-burn inl', i~ also the biggest source of China's curnon emissions. Because coal is such a big source of carbon. China is the: 'world's second-largest carbon emitter. China emitted roughly 760 million Ions or carbon in

:WOO. If its government doesn't take urong action -oon, China ill more than double

ib eurbnn emissions by 2015, to I.R billion tons, AI that point. China wilt probably be the leading contributor to climate change, emirting more carbon than the US

lhe world's large curporations (the organizations that the international busine representative speaks for) have played a major role in creating the problem of climate

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change, ami they must also help solve it. They produce the coal, oil, and gas. They build the power plants, automobiles, home boilers, office buildings. and homes thnt use (he fuel. They profit from all of these activities .. but many [) f (hem dun' ( INCUJ I 1 D pay th e cost to make our fuels, transportation, homes, am! offices more climate-friendly.

Vv ha l the U, S., China, and tile b usi ness cornrn Lin ity need to do to reduce carbon emissions: increasing energy efficiency, switching to non-carbon fuels, and taking carbon out of the atmosphere. The LS., China, and the business community need to take action on all three. In addition, to ensure thai they make progress in all three areas, you wun! them to agree to limit carbon emissions significantly by 2015.

In c re as e energy e ffi ci en c y

There nre many ways tha( (he II S., China, .mel the business community can increase energy efficiency. The most important action that the governmenis of the U.S. and China can take is to increase standards for energy efficiency. Both countries already have some standards covering energy use in some of these areas: automobiles (miles per gallon), buildings (insulation and heating and cooling systems), and appliances (energy use per hour for TV s, com puters, and refrigerators). But many of [he standards are set too low, and many aTC voluntary, meaning that business docs not have to meet them. By increasing existing standards and forcing business to meet them, the L..S.

and China can urke dramatic s(I:lPS (0 reduce greenhouse-gas emissions while also saving energy, reducing local air pollution, and encouraging businesses to develop new technologies. As the biggest emitters of greenhouse gases, the U.S. and China can have a truly powerful impact on the global environment if they work together.

YOIl want 1101h countries to commit 1:0 producing at least 10 percent of all electricity using renewabl e energy by 2015. Whatever the business com m lin ity says, there is a lot of evidence that it is possible 10 increase the use of renewable energy quickly without increasing the price of energy.

Capture carbon through reforestation

The (J.S. and China both have large 3JT1()IH11s ol land that could he planted with trees to capture carbon from the atmosphere. Although both countries have good forestry programs, both can and should do more to require timber businesses and landowners (0 plant trees, A recent international study found Ihul planting trees in developing countries like China could be one of the least expensive ways to reduce the amount of carbon in the atmosphere.

Good luck I.

All materials f::'f the neg01hfi-rm (In cl imilW change were reuieved from WGEH Educationul Found;:tjons

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WORLD rN THE BALANrF.

Ii H() wu I TAKE THE BE T.

COil fidential Instructions

United States

Y L! epresent the United States government and carry ut the foreign policy goab of the President. You are a career diplomat. and you have worked in many countries in Asia. including China. For the lust ten years, you have reused on the climate-change problem.

Of all the issues you have dealt with in your long, ant! succes sful career, clirnat change may be the most di fficult. VOl! have your work cut OUI for you in the upcoming. meeting with representatives of Chill a, the global business community, and the environmental movement.

Yourgoals for the meeting an':

I. Persuade t e other representative that the U .. cannot do much to reduct: its greenhouse-gas emissions without hurting the U,S, econorny=-and indirectly, the world economy: You cannut commit to C.S. emi ions lower than 1..6 billion Inns/year ill 2015,

2. nvince hina that it mUSI low down its rapidly rixin greenhouse-gas emission

Unlc 'hina starts 10 do something, soon to limit it use f coal and

gasoline, it will overtake the 1.' ... a. the biggest gree house gas emitter. You want hina to agree to limit its carbon-dioxide emissions LO l.S billion tom; by 2015 (slightly less than twice the amount China emitted in 2000).

