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electrical energy generation, utilization and consrevation

electrical energy generation, utilization and consrevation

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Published by: varunflyhigh on Jun 07, 2010
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Energy is the capability to produce motion ,force, work ,change in shape change in form etc
Conventional Energy Sources:Coal , fir
ood, at r at i l v l ,Radioactiv tances & Petroleum

Classification (Energy conversion) 1.Hydro Electric power station 2.Steam power station 3.Diesel power station 4.Nuclear power station.

y 1. Adequate water a ailable at good head. y 2.continuous water during summer ,therefore con enient

accommodation for a erection of dam must be a ailable. y 3.The reser oir must ha e a large catchment area ,so that le el of water in the reser oir may not fall below the minimum requirement. y 4.The land should be cheap in cost and rocky in order to stand the weight of large building and hea y machines.
y 5.Sufficient transportation facilit must be a ailable. y 6.There should be possibility of steam di ersion during period of


Hydro plant general block diagram




Power house

Turbine: P.E -----M.E Alternator: M.E----E.E

Steam power station Heat energy -----Electrical energy. Site selection factors. y Nearness of the load centre. y Supply of water y Availability of coal y Land requirement y Transportation Facility y Availability of fuel.

Nuclear power station Heat energy -----steam energy-----mechanical energy----electrical energy. Site selection factors y Availability of water. y Distance from populated area y Nearness to load centre. y Availability of space for waste proposal

Nuclear reactor

Heat Exchanger



Reactor---fuel rod(uranium),Moderator (Graphite rods) , Control rods (Cadmium) & coolant (sodium metal) Heat exchanger---Coolant gives up the heat to heat exchanger which is utilize in raising the steam. After giving up heat the coolant is again fed to the reactor.

Advantages:The amount of fuel required is very small. Less space is required Can be located near the load centre. Most economical. Dis Advantage. Capital cost is very high. The fuel is expensive and difficult to recover. The disposal of radio active waste is a big problem.

Non Conventional Sources:-

y1.Geo-thermal energy y2.Tidal Energy y3.Wind Energy y4.Magneto Hydrodynamic

generation. y5.Solar energy.

Advantages of utilizing renewable energy sources y 1.These resources are locally available and everlasting. y 2.The conversion does not involve in emission of green houses y 3.The power generation is at local level and does not involve in T&D losses. y 4.The systems are modular in nature.

Geo Thermal energy:y Heat energy of interior earth -----Electrical energy. Line Diagram:y Earth surface/pipe line output steam separator steam Turbine Alternator inverter D.C Advantages:y It is versatile in its use. y It is cheaper y The plants have highest annual load factor (85-90%) y Pollution less.

Tidal Energy:y Tide is periodic rise and fall of the water level of sea which are carried by the action of sun and moon on the water of the earth. y Tide can be used to produce electrical power which is known as tidal power. y The water is above the mean sea level is called Flood tide. y The water level is below the mean sea level is called EBB tide. y The average tide range is 8.5m and maximum tide is 13.5m

LINE DIAGRAM:Differential head ----Hydraulic turbine----ac generator---ac/dc supply

TYPES:1.Single-basin arrangement. 2.Double basin arrangement

Single basin arrangement:y There is only one basin. y The basin and sea are separated by a dam and (water) flow between them is through slice-ways located conveniently along the dam. HIGH TIDE: y Sluice gate opened------sea water enter to basin(till maximum reservoir level)--------sluice gate are closed/turbine opened----conversion take place----energy The possible tide projects:y Gulf of Kutch and campay and sunderbans region of the bay of Bengals

Magneto Hydro Dynamic Generator:-(MHD) y Thermal energy -----electrical energy. y Principle:y When an electric conductor moves across a magnetic field ,a voltage is induced in it which produce an electric current. y (Here conductor may be solid /fluid/ionized gas/liquid metal)(helium /argon/potassium) Line diagram:Hot ionized gas----electrodes----dc-----inverter-----ac

Advantages:y Power generation is simple. y Large power and temp handling capacity. y No moving parts y High reliability. y Time taken for full cycle---45 sec Example:y An experimental power plant of 5MW (thermal I/p) has been commissioned at Trichy

Wind Energy y It is indirect solar electric technology. y It is energy from the WIND Site selection consideration:y 1. High annual average wind speed. y 2. Availability of anemometer data. y 3. Availability of wind curve at the proposed site. y 4. Local Ecology. y 5. Distance to road or railway. y 6. Nature of ground. y 7. Favorable land cost

Advantages y It is renewable sources of energy y Non polluting system y Avoid fuel provision and transport. y On large scale costs can be competitive with conventional electricity and lower costs could be achieved by mass production. y It is clean and plentiful source of energy. y It produces hundreds of mega watts. y It s also used for water pumping, telecommunication power supply and irrigation.