The rule of the U.S. in ~IHhal climate change

Your biggest problem is 111m ir is not easy III defend I lie current U.S. policy on climate c hunge. lhe I J .S. is the st ro ngest country in the world. both economically and mi I itari I y It also h the biggest impact on the global en ironment and natura] resources of uny country. The I.].S. ha a ut 5 rcent or the world's I ulutron (290 million p ople out olu total global population of (1.1 billion people). But be ause of the size of the U .•. economy and the wealth of it people, the average American uses five times as much water for drinking, washing, and irrigation; land for food: and forests for wood products as un average Mexican, ten times u.~ much as an average Chinese. and 30 times as much as til average person in India.

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\1I11cn it comes 10 energy use, the Il.S. is also in the lead. Fossil fuels (coal, oil. and

gas) LhHL peuple use for electric power, transportation. and heating are the main source or the greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. People in the United States use more fossil-fuel energy than in any other country. People u ·jng fossil fuels in the U.S. pUI 5.4 metric tons of carbon dioxide per U S citizen into lilt atmosphere in 2000. The average for the whole world was 1.2 metric tuns per person. The total U.S. emission in 2000 were 153 billion tons, mute than twice the 760 million Ions that China, the second highest country, emil! d.

The politics of climate change in the L'.S.

CI i ill ule change is a com pi icated pol i tical issue in Americ a. Some areas of the con ntry produce a lot of fossil fuel (Texas. Louisiana. and Alaska lor oil: Wyoming, West Virginia, and Kentucky for coal) or run large electric. power plants that use fossil fuel (many states in the Iidwes: and Southeast). Politicians and voters in these areas generally do not support laking action to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions, because il could COSt jobs and profits. In other areas (the Mountain ~tatt!s and the, outhwest, and rura I areas around the country J. people dri ve long d i SL1r1CeS and don' t want to pay more tor gasoline or for more fuel-efficient cars. On the other hand. on the West Coast and in the ortheast. and in big cities around the country. people don't depend a lot on f 511 fu I industries for job', don't drive very long distances. and are more inclined 10 protect the environment. In these arc as. people and politicians I 'Ild to support action to reduce U.S. greenhouse-gas ernix-ions. The country is also divided between Democrats and Republicans. Democrats are generally more concerned about global warming (mel lift! willing to pay more to reduce that threat, Republicans generally suppurt a strong economy and don't believe that (he threat uf glubal warmin J is, erious enough to justify hurting tbe economy. Public npiniun i~ also very divided .. ornetimes in confusing way. because many Americans are not sure how serious a threat global climate change is. Dr how much it would cost to reduce U .. greenhouse-gas emissions.

What the U.S. is doing about dim lite chaoge

Your goals is to convince the others I at the C.S.is doing: much a possible to reduce i Is greenhouse-gas emissions, You xhnuld also discuss with them some of the good things that the U,S. has done and continues to do to deal with the problem ofclimate change .

• Over the last 30 years, the U.S, has reduced the urnount of energy needed to power the economy.

• Without any government action to reduce greenhouse-gus emissions. the I LS. is now mono: energy-efficient than it was 20 years ago. The \.. .. i. already becoming more energy-efficient without government regulation'.

• The C.S. continue to lead the world i developing new energy technologies. Some at these technologies may eventually replace fossil fuels.

• Americans have provided strong support for research 011 the problem of climate change. and Americ n scientists continue to find l1ut new information t al will help the world deal effectively with (he problem.

• America' ccon my is strong. but any attempt to reduce U.S. greenh u c-gas emissions beluw 1.6 billion ton '. ear by 2015 could have a very bad impact on business pro Ii ts and peop lc' s jobs,

\\'11 China needs to du more

Your second goal is 10 get China 10 take action III slow the growth of its greenhouse-gas erni sions. The rapid and conlinuin J growth in China' s use of coal and gasoline is the biggest long-term LI1rt~a1 to the glo al limate.

• China is the world's largest user '-II" coal rur energy production,

• China get" nearly 80 percent of its fuel for electric power, industrial, lind home heal from burning coal.

• Though China is becoming more nergy-efficient by in tailing newer p wer plants and industrial and home boilers, its greenhouse-gas emissions will continue 10 grow as long as it depends so heavily OD coal for electricity and heal.

• Right now, fewer than ) in 100 people in China own a car. Out the Dumber of car owners is increasing very rapidly, and so is their usc of ga olioc. Ford Motor Company expects that China will be the world's biggest market lurnew cars over the next 10 years.

• Unless China I kes significant 11 w investment in electric power, industrial and home boilers. and public transportation, its carb n-dioxide emissions are expected 10 increase by 130 percent 11)' 20 15, to U! hi 11 ion tons of carbon dioxide.

Given the trends in China, it's essential that China make a binding cumru itment to slow the growth in its usc of coal [UJd req uirc new cars LO meet gasoline fuel-ctficiency standards like the ( nes the U.S. has. You want hina to agree to increase its greenhousegas emission to no more than 1.5 billion tons/year in 201 S.

Strategy for achieving your goals

You should try to convince the other representatives to agree 10 your guuls Hul Y'IU

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will probably need to negotiate with [hem and make some trade-offs i order to get an agreement that everyone can support. Here are some possibi lities to try:

• Empllasizc scientific and economic uncertainty 10 defend the U.S. The health of the U.S. economy ;~ important to all the countries of the world. Given how little we know abuut the effects of climate change, no one should ask the U.S. or any other country to make big economic sacrifices nuv. rur an uncertain benefit scrnei irne in the future .

• OITer a commitment to reduce Il.S. carbon emission and we arc going to be a h coming m rc en rgy-eff .ient. ,0 this is something you could commit 10 wit little risk f hanning 1l1C U.S. economy.

Good luck'

(Ou thne the content you w ill tea ch)

[1. Solution to f.:o:nvU-onmcntal Issues

A. I .evels of Choices

1. Personal

a) Definition - those changes that can be made on n person by person basis

b) Example: Dri vc car or take bus

2. Local

a) Definition -those changes which are made on a city or regional basis

b) Example: Create a JlI:W" landfill or build all Inc i nerator

3. National

a) Definition - those changes which are made at the federal level and often me made by legislators, reprexentat i ves, the pres ident

b) Example: Whether to allow off shore oi 1 dri II ing in a wildlife refuge

4_ Global

a) Definition - those changes which are made in conjunction with man}' countries across the globe

b) Example: Protecting the Earth's atmosphere

HI. Solution to Environmentullssue.s

A, Levels of Choices

1, Personal

a) Definition - (hose changes that can be made on a person by person basis

b) Example: Drive car or lake bus

2, Local

a) Definition - those changes which are made on a cit)' or regional basis

b) Example: Creme a Dew Iundfill or build an

incinerator

( I ) htai ned lrom trees

aliunul

a) Definition -1l1Ol-e changes which are made at the federal Ie el and often are made by Ie islatnrs representatives, the presi dent

b) Example: Whether 10 allow off shore oil drilling in a wildlife refuge

4. Global

a} Definition those changes which ure made in conjunction with many countries acr ~. the globe

b) Example: Protecting the Earth's atmosphere

IV. Ecull1's Keslllln.:es

A, Renewable

I . Definition: Natural resources that may be repleni hed in a sustainable fashion

u] Wood

(2) l Ised for: Building hOI1lI!S, furniture, etc.

b) Solar power

(I) Energy derived directly from the sun

(2) ompletely renewable

c) Biorna scs

(I ) Plant grown for <In encrg iources such as fuel

(2) Lsed for: automobile fuel

d) Wind energy

( I) Energy derived from the wind

(2, Complei I)' renewable

R Nonrenewable

L. !\ natural resource which cannot be produced, re-grown, regenerated, nr reused on a scale which can sustain its consumption rate

a) Fossil fuels

(I) Coal

(a) Readily combustible sedimentary rock found beneath Earth's surface

i2) Natural Gas

(a) A gas consisting of primarily methane. found along with other fossil ill els, benea th En th "s su r fat:e

(3) Petroleum or Crude Oil

(a) Hammable liquid formed of complex hydrocarbons, found beneath Earth's surface

b) Nuclear Power

v [fleet of po pulation growth on theen vi ronment

A. When populations increase it creates a larger demand for resources

V1. Biotic Factors

1\_ Definition The part ofthe ecosystem that is living

B .. Examples

1. Humans

2. Plants

3. Animals

4. Worms

5. Fungi

6. Bacteria

VII. Abiotic Factors

.1\. Definition - The part of the ecosystem that is nonliving but vital for living organisms to survive.