Line diagram:Wind----turbine-----alternator----electrical energy. Types:y 1. Vertical axis machines (The axis of rotation is vertical, the blades also be vertical) y 2. Horizontal axis machines (the axis of rotation is horizontal and in the aeroturbine plane is vertical facing the wind.

Wind direction To Grid Wind
Aero turbine Gearing coupling Electric Generator


speed csignal temp



Solar Energy:y It is energy from the sun. y The energy in the form of heat and light. y It is defined as the energy produced by the sun and collected on earth. Solar Components:y 1.solar collector y 2.storage unit. Line diagram Solar----solar rays----solar collector----electricity/heat.


y 1.Solar photovoltaic system power plants. y 2.Solar concentration thermionic power plants

Solar photovoltaic system:y It is a direct conversion of light to electricity. y Solar radiation-----PV cell---dc current. y (Each PV cell generate the electricity approximately 612volts) Basic photovoltaic system for power generation. y 1.Solar array.(rays---DC power) y 2.Blocking diode. y 3.Battery storage. y 4.inverter/converter y 5.Appropriate switches and circuit breaker

Basic Photovoltaic system integrated with power grid
From Utility Feeder

Solar cell array

Blocking Diode

Inverter/ Converter

Local Load

Battery Storage


LL :- 

Solar cell or photo oltaic cell is a large area electronic de ice that con erts solar energy into electric energy by the photo oltaic effect. Photo oltaic's are the only method of con erting sunlight directly into electrical energy. 

It strongly depends on the quality of the semi conducting materials used for the fabrication of solar cells. The efficiency of a photo oltaic system is measured as the ratio of electrical power produced to the energy of the incident solar radiation.

y Solar concentration thermic power plants:y Principle:y Concentrating the sunrays using mirrors into small

area (focal point) where the produced high heat is used to generated steam and electricity. y Thermal solar energy can be used for water heating,cooling,drying ,water distillation,refrigeration and space heating and cooling

Advantages:; y It is free pollution. y The plant requires little maintenance or help after setup y It is Economical y When it is connected to the grid, solar energy can overtake the highest cost electricity at peak demand and can also reduce grid loading,apart from getting rid of the need for local battery power in darkness.

Combined operation of power station.:-

y In an interconnected power system which has number of power stations of different types operating in parallel it is necessary to co-ordinate the different station for the best possible economic operation.

Advantages of INTER CONNECTED OPERATION:y 1.Increased reliability of supply In the event of power failure at one station the system can be fed from other stations. y 2.Reduction in total installed capacity,,The amount of reductions depends on the characteristics of inter connected system and desired degree of service reliability.The reseve capacity in any system is usually equal to the largest size of the plants in the system. y 3.Economic operation y 4.Spinning reserve is reduced.

Distributed Generated System:y Distributed generation generates electricity from many small energy sources. y It is defined as the integrated use of small generation units directly connected to a distribution system or inside the facilities of a customer. y It has also been called y On site generation y Dispersed generation y Embedded generation y Decentralized generation

DG is a another approach ,It reduces the amount of energy lost in transmitting electricity because the electricity is generated very near where it is used ,perhaps even in the same building..This also reduces the size and number of power lines that must be constructed.

Example DG 1.Micro turbine,Small Wind turbine 2.Photovolatic cell ,solar water heating. 3.Small gas turbine. Benefits-DG 1.Enhance the reliability of the power supply. 2.Reduce the need for T & D investments to serve the growing demand. 3.Encourage efficient investments in electricity reliability by offering a cost effective alternative in many situations.