B. Examples

a) Water

(1) All living organisms require water

(2) Humans me composed of 65% water

(1') lrnportant to plants and algae

(4) Vital for photosynthesi s

(5) A basic Deed for survival

b) Sun

( I) Necessary tor photosynthesis

(a) Plants can not grow ill dark caves

c) Oxygen

(1) Vital for function ofthe human body

(2:1 Vital fur animals, fish, and uther water organ I sms

d) Temperature

(1) Determines the types of organisms rhat can live in lin lire a

(a) Organisms and vegetation are specific to particular areas of a certain climate

(i) Arctic - Polar bears ideal euvi 1"0 n 111e 11131 tem perature - 40 or in the winter to 77 or in the summer

(i i) Warm tmpi cal areas - Hibiscus ideal environmental temperature between 60 OF and 90°1:'

V Ill, Pollutants

A Definition - A substance or conditionthat conrnminnres air, water, or soil

H_ Location - Polllitants can be artificial substances, such as esticides

and PCBs, or naturally occurring substances such as oil or carbon dioxide, that occur in harmful concentration in a given environment

IX_ 'vlain types of pollution

A, Sewage and wastewater

I, Sewage is the tern used for wastewater that often contains feces, urine, and laundry waste

B. Industrial waste

I, Many industrial raell ities use freshwater to carry away waste from the plant and into rivers, lakes, and oceans.

C. Oil pollutants

l . Oceans are polluted by oil on u (Iuily basis frum nil spills, routine shirring, run-offs, and dumping

D. Atmospheric deposition

I., Pollution that is transferred by air

E_ Murine Jumping

1_ Placing materials in designated places in the ocean

F. Radioactive waste

I. Waste product containing radioactive material are often buried on land ur lit seu

2. Heat transmitted to natural waterways through warm water discharge from power plants and uncontained radioactivity from nuclear wastes arc also considered pollutants

J. TI, ere are approximately 611,000 underground storage tanks for the United States

2_ Underground storage has the greatest potential to leak contaminates.

X. Effects of pollution

i\_ Global warming

1. The warming of Earth's surface temperature presumably causing havoc around the world

a) Melting of polar icc caps

(L) /\ verage {em peratures i 11 the Arctic region are rising twice as fast as they are elsewhere in the world

(2) The melting of once-permanent ice is already affecting native people, wildlife, and plants

(3) Polar bears, whales, walrus, and seals are changing their feeding ami migration patterns, making it harrier for native people to hunt them

b) Extreme weather

(1) Dust storms

(a) 2009 - The eust cuast of Australia experienced its largest dust storm to date affecting millions and shutting down transport

(2) Tropical cyclones

(a) lOOS - 12 of the most deadly ever reported, killed hundreds of thousands, COSl billions, an d affected Fij I, Madagascar, the Ph iii ppi nes, Vietnam, India, and the Untied Stales

()) w: ld fires

(a) 2008 - In California wi ldfircs burned over one rni llion acres, killed g, and destroyed over 500 homes

(4) Winter Weather

(a) 2008-2010 record rain and snow world wide in areas unequipped to handle the heavy downfall and cold

(5) Tornadoes

(a) 200S- Super Tuesday Tornadoes

(lU! break 1;1(': ross th e so uthern Un ited States with more than SO COnIi1111ed tornados and 58 deaths, the outbreak was the deadliest in the U,S since the early 80's

(6) H':3t waves

(a) 2005-2010 spanning from Australia to Antarctica. ami all places in between. causing melting of po Jar ice cap and extreme dry conditions resulting in large numbers or human deaths

c) Plant and animal extinction in regionallj ... pecific species

(11 Plants and animals are being forced to adapt to climate changes that are resulting in death and extin tion in extreme cases

(a) Regionally specific animals .. reptiles. and plants

(i) List of Animal Exlinctiolls: golden tad. baiji dolphin, west African bluck rhino. r ugastor escoces, holdridge's load, splx's mac w, po'o-uli, hawaiian Crow. pyrenean ibex

(ii) List of Plant Extinctions: galapagos umuranth. rio de janeiro myrtle, santa r 7 hry phyte, uban ruta tree, jamaican psidiurn, thismia americana

XI. Making environmental decision

1\. Development

I. Definition - improvements in managing an area' natural and human resources in order 10 crcntc wealth or improve people's lives

a) The idea that humans alter Earth's original state to meettheir own wants and needs

B. Preservation

1. Definition - ctions taken [0 prevent injury. p ril, or harm: \0 keep in perfect or unaltered condition

11) The i lea that humans do not dist rb the environment for sel f benef t

F. Instruction:

(Tell, step-by-step, what you will do.)