Economics of generation:The method of finding the per unit cost of production of electrical energy is known as economics of power generation. Connected load: It is a sum of continuous rating of all the equipments connected to supply system. Maximum demand It is the greatest demand of load on the power station during a given Period

Demand factor:D.F= (Maximum demand) / Connected load The value of demand factor is usually less than one Average Load:The average of load occurring on the power station in a given period is known as average load. Load factor:L.F=(Average load ) / (Maximum Demand) During a given period. It is always less than one. If the load factor is higher the cost per unit of generation is lesser.

Diversity factor:D.F=(Sum of individual maximum demands) ----------------------------------------------(Maximum demand on power station) It is always greater than one. If the Diversity factor is higher the cost per unit of generation is lesser

Capacity factor:C.F= Average demand ---------------------Plant capacity Reserve Capacity = Plant Capacity Maximum demand. Plant use factor:PUF= (Station output in kWh) / (Plant capacity x Hours of use)

Problem: 1.A generating station has a connected load of 40MW and Maximum Demand of 20 MW,,The units generated being 60 x 106 Find a.Demand factor. b) Load factor. solution y D.F=0.5 y AD = unit generated per year / hours in a year = y 60 x 106 / 8760 =6849.31 KW y L.F=0.3424 OR 34.24%

2. A generating station supplies the following loads :15000Kw,12000Kw,8500Kw,6000Kw and 450Kw.The station has a maximum demand of 22000kw.The annual load factor of the station is 48% Calculate. a.the number of units supplied annually. b.diversity factor. c.the demand factor.

y Solution:-

Demand factor = MD/CL=22000/41950 = 52.44% Diversity factor=Sum of individualMD / MD=1.906 Number of units supplied per year = AL X Hours in a year. = MD X LF X 8760 = 925 X 105 kWh 3.A generating station is to supply four regions of load whose peak loads are 10MW,5MW,8MW and 7MW.The diversity factor at the station is 1.5 and the average annual load factor is 60%. Calculate y 1.MD on the station. y 2.Annual energy supplied by the station, suggest the installed y Capacity and no.of units?

y Solution:y MD=20MW y Units generation/yr = AL X Hours in a year.

= MD X LF X 365 X24=105.12 X 106 kWh y Installed capacity = 1.2 x maximum demand= 24 MW y Suitable size of units = 6MW/plant y Number of plants = 24 /6 =4 UNIVERSITY PROBLEM y 4.The maximum demand of power plant is 40MW .The capacity factor is 0.5 and the utilisation factor is 0.8

find 1.Load factor 2.Plant Capacity 3.Reserve Capacity. (Average load =24 MW)

Solution:y Capacity factor = units generated daily / plant capacity x

hours in a day y Load factor = Average Load / Maximum demand.=0.6 y Units generated daily = average load x 24=576 MW y Reserve capacity = Plant capacity Maximum demand.=8MW

5.A generating station has the following daily load cycle, Draw a load cur e and calculate a.MD b. units generated/day c. a erage load d. load factor. Ans 35 MW,600000KWH ,25000KWH, 0.714















Load curve It gives/show the load demand of a consumer against time in hours of the day is known as a load curve. Load duration Curve:When the load elements of a load curve are arranged in the Order of Descending magnitudes Base Load:The unvarying load which occurs almost the whole day on the station is known as the base load. Peak Load:The various peak demands of load over and above the base load of the station is known as peak load

Cost of Electrical Energy:The cost/unit of electrical energy generated depends on the Investment in the plants Distribution systems Operation &Maintenance cost.

Types:1.Fixed cost 2.Running cost (or) cost of energy.

Tariff:y Different methods of charging consumers are known as tariff (or) y Rates of payment for consumption of electricity.

Objectives of tariff:y 1.cost of operations, supplies , maintenance and losses must be recovered. y 2.cost of capital investment in generation ,t&d equipment must be recovered. y 3.tariff should be uniform. y 4.it should provide incentive for using power during the off peak hours. y 5.it should have provision of penalty for low power factors.

Desirable characteristics of tariff y 1.proper return. This will help the EB to ensure continuous and reliable service to the consumer. y 2.simplicity. It should be simple so that ordinary consumer can easily understand it. y 3.fairness A big consumer should be charged at a lower rate than a small consumer. y 4.Attractive. The traiff should be attractive ,,so that large no of consumers are encouraged to use electrical energy,

Types of tariffs:1.simple tariff y When there is a fixed rate per unit of energy consumed.it does not vary with increase or decrease in no.of.units consumed. 2.flat rate tariff y When different types of consumers are charged different uniform per unit rates. 3.block rate tariff y When a given block of energy is charged at a specified rate and succeeding block of energy are chaged at reduced at different rates.

4.two part tariff y Tariff is charged on the basis of maximum demand on the consumer and the units consumed. y Total charge = Rs( b x Kw + C X KWh) 5.maximum demand tariff. 6.power factor tariff. y 7.three part tariff. y Total charge = Rs( a + b x Kw + C X kWh)

Problems 1.The monthly reading of a consumer`s meter are given as Maximum demand = 16kVA Energy consumed =24000kWh Reactive energy=15600 Kvar If the tariff is Rs 250 per kVA of maximum demand plus Rs3.50 Per unit ..1% power factor penalty charge will be charged from the customer for every 0.01 drop power factor from the recommended value power factor 0.9.Find out over all cost.(monthly basis) Solution:Tan = kVAR / active power Average reactive power =reactive energy / total no of hrs in a month

Average reactive power =15600 / 24 x 30 = 21.67 Kvar Active power or active load = Energy consumed /No.of hrs in a month. =24000/24 x 30 =33.33kW Tan =21.67 /33.33 = 0.65 Phase angle = 33.02 Cos = 0.84 Power factor diff from recommended value = 0.9 0.84 =0.06 = 6% Normal cost (with out penalty) = 16 x 250 +24000x3.50=88000 Over all cost with penalty =88000 + .06 x88000=93280

Principle:Save money using less energy. OR Using energy more efficiently.

Need for EE Conservation
Energy demand in india 9 to 10 % per annum. Generating capacity --- 5 t0 6% per annum Energy saved is energy generated(2 times) Potential way for bridging the energy gap.

Effect of energy conservation
Optimal utilization energy. Prolong the usage of energy available in the earth. Reduce the energy cost per unit of production. Reduce the green house emission Minimize the global warming.

Advantages of EE motor
y Reduced power consumption for the same

mechanical load. y Lower temperature rise and increased service life. y Efficiency curve flat between 50- 100% of load factor. y A marginal increase in operating speed.

Replacement policy for EE motor y Ideal for new installation.
y Replace with over sized motor. y Replace with 3 to 4 times rewound motor. y Consider up to 37kw motor.

Major parts affecting overall performance of the motor

Stator frame Core Windings Rotor Insulation. Friction & wind age losses.






EE MOTOR(IS 12165)


15 KW 4 1460 86 13.39 22,000

15KW 4 1480 89 12.64 30,000






N O 1



More copper & larger rotor conductor Thinner steel, longer rotor & stator core length, precise air gap

Copper loss


Iron loss


Improved lubricating system & efficient fans

Friction & windage loss


Optimum slot geometry & minimum overhang of stator

Stray load losses.

Economics of motor selection for an application. y EEmotor is 20 t0 30% costlier than conventional induction motor. The capacital cost of the motor =Initial cost+((1- at running load )x Load factorxAnnuityfactorxECxoperating hours/Annum x motor rating) Where Annuity factor = (1+i)n-1 / i(1+i)n y I=rate of interest,, N= NO.of years of operation. y EC=Energy cost(rs/kwh).

Energy Management:y The strategy of optimizing energy by using approach and procedures to reduce energy requirement per unit of output,without compromising quality and quantity of the product. Energy audit:y A technical analysis for identifying and quantifying Energy utilisation pattern y An attempt to balance total energy inputs with its uses y An assessing mechanism to determine the current performance the plant.

In general y Energy audit translates the ENCON ideas in to realities by blending technically feasible solutions with economic and other organizational considerations with in specified time frame.
y ENCON ----Energy conservation.

Why Energy Audit:To y Identify areas of Energy wastage and means for rectifying the same. y Acquire positive orientation towards Energy cost reduction. y Decide on appropriate energy mix. y To chalk out financially sound alternatives for reduced SEC y Create Energy Conservation awareness among workers.