C. Cons rvation

L Definition Restoration from loss damage or neglect; the protection, preservation, management, or restoration of wild li Ie and natural resources

a) The idea that humans mange res urccs tor the future

XIL Costs versus b nefits ofbeing proactive an out global warming?

A. Balancing different opinions, decision makers weigh the cost und benefits or a propo al from many perspecti ves

I. Economic

a) Revenue und expenditure

2. Produce jobs

a) lncrease employment rate

1. Cost

a) The total dollar amount in and out

4. Scenic cost

,(I The amount of money spent to rcvi tnl ize the environment

5. I1eallh benefit/risk

a) Human health is bettered or worsened

6. Short and 1(l11~ term effects

(1) Weighing option

(a) Pros and cons of a decision

(i) The means must justi fy the end result

Wouldn't you like to share yow' perspective on gl bal warming with every 1111: you came in contact with? What if we did just thai today. right IlDW •.. Let me _show you how we can usc Voice Thread to do jus! thisl

E. Hook:

[Describe how ou will e:r:ab students' attenrion.],

The student \";11 view how I make a Voice Thread at \vww. Voicethread.com (un icon uo laptop deskuips). This is a short video about 4 minutes long thai xplains bow to take still images and pur your voice 10 them to spread a voice message. Students will make our individual pubhc announcements about the importance of becoming proactive about glohal warming. Students will also

shan: their own perspective on glnhal warming fr Thread.

Stud ms will use di scussion b ard post' and notes from this" eeks cssions lu fOI11l their public service announcement.

Images will be provided from llash drives to aid with time management. Students will select images tll ';0 along with their In age.

UPOIl completion of their Voie Thread. Voice Thread will provide a URL link to their Voice Thread.

Student 'Will create a 25 bll~il1t:~s card sized hand out to pas out to camp members. The business card will have the students Nurne, Voice Thread link, and Global Warming - make a difference, make a hange, educatel

tudcnts will share their nice Thread with their parents in th classroom Jill' the show all d tell session.

Technology Information

General notes for all groups:

L.aptops - Elementary grade groups will get 2 and Middle grade groups will get 4

For every 2 laptops you will get 1 power cord. Make sure to charge each laptop

You will be responsible for the laptops for the week. You will need to make sure to take them with you each day and make sure you have a secure locked place to store them at night.

Presentation Stations - AKA - COWS- All but 1 room will have this in it. This will include a document camera, LCD projector, computer, and DVD player- you will be able to have this in the center of the room to project info. on the front board/screen.

If you asked for a microphone it will be a headset with built in microphone.

We are unable to provide computer speakers - please bring yours from home or school or plan to use the ones built in on the laptop.

Digital Cameras - We have a limited supply - if you or your partner can bring one please email! me ASAP!

Videos from the Internet - Pitt County Schools does not allow access to U Tube Videos (other sites may be blocked as weli). Back up your video by downloading videos in an appropriate andlega I way to a CD, Pen drive, Wiki, etc.

There will be no VHS players - please digitize to a CD

If you need a CD player please either use the laptop or bring your own

No power cords will be .provided - each group may want to bring a power cord and extension cord - please put your name on your materials.

Technology you will receive: Georgana and Toni 2 Laptops

LCD Projector

AIGC ECU STUDENT Materials Request Form - SPED 6402

.__1_U_n_it_T_i_tl_B_: __ --'-I_T_u_m_ing Up the Heat Decades of Climate Change

Team MBmber Names

Email Address

2.Toni Campbell

gbc0523@ecu.edu

1 . Georgana Collin s- Keech

tVG 1 024@eGu.edu

~P/9aS9 identify needs in order by day of the week - starling wit') all Items for Monday, then Tuesday, etc.