Steps in Energy Auditing:-

1.Planning 2.Basic Data collection 3.Data Analysis 4.Energy Conservation study 5.Identification of Low / No cost Measures. 6.Estimation of technical feasibility and Economic Viability of Energy saving proposals involving capital investment. 7.Action plan / implementation Schedule. 8.Energy Audit Report.

y Economics of power factor improvement:-

= Real power inkw / Real + Reactive power in kVA = Real power / Apparent power = W/VA Disadvantage of low p.f y LPF ,the current drawn from the source will be higher and this leads to many problrmes y Lloss directly proportional to i2loss y Leads to excess voltage drop and needs extra voltage y regulating devices to maintain terminal voltage to the required level Cos

How to Improve power factor y Installing static power capacitors y Operating Synchronous motor in over excited condition. y Installing static VAR components. Advantages of power factor improvement:y Reduce Maximum Demand(MD) y Reduce T&D losses y Reduce ohmic drop in T&D Systems.

Method of Power Factor Compensation:1.Centralized /Group compensation. All the capacitors are connected in a single place at main distribution board or substation and controlled depending upon the reactive power requirement. 2.Distributed /Individual compensation. Capacitors are connected in parallel with the all the inductive equipments. The reactive current drawn by the inductive equipment will be compensated at the terminal of the equipment. Since the reactive current requirement is compensated on the spot.the line loss is reduced and voltage drop in the distribution system is less.

3.Mixed Compensation. Part of the capacitor used for compensation is connected across the inductive equipment terminal and remain connected at the main distribution board or sub station.


The supply of power with in permitted ariation of oltage & frequency and with out any distortion of sinusoidal wa e form in balanced condition. Depends on Voltage Frequency Harmonics.

Harmonics effect Reduced equipment life time Reduced equipment energy efficiency Interference with other electronics devices. Interference with other electrical measurement apparatus Over heating of motors, transformer, Switchgear etc

UNIT III ILLUMINATION LIGHT:y The radiant energy from a hot body which produces the visual sensation upon the human eye. y It is expressed in lumen-hours and is analogous to Watt-hour. Luminous flux:y The total quantity of light energy emitted per second from a luminous body. y It is represented by symbol F or and is measured in lumens. y F or = Q / t

Luminous Intensity:-(I) y It is the luminous flux emitted by the source per unit solid angle measured in the required direction. y It is denoted by I and measured in candela. y I = F/ Lamp Efficiency:-(Efficacy) y It is defined as the ratio of luminous flux to the power input. y It is expressed in Lumens / watt.

Candle power:y It is the light rating capacity of a source in a given direction. y It is defined as the no.of lumens given out by the source in a unit solid angle. y CP = Lumens / Specific consumption :y It is defined as the ratio of power input to the average candle power. y It is Expressed in Watt /Candle.

Space-Height ratio:y It is defined as the ratio of horizontal distance between adjacent lamps and height of their mountings.
y SH RATIO=Horizontal distance between adjacent lamps

----------------------------------------------------------Mounting height of the lamps above working plane. GLARE:y It is defined as the brightness with in the field of vision of such a character as to cause annoyance,discomfort ,intferference with vision or eye fatigue.

MEAN HORIZONTAL CANDLE POWER (MHCP) y It is defined as the mean of candle powers in all directions and on all planes from the light source.

MEAN HEMI SPHERICAL CANDLE POWER(MHCP) y It is defined as the mean of candle powers in all direction above or below the horizontal plane passing through the light source.

PLANE ANGLE:y When two straightlines lying in the same plane meet at a point ,there will be an angle between these converging lines at the meeting point y The angle is termed as plane angle. y It is represented in radians . y = ARC / RADIUS. SOLID ANGLE:y The angle subtended at a point in space by an area is termed as solidangle. y It is expressed in steradians y Solid angle = area / (radius)2

UTILIZATION FACTOR:y U.F=Total lumens on the working plane/Total lumens emitted by the lamp. y U.F various from 0.4 t0 0.6 REFLECTION FACTOR :y R.F = Illumination when everything is clean /Illumination under normal working condition.

Relation between and y = 2 (1- cos /2 ) LAWS OF ILLUMINATION :y Inverse Square Law. y Lamberts Cosine Law.

Inverse Square Law;y The Illumination of a received surface is inversely proportional to the square of the distance of the surface from the source of light provided. y E = I / r2 Lamberts Cosine law:y If a surface is inclined at an angle (90- ) to the direction of luminous flux ,then the illumination of the surface is reduced from, that given according to inverse square law in the ratio Cos /1


y Its pro ides good lighting interms of

colour correctness. y Low initial cost. y Easy to replace. y Inefficient in energy use and ha e a short life than other types. y 5% light 95% heat.


When a body is heated ,it emits radiant energy in the form of light The amount of light emitted is proportional to the absolute temp. Filament ±salient features High melting point. Sufficient mechanical strength. Thickness is about 0.01 millimetres It is covered with inert gas (85%Argon & 15% Nitrogen) Life time of the filament(lamp) is 1000 hours.


y Provides good lighting interms of colour

correctness. y Medium priced lamps y More energy efficient y Have a longer life than incandescent lamp y Elongated shape.

Principle:When a low pressure mercury gas start conducting will radiate ultra violate rays,this uv rays is converted in to visible light with the help of phosphor coating coated on the glass tube. The type of phosphor material used decides the conversion efficiency of ultra violate in to visible light. Starting methods Applying high voltage with the help of starter and electromagnetic ballast Applying high frequency with the help of electronics ballast.


y CFLs are smaller ersions of

standard fluorescent lamps y Power consumption between 5 to 40 watts y Brightness and color rendition comparable to incandescent lights. y CFLS can directly replace standard incandescent bulbs.

Lighting Design
y More light does not mean better

light !!! y Quality of light is equally important to quantity of light.

Lighting design 
What is purpose of Light?  How much light I really need?  What are long term energy cost? Identify critical

and non critical areas.  Use combination of narrow beam and wide beam luminaries.  Locate the fixture where it is required.  Use color contrast to attract the attention instead of higher light levels.


y Calculate area to be illuminated. y Decide the level of illumination y Total illumination = Area x illumination level. y Select Utilization factor and depreciation factor y Divide total illumination by utilization factor and depreciation Factor.

If D.F is greater than one ,then to find gross lumen ,it is multiplied With total lumen instead of division. y Select lamp and luminaries y Calculate no. of lamps y Decide arrangements of lamps for uniform distribution y Considering space height ratio

A hall measuring 20mx50m is to be illuminated by suitable lamps to give an average illumination of 45 lux .Mounting height from the working plane = 3 m,UF=0.65, DF=1.3 The lamps are to be choosen from the following groups Watts 75 100 150 200 Lumens 800 1200 2000 2800 Calculate the number of lamps of each type.& arrangement position.

Step1: Calculate area to be illuminated.

Area = 20 x 50 = 1000 (meter )2 Step 2:Decide the level of illumination = 45 lux (given) Step 3:Total illumination = Area x illumination level = 1000 x 45 = 45000 lumens Step 4: Divide total illumination by utilization factor and depreciation Factor. Gross lumens required =45000 x 1.3 / 0.65= 90,000 (If D.F is greater than one ,then to find gross lumen ,it is multiplied With total lumen instead of division.)

Lamp1 75 watts & 800 lumens Required lamps=90,000/800 = 112.5 =112 0r 113 lamps Arrangements Assume 8 r0ws & 14 columns. Lamp1 100 watts & 1200 lumens Required lamps=90,000/1200 = 75 Assume 5 r0ws & 15 columns Lllly next two case answer is 45 & 32 lamps.

Building illumination level
Location Illumination level Entrance Dining room Kitchen Bathroom Stair Study room Bed room 100 150 200 100 100 300 300

A hall 30m long and 12 m wide is to be illuminated and illumination required 50 lumen / m2.calculate the number ,the wattage of each unit and location and mounting height of the units. taking a D.F of 1.3 and U.F of 0.5. given that the o/p of different types of lamp are given below.
Watts Lumens 100 1615 200 3650 300 4700

Problems:y 1.A point source of light is found to produce on illumination 100 lux at a distance of x meters from the source and 1 lux at a distance of x+36 m from the source .Determine the two distance s and evaluate the luminous intensity of the source if the source has same intensity in all directions. Solution :y Source---------------------A--------------------B y ----------- X------------------y --------------------------------------X +36 -------

y As per illumination first law y E=I / d2 at point A E1 = I1 / X2 y 100 = I1 / X2----------(1) y At point B E2= I2 / (X +36)2 y 1 = I2 / (X +36)2---------(2) y Given I1 = I2 y Compare (1) and (2) y X=4m y X+36 = 40 m y Distance b/w source and point A = 4 m y Distance b/w source and point B = 40m

Two lamps one 200cp and another 500cp are hung at a height of 10metres and 25metres respecti ely. The horizontal distance between the poles is 80metres. Determine the illumination at the mid point between the poles on the ground.