Avalliilble from
Weekday Item w/delail ECU AIG Office
Qty Per How this Item will be used Yes or No
M-TH'
AIG Toam will fill
this column out
W 6>::9 Brown clasp envelopes 6 Ea Negotiation Activrty I Yes
Scotch Tape Yes
M-TH 2 Ea Daily Activities
T
Gloves 1 Box Learning Lab Stations Yes
-
T
Baby Wipes 1 Box Learning Lab Stations
T
Small Zip Locks 1 Box Learmnq Lab Sialions Yes
M-TH Yes
Sticky Chart Pad 1 Pad Oaily Learning/Reflection
Earth Kick Ball 1 Ea Daily l.saminq No M-Th
Magnify Glass 6 Ea learning Lab Sta ions Yes
T
- Note; The AJG Team w/JI not be responsible for copying untt handouts.

_~~ Air Pollution:

" ,,", What's the Solution?

Student Worksheet:

What Do You Know?

AIR POLLUTION
Question What we KNOW I WI)at we WANT to find oul lfVhal we LEARNED
I



I I I EPA I NESCAUM I CIESE I Stevens insltutc of Technology

2

r+ --
AIR POLLUTION
Question What we KNOW What we WANT to find out What we LEARNED
I




- - - -- Na~e' __

Cornell Note Taker

Date: Period:

I Topic:

Main. Points

Evidence and Detail

© Freeology.com

..

"i--

SPED 6402

Modu!e3 Grndlng Ruillic

Unit Rubric

PannerName IOn i c.CtW\J?be.<)

Partner Name <qe.OY gCU'1.CI Co! t :n.r - K..e.ah

--

Revised Unit Components 140

_ -7/.'

Lessen Ptans.2!fj100

3,,')15 points

~------------------------------------------------------------~~~,

LOd.ies- L d.__ rea.t 0 Lr'"k.e.. f1o;-- us -f--o he CLble. to scnecoc/e- t7-----. phovze. COYlf(;,Ye-r1. ce,;. or a_, -5_' *;<-;4'.)e,. (/-l4..C -to u.or/e» &;1I?Jc.J.fjJ.........

rr1 I"V") p } ,,/2. -rv. IJ ~ f' 0 t'YJ YY1 R,_·r' r _

nile Page for the Unit

I The following. items should be included on the Iltle page.:

.som e. COn'lpOhC!tYlf:s are- /';1 /"S..!;(118 hera .

L Both students' nemes

.L ECU Course TItielNumber ~ate submltled/year

OraphiC(s) _;:I.(1Jnlt TIUe <vublopics are listect

. 8 lnclude the REVISED 4-pagE research paper on the content you will leach [rrom Module 1). 4, 15 points

SPED 6402

Module 3 GradJn~ R. br1c

Include your REVISED paper on how topic relates to perspectives (from Module 1) .5 15 points

Include your REViSED unit goals/objectives (from Module 1). -5 15 points

List the unit objectives in the following three part format:

Iu a result of the unit, the students will know ..

As a result 01 this unit, the students 'Hill understand that ... As a result of this unit. the students will be able 10 • , .

These» loa k6 o.OO~ I u .

page 2

SPED 6402

Module 3 Grading Rubric

Include your REVISED Points to Ponder (from Module 2),

£/5 points

111 ese, lo ok: l-e.J).1:--1 Cj o oLI_, L th in .... 1 ~ ·tv .a. r tn ~ w 7/1 Lc;ener cu-& toto of- dLho..f e .

Include your REVISED content outline (from Module 2).

2, 15 points

'/ i ~e~,! VJ ~'1e~'& ara. lff01.A/tJ COJ'IIel-rt" gO? IJ O~ r-eC"t_J....U-1f 6h-ut

! ni Vie. e-FI OUfJ Iv con ~n t: -Pm-' CUo 0 I_,{. t: 1. =« ~ rn G fy:",(.C t:'-C 1-/ , TYI Is 5.f!.Df:/ on nee cl/.l..- 8'- g-1't..iA- COJl-t re. ots ( :) rt.1--, b e. ~ J:.._.. --leOcnit(g.

page.3

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