Solution: B




From the figure Triangle OAI

HEATING:y When current passes through a medium (solid, liquid & gas) heat is produced. y H = I2Rt joules. y H = I2Rt / 4186 KILO CALORIES y 1 kcal = 4186 joules Domestic application:y Heater , Electric Iron ,Oven ,Electric drier etc. Industrial application:y Electric welding, Melting of metals &Enamelling of copper conductor etc.

WELDING y It is the process of joining metal of similar composition by heating to suitable temperature with or with out application of pressure and addition of filer material PRESSURE WELDING:y The metal parts to be joined are heated to a plastic state and then joined by applying external force is known as plastic or pressure welding. FUSION WELDING:y The metal parts to be joined are heated to a molten state and then allowed to solidify joining a localized homogeneous union of the two is known as fusion welding.


y The process(pressure welding) make use

of the heat generated by a hea y electric current passing through the material being joined. y The electrical resistance between the surface in contact being mainly responsible for the rise in temperature. y The heat generated bring these surfaces to the plastic state,at this point mechanical pressure is applied to squeeze the material together thus forming the joint.



y The electric current is passed through the

metal ,and the resistance to the flow of current produce heat in the metal up to welding temperature. y It is used to weld together two or more o erlapping pieces.

Required elements:Step down transformer y It is used to reduce a high voltage low current supply to low voltage high current. Two electrodes. y Made of cadmium-copper or chromium copper. can carry high currents and have sufficient strength to work under high pressure. Metals to be welded.

Operation:y When two pieces are held together ,pressing two work pieces ,a large electric current flows from one electrode through the metals to be welded together to second electrodes. y The spot welding controlled by the current pressure of the electrodes and the duration of flow of current. APPLICATIONS:y Automatic welding process y Joining automatic body sections.,cabinets and other sheet metal assemblies.

ELECTRIC ARC WELDING:y Electric energy is converted at the arc in to heat energy. PRINCIPLE:y The electric produced by bringing two conductors connected to a suitable source of electric current ,momentarily in contact and then separating by a small distance ..the current continuous flow across a small gap and gives intense heat. y The heat developed is utilized by the metal part of the work piece and the filer metal and thus form the joint.

SETUP y One terminal is connected to the electrode(work piece1 or filer metal) and other to the work piece and the circuit is completed through air gap. y Distance between the electrode and work piece is 3mm to 6mm y Due to the interruption by the air gap or gas heat is produced and the temperature attained varies from 3700 to 4000 y Current rate 30 to 600A y Voltage rate 60 to 100v y Temp range 3000 to 4000

APPLICATIONS:y Used for joining steel sheets. y Used for repairing steel castings. y Used for welding stainless steel y Used for welding non-ferrous metals.

UNIT IV y The electric traction means a locomotion in which the driving force is obtained from electric motors. REQUIREMENTS:y 1.Equipment should be capable of over loads for short periods. y 2.The wear caused on the track should be minimum. y 3.Braking should be possible with out excessive wear on brake shoes. y 4.If possible ,the braking energy should be generated and returned to the supply.


It is the cheapest method than all other methods of traction. y It has smooth and rapid acceleration and braking.

DIS-ADVANTAGES:y Capital cost is high. y Failure of supply is a problem to be faced in electric traction. y For achieving electric braking and control ,additional equipment is required .In case of dc series motors ,the regenerative braking can not be easily achieved.

BASIC DEFINITIONS USED IN TRACTION. CREST SPEED(VC) y Maximum speed attained by the train during run. AVERAGE SPEED(VA) y Maximum speed maintained by train during the run y Average speed = Distance between the stops in km / Actual time of run in hour. y Va=D / T SCHEDULE SPEED (VS) y VS= Distance b/w stop in km / (actual time run in hour + stop time in hour)

SPEED-TIME CURVE:y The curve between speed(km/hr-yaxis) and time (secxaxis) is called speed time curve. ADVANTAGES:y Complete information about the motion of train. y Slope of curve at any point gives the speed at the instant. y The area under the curve gives total distance travelled by the train. It consists of y Acceleration period y Free run period y Coasting period y Braking period (or) Retardation period.

Acceleration period:Notching up(OA) y Starting resistance is gradually cut out ,so that motor current is limited to certain value and voltage across the motor gradually increased y Acceleration remains constant during this period. Speed Curve running.(AB) y The current starts decreasing with increasing speed according to the characteristics of series motor and finally the current taken by the motor becomes constant. y Acceleration decreases with increasing speed and becomes zero at point B

Free running period:-(BC) y During this period (on level track )power output from the driving axle balances the rate at which energy is expented against the resistance to motion. y At end of speed curve running train reaches maximum speed. Coasting Period(CD) y At the end of free running period power supply to the motor is cut off and train is allowed to run under is own momentum. y Due to train resistance speed of the train gradually decreases

y Retardation Period(DE) y At the end of coasting period,brakes are applied to

bring the train to stop.

BRAKING:y The electrical device is disconnected from the supply and slows down and come to rest. TYPES OF BRAKING y 1.Mechanical braking. y 2.Electrical braking.

Advantage of Electrical braking: y 1.Little maintenance is required. y 2.No dust is produced. y 3.Replacement & adjustment of brake shoe is eliminated. y 4.Smooth braking can be obtained. y 5.Some energy feedback to supply. y 6.Heat is dissipated in a convenient place.

Dis Advantage of electrical braking. y 1.For some cases the rating of braking equipment required is higher than the rating required for motor alone. y 2.In some cases additional pieces of equipment is required. y 3.Economical consideration.

Types-Electrical braking. 1.Reverse current braking.(plugging) 2.Rheostatic braking (dynamic braking) 3.Regenerative braking. Plugging:y Motor now develops torque in opposite direction(by interchanging the polarity of armature and field winding) to the movement of rotor . y System speed will decrease will zero speed is reached.

Inefficient y K.E of the moving masses is wasted. y It requires additional energy from supply for the development of counter torque. In Effective y In case of failure of supply ,this method of braking becomes ineffective. Operation:y We have to reverse either magnetic field (or) armature field.

UNIT- V DRIVES AND THEIR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS Introduction motor selection and related factors loads types characteristics steady state and transient characteristics load equalization industrial applications modern methods of speed control of industrial drives.

Types of Electric drives Individual Drives. An single electric motor is used to drive one individual machine. Group Drives. It is a drive in which a single electric motor drives a line of shaft by means of which an entire group of machine may be operated.

Advantages of Electrical Drives 1.They are clean in operation ,providing better working conditions 2.Low cost & high operating efficiency. 3.Electric drives are more economical as they can be designed as per requirements. There is less wastage of power and consequently less power consumption. 4.Suitable for group drives as well as individual drives .Even high speed machines can be directly coupled to the motor ,with out needing gear arrangements. 5.Electric motors are compact units ,strong in construction and required comparatively less maintenance and repairs.

SL.NO 1 2






6 7

Initial cost is low Power consumption is low Less space is required It has low power factor Constant speed is not possi le It is not relia le Efficiency is low

Initial cost is high Comparati ely higher consumption of power More space is required It has high power factor. Constant speed is possi le It is more relia le Efficiency is high.

Factors affecting choice of motors The various factors that are to be considered in the selection of electric drive for a particular application are Electrical Characteristics Mechanical Characteristics. a.Types of Enclosure. b.Types of transmission for Drives.

LOAD TYPES:Active Load Active loads are those which are due to the force of gravity, tension It is independent of loads. Example;-Paper mill drive, fans &compressors Passive Load Passive loads are those which are due to friction, cutting and deformation of in elastic bodies Example:-High speed hoists,traction,centrifugal pumps

Load Characteristics 1. Static characteristics 2. Dynamic Characteristics. Electrical characteristics:1. Running Characteristics 2. Starting characteristics 3. Speed control 4. Braking.

Mechanical Characteristics:1.Types of enclosures 2.Types of Transmission for Drive.

y Load Equalization:;

Certain load fluctuates very widely with in short interval of time ,(like electric hammers, reciprocating pumps

